No one can tell you how to obtain suitable crystals of your (new) material - indeed it may not be possible - but there are several well tried methods and there is plenty of scope for ingenuity. These notes are directed at small-molecule crystallography but biochemists, because of the difficulty in growing crystals of biomolecules, have been well served by reviews and monographs and the small-molecule chemist can profit from this expertise.
There are several important points to be aware of:
Finally don't despair - growing crystals is a slow, frustrating business but persistence does pay off at least for most people some of the time.
People who hit on a novel method may publish a note in the Journal of Applied Crystallography and the Journal of Crystal Growth is also a useful source. For reviews on biochemical crystal growing see a later section.
There is an element of luck in finding descriptions of ingenious ideas to grow crystals where these are 'hidden' in the experimental part of a paper and of course do not appear in any abstract.
The two commonest methods currently used are the vapour-diffusion method and the liquid-diffusion (layering) method both of which are described in refs. 3 and 4 (and others). Typical experimental arrangements are described below but if you are part of a group already in the crystal growing game you should be able to see the techniques in use without picking up too many bad habits!
There are also web sites covering this topic and whilst these are largely covering the same ground each brings small points of technique or helpful asides based on the author's experiences. Web site URLs do tend to change but the following have been visited.
Dr Alexander J. Blake's page from the University of Nottingham. Also describes crystal mounting techniques.
There are a large number of possible combinations with different solvent systems, solute concentration, temperature and the rate of transport by impeding the vapour path. Clearly some exploratory experiments to find suitable solvents may be required. Some typical experimental setups are shown in Fig. 1 - note that several tubes can be placed in one outer container. A very small-scale arrangement with the sample held in solution in a capillary has been described  but appears more complex than a sitting drop experiment.
The denser liquid must be placed below the lighter and some exploratory experiments to find suitable solvents may be required. There are a large number of possible combinations with different solvent systems, solute concentration and temperature. The system is normally sealed to avoid solvent loss by evaporation and the tube in which the experiment is performed should be narrow relative to its length. You can set up several experiments and place them in the same screw-top bottle. Although the crystals will form at the interface (asuming they form at all) rough handling may cause them to fall to the bottom of the tube.
Unlike vapour diffusion, the solvents can be volatile or nonvolatile. Setting up requires care to layer the upper liquid on the lower. An ingenious method of putting the denser liquid in second via a pipette has been proposed and is shown in Fig. 2(b). Introduce the pipette and then introduce the denser liquid; finally carefully withdraw the pipette .
Freezing the (denser) lower liquid before adding the upper and then allowing the solid to slowly melt can also work.
A crust is prone to form (in my experience) but given fairly large amount of solid can work. Crystals should be harvested before the system goes to dryness as dried crystals stick together and to the glass surface. Mixed solvents can be used but the relative evaporation is difficult to control/assess. You can try a mixture of solvents in which the solvent which dissolves the sample better is the more volatile.
Accurately controlled cooling is more difficult to achieve and requires an electrically controlled heater-programmer. The surface of the solution should be covered to avoid contamination by dust etc. The freezing compartment of the 'fridge or freezer can be used to work below ambient temperatures. In the literature the use of mixed solvents is common to grow crystals.
One strategy we have used is to dissolve the compound in a solvent at room temperature; add second solvent to precipitate solid until opalescence starts; warm to dissolve; place in freezing compartment of 'fridge or freezer; cross fingers and hope.
The crystals form on the cooler parts of the apparatus usually a few centimetres from the heater and the cool part may need to be kept cold with for example cold water. For very volatile materials it may be necessary to keep the cooler areas cold with solid CO2 slush baths or other refrigerants.
If left long enough, the daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature can form crystals from a powdered material. I have grown nice crystals of PBr5 kept in a sealed glass ampoule by simply ignoring them for 20 years but this does seem extreme. (I confess - they were forgotten).
Sublimed crystals can adhere firmly to the glass walls and one method to dislodge them is to shock cool the glass in the region of the crystal using liquid nitrogen [28,29].
Crystals can be grown by sublimation directly in the capillary to be used for the X-ray diffraction experiment .
Examples of crystals grown by this method include: MF5, M = Mo , Ru , Nb or Ta .
For example, copper crystals can be made using a reducing agent in a solution in contact with a silica gel containing Cu(II) ions . The crystals formed have to be extracted from the gel which can be messy. Silica gel has been most widely used but organic gels have received some attention. Hanisch  is a widely quoted reference but other articles describe the method [15,21].
