Bibliography

    I.H. Abbot and A.E. Von Doenhoff. Theory of Wing Sections. Dover Publications, Inc., 1959.
    H.M. Adelman and R.T. Haftka. Sensitivity analysis of discrete structural systems. AIAA Journal, 24:823-832, 1986.
    S. Adhikari. Reliability analysis using parabolic failure surface approximation. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 130(12):1407-1427, 2004.
    S. Adhikari and M.I. Friswell. Eigenderivative analysis of asymmetric non-conservative systems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 51:709-733, 2001.
    AGARD. Technical status review on drag prediction and analysis from computational fluid dynamics: State of the art. Technical Report AR-256, AGARD, 1989.
    H. Agarwal, J.E. Renaud, E.L. Preston, and D. Padmanabhan. Uncertainty quantification using evidence theory in multidisciplinary design optimization. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 85:281-294, 2004.
    S. Ahmed, L.T.M. Blessing, and K.M. Wallace. The relationships between data, information and knowledge based on a preliminary study of engineering designers. Proc. ASME Design Theory and Methodology, 1999.
    S. Ahmed and C.T. Hansen. An analysis of design decision-making in industrial practice. Design 2002, pages 145-150, 2002.
    M. Akg"un. New family of modal methods for computing eigenvector derivatives. AIAA Journal, 32:379-386, 1994.
    M.A. Akg"un, J.H. Garcelon, and R.T. Haftka. Fast exact linear and non-linear structural reanalysis and the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formulas. International Journal For Numerical Methods In Engineering, 50:1587-1606, 2001a.
    M.A. Akg"un, R.T. Haftka, K.C. Wu, J.L. Walsh, and G.H. Garcelon. Efficient structural optimization for multiple load cases using adjoint sensitivities. AIAA Journal, 39:511-516, 2001b.
    N. M. Alexandrov, R.M. Lewis, C.R. Gumbert, L.L. Green, and P.A. Newman. Optimization with variable-fidelity models applied to wing design. AIAA Paper 2000-0841, 2000.
    N.M. Alexandrov. Multilevel Algorithms for Nonlinear Equations and Equality Constrained Optimization. PhD thesis, Rice University, 1993.
    N.M. Alexandrov, S.J. Alter, H.L. Atkins, K.S. Bey, K.L. Bibb, R.T. Biedron, M.H. Carpenter, F.M. Cheatwood, P.J. Drummond, P. A. Gnoffo, W.T. Jones, W.L. Kleb, E.M. Lee-Rausch, N.R. Merski, R.E. Mineck, E.J. Nielsen, M.A. Park, S.Z. Pirzadeh, T.W. Roberts, J.A. Samareh, R.C. Swanson, J.L. Thomas, V.N. Vasta, K.J. Weilmuenster, J.A. White, W.A. Wood, and L.P. Yip. Opportunities for breakthroughs in large-scale computational simulation and design. NASA/TM-2002-211747, June 2002.
    N.M. Alexandrov, J.E. Dennis Jr., R.M. Lewis, and V. Torczon. A trust region framework for managing the use of approximation models in optimization. Structural Optimization, 15:16-23, 1998b.
    N.M. Alexandrov and R.M. Lewis. Algorithmic perspectives on problem formulations in MDO. AIAA 2000-4719, 2000a.
    N.M. Alexandrov and R.M. Lewis. Analytical and computational aspects of collaborative optimization. NASA/TM-2000-210104, 2000b.
    M. Allen and K. Maute. Reliability-based design optimization of aerelastic structures. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 27:228-242, 2004.
    J.J. Alonso, J.R.R.A. Martins, J.J. Reuther, R. Haimes, and C.A. Crawford. High-fidelity aero-structural design using a parametric CAD-based model. AIAA Paper 2003-3429, 2003.
    N.R. Aluru and J. White. A multilevel Newton method for mixed-energy domain simulation of mems. Journal of Microelctromechanical Systems, 8:299-308, 1999.
    E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. Du Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, and A. McKenney. LAPACK User's Guide. SIAM, Philadelphia, second edition, 1995.
    G.L. Ang, A.H-S.Ang, and W.H. Wang. Optimal importance-sampling density function. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 118:1146-1163, 1992.
