Referencing in your work
Referencing your work correctly is essential. If you acknowledge the work of others you are taking steps to avoid plagiarising someone else's work. You are also allowing the reader to trace your line of research.
There are three fundamental types of referencing styles: Author/Date (e.g. Harvard), Numbered (e.g. IEEE or Vancouver) and Footnotes (e.g. MHRA). Using software like Endnote to manage your references can help.
Different disciplines will recommend different referencing systems so do check with your tutor. Once you know which system you are using it is important that you are consistent.
General guides to referencing
- Bell, J. (2010) Doing Your Research Project: a Guide For First-time Researchers in Education and Social Science. 5th ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Print and online library holdings.
Harvey, G. (1998) Writing with sources: a guide for students. Indiana: Hackett Publishing. Print library holdings.
- Lester, J. (2005) Writing research papers: a complete guide. 11th ed. New York, Longman. Print library holdings.
- Lipson, C. (2006) Cite right: a quick guide to citation styles. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Print library holdings
- Neville, C. (2010). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. 2nd ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Print and online library holdings.
Relevant British and International Standards
These are all available online (VPN needed off-campus), and some are also available in print. Note some have both been withdrawn without issuing an updated standard. They are potentially still useful, but should be used with caution unless specifically recommended by your discipline.
- British Standards Institution (2010) BS ISO 690:2010: Information and documentation. Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources. London, BSI. Available online.
- British Standards Institution (1989) BS 1629:1989: Recommendations for references to published materials. London, BSI. (Withdrawn, BS ISO 690:2010 is a current alternative.) Available online.
- British Standards Institution (1985) BS 4148:1985, ISO 4-1984: Specification for abbreviation of title words and titles of publications. London, BSI. Available online.
- British Standards Institution (1990) BS 4821:1990: Recommendations for the presentation of theses and dissertations. London, BSI. (Withdrawn, no alternative available.) Available online.
Guidance on specific referencing styles
- ACM (Association for Computing Machinery)
- ACS (American Chemical Society)
- IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
- Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA)
- Modern Languages Association (MLA)
- Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCLA)
- Vancouver (including British Medical Journal variant)