Examples of crystals grown by this method include: Cu , calcium tartrate .
It lends itself to the use of seed crystals but has been used for X-ray sized crystals. Some described systems are shown in Fig. 5 [8,27,31]. The triangular apparatus described by Hope  is ca. 10 cm tall and uses heating wire or tape around the sample and left-hand side 'leg'. Cooling the horizontal tube is done with water circulating in plastic tubing wound round or a copper heat sink. Crystals are said to form in the cool right-hand side 'leg'.
A small-scale version using a capillary has been described .
Examples of crystals grown by this method include: [Pb2I4(C5H5N)4] 
Hector et al.  has used a teflon lined autoclave to prepare a number of iodate crystals by decomposition of metal periodates in the presence of periodic acid in water at 140°C. This rapidly yielded mm size crystals of materials that are difficult to prepare otherwise.
Searching the IUCr journals titles/abstracts (Acta Crystallogr. etc) for 'hydrothermal' produced a few 'hits' per year and this could be a good starting point if you wish to explore this method.
The commonest method is the vapour diffusion technique as either the 'hanging drop' or 'sitting drop' method (Fig. 6) using a small (10 μl where 0.1 ml = 100 μl) sample.
Transport of water from the sample drop gives rise to crystal formation and the water transport is driven by the difference in vapour pressure over the two solutions and will stop when changes in concentration make the vapour pressures the same. Because the volume of the reservoir is large compared to the 'drop' the reservoir remains essentially unchanged.
Because of the large number of trials required there have been a number of successful attempts to automate the process with up to 96 wells in a multi-well plate being used. The size of the drop has also been reduced to save on valuable material.
In addition the biochemists make use of dialysis to produce crystals where small ions, but not the biomolecule can pass through the dialysis membrane .
Many of the techniques developed by the biochemists both for crystal growing and manipulation after growth are applicable to the small molecule scenario. There are several commercial companies supplying chemicals and apparatus. See for example the Web site of Hampton Research in the USA.
The background to the diffraction experiment requires a uniform intensity beam of X-rays with the crystal lying completely in the beam in all orientations. The X-ray generator focal spot size and the choice of collimator determine the size of this uniform (circular) region at the crystal. More recently has seen the introduction of X-ray mirrors to focus the beam. A typical collimator size is 0.5 mm but smaller and larger diameters are used but < 1 mm. This sets an upper limit to the crystal size. You should check with the diffractometer operator/maintainer for the upper size of the crystal.
X-rays are attenuated on passing through solids and this reduction in intensity is governed by Beer's law:
I = Ioe-μtwhere I, Io are the intensities of the final and initial beams, μ is the linear absorption coefficient and t is the sample thickness.
The linear absorption coefficient can easily be calculated knowing the wavelength of the radiation, the chemical composition of the crystals and the density.
The trade-off we have to balance is between a small crystal - weak scattered beams, low absorption and large crystal - strong scattering, high absorption. It is easy to show [see for example ref. 32, page 93] that an approximate optimum is given by 3/μ. [Stout & Jensen [4(a)] give 2/μ but we are in the same ball-park].
Thus for a weakly absorbing solid, for example an organic compound with μ = 2 mm-1 the 'optimum' size is 1.5 mm, and clearly much too large for a typical collimator.
For a strongly absorbing solid say an inorganic with heavy elements with μ = 20 mm-1 the 'optimum' size is 0.15 mm, and would be OK for a typical collimator.
[Take care: both mm-1 and cm-1 are used for μ].
The final thought should be the absorption correction you are going to use. In routine structure determinations, an empirical absorption correction is commonly used. When μt_mid (t_mid is the 'middle' crystal size - see the CIF (Crystallographic Information File)) is > 3.0, the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) data validation procedures used in the software 'checkcif' require/recommend an analytical absorption based on indexed crystal faces and careful measurement of the crystal size.
"What do you mean my crystals are too big" 
Both binocular and monocular polarizing microscopes are used. For both you will need to know how to set them up i.e. focus, change magnification, set sample illumination and bring the 'analyser' into the (polarized) light path. The polarizing microscope is widely used in mineralogy and allows an examination of the optical properties of transparent solids. You will need to know about the optical indicatrix (joy)  to make use of the advanced methods, but of course it is perfectly possible to select a suitable crystal without this. With the analyser 'out' you can look for nicely shaped single crystals that are not aggregates of two or more crystals or obviously twinned (re-entrant angles). With the analyser 'in' (crossed polars) the field of view is dark and crystals may show extinction in which a normally light coloured crystal becomes dark (extinguishes) as the crystal is rotated on the microscope stage. This extinction occurs every 90° rotation and a single crystal should go completely dark at some orientation. This often occurs parallel to a crystal edge and may be related to the crystal axes (a, b, c). Not all crystals show extinction: for example cubic crystals are isotropic and remain dark in all orientations and some views of the higher symmetry crystal systems are also isotropic under crossed polars.
Air-sensitive crystals can of course be examined in a glass ampoule or vial: they do not have to be placed on a microscope slide. Similarly crystals can be examined in mother liquor and indeed it is better to do this to avoid potential loss of solvent molecules from the crystals. Looking at your crystals under the microscope is a quick and useful procedure.
There are a number of books giving full details [1,18] and chapter 2 in the book by Dent Glasser  seems a good introduction to optical crystallography.
McPherson in his book  advocates collecting together various small items for handling crystals and I have found this to be excellent advice. My case contained a number of partitions of various sizes in which were stored anything and everything that had proved useful and if items were missing I had no one to blame but myself.
A extensive list would not be appropriate as technology moves on but surely any toolkit would include: microspatulas; dissecting needles and blades to select/cut crystals; an assortment of microscope slides (with/without depressions); Pasteur pipettes and teats; adhesives; greases; spare goniometer mounting pins; hand lens; ....
There are several techniques for mounting your selected crystal on the mounting pins. The choice depends upon the data-collection temperature and the crystal stability. A good account is provided on the Blake crystal-growing website and several articles discuss particular methods but the text book treatments are usually brief.
There are also several good reviews on macromolecular cryocrystallography which contain comments useful for the small-molecule crystallographer [37,47,52,54,48].
It is important to know the height that the crystal should be above the top of the mounting pin in order to be in the X-ray beam. Modern goniometer heads have a limited adjustment - your crystallographer will let you know.
If you have air-stable crystals and are selecting under a microscope, a very thin smear of silicone grease on the microscope slide stops crystals - usually the best ones - flying off the slide when being trimmed. Hampton Research offers a range of very small tools for manipulating crystals but dissecting needles and sharp small blades (eg razor blades) usually suffice.
There are several well-known advantages to be gained from low-temperature data collection including reduced thermal parameters (atomic displacement parameters) and an increased intensity for larger sinθ/λ reflections [40,41,46,56]. Low-temperature working has become routine with the development of commercial equipment but this was not always the case and the road to the present position has been summarised [36,37]. Several articles have usefull practical comments to minimise the risk of ice formation [36,37] and the Garman and Schneider review  although aimed at macromolecule work is thoroughly recommended.
A number of laboratories seem to have adopted for small-molecule work the area-detector diffractometer/low temperature combination as the default.
The final point to remember is that for a (small) percentage of crystals, lowering the temperature can result in a structural change; this may be a reversible phase change or conversion to a polycrystalline material and a failed data collection. In such cases a room temperature data collection may be the answer.
Glass fibre mounting
For air-stable crystals the glass fibre mount can be usefull. The crystal can easily be stored for later use and data collection can be at ambient or low temperatures. It involves glueing the crystal to a short length of glass fibre which in turn is secured to the mounting pin (Fig. 1(a)). Various adhesives have been used over the years - they must securely anchor the crystal to the glass.
The glass fibre must be of small diameter relative to the crystal size and the crystal must be positioned so that it does not interfere with the incident or diffracted beams in all orientations during data collection. Scattering from the glass and adhesive can contribute to the background and should be minimised.
You should allow enough time for the glue to fully set or the crystal may change orientation during the experiment and invalidate the data collection.
For very small crystals a two-stage glass fibre is used with a short length (few mm) of very thin fibre from glass wool glued at the top of the conventional thicker fibre. The crystal is then glued to the glass wool fibre. Care must be taken that the crystal does not move relative to the goniometer head in different orientations due to the thinness or length of the mounting fibre or due to the gas stream if a low temperature device is in use. Blake has a useful discussion of glass fibres and more complicated arrangements.
People have also used glass capillaries as a replacement for the (solid) glass fibre as these are more rigid for the same mass of glass.
In the past workers have used diluted solvent based glues to coat the crystal and prevent slow decomposition but it is doubtfull if these would find many current applications.
[It is easy to produce metres/yards of glass fibres from a short length of glass rod (few mm in diameter) and a glass-blowing torch - it depends on how long your arms are! The fibres will come in all diameters but suitable ones can be chosen for the job in hand].
Glass capillary mounting
The use of thin-wall glass capillaries for both small-molecule and macromolecular crystallography is well established and has the advantage that room temperature experiments are possible.
Where the crystals lose solvent or are moisture/air sensitive a capillary mounting may offer a solution if a room temperature data set is required. Introducing crystals into the fragile capillaries is difficult particularly in a glove box and a holder consisting of a glass tube in which the wide end of the capillary sits supported by a ring of mouldable non-setting wax can save many broken capillaries (Fig. 7(b)). Introducing a film of silicone grease inside the capillary after the crystal has been introduced is a valuable method of stopping the crystal moving. The grease is introduced using a glass fibre smeared with the grease and inserted in the capillary. It is also possible to introduce a small amount of solvent and seal the capillary either by flame or an adhesive (eg rapid-set epoxy). See also .
Biomolecules contain large amounts of water and it is necessary to maintain the crystals in an atmosphere of the mother liquor. This is done by introducing liquid usually at both ends of the capillary and sealing (Fig. 7(c)) [49,50,51]. An alternative to the glass capillary has recently been proposed  in which the crystal on its mount is enclosed in a thin-wall polyester tube. The sealed tube also contains a small amount of stabilising liquid. Time will tell if this method is widely adopted but the authors suggest it has several advantages over glass capillaries.
Capillaries are commercially available with various internal diameters and made from various glass types or quartz. [See: Hampton Research and Hilgenberg GmbH, Germany (I'm not sure about the second company)].
The two following methods have markedly reduced the use of capillaries.
The oil-drop method was developed by Hope [36,47] and has found applications for both small-molecule and macromolecular crystallography. It is a low temperature technique and in the small-molecule case is particularly valuable for moisture-sensitive or reactive crystals. Some of the crystals under study are placed in a small pool of an oil sitting on a microscope slide. The oil acts to protect the crystals during selection. Hope used Paratone-N (Exxon) mixed with mineral oil  as the oil medium and Kottke and Stalke  in their procedure for reactive compounds used a mixture of perfluoro poly ethers (Hostinert216 and RS3000, (Riedel-de-Haën)). The proportion of the oils determines the viscosity and governs the temperature of the experiment. The use of Nujol, which can easily be dried, seems satisfactory in the 120-150 K range. After selection of the crystal it can be transferred to the end of a glass fibre previously secured to a mounting pin and rapidly positioned on the diffractometer and flash cooled in the gas stream.
The protective oil film also serves as an adhesive to hold the crystal in position. The same comments about the fibre and the position of the crystal with respect to the fibre apply as for the glass fibre mounting above. Perfluoro poly ether oils are available but the Riedel-de-Haën products given above may not be. (See Blake).
Hope has published detailed instructions for all the steps involved  and provided on the Web lecture notes from a 1995 meeting on cryocrystallography covering much the same ground.
A variant of the Hope method has been described for macromolecules avoiding the use of cryoprotectants and commenting on various oils .
Fibre loop mounting
The loop method was proposed for macromolecular crystallography by Teng  in 1990 in which a circular loop of thin wire is glued to the tip of a thin glass tube which in turn is attached to a metal mounting pin (Fig. 7(d)). The loop is typically 1-2 mm in diameter. A drop of (aqueous) solution containing the crystal can be scooped out of solution and the liquid held in position by surface tension. Cryoprotectants are selected so that on flash cooling a glass is formed in which is embedded the crystal.
This technique has been widely adopted by macromolecular crystallographers  and several methods have been described for constructing the loops from a variety of materials [44,45]. Each laboratory seems to have developed minor variants.
Hope mentioned in reference 2 the use of the loop method with an oil (rather than the normal aqueous medium) for very thin crystals.
There are several reviews of this area which are briefly described below followed by a few examples which caught the reviewers notice. If you are not impressed by these or other examples you come across then you are very hard to please or have never tried the experiments yourself.
The Veith and Frank  review gives details of crystal growth in capillaries and a useful list of earlier studies of low temperature crystallisation and crystal transfer. Luger  gives details of crystal growth in capillaries for a range of low melting-point organic molecules. The apparatus described by Kottke and Stalke  allows the isolation and manipulation of low temperature crystals under a protective atmosphere and immersed in oil (perfluoro poly ethers). The selected crystal is then mounted on a fibre using the oil-drop method pioneered by Hope [47,36] and transferred to the diffractometer. More details of the Kottke and Stalke apparatus and an impressive range of organometallic intermediates that have been studied are described by Stalke .
A couple of examples:
The commonest category is when an unexpected element is present:
Perhaps the main points are to endeavour to retain an open mind about your results and to keep an eye open for things that don't seem quite right.
2 H. Hope, Prog. Inorg. Chem., 1994, 41, 1-19. "X-Ray Crystallography: A Fast, First-Resort Analytical Tool".
3 J. P. Glusker and K. N. Trueblood, "Crystal Structure Analysis - A Primer", 2nd. Edn., 1985, Oxford.
4 G. H. Stout and L. H. Jensen, "X-ray Structure Determination - a Practical Guide", (a) 1968, Macmillan. (b) 2nd Edn. 1989, Wiley.
5 P. G. Jones, Chem. in Brit., 1981, 17, 222-225. "Crystal growing".
6 P. van der Sluis, A. M. F. Hezemans and J. Kroon, J. Appl. Cryst., 1989, 22, 340-344. "Crystallization of low-molecular-weight organic compounds for X-ray crystallography".
7 J. Hulliger, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 1994, 33, 143-162. "Chemistry and Crystal Growth".
8 H. Hope, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1971, 4, 333. "Apparatus for growth of crystals for diffraction study".
9 C. Orvig, J. Chem. Ed., 1985, 62, 84. "A simple method to perform a liquid diffusion crystallisation".
10 J. Luft and V. Cody, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1989, 22, 396. "A simple capillary vapor diffusion apparatus for surveying macromolecular crystallisation conditions".
11 A. McPherson, "Preparation and Analysis of Protein Crystals", Wiley, 1982.
12 A. McPherson, Eur. J. Biochem., 1990, 189, 1-23. "Current approaches to macromolecular crystallization".
13 R. Giege and V. Mikol, Trends in Biotechnology, 1989, 7, 277-282. "Crystallogenesis of Proteins".
14 M. Zeppezauer, Methods in Enzymology, 1971, 22, 253-266. "Formation of Large Crystals". [Large is relative - it means small].
15 S. L. Suib, J. Chem. Ed., 1985, 62, 81-84. "Crystal Growth in Gels".
16 A. Ducruix and R. Giege (Eds.), "Crystallization of Nucleic Acids and Proteins - a Practical Approach", Oxford, 1992. Second Edn., 1999.
17 L. S. Dent Glasser, "Crystallography and its applications", Van Nostrand, 1977.
18 N. H. Hartshorne and A. Stuart, "Crystals and the Polarizing Microscope", 4th Edn., Arnold, 1970.
19 A. Yonath, J. Mussig and H. G. Wittman, J. Cell. Biochem., 1982, 19, 145-155. "Parameters for Crystal Growth of Ribosomal Subunits".
20 (a) H. K. Henisch, "Crystal Growth in Gels", Penn. State Univ. Press, 1970 (Dover reprint, 1996); (b) H. K. Henisch, "Crystals in Gels and Liesegang Rings", Cambridge Univ. Press., 1988.
21 A. F. Armington and J. J. O'Connor, Inorg. Syn., 1980, 1, 1-8.
22 A. F. Armington and J. J. O'Connor, Inorg. Syn., 1980, 1, 9-11.
23 T. L. Blundell and L. N. Johnson, "Protein Crystallography", Academic Press, 1976. pp. 64-79.
24 R. H. W. Small, A. J. Banister and Z. V. Hauptman, J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans., 1984, 1377-1381.
25 D. J. Watkin, J. Appl. Cryst., 1972, 5, 250.
26 S. A. Martin and H. M. Haendler, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1978, 11, 62.
27 H. Miyamae, H. Toriyama, T. Abe, G. Hihara and M. Nagata, Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C, 1984, C40, 1559-1562.
28 A. J. Edwards, R. D. Peacock and R. W. H. Small, J. Chem. Soc., 1962, 4487.
29 J. H. Holloway, R. D. Peacock and R. W. H. Small, J. Chem. Soc., 1964, 644.
30 A. J. Edwards, J. Chem. Soc., 1964, 3714.
31 W. K. Ham, T. J. R. Weakley and C. J. Page, J. Solid State Chem., 1993, 107, 101-107.
32 P. Luger, "Modern X-ray Analysis on Single Crystals", de Gruyter, 1980.
33 K. Byrappa and M. Yoshimura, "Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology", Noyes Publications, USA, 19??.
34 A. L. Hector, S. J. Henderson, W. Levason and M. Webster, Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem., 2002, 628, 198-202.
35 A. Rabenau, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1985, 24, 1026-1040. "The Role of Hydrothermal Synthesis in Preparative Chemistry".
36 H. Hope, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem., 1990, 19, 107-126. "Crystallography of Biological Macromolecules at Ultra-low Temperatures". [Discusses small molecule crystallography as asides].
37 E. F. Garman and T. R. Schneider, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1997, 30, 211-237. "Macromolecular Cryocrystallography"
38 D. Stalke, Chem. Soc. Rev., 1998, 27, 171-178. "Cryo crystal structure determination and application to intermediates".
39 P. Luger, S. Afr. J. Chem., 1989, 42, 127-135. "Single-crystal diffraction at low temperatures".
40 M. Veith and W. Frank, Chem. Rev., 1988, 88, 81-92. "Low-Temperature X-ray Structure Techniques for the Characterization of Thermolabile Molecules".
41 T. Kottke and D. Stalke, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1993, 26, 615-619. "Crystal handling at low temperatures".
42 S. R. Drake, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1994, 27, 198-199. " An inexpensive technique for handling solvent-dependent crystals".
43 T.-Y. Teng, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1990, 23, 387-391. "Mounting of Crystals for Macromolecular Crystallography in a Free-Standing Thin Film".
44 L. Blond, S. Pares and R. Kahn, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1995, 28, 653-654. "An easy technique for making fiber loops for cryocrystallography".
45 U. H. Sauer and T. A. Ceska, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1997, 30, 71-72. " A simple method for making reproducible fibre loops for protein cryocrystallography".
46 F. K. Larsen, Acta Crystallogr., 1995, B51, 468-482. "Diffraction studies of Crystals at Low Temperatures - Cryocrystallography Below 77 K".
47 H. Hope, Acta Crystallogr., 1988, B44, 22-26. "Cryocrystallography of Biological Macromolecules: a Generally Applicable Method".
48 D. W. Rodgers, Methods in Enzymology, 1997, 276, 183-203. "Practical Cryocrystallography".
49 J. P. Glusker and K. N. Trueblood, "Crystal Structure Analysis - A Primer", 2nd. Edn., 1985, Oxford. p. 44.
50 T. L. Blundell and L. N. Johnson, "Protein Crystallography", Academic Press, 1976. pp. 81-82.
51 I. Rayment, Methods in Enzymology, 1985, 114, 136-140. "Treatment and Manipulation of Crystals".
52 S. Parkin and H. Hope, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1998, 31, 945-953. "Macromolecular Cryocrystallography: Cooling, Mounting, Storage and Transportation of Crystals".
53 A. Riboldi-Tunnicliffe and R. Hilgenfeld, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1999, 32, 1003-1005. "Cryocrystallography with oil - an old idea revived".
54 H. Hope, F. Frolow, K. von Böhlen, I. Makowski, C. Kratky, Y. Halfon, H. Danz, P. Webster, K. S. Bartels, H. G. Wittmann and A. Yonath, Acta Crystallogr., 1989, B45, 190-199. "Cryocrystallography of Ribosomal Particles".
55 T. Sasaki and A.Yokotani, J. Cryst. Growth, 1990, 99, 820-826. (See ref. 7).
56 A. E. Goeta and J. A. K. Howard, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2004, 33(8), 490-500. "Low temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction: advantages, instrumentation and applications". [This issue of Chem. Soc. Rev. is devoted to crystallography].
57 Y. Kalinin, J. Kmetko, A. Bartnik, A. Stewart, R. Gillilan, E. Lobkovsky and R. Thorne, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 2005, 38, 333-339. "A new sample mounting technique for room-temperature macromolecular crystallography".
These notes were assembled in the mid 1990s as part of a handout to
postgraduate students in the Department of Chemistry, University
of Southampton, UK. Later revised they formed part of a booklet for a P/G
course on physical methods which has been discontinued. They have been
revised and extended in this web version.
Michael Webster. October 2003.
Last update: November 2005. V1.3
Material Copyright © 2003-2005
|Feedback is welcomed. Suggestions for improvement, reporting of errors, etc should be sent to: Dr Mike Webster (email: email@example.com).|