    D.K. Anthony and S.J. Elliott. Comparison of the effectiveness of minimizing cost function parameters for active control of vibrational energy transmission in a lightly damped structure. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 237:223-244, 2000a.
    D.K. Anthony and S.J. Elliott. Robustness of optimal design solutions to reduce vibration transmission in a lightweight 2-d structure, part II: Application of active vibration control techniques. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 229:520-548, 2000b.
    D.K. Anthony, S.J. Elliott, and A.J. Keane. Robustness of optimal design solutions to reduce vibration transmission in a lightweight 2-d structure, part I: Geometric design. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 229:505-528, 2000.
    D.K. Anthony and A.J. Keane. Robust-optimal design of a lightweight space structure using a genetic algorithm. AIAA Journal, 41:1601-1604, 2003.
    E. Arian. Convergence estimates for multidisciplinary analysis and optimization. Technical Report ICASE Report No. 97-57, NASA Langley Research Center, 1998.
    E. Arian and M.D. Salas. Admitting the inadmissible: Adjoint formulation for incomplete cost functionals in aerodynamic design. AIAA Journal, 37:37-44, 1999.
    D.V. Arnold and H.G. Beyer. Local performance of the (1+1)-es in a noisy environment. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 6:30-41, 2002.
    P. Audze and V. Eglais. Problems of Dynamics and Strength, volume 35, chapter New Approach to Planning out of Experiments, pages 104-107. (in Russian), 1977.
    M. Avriel. Nonlinear programming: analysis and methods. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1976.
    E.H. Baalbergen and H. van der Ven. Spineware: a framework for user-oriented and tailorable metacomputers. NLR-TP-98463, 1998.
    E.H. Baalbergen and H. van der Ven. Spineware - a framework for user-oriented and tailorable metacomputers. Future Generation Computing Systems, 15:549-558, 1999.
    T. Back, F. Hoffmeister, and H.-P. Schwefel. A survey of evolution strategies. In R. K. Belew and L. B. Booker, editors, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (ICGA IV), pages 2-9. Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 1991.
    M. Bakr, J. Bandler, K. Madsen, and J. Sondergaard. Review of the space mapping approach to engineering optimization and modeling. Optimization and Engineering, 1:241-276, 2000.
    M.H. Bakr, J.W. Bandler, R.M. Biernacki, S.H. Chen, and K. Madsen. A trust region aggressive space mapping algorithm for em optimization. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 46:2412-2425, 1998.
    V.O. Balabanov. Development of Approximations for HSCT Wing Bending Material Weight Using Response Surface Methodology. PhD thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1997.
    V.O. Balabanov, A.A. Giunta, O. Golovidov, B. Grossman, W.H. Mason, L.T. Watson, and R.T. Haftka. Reasonable design space approach to response surface approximation. Journal of Aircraft, 36:308-315, 1999.
    M.J. Balas. Trends in large space structure control theory: fondest hopes, wildest dreams. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, AC-27:522-535, 1982.
    J.M. Baldwin. A new factor in evolution. American Naturalist, 30:441-451, 1896.
    E. Balmes. Parametric families of reduced finite element models. theory and applications. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 10:381-394, 1996.
    J.W. Bandler, R.M. Biernacki, S.H. Chen, P.A. Grobelny, and R.H. Hemmers. Space mapping technique for electromagnetic optimization. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 42:2536-2544, 1994.
    J.W. Bandler, R.M. Biernacki, S.H. Chen, R.H. Hemmers, and K. Madsen. Electromagnetic optimization exploiting aggressive space mapping. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 43:2874-2882, 1995.
    J.W. Bandler, M.A. Ismail, J.E. Rayas-S'anchez, and Q.J. Zhang. Neuromodeling of microwave circuits exploiting space mapping technology. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 47:2417-2427, 1999.
    K.J. Bathe. Finite Element Procedures. Prentice Hall, 1996.
    L.M. Beda. Programs for automatic differentiation for the machine besm. Technical report, Institute for Precise Mechanics and Computation Techniques, Academy of Science, Moscow, 1959.
    R.K. Belew and L.B. Booker, editors. Proc. 4th International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, San Diego, CA, USA, July 1991, 1991. Morgan Kaufmann.
    T. Belytschko, Y. Krongauz, D. Organ, M. Fleming, and P. Krysl. Meshless methods: An overview and recent developments. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 139:3-47, 1996.
    Y. Ben-Haim. Information Gap Decision Theory: Decisions under severe uncertainty. Academic Press, 2001.
    Y. Ben-Haim and I. Elishakoff. Convex Models of Uncertainty in Applied Mechanics. Elsevier Science, 1990.
    R. Benayoun, J. de Montgolfier, J. Tergny, and O. Laritchev. Linear programming with multiple objective functions: Step method (stem). Mathematical Programming, 1:366- 375, 1971.
    M.P. Bendsoe. Optimal shape design as a material distribution problem. Structural Optimization, 1:193-202, 1989.
    G. Berkooz, P. Holmes, and J.L. Lumley. The proper orthogonal decomposition in the analysis of turbulent flows. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 25:539-575, 1993.
    F. Berman, G. Fox, and A.J.G. Hey. Grid Computing: Making the Global Infrastructure a Reality. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, 2003.
    C. Bishop. Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition. Oxford University Press, 1995.
    M.I. G. Bloor and M.J. Wilson. The efficient parametrization of generic aircraft geometry. J. of Aircraft, 32:1269-1275, 1995.
    P.T. Boggs and J.W. Tolle. A strategy for global convergence in a sequential quadratic programming algorithm. SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis, 26:600-623, 1989.
    P.T. Boggs and J.W. Tolle. Sequential quadratic programming. Acta Numerica, pages 1-51, 1995.
    A.J. Booker, J.E. Dennis, P.D. Frank, D.B. Serafini, V. Torczon, and M.W. Trosset. A rigorous framework for optimization of expensive functions by surrogates. Structural Optimization, 17:1-13, 1998.
    D. Borglund and I.M. Kroo. Aeroelastic design optimization of a two-spar flexible windtunnel model. Journal of Aircraft, 39:1074-1075, 2002.
    A. Bouazzouni, G. Lallement, and S. Cogan. Selecting a Ritz basis for the reanalysis of the frequency response of modified structures. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 199:309-322, 1997.
    G.E.P. Box and N.R. Draper. Empirical Model Building and Response Surfaces. John Wiley and Sons, 1987.
    W.J. Boyne. Beyond the Horizons: The Lockheed Story. St. Martins Press, 1999.
    R.H. Bracewell. Synthesis based on function-means trees: Schemebuilder. Engineering Design Synthesis, pages 199-212, 2002.
    K.R. Bradley. A sizing methodology for the conceptual design of blended-wing-body transports. NASA/CR-2004-213016, 2004.
    V. Braibant and C. Fleury. Shape optimal design using b-splines. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 44:247-267, 1984.
    R. Braun, P. Gage, I. Kroo, and I. Sobieski. Implementation and performance issues in collaborative optimization. In AIAA 1996-4017, 1996.
    R.D. Braun. Collaborative Optimization: An Architecture for Large-Scale Distributed Design. PhD thesis, University of Stanford, 1996.
    R.D. Braun and I.M. Kroo. Development and application of the collaborative optimization architecture in a multidisciplinary design environment. In N.M. Alexandrov and M.Y. Hussaini, editors, Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: State of the Art, pages 98-116. SIAM, 1997.
    R.P. Brent. Algorithms for minimization without derivatives. Prentice-Hall, 1973.
    P. Brezillon, J.F. Stauf, A.M. Peraultstaub, and G. Milhaud. Numerical estimation of the 1st order derivative - approximate evaluation of an optimal step. Computers and Mathematics With Applications, 7:333-347, 1981.
    C.G. Broyden. A class of methods for solving nonlinear simultaneous equations. Mathematics of Computation, 19:577-593, 1965.
    R.J. Buck and H.P. Wynn. Optimization strategies in robust engineering design and computer-aided design. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 9:39-48, 1993.
    L. Bull. Evolutionary computing in multi-agent environments: partners. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, pages 370-377. Morgan Kaufmann, 1997.
    D.G. Cacuci. Sensitivity theory for non-linear systems 1. non-linear functional-analysis approach. Journal of Mathematical Physics, 22:2794-2802, 1981a.
    D.G. Cacuci. Sensitivity theory for non-linear systems 2. extensions to additional classes of responses. Journal of Mathematical Physics, 22:2803-2812, 1981b.
    R.H. Cameron and W.T. Martin. The orthogonal development of nonlinear functionals in series of Fourier-Hermite functions. Annals of Mathematics, 48:385-392, 1947.
    A.S. Campobasso, M.C. Duta, and M.B. Giles. Adjoint calculation of sensitivities of turbomachinery objective functions. Journal of Propulsion And Power, 19:693-703, 2003.
    R.A. Canfield. High quality approximation of eigenvalues in structural optimization. AIAA Journal, 28:1116-1122, 1990.
    Y. Cao, M.Y. Hussaini, and T.A. Zhang. On the exploitation of sensitivity derivatives for improving sampling methods. AIAA Paper 2003-1656, 2003.
    C.M.M. Carey, G.H. Golub, and K.H. Law. A Lanczos-based method for structural dynamic reanalysis problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 37: 2857-2883, 1994.
    A. Carle and M. Fagan. ADIFOR 3.0 overview. Technical Report Technical Report CAAMTR0002, Rice University, 2000.
    J.C. Carr, W.R. Fright, and R.K. Beatson. Surface interpolation with radial basis functions for medical imaging. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 16:96-107, 1997.
    H. Casanova and J. Dongarra. NetSolve: a network enabled server, examples and users. In Proceedings of the Heterogeneous Computing Workshop, 1998.
    H. Casanova and J.J. Dongarra. Netsolve: A network server for solving computational science problems. International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, 11:212-223, 1997.
    C. Chang, F.J. Torres, and C. Tung. Geometric analysis of wing sections. NASA TM 110346, 1995.
    K.-H. Chang and K.K. Choi. A geometry-based parameterisation method for shape design of elastic solids. Mechanics of Structures and Machines, 20:215-252, 1992.
    O. Chapelle, V. Vapnik, and J. Weston. Transductive inference for estimating values of functions. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 12, 1999.
    Chatfield. Model uncertainty, data mining and statistical inference. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 158:419-466, 1995.
    S.H. Chen and Z.J. Yang. A universal method for structural static reanalysis of topological modifications. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 61:673-686, 2004.
    W. Chen, J.K. Allen, K.-L. Tsui, and F. Mistree. A procedure for robust design. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, 118:478-485, 1996.
    W. Chen, R. Jin, and A. Sudjianto. Analytical uncertainty propagation in simulation-based design under uncertainty. AIAA Paper 2004-4356, 2004.
    W. Chen, A. Sahai, A. Messac, and G.J. Sundararaj. Exploration of the effectiveness of physical programming in robust design. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, 122:155- 163, 2000.
    Y.-M. Chen, A. Bhaskar, and A.J. Keane. A parallel nodal-based evolutionarystructural optimization algorithm. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 23:241-251, 2002.
    V. Cherkassky and F. Mulier. Learning from Data. Wiley, 1998.
    J.B. Cherrie, R.K. Beatson, and G.N. Newsam. Fast evaluation of radial basis functions: Methods for generalized multiquadrics in Rn. SIAM Journal of Scientific Computing, 23: 1549-1571, 2002.
    K.K. Choi and W. Duan. Design sensitivity analysis and shape optimization of structural components with hyperelastic material. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 187:289-306, 2000.
    K.K. Choi and N.H. Kim. Structural Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization. Vol. 1. Linear Systems. Springer-Verlag, 2004a.
    K.K. Choi and N.H. Kim. Structural Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization. Vol. 1. Nonlinear Systems and Applications. Springer-Verlag, 2004b.
    A. Choudhury, P.B. Nair, and A.J. Keane. A data parallel approach for large-scale Gaussian process modeling. In Proceedings of the Second SIAM International Conference on Data Mining, 2002.
    H.-S. Chung and J.J. Alonso. Using gradients to construct cokriging approximation models for high-dimensional design optimization problems. AIAA Paper 2002-0317, 2002.
    S.M. Clarke, J.H. Griebsch, and T.W. Simpson. Analysis of support vector regression for approximation of complex engineering analyses. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, to appear.
    C.W. Clegg, C.M. Axtell, L. Damodaran, B. Farbey, R. Hull, R. Lloyd-Jones, J. Nicholls, R. Sell, and C. Tomlinson. Information technology: A study of performance and the role of human and organizational factors. Ergonomics, 40:851-871, 1997.
    W.J. Cody, W.B. Rouse, and K.R. Boff. Designers' associates: Intelligent support for information access and utilization in design. Human/Technology Interaction in Complex Systems, 7:173-260, 1995.
    R. Collobert, S. Bengio, and Y. Bengio. A parallel mixture of SVMs for very large scale problems. Neural Computation, 2002.
    A.R. Conn, N.I.M. Gould, and P.L. Toint. Trust-region Methods. SIAM, 2000.
    T.A. Cooke. Measurements of the boundary layer and wake of two aerofoil sections at high reynolds numbers and subsonic mach numbers. Technical Report Technical Report R&M 3722, Aircraft Research Centre, 1973.
    G. Corliss, C. Faure, A. Griewank, L. Hasco"et, and U. Naumann (Editors). Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: From Simulation to Optimization. Computer and Information Science Series. Springer, 2001.
    R. Cornish, J.T. Mills, J.P. Curtis, and D. Finch. Degradation mechanisms in shaped charge jet penetration. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 26:105-114, 2001.
    G.B. Cosentino and T.L. Holst. Numerical optimization of advanced transonic wing configurations. Journal of Aircraft, 23:129-199, 1986.
    S.F. Cotter, J. Adler, B.D. Rao, and K. Kreutz-Delgado. Forward sequential algorithms for best basis selection. IEE Proceedings on Vision, Image, and Signal Processing, 146: 235-244, 1999.
    J. Cousin and M. Metcalfe. The BAE ltd transport aircraft synthesis and optimization program. AIAA Paper 90-3295, 1990.
    E.J. Cramer, J.E. Dennis Jr., P.D. Frank, R.M. Lewis, and G.R. Shubin. Problem formulation for multidisciplinary optimization. SIAM Journal on Optimization, 4:754-776, 1994.
    N.A.C. Cressie. Statistics for Spatial Data. John Wiley and Sons, 1993.
    N. Cristianini and J. Shawe-Taylor. An Introduction to Support Vector Machines. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
    L. Csat'o and M. Opper. Sparse representation for Gaussian process models. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, volume 13, 2001.
    C. Currin, T. Mitchell, M. Morris, and D. Ylvisaker. Bayesian prediction of deterministic functions, with applications to the design and analysis of computer experiments. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 86:953-963, 1991.
    P. Cusdin and J.-D. M"uller. Deriving linear and adjoint codes for CFD using automatic differentiation. Technical Report QUB-SAE-03-06, The Queen's University of Belfast, 2003.
    R.L. Dailey. Eigenvector derivatives with repeated eigenvalues. AIAA Journal, 27:468-491, 1989.
    J.W. Daniel, W.B. Bragg, L. Kaufmann, and G.W. Stewart. Reorthogonalization and stable algorithms for updating the Gram Schmidt QR factorization. Mathematics of Computation, 30:772-795, 1976.
    P.V. Aidala W.H. Davis and W.H. Mason. Smart aerodynamic optimization. AIAA Paper 83-1863, 1983.
    D. DeLaurentis and D. Mavris. Uncertainty modeling and management in multidisciplinary analysis and synthesis. AIAA Paper 2000-0422, 2000.
    A.-V. DeMiguel and W. Murray. An analysis of collaborative optimization methods. AIAA Paper 2000-4720, 2000.
    J.E. Dennis and R.B. Schnabel. Numerical Methods for Unconstrained Optimization and Nonlinear Equations. Prentice-Hall, 1983.
    D. Desterac and J. Reneaux. Transport aircraft aerodynamic improvement by numerical optimization. In Proc. 17th ICAS Congress, Stockhol, pages 1427-1438, 1990.
    G.T.S. Done. Past and future progress in fixed and rotary wing aeroelasticity. Aeronautical Journal, 100:269-279, 1996.
    Q. Du, V. Faber, and M. Gunzburger. Centroidal Voronoi tessellations: applications and algorithms. SIAM Review, 41:637-676, 1999.
    Q. Du and M. Gunzburger. Model reduction by proper orthogonal decomposition coupled with centroidal Voronoi tessellation. In Proceedings of the Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, pages FEDS2002-31051. ASME, 2002.
    X. Du and W. Chen. Towards a better understanding of modeling feasibility robustness in engineering design. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, 122:385-394, 2000.
    X. Du and W. Chen. Efficient uncertainty analysis methods for multidisciplinary robust design. AIAA Journal, 40:545-552, 2002.
    D.P. Dupplaw, D. Brunson, A.-J.E. Vine, C.P.P. Please, S.M. Lewis, A.M. Dean, A.J. Keane, and M.J. Tindall. A web-based knowledge elicitation system (gisel) for planning and assessing group screening experiments for product development. ASME Transactions - J. Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 4:218-225, 2004.
    A.R. Dusto. A method for predicting the stability characteristics of an elastic airplane, flexstb theoretical description. NASA CR-114-712, 1974.
    B. Efron. The Jackknife, the Bootstrap, and Other Resampling Plans. CBMS Monograph 38, SIAM, 1981.
    M.A. El-Beltagy. A risk adjusting fusion framework for optimizing models with variable fidelity. AIAA Paper 2004-4577, 2004.
    M.A. El-Beltagy, P.B. Nair, and A.J. Keane. Metamodelling techniques for evolutionary optimization of computationally expensive problems: promises and limitations. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, pages 196-203. Morgan Kaufman, 1999.
    M.S. Eldred, A.A. Giunta, and S.S. Collis. Second-order corrections for surrogate-based optimization with model hierarchies. AIAA Paper 2004-4457, 2004.
    M.S. Eldred, A.A. Giunta, S.F. Wojtkiewicz, and T.G. Trucano. Formulations for surrogateassisted optimization under uncertainty. AIAA Paper 2002-5585, 2002.
    M.S. Eldred, P.B. Lerner, and W.J. Anderson. Higher order eigenpair perturbations. AIAA Journal, 30:1870-1876, 1992.
    M. Emmerich and B. Naujoks. Metamodel-assisted multiobjective optimization and their application in airfoil design. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Adaptive Design and Manufacture, pages 249-260. Springer, 2004.
    B. Epstein, A. Luntz, and A. Nachson. Multigrid Euler solver about aircraft configurations, with cartesian grids and local refinement. AIAA Paper 89-1960, 1989.
    ESDU. Method for the rapid estimation of spanwise loading of wings with camber and twist in subsonic attached flow. Technical Report 83040, ESDU, 1983.
    ESDU. A method for determining the wave drag and its spanwise distribution on a finite wing in transonic flow. Technical Report 87003, ESDU, 1987.
    ESDU. VGK method for two-dimensional aerofoil sections. Technical Report 96028, ESDU, 1996.
    M. Evans and T. Swartz. Methods for approximating integrals in statistics with special emphasis on Bayesian integration problems. Statistical Science, 10:254-272, 1995.
    M. Evans and T. Swartz. Approximating Integrals via Monte Carlo and Deterministic Methods. Oxford University Press, 2000.
    T. Evgeniou, M. Pontil, and T. Poggio. Regularization networks and support vector machines. Advances in Computational Mathematics, 13:1-50, 2000.
    G.M. Fadel, M.F. Riley, and J.F.M. Barthelemy. Two-point exponential approximation method for structural optimization. Structural Optimization, 2:117-124, 1990.
    K.-T. Fang, D.K.J. Lin, P. Winker, and Y. Zhang. Uniform design: theory and application. Technometrics, 42:237-248, 2000.
    C. Farhat, M. Lesoinne, and P. LeTallec. Load and motion transfer algorithms for fluid/structure interaction problems with non-matching discrete interfaces: Momentum and energy conservation, optimal discretization and application to aeroelasticity. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 157:95-114, 1998.
    G.E. Fasshauer. Solving differential equations with radial basis functions: Multilevel methods and smoothing. Advances in Computational Mathematics, 11:139-159, 1999.
    J.H. Ferziger and M. Peric. Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics. Springer-Verlag,
    Berlin, 1996. G.B.R. Fielden and W. Hawthorne. Sir Frank Whittle, O.M., K.B.E. Biogs. Mems. Fell. R. Soc. Lond., 44:433-452, 1988.
    R.A. Fisher. The Design of Experiments. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 1935.
    D.B. Fogel. Applying evolutionary programming to selected travelling salesman problems. Cybernetics and Systems, 24:27-36, 1993.
    D.R. Fokkema, L.G. Sleijpen, and H.A. Van der Vorst. Accelerated inexact Newton schemes for large systems of nonlinear equations. SIAM Journal of Scientific Computing, 19: 657-674, 1998.
    C.M. Fonseca and P.J. Fleming. An overview of evolutionary algorithms in multiobjective optimization. Evolutionary Computing, 3:1-16, 1995.
    S. Forrest, editor. Proc. 5th International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, Urbana Champaign, IL, USA, June 1993, 1993. Morgan Kaufmann.
    A. Forrester. Efficient Global Aerodynamic Optimisation Using Expensive Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations. PhD thesis, University of Southampton, 2004.
    I. Foster and C. Kesselman. The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computer Infrastructure. Morgan Kaufmann, 1999.
    I. Foster, C. Kesselman, J.M. Nick, and S. Tuecke. The physiology of the grid: an open grid services architecture for distributed systems integration. http://www.globus.org/research/papers/ogsa.pdf, 2002.
    I. Foster, C. Kesselman, and S. Tuecke. The anatomy of the grid: Enabling scalable virtual organizations. International Journal of Supercomuter Applications, 15, 2001.
    R.L. Fox and M.P. Kapoor. Rates of change of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. AIAA Journal, 6:2426-2429, 1968.
    R.L. Fox and H. Miura. An approximate analysis technique for design calculations. AIAA Journal, 9:177-179, 1971.
    R. Franke. Scattered data interpolation: tests of some methods. Mathematics of Computation, 98:181-200, 1982.
    R. Franke and G. Neilson. Smooth interpolation of large sets of scattered data. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 15:1691-1704, 1980.
    J.H. Friedman. Greedy function approximation: a gradient boosting machine. Annals of Statistics, 29(5):1189-1232, 2001.
    C.R. Fuller, S.J. Elliott, and P.A. Nelson. Active Control of Vibration. Academic Press, London, 1996.
    S. Gallopoulos, E. Houstis, and J. Rice. Future research directions in problem solving environments for computational science. Technical Report CSD-TR-92-032, 1992.
    J.H. Garcelon, R.T. Haftka, and S.J. Scotti. Approximations in optimization of damage tolerant structures. AIAA Journal, 38:517-524, 2000.
    J.S. Gero, J.L. Sushil, and S. Kundu. Evolutionary learning of novel grammars for design improvement. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, 8:83-94, 1994.
    R. Ghanem and P. Spanos. Stochastic Finite Elements: A Spectral Approach. SpringerVerlag, 1991.
    H. Gibbins and R. Buyya. Gridscape: A tool for the creation of interactive and dynamic grid testbed web portals. In Proc. 5th IWDC International Workshop, pages 131-142, 2003.
    M. Gibbs and D.J.C. MacKay. Efficient implementation of Gaussian processes. Technical report, University of Cambridge, Cavendish Labs, 1997.
    J.P. Giesing and J.-F. Barthelemy. A summary of industry MDO applications and needs. AIAA Paper 98-4737, 1998.
    J.C. Gilbert and J. Nocedal. Global convergence properties of conjugate gradient methods. SIAM Journal on Optimization, 2:21-42, 1992.
    M.B. Giles, M.C. Duta, J.D. M"uller, and N.A. Pierce. Algorithm developments for discrete adjoint methods. AIAA Journal, 41:198-205, 2003.
    M.B. Giles and N.A. Pierce. An introduction to the adjoint approach to design. Flow Turbulence And Combustion, 65:393-415, 2000.
    M.B. Giles and N.A. Pierce. Adjoint error correction for integral outputs in error estimation and adaptive discretization methods in computational fluid dynamics. In T. Barth and H. Deconinck, editors, Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, pages 47-96. Springer-Verlag, 2002.
    P.E. Gill, W. Murray, and M.H. Wright. Practical Optimization. Academic Press, 1981.
    A.A. Giunta. Aircraft Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Using Design of Experiments Theory and Response Surface Modeling Methods. PhD thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1997.
    A.A. Giunta. Sensitivity analysis for coupled aero-structural systems. NASA TM-1999-209367, 2000.
    A.A. Giunta and M.S. Eldred. Implementation of a trust region model management strategy in the DAKOTA optimization toolkit. AIAA Paper 2000-4935, 2000.
    A.A. Giunta, S.F. Wojtkiewicz Jr., and M.S. Eldred. Overview of modern design of experiments methods for computational simulations. AIAA Paper 2003-0649, 2003.
    R.H. Goddard. A method of reaching extreme altitudes. Smithsonian Institution Miscellaneous Collections, 71(2), 1919.
    D.E. Goldberg. Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. AddisonWesley, 1989.
    G.H. Golub and C.F. Van Loan. Matrix Computations. The John Hopkins University Press, 1996.
    S.J. Gould. The Panda's Thumb. Norton and Co., New York, 1980.
    D.J. Graham. The development of cambered airfoil sections having favorable lift characteristics at supercritical mach numbers (8-series). NACA Report 947, 1949.
    W.H. Greene and R.T. Haftka. Computational aspects of sensitivity calculations in transient structural analysis. Computers and Structures, 32:433-443, 1989.
    J.J. Grefenstette, editor. Proc. 1st International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, July 1985, 1985. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    J.J. Grefenstette, editor. Proc. 2nd International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, Cambridge, MA, USA, July 1987, 1987. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    A. Griewank. Mathematical Programming: Recent Developments and Applications, chapter On Automatic Differentiation, pages 83-108. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989.
    A. Griewank. Evaluating Derivatives: Principles and Techniques of Algorithmic Differentiation. Number 19 in Frontiers in Appl. Math. SIAM, Philadelphia, 2000.
    M.J. Grote and T. Huckle. Parallel preconditioning with sparse approximate inverses. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 18:838-853, 1997.
    C.R. Gumbert, G.J.-W. Hou, and P.A. Newman. Reliability assessment of a robust design under uncertainty for a 3-d flexible wing. AIAA Paper 2003-4094, 2003.
    C.R. Gumbert, G.J.-W. Hou, and P.A. Newmann. Simultaneous aerodynamic analysis and design optimization (saado) for 3-d flexible wing. AIAA Paper 2001-1107, 2001a.
    C.R. Gumbert, G.J.-W. Hou, and P.A. Newmann. Simultaneous aerodynamic analysis and design optimization (saado) for 3-d wing. AIAA Paper 2001-2527, 2001b.
    D. Gunter, B. Tierney, K. Jackson, J. Lee, and M. Stoufer. Dynamic monitoring of highperformance distributed applications. In Proc. IEEE HPDC-11, pages 163-170, 2002.
    X. Guo, K. Yamazaki, and G.D. Cheng. A new three-point approximation approach for design optimization problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 50:869-884, 2001.
    W.G. Habashi, J. Dompierre, Y. Bourgault, D. Ait-Ali-Yahia, M.Fortin, and M.-G. Vallet. Anisotropic mesh adaptation: towards user-independent, mesh-independent and solverindependent CFD. part i: general principles. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 32:725-744, 2000.
    A. Habbal, M. Thellner, and J. Petersson. A Nash game approach for multidisciplinary topology design. In Fifth World Congress on Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Venice, 2003.
    R.T. Haftka. Sensitivity calculations for iteratively solved problems. International Journal For Numerical Methods In Engineering, 21:1535-1546, 1985.
    R.T. Haftka. Combining global and local approximations. AIAA Journal, 29:1523-1525, 1991.
    R.T. Haftka and Z. Gurdal. Elements of Structural Optimization. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, third edition, 1992.
    A. Haldar and S. Mahadevan. Reliability Assessment using Stochastic Finite Element Analysis. