Medicine

Catharine Gale

BSc, PhD

Primary position:
Associate Professor in Epidemiology

Background

The University of Southampton

Catharine Gale has been a Reader in Epidemiology since 2010. After obtaining a BSc in Population Studies, she joined the MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit (now the MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit) in 1994.

Currently her main research interests are: the role of early life cognition in later health; factors influencing mental wellbeing, frailty and cognitive ageing in older people; factors influencing cognition and behavior problems in children; the influence of mental wellbeing on later health.

She is a Research member of the Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, and an Honorary Fellow of the University of Edinburgh’s School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences.

Qualifications

BSc, Population Science, University of Southampton (1994)
PhD, University of Southampton (1998)

Appointments held

Researcher, Hyde Historic Resources Centre, Winchester (1976-1991)

MRC Research Studentship, MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit (1994-7)

Research Fellow, MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit (1997-2002)

Senior Research Fellow, MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre (2002-7)

Principal Research Fellow, MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre (2007-2010)

Reader, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit (2010 onwards)

Dr Catharine Gale's photo

Publications

The University of Southampton's electronic library (e-prints)

Article

Gale, Catharine R., Cooper, Cyrus and Sayer, Avan Aihie (2014) Framingham cardiovascular disease risk scores and incident frailty: the English longitudinal study of ageing. Age, 36, (4), 9692. (doi:10.1007/s11357-014-9692-6). (PMID:25085033).
Gale, C.R., Allerhand, M., Sayer, A.A., Cooper, C. and Deary, I.J. (2014) The dynamic relationship between cognitive function and walking speed: the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. Age, 36, (4), 9682-9693. (doi:10.1007/s11357-014-9682-8). (PMID: 24997019 ).
Allerhand, Mike, Gale, Catharine R. and Deary, Ian J. (2014) The dynamic relationship between cognitive function and positive well-being in older people: a prospective study using the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. Psychology and Aging, 29, (2), 306-318. (doi:10.1037/a0036551). (PMID:24955999).
Ellitott, J., Gale, C.R., Parsons, S. and Kuh, D. (2014) Neighbourhood cohesion and mental wellbeing among older adults: a mixed methods approach. Social Science & Medicine, 107, 44-51. (doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.02.027). (PMID:24602970).
Gale, C.R., Cooper, C., Deary, I.J. and Aihie Sayer, A. (2014) Psychological well-being and incident frailty in men and women: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychological Medicine, 44, (4), 697-706. (doi:10.1017/S0033291713001384 ). (PMID:23822897).
Cooper, R., Stafford, M., Hardy, R., Aihie Sayer, A., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Cooper, C., Craig, L., Deary, I.J., Gallacher, J., McNeill, G., Starr, J.M., Kuh, D. and Gale, C.R. HALCyon study Team (2014) Physical capability and subsequent positive mental wellbeing in older people: findings from five HALCyon cohorts. Age, 36, (1), 445-456. (doi:10.1007/s11357-013-9553-8). (PMID:23818103).
Gale, C.R., Batty, G.D., Osborn, D.P., Tynelius, P. and Rasmussen, F. (2014) Mental disorders across the adult life course and future coronary heart disease: evidence for general susceptibility. Circulation, 129, (2), 186-193. (doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002065). (PMID:24190959 ).
Gale, Catherine R., Batty, G. David, Osborn, David P.J., Tynelius, Per and Rasmussen, Finn (2014) Mental disorders across the adult life course and future coronary heart disease: evidence for general susceptibility. Circulation, 129, 186-193. (doi:10.1161/​CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002065).
Gale, C.R., Booth, T., Mottus, R., Kuh, D. and Deary, I.J. (2013) Neuroticism and Extraversion in youth predict mental wellbeing and life satisfaction 40 years later. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, (6), 687-697. (doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2013.06.005).
Gale, Catharine R., Baylis, D., Cooper, C. and Sayer, A.A. (2013) Inflammatory markers and incident frailty in men and women: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Age (Dordr), 35, (6), 2493-2501. (doi:10.1007/s11357-013-9528-9.). (PMID:23543263).
Roberts, Beverly A., Batty, G. David, Gale, Catharine R., Deary, Ian J., Parker, Louise and Pearce, Mark S. (2013) IQ in childhood and atherosclerosis in middle-age: 40 year follow-up of the Newcastle Thousand Families Cohort Study. Atherosclerosis, 231, (2), 234-237. (doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.09.018). (PMID:24267233).
Gale, C.R., Deary, I.J., Cooper, C. and Batty, G.D. (2013) Response to letter by Bailey and Schinkel. Pain, 154, (10), 2238. (doi:10.1016/j.pain.2013.07.006. ). (PMID:23891682).
Bouillon, K., Kivimaki, M., Hamer, M., Sabia, S., Fransson, E.I., Singh-Manoux, A., Gale, C.R. and Batty, G.D. (2013) Measures of frailty in population-based studies: an overview. BMC Geriatrics, 13, (64), 2-11. (doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-64). (PMID:23786540).
Baylis, D., Bartlett, D.B., Syddall, H.E., Ntani, G., Gale, C.R., Cooper, C., Lord, J.M. and Sayer, A.A. (2013) Immune-endocrine biomarkers as predictors of frailty and mortality: a 10-year longitudinal study in community-dwelling older people. Age, 35, (3), 963-971. (doi:10.1007/s11357-012-9396-8). (PMID:22388931).
Deary, Ian J., Watson, Richard A., Booth, Tom and Gale, Catharine R. (2013) Does cognitive ability influence responses to the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale? Psychological Assessment, 25, (2), 313-318. (doi:10.1037/a0030834). (PMID:23230851).
Weiss, Alexander, Gale, Catharine R., Batty, G. David and Deary, Ian J. (2013) A questionnaire-wide association study of personality and mortality: The Vietnam Experience Study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 74, (6), 523-529. (doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2013.02.010). (PMID:23731751).
Whitley, E., Gale, C.R., Deary, I.J., Kivimaki, M., Singh-Manoux, A. and Batty, G.D. (2013) Influence of maternal and paternal IQ on offspring health and health behaviours: evidence for some trans-generational associations using the 1958 British birth cohort study. European Psychiatry, 28, (4), 219-224. (doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2012.01.005).
Gale, C.R., Batty, G.D., McIntosh, A., Porteous, D., Deary, I.J. and Rasmussen, F. (2013) Is bipolar disease more common in highly intelligent people? Molecular Psychiatry, 18, 190-194. (doi:10.1038/mp.2012.26). (PMID:22472877).
Alfred, T., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Cooper, R., Hardy, R., Cooper, C., Deary, I.J., Gunnell, D., Harris, S.E., Kumari, M., Martin, R.M., Sayer, A.A., Starr, J.M., Kuh, D., Day, I.N., Elliott, J., Gale, C., Goodwin, J., Lennox, A., Richards, M., von Zglinicki, T., Gallacher, J., Mishra, G., Power, C., Shiels, P., Southall, H., Steptoe, A., Demakakos, P., Tilling, K., Whalley, L., McNeill, G., Craig, L., Martin-Ruiz, C., Aucott, P., Murray, E., Mulla, Z., Gardner, M. and Parsons, S. (2013) Genetic markers of bone and joint health and physical capability in older adults: the HALCyon programme. Bone, 52, (1), 278-285. (doi:10.1016/j.bone.2012.10.004). (PMID:23072920).
Gale, C.R., Dennison, E.M., Edwards, M., Sayer, A.A. and Cooper, C. (2012) Symptoms of anxiety or depression and risk of fracture in older people: the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Archives of Osteoporosis, 7, (1-2), 59-65. (doi:10.1007/s11657-012-0080-5 ). (PMID:23225282).
Gale, C.R., Deary, I.J., Cooper, C. and Batty, G.D. (2012) Intelligence in childhood and chronic widespread pain in middle age: the National Child Development Survey. Pain, 153, (12), 2339-2344. (doi:10.1016/j.pain.2012.07.027). (PMID:23137899).
Gale, C.R., Allerhand, M., Deary, I.J. and HALCyon Study Team (2012) Is there a bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive ability in older people? Psychological Medicine, 42, (10), 2057-2069. (doi:10.1017/S0033291712000402.). (PMID:23206378).
White, James W., Gale, Catherine R. and Batty, G. David (2012) Intelligence quotient in childhood and the risk of illegal drug us in middle-age. Annals of Epidemiology, 22, (9), 654-657. (doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2012.06.001). (PMID:22776465).
Gale, Catharine R., Cooper, Rachel, Craig, Leone, Elliott, Jane, Kuh, Diana, Richards, Marcus, Starr, John M., Whalley, Lawrence J. and Deary, Ian J. (2012) Cognitive function in childhood and lifetime cognitive change in relation to mental wellbeing in four cohorts of older people. PLoS ONE, 7, (9), e44860. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044860). (PMID:22970320).
Gale, Catharine R., Batty, G. David, Osborn, David P. J., Tynelius, Per, Whitley, Elise and Rasmussen, Finn (2012) Association of mental disorders in early adulthood and later psychiatric hospital admissions and mortality in a cohort study of more than 1 million men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, (8), 823-831. (doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.2000 ). (PMID:22868936).
Whitley, Elise, Batty, G. David, Mulhearan, Paul A., Gale, Catharine R., Osborn, David P., Tynelius, Per and Rasmussen, Finn (2012) Psychiatric disorder as a factor for cancer: different analytic strategies produce different findings. Epidemiology, 23, (4), 543-550. (doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182547094). (PMID:22488410).
Batty, G.D., Whitley, E., Gale, C.R., Osborn, D., Tynelius, P. and Rasmussen, F. (2012) Imapact of mental health problems on case fatality in male cancer patients. British Journal of Cancer, 106, 1842-1845. (doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.150). (PMID:22516950).
Mõttus, René, Gale, Catharine R., Starr, John M. and Deary, Ian J. (2012) 'On the street where you live': neighbourhood deprivation and quality of life among community-dwelling older people in Edinburgh, Scotland. Social Science & Medicine, 74, (9), 1368-1374. (doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.12.050). (PMID:22401647).
Wills, A.K., Lawlor, D.A., Muniz-Terrera, G., Matthews, F., Cooper, R., Ghosh, A.K., Kuh, D., Hardy, R., Cooper, C., Aihie Sayer, A. and Gale, C.R. (2012) Population heterogeneity in trajectories of midlife blood pressure. Epidemiology, 23, (2), 203-211. (doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182456567). (PMID:22249241).
Phillips, A.C., Gale, C.R. and Batty, G.D. (2012) Sex hormones and cause-specific mortality in the male veterans: the Vietnam experience study. QJM, 105, (3), 241-246. (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcr204 ). (PMID:22021570).
Kuh, D., Cooper, R., Richards, M., Gale, C.R., von Zglinicki, T. and Guralnik, J. (2012) A life course approach to healthy ageing: the HALCyon programme. Public Health , 126, (3 ), 193-195. (doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2012.01.025). (PMID:22326597).
Gale, C.R., Syddall, H.E., Bergman, H., Brunner, E.J., Cooper, C. and Sayer, A.A. (2012) Close relationships and risk of frailty: the Hertfordshire cohort study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60, (2), 390-392. (doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03799.x). (PMID:22332694).
Harvey, Nicholas C., Lillycrop, Karen A., Garratt, Emma, Sheppard, Allan, McLean, Cameron, Burdge, Graham C., Slater-Jefferies, Jo, Rodford, Joanne, Crozier, Sarah, Inskip, Hazel, Emerald, B.S., Gale, C.R., Hanson, M., Gluckman, P., Godfrey, K. and Cooper, C. (2012) Evaluation of methylation status of the eNOS promoter at birth in relation to childhood bone mineral content. Calcified Tissue International, 90, (2), 120-127. (doi:10.1007/s00223-011-9554-5). (PMID:22159788).
Verschuur, C.A., Dowell, Aphra, Syddall, H.E., Ntani, Georgia, Simmonds, S.J., Baylis, D., Gale, C.R., Walsh, B., Cooper, Cyrus, Lord, Janet M. and Sayer, A.A. (2012) Markers of inflammatory status associated with hearing threshold in older people: findings from the Herfordshire ageing study. Age and Ageing, 41, (1), 92-97. (doi:10.1093/ageing/afr140).
Gale, C.R., Batty, G.D., Osborn, D., Tynelius, P., Whitley, E. and Rasmussen, F. (2012) Mental disorders in early adulthood and later psychiatric hospital admissions in relation to mortality in a cohort study of a million men. Archives of General Psychiatry (In Press).
Gale, C.R., Sayer, A.A., Cooper, C., Dennison, E.M., Starr, J.M., Whalley, L.J., Gallacher, J.E., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Kuh, D., Hardy, R., Craig, L., Deary, I.J. and HALCyon Study Team (2011) Factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in five cohorts of community-based older people: the HALCyon (Healthy Ageing across the Life Course) Programme. Psychological Medicine, 41, (10), 2057-2073. (doi:10.1017/S0033291711000195). (PMID:21349224).
Carroll, Douglas, Phillips, Anna C., Gale , Catharine R. and Batty, G. David (2011) Generalized Anxiety Disorder is associated with reduced lung function in Vietnam Experience Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73, (8), 716-720. (doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31822ff9e8). (PMID:21949419).
Whitley, Elise, Gale , Catharine R., Deary, Ian J., Kivimaki, Mika and Batty, G. David (2011) Association of maternal and parental IQ with offspring conduct, emotional, and attention problem scores: Transgenerational evidence from the 1958 British birth cohort study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, (10), 1032-1038. (doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.111). (PMID:21969461).
Mishra, Gita D., Gale, Catharine R., Sayer, Avan Aihie, Cooper, Cyrus, Dennison, Elaine M., Whalley, Lawrence J., Craig, Leone, Kuh, Diana and Deary, Ian J. HALCyon Study Team (2011) How useful are the SF-36 sub-scales in older people? Mokken scaling of data from the HALCyon programme. Quality of Life Research, 20, (7), 1005-1010. (doi:10.1007/s11136-010-9838-7). (PMID:21225350).
Gale, Catharine R., Dennison, Elaine M., Cooper, Cyrus and Sayer, Avan Aihie (2011) Neighbourhood environment and positive mental health in older people: The Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Health & Place, 17, (4), 867-874. (doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.05.003 ). (PMID:21605999).
Phillips, Anna C., Batty, G. David, Gale, Catharine R., Lord, Janet M., Arit, Wiebke and Carroll, Douglas (2011) Major depressive order, generalised anxiety disorder, and their comorbidity: associations with cortisol in the Vietnam Experience Study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, (5), 682-690. (doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.09.011 ). (PMID:20952132).
Gale, C.R., Deary, I.J., Fowkes, F.G. and Batty, G.D. (2011) Intelligence in early adulthood and subclinical athrosclerosisin middle-aged men: the Vietnam experience study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health , 66, (7), e13. (doi:10.1136/jech.2010.109835 ). (PMID:21558481).
Godfrey, Keith M., Sheppard, Alan, Gluckman, Peter D., Lillycrop, Karen A., Burdge, Graham C., McClean, Cameron, Rodford, Joanne, Slater-Jefferies, Joanne L., Garratt, Emma, Crozier, Sarah R., Emerald, B. Starling, Gale, Catharine R., Inskip, Hazel M., Cooper, Cyrus and Hanson, Mark A. (2011) Epigenetic gene promoter methylation at birth is associated with childrens later adiposity. Diabetes, 60, (5), 1528-1534. (doi:10.2337/db10-0979). (PMID:21471513).
Phillips, A.C., Carroll, D., Gale, C.R., Drayson, M. and Batty, G.D. (2011) Lymphocyte cell counts in middle age are positively associated with subsequent all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. QJM, 104, (4), 319-324. (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcq199 ). (PMID:21051481).
Cooper, Rachel, Kuh, Diana, Cooper, Cyrus, Gale, Catherine R., Lawlor, Debbie A., Matthews, Fiona and Hardy, Rebecca FALCon and HALCyon Study teams (2011) Objective measures of physical capability and subsequent health: a systematic review. Age and Ageing, 40, (1), 14-23. (doi:10.1093/ageing/afq117). (PMID:20843964).
Phillips , Anna C., Carroll, Douglas, Gale, Catharine R., Drayson, Mark, Thomas, G.Neil and Batty, G.David (2010) Lymphocyte sub-population cell counts are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its components in the Vietnam Experience Study. Atherosclerosis, 213, (1), 294-298. (doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.08.047 ). (PMID:20833394).
Phillips, Anna C., Carroll, Douglas, Gale, Catherine R., Lord, Janet M., Arlt, Wiebke and Batty, G. David (2010) Cortisol, DHEA, sulphate, their ratio, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Vietnam experience study. European Journal of Endocrinology, 163, (2), 285-292. (doi:10.1530/EJE-10-0299). (PMID:20498139).
Phillips, Anna C., Batty, G. David, Weiss, Alexander, Deary, Ian, Gale, Catherine R., Thomas, G.Neil and Carroll, Douglas (2010) Neurotiscism, cognitive ability, and the metabolic syndrome: the Vietnam experience study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69, (2), 193-201. (doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.016 ).
Phillips, Anna C., Batty, G. David, Weiss, Alexander, Deary, Ian J., Gale, Catherine R., Thomas, G. Neil and Carroll, Douglas (2010) Neuroticism, cognitive ability, and the metabolic syndrome: the Vietnam experience study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69, (2), 193-201. (doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.016). (PMID:20624519).
Phillips, Anna C., Carroll, Douglas, Thomas, G. Neil, Gale, Catharine R., Deary, Ian and Batty, David (2010) The influence of multiple indicies of socioeconomic disadvantage across the adult life course on the metabolic syndrome: the Vietnam experience study. Metabolism, 59, (8), 1164-1171. (doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2009.11.009 ). (PMID:20045139).
Batty, G. David, Whitley, Elise, Deary, Ian J., Gale, Catharine R., Tynelius, Per and Rasmussen, Finn (2010) Psychosis alters association between IQ and future risk of attempted suicide: cohort study of 1,109,475 Swedish men. BMJ, 340, c2506. (doi:10.1136/bmj.c2506). (PMID:20522657).
Phillips, Anna C., Carroll, Douglas, Gale, Catharine R., Lord, Janet M., Arlt, Wiebke and Batty, G.David (2010) Cortisol, DHEAS, their ratio and the metabolic syndrome: evidence from the Vietnam experience study. European Journal of Endocrinology, 162, (5), 919-923. (doi:10.1530/EJE-09-1078).
Schlotz, Wolff, Jones, Alexander, Phillips, David I.W., Gale, Catharine R., Robinson, Sian M. and Godfrey, Keith M. (2010) Lower maternal folate status in early pregnancy is associated with childhood hyperactivity and peer problems in offspring. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, (5), 594-602. (doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02182.x).
Kvaavik, E., Batty, G.D., Urskin, G., Huxley, R. and Gale, C.R. (2010) Influence of individual and combined health behaviors on total and cause-specific mortaility in men and women: the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170, (8) (PMID:20421558).
Gale, Catherine R., Allerhand, Michael, Sayer, Avan Aihie, Cooper, Cyrus, Dennison, Elaine M., Starr, John M., Ben-Shlomo, Yoav, Gallacher, John E., Kuh, Diana, Deary, Ian J. and HALCyon Study (2010) The structure of the hospital anxiety and depression scale in four cohorts of community-based, healthy older people: the HALCyon program. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, (4), 559-571. (doi:10.1017/S1041610210000256).
Whitley, Elise, Batty, G.David, Gale, Catharine R., Deary, Ian J., Tynelius, Per and Rasmussen, Finn (2010) Intelligence in early adulthood and subsequent risk of assult: cohort study of 1,120,998 Swedish men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, (4), 390-396. (doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181d137e9).
Gale, Catherine R., Marriott, Lynne D., Martyn, Christopher N., Limond, Jennifer , Inskip, Hazel M., Godfrey, Keith M., Law, Catherine M, Cooper, Cyrus, West, Carolyn , Robinson, Sian M. and Southampton Women's Survey (2010) Breastfeeding, the use of docosahexaenoic acid-fortified formulas in infancy and neuropsychological function in childhood. Archives of Disease in Childhood , 95, (3), 174-179. (doi:10.1136/adc.2009.165050).
Gale, Catherine R., Deary, Ian J., Kuh, Diana, Huppert, Felicia, Richards, Marcus and HALCyon Study Team (2010) Neuroticism in adolescence and cognitive function in midlife in the British 1946 birth cohort: the HALCyon program. Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological sciences and social sciences, 65B, (1), 50-56. (doi:10.1093/geronb/gbp082).
Carroll, Douglas, Phillips, Anna C., Gale, Catharine R. and Batty, G. David (2010) Generalised anxiety and major depressive disorders, their comorbidity and hypertension in middle-aged men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, (1), 16-19. (doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181c4fca1). (Submitted).
Gale, Catherine R., Kivimaki, Mika, Lawlor, Debbie A., Carroll, Douglas, Phillips, Anna C. and Batty, G. David (2010) Fasting glucose, diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and depression: The Vietnam Experience Study. Biology Psychiatry, 67, (2), 189-192. (doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.09.019).
Gale, Catherine R., Batty, G. David, Tynelius, Per, Deary, Ian J. and Rasmussen, Finn (2010) Intelligence in early adulthood and subsequent hospitalization for mental disorders. Epidemiology, 21, (1), 70-77. (doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181c17da8).
Schoon, Ingrid, Cheng, Helen, Gale, Catharine R., Batty , G. David and Deary, Ian J. (2010) Social status, cognitive ability, and educational attainment as predictors of liberal social attitudes and political trust. Intelligence, 38, (1), 144-150. (doi:10.1016/j.intell.2009.09.005).
Gale, Catharine R., Wilson, Janet A. and Deary, Ian J. (2009) Globus sensation and psychopathology in men: the Vietnam experience study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, (9), 1026-1031. (doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181bc7739).
Godfrey, Keith M., Gluckman, Peter D., Lillycrop, Karen A., Burdge, Graham C., Rodford, J.L., Slater-Jefferies, J.L., McLean, C, Sheppard, A, Crozier, S.R., Emerald, B.S., Gale, Catharine R., Cooper, C. and Hanson, Mark A. (2009) Abstract. Epigenetic marks at birth predict childhood body composition at age 9 years. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, 1, supplement Programme and Abstracts of the 6th World Congress on Developmental Origins of Heath and Disease, 19-22 November 2009, Santiago, Chile, S44-S44. (doi:10.1017/S2040174409990018 ).
Batty, G.D., Mortensen, L.H., Gale, C.R., Shipley, M.J., Roberts, B.A. and Deary, I.J. (2009) IQ late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age, and later cancer mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study. Psycho-Oncology, 18, (10), 1122-1126. (doi:10.1002/pon.1521).
Robinson, Siân. M., Marriott, Lynne D., Crozier, Sarah R. , Harvey, Nick C., Gale, Catharine R., Inskip, Hazel M., Baird, Janis, Law, Catherine M., Godfrey, Keith M. and Cooper, Cyrus (2009) Variations in infant feeding practice are associated with body composition in childhood: a prospective cohort study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94, (8), 2799-2805. (doi:10.1210/jc.2009-0030).
Carroll, D., Phillips, A.C., Thomas, G.N., Gale, C.R., Deary, I.J. and Batty, G.D. (2009) Generalised anxiety disorder is associated with metabolic syndrome in the Vietnam experience study. Biological Psychiatry, 66, (1), 91-93. (doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.02.020).
Gale, Catharine R., Martyn, Christopher N., Marriott, Lynne D., Limmond, Jennifer, Crozier, Sarah, Inskip, Hazel M., Godfrey, Keith M., Law, Catherine M., Cooper, Cyrus and Robinson, Siân M. (2009) Dietary patterns in infancy and cognitive and neuropsychological function in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, (7), 816-823. (doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02029.x).
Gale, Catharine R., Batty, G. David, Cooper, Cyrus and Deary, Ian J. (2009) Psychomotor coordination and intelligence in childhood and health in adulthood - testing the system integrity hypothesis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, (6), 675-681. (doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181a63b2e).
Alves, J.G., Gale, C.R., Mutrie, N., Correla, J.B. and Batty, G.D. (2009) A 6-month exercise intervention among inactive and overweight favela-residing women in Brazil: the Cranguejo exercise trial. American Journal of Public Health, 99, (1), 76-80. (doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.124495).
Phillips, Anna C., Batty, G. David, Gale, Catharine R., Deary, Ian J., Osborn, David, MacIntyre, Kate and Carroll, Douglas (2009) Generalised anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and their comorbidity as predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: the Vietnam Experience Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 7, (4), 395-403. (doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31819e6706).
Cole, Zoe A., Gale, Catharine R., Javaid, M. Kassim, Robinson, Sian M., Law, Catherine, Boucher, Barbara J., Crozier, Sarah R., Godfrey, Keith M., Dennison, Elaine M. and Cooper, Cyrus (2009) Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and childhood bone mass: a longitudinal study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 24, (4), 663-668. (doi:10.1359/jbmr.081212).
Batty, G. David, Hunt, Kate, Emslie, Carol, Lewars, Heather and Gale, Catharine R. (2009) Alcohol problems and all-cause mortality in men and women: predictive capacity of a clinical screening tool in a 21-year follow-up of a large , UK-wide, general population-based survey. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 66, (4), 317-321. (doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.09.021).
Harvey, Nicholas C., Robinson, Sian M., Crozier, Sarah R., Marriott, Lynne D., Gale, Catharine R., Cole, Zoe A., Inskip, Hazel M., Godfrey, Keith M. and Cooper, Cyrus (2009) Breast-feeding and adherence to infant feeding guidelines do not influence bone mass at age 4 years. British Journal of Nutrition, 102, (6), 915-920. (doi:10.1017/S0007114509317420).
Hall, Nigel F., Gale, Catharine R., Ye, Shu and Martyn, Christopher N. (2009) Myopia and polmorphisms in genes for matrix metalloproteinases. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 50, (6), 2632-2636. (doi:10.1167/iovs.08-2427).
Gale, Catharine R., Johnson, Wendy, Deary, Ian J., Schoon, Ingrid and Batty, G. David (2009) Intelligence in girls and their subsequent smoking behaviour as mothers: the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38, (1), 173-181. (doi:10.1093/ije/dyn201).
Dykiert, Dominika, Gale, Catharine R. and Deary, Ian J. (2009) Are apparent sex differences in mean general intelligence created by sample restriction and increased male variance? Intelligence, 37, (1), 42-47. (doi:10.1016/j.intell.2008.06.002).
Batty, G.David, Gale, Catherine R., Tynelius, Per, Deary, Ian J. and Rasmussen, Finn (2009) IQ in early adulthood, socioeconomic position, and unintentional injury mortality by middle age: a cohort study of more than 1 million Swedish men. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169, (5), 606-615. (doi:10.1093/aje/kwn381).
Deary, I.J., Gale, C.R., Stewart, M., Fowkes, G., Murray, G, Batty, G.D. and Price, J. (2009) Intelligence and persisting with medication for two years: prospective analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Intelligence, 37, (6), 607-612. (doi:10.1016/j.intell.2009.01.001). (Submitted).
Weiss, Alexander, Gale, Catharine R., Batty, G.David and Deary, Ian J. (2009) Emotionally stable, intelligent me live longer: the Vietnam Experience Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, (4), 385-394. (doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e318198de78). (Submitted).
Batty, G. David, Deary, Ian J., Schoon, Ingrid, Emslie, Carol, Hunt, Kate and Gale, Catharine R. (2008) Childhood mental ability and adult alcohol intake and alcohol problems: the 1970 British cohort study. American Journal of Public Health, 98, (12), 2237-2243. (doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2007.109488).
Gale, Catharine R., Deary, Ian J., Boyle, Stephen H., Barefoot, John, Mortensen, Laust H. and Batty, G. David (2008) Cognitive ability in early adulthood and risk of 5 specific psychiatric disorders in middle age: the Vietnam Experience Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, (12), 1410-1418.
Gale, Catharine R., Robinson, Sian M., Godfrey, Keith M., Law, Catherine M., Schlotz, Wolff and O'Callaghan, F.J. (2008) Oily fish intake during pregnancy: association with lower hyperactivity but not with higher full-scale IQ in offspring. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, (10), 1061-1068. (doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01908.x).
Batty, G. David, Smith, George Davey, Cooper, Cyrus and Gale, Catharine R. (2008) Diarrhoea in childhood and cause-specific mortality in older age: analyses of 5642 deaths in 33261 individuals from the Hertfordshire studies. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 15, (4), 494-496. (doi:10.1097/01.HJR.0b013e3282ffaffa).
Batty, G. David, Gale, Catharine R. and Deary, Ian J. (2008) Cognitive function in children and subsequent type 2 diabetes. Response to Ollson, Hulting, and Montgomery. Diabetes Care, 31, (7), e59. (doi: 10.2337/dc08-0571).
Batty, G. D., Shipley, M. J., Mortensen, L. H., Gale, C. R. and Deary, I. J. (2008) IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle-age and later coronary heart disease mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study. European Journal Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 15, (3), 359-361.
Gale, Catharine R., Batty, G. David and Deary, Ian J. (2008) Locus of control at age 10 years and health outcomes and behaviors at age 30 years: the 1970 British Cohort Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, (4), 397-403.
Deary, Ian J., Batty, G. David and Gale, Catharine R. (2008) Bright children become enlightened adults. Psychological Science, 19, (1), 1-6. (doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02036.x).
Deary, Ian J., Batty, G. David, Pattie, Alison and Gale, Catharine R. (2008) More intelligent, more dependable children live longer: a 55-year longitudinal study of a representative sample of the Scottish nation. Psychological Science, 19, (9), 874-880. (doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02171.x).
Batty, George David, Mortensen, Laust H., Gale, Catharine R. and Deary, Ian J. (2008) Is low IQ related to risk of death by homicide? Testing a hypothesis using data from the Vietnam Experience Study. Psychiatry Research, 161, (1), 112-115. (doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2008.01.006).
Alves, Joao Guilherme B., Gale, Catherine R., Souza, Edvaldo and Batty, G. David (2008) Effect of physical exercise on bodyweight in overweight children: a randomized controlled trial in a Brazilian slum. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 24, (2), S353-S359. (doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2008001400020).
Batty, G.D., Shipley, M.J., Mortensen, L.H., Boyle, S.H., Barefoot, J., Gronbaek, M., Gale, C.R. and Deary, I.J. (2008) IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age and later all-cause mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, (6), 522-531. (doi:10.1136/jech.2007.064881).
Batty, G.D., Gale, C.R., Mortensen, L.H., Langenberg, C., Shipley, M.J. and Deary, I.J. (2008) Pre-morbid intelligence, the metabolic syndrome and mortality: the Vietnam experience study. Diabetologia, 51, (3), 436-443. (doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0908-5).
Gale, C.R., Deary, I.J. and Batty, G.D. (2008) Intelligence and carotid atherosclerosis in older people: cross-sectional study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 56, (4), 769-771.
Batty, G. David, Smith, George Davey, Fall, Caroline H.D., Sayer, Avan Aihie, Dennison, Elaine, Cooper, Cyrus and Gale, Catharine R. (2007) Association of diarrhoea in childhood with blood pressure and coronary heart disease in older age: analyses of two UK cohort studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36, (6), 1349-1355. (doi:10.1093/ije/dym178).
Gale, Catharine R., Javaid, M. Kassim, Robinson, Sian M., Law, Catherine M., Godfrey, Keith M. and Cooper, Cyrus (2007) Maternal size in pregnancy and body composition in children. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92, (10), 3904-3911. (doi:10.1210/jc.2007-0088).
Pain, Helen, Gale, Catharine R., Watson, Clare, Cox, Vanessa, Cooper, Cyrus and Aihie Sayer, Avan (2007) Readiness of elders to use assistive devices to maintain their independence in the home. Age and Ageing, 36, (4), 465-467. (doi:10.1093/ageing/afm046).
Pain, Helen, Gale, Catherine R., Watson, Clare, Cox, Vanessa, Cooper, Cyrus and Aihie Sayer, Avan Aihie (2007) Research letter. Readiness of elders to use assistive devices to maintain their independence in the home. Age and Ageing, 36, (4), 465-467. (doi:10.1093/ageing/afm046).
Pain, Helen, Gale, Catharine R., Watson, Clare, Cox, Vanessa, Cooper, Cyrus and Aihie-Sayer, Avan (2007) Readiness of elders to use assistive devices to maintain their independence in the home. Age and Ageing, 36, (4), 465-467. (doi:10.1093/ageing/afm046 ).
Gale, Catharine R., Martyn, Christopher N., Cooper, Cyrus and Sayer, Avan Aihie (2007) Grip strength, body composition, and mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36, (1), 228-235. (doi:10.1093/ije/dyl224).
Gale, Catharine R, Deary, Ian J., Schoon, Ingrid and Batty, G. David (2007) IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood:1970 British cohort study. British Medical Journal, 334, (7587), 245-248. (doi:10.1136/bmj.39030.675069.55).
Batty, G. David, Deary, Ian J., Schoon, Ingrid and Gale, Catharine R. (2007) Childhood mental ability in relation to food intake and physical activity in adulthood: the 1970 British Cohort Study. Pediatrics, 119, (1), e38-e45. (doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1831).
Gale, C., Simpson, H., Myerson, S., Curzen, N., McDonagh, T., Wilson, I., Mills, P., Hall, J. and Cobbe, S. (2007) The 2007 curriculumin cardiology: an overview for trainees and trainers. British Journal of Cardiology, 14, (5), 286-288.
Batty, G.D., Deary, I.J., Schoon, I. and Gale, C.R. (2007) Mental ability across childhood in relation to risk factors for premature mortality in adult life: the 1970 British Cohort Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61, (11), 997-1003. (doi:10.1136/jech.2006.054494).
Gale, Catharine R., O'Callaghan, Finbar J., Bredow, Maria and Martyn, Christopher (2006) The influence of head growth in fetal life, infancy, and childhood on intelligence at the ages of 4 and 8 years. Pediatrics, 118, (4), 1486-1492. (doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2629).
Gale, Catharine R., Jiang, Benyu, Robinson, Sian M., Godfrey, Keith M., Law, Catherine M. and Martyn, Christopher N. (2006) Maternal diet during pregnancy and carotid intima-media thickness in children. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 26, (8), 1877-1882. (doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000228819.13039.b8).
Jiang, Benyu, Godfrey, Keith M., Martyn, Christopher N. and Gale, Catharine R. (2006) Birth weight and cardiac structure in children. Pediatrics, 117, (2), e257-e261. (doi:10.1542/peds.2005-1325).
Javaid, M.K., Crozier, S.R., Harvey, N.C., Gale, C.R., Dennison, E.M., Boucher, B.J., Arden, N.K., Godfrey, K.M. and Cooper, C. (2006) Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet, 367, (9504), 36-43. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)67922-1).
Mosedale, D.E., Smith, D.J., Aitken, S., Schofield, P.M., Clarke, S.C., McNab, D., Goddard, H., Gale, C.R., Martyn, C.N., Bethell, H.W., Barnard, C., Hayns, S., Nugent, C., Panicker, A. and Grainger, D.J. (2005) Circulating levels of MCP-1 and eotaxin are not associated with presence of atherosclerosis or previous myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis, 183, (2), 268-274. (doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.11.028).
Gale, Catharine (2005) Commentary: height and intelligence. International Journal of Epidemiology, 34, (3), 678-679. (doi:10.1093/ije/dyi064).
Gale, Catharine R., O'Callaghan, Finbar J., Godfrey, Keith M., Law, Catherine M. and Martyn, Christopher N. (2004) Critical periods of brain growth and cognitive function in children. Brain, 127, (2), 321-329. (doi:10.1093/brain/awh034).
Gale, Catharine R. and Martyn, Christopher N. (2004) Birth weight and later risk of depression in a national birth cohort. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 28-33.
Ye, Shu, Gale, Catharine R. and Martyn, Christopher N. (2003) Variation in the matrix metalloproteinase-1 gene and risk of coronary heart disease. European Heart Journal, 24, (18), 1668-1671. (doi:10.1016/S0195-668X(03)00385-3).
Gale, Catharine and Martyn, Christopher (2003) Tobacco, coffee, and Parkinson's disease. British Medical Journal, 326, (7389), 561-562.
Gale, Catharine R., Walton, Sheila and Martyn, Christopher N. (2003) Foetal and postnatal head growth and risk of cognitive decline in old age. Brain, 126, (10), 2273-2278. (doi:10.1093/brain/awg225).
Gale, Catharine R., Hall, Nigel F., Phillips, David I.W. and Martyn, Christopher N. (2003) Lutein and zeaxanthin status and risk of age-related macular degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 44, (6), 2461-2465. (doi:10.1167/iovs.02-0929).
Andrew, R., Gale, C.R., Walker, B.R., Seckl, J.R. and Martyn, C.N. (2002) Glucocorticoid metabolism and the Metabolic Syndrome: associations in an elderly cohort. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, 110, (6), 284-290. (doi:10.1055/s-2002-34591).
Gale, Catharine R., Ashurst, Hazel E., Hall, Nigel F., MacCallum, Peter K. and Martyn, Christopher N. (2002) Size at birth and carotid atherosclerosis in later life. Atherosclerosis, 163, (1), 141-147. (doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(01)00760-2).
Hall, Nigel F., Gale, Catharine R., Syddall, Holly, Martyn, Christopher N. and Phillips, David I.W. (2002) Relation between size at birth and risk of age-related macular degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 43, (12), 3641-3645.
Yudkin, John S., Martyn, Christopher N., Phillips, David I.W. and Gale, Catherine R. (2001) Associations of micro-albuminuria with intra-uterine growth retardation. Nephron, 89, (3), 309-314. (doi:10.1159/000046091).
Gale, Catharine R., Martyn, Christopher N., Kellingray, Samantha, Eastell, Richard and Cooper, Cyrus (2001) Intrauterine programming of adult body composition. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 86, (1), 267-272.
Gale, Catharine R., Ashurst, Hazel E., Powers, Hilary J. and Martyn, Christopher N. (2001) Antioxidant vitamin status and carotid atherosclerosis in the elderly. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 74, (3), 402-408.
Hall, Nigel F., Gale, Catharine R., Syddall, Holly E., Martyn, Christpher N. and Phillips, David I.W. (2001) Relation between size at birth and age-related cataract. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 42, (3), 614-619.
Gale, Catharine R., Ashurst, Hazel, Phillips, Nirree, Moat, Stuart J., Bonham, James R. and Martyn, Christopher N. (2001) Renal function, plasma homocysteine and carotid atherosclerosis in elderly people. Atherosclerosis, 154, (1), 141-146. (doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(00)00448-2).
Gale, C.R., Edington, J., Coles, S.J. and Martyn, C.N. (2001) Patterns of prescribing of nutritional supplements in the United Kingdom. Clinical Nutrition, 20, (4), 333-337. (doi:10.1054/clnu.2001.0396).
Gale, Catharine R. (2001) Dietary antioxidants and dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 13, (3), 259-262. (doi:10.1017/S1041610201007645).
Hall, N.F., Gale, C.R., Syddall, H.E., Phillips, D.I.W. and Martyn, C.N. (2001) Risk of macular degeneration in users of statins: cross sectional study. British Medical Journal, 323, (7309), 375-376. (doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7309.375).
Gale, Catharine R., Hall, Nigel F., Phillips, David I.W. and Martyn, Christopher N. (2001) Plasma antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids and age-related cataract. Ophthalmology, 108, (11), 1992-1998.
Martyn, C.N., Gale, C.R., Sayer, A.A. and Fall, C.H.D. (1996) Growth in utero and cognitive function in adult life: follow up study of people born between 1920 and 1943. British Medical Journal, 312, (7043), 1393-1396.

Book Section

Gale, C.R., Deary, I.J. and Stafford, M. (2013) A life course approach to psychological and social wellbeing. In, Kuh, Diana, Cooper, Rachel, Hardy, Rebecca, Richards, Marcus and Ben-Shlomo, Yoav (eds.) A life course approach to healthy ageing. , Oxford University Press, 46-64.
Batty, G.D., Gale, C.R., Chandola, T. and Deary, I.J. (2007) Early life IQ, risk factors, and later cardiovascular disease: new data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort and a systematic review. [Quociente de inteligência na infância, fatores de risco e doença cardiovascular na vida adulta: revisão sistemática e dados recentes do Estudo de Coorte Inglês de 1958]. In, Alves, J.G. and Campaio-Carneiro, M. (eds.) Prevention of Adult Chronic Diseases in Infancy and Adolescence. [Prevenção de Doenças do Adulto na Infância e na Adolescência]. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Medbook, 29-46.
 

Research

Research Interests

Dr Gale’s main research interests at present focus on determinants of cognitive ability and mental wellbeing, particularly in older people, factors influencing risk of frailty at older ages, and on the relation between cognitive ability and mental wellbeing and later health outcomes.

Life course determinants of mental wellbeing, cognitive ability and frailty in older people

Dr Gale is working on a programme of research on life course determinants of wellbeing, cognitive ability and frailty in older people. Most of this is being carried out as part of the HALCyon, “Healthy Ageing across the Life Course” ,programme. HALCyon is a collaborative, inter-disciplinary research programme using data from nine UK cohorts to try to understand how healthy ageing is affected by biological, psychological and social factors operating across the whole of life.

Influences on cognition and behavior problems in children

Using data from the Southampton Women’s Study, Dr Gale is investigating prenatal and early life influences on cognitive ability and behavior problems in young children.

Mechanisms underlying the link between cognition and later mental health

Having shown that poorer cognitive ability in childhood or young adulthood is associated with an increased risk of psychological distress and mental health problems later in life, Dr Gale is now investigating possible psychosocial mechanisms that might underlie these associations using data from national birth cohorts.

The relation between mental health problems and later health

Dr Gale is currently working with data from several cohorts to investigate the relation between anxiety, depression and other mental disorders and various health outcomes and exploring possible underlying mechanisms.

For more information on the work of the MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, please visit www.mrc.soton.ac.uk

 

Academic unit:  Human Development and Health Academic Units

Affiliate academic units:  Human development and physiology Research group

Contact

Dr Catharine Gale
Faculty of Medicine
University of Southampton
Southampton General Hospital
Mailpoint 801
South Academic Block
Tremona Road
Southampton
SO16 6YD
or
Faculty of Medicine
University of Southampton
Building 85
Life Sciences Building
Highfield Campus
Southampton
SO171BJ

Room Number: SGH/MRC/MP95

Telephone: (023) 8077 7624 x180
Facsimile: (023) 8070 4021
Email: C.R.Gale@soton.ac.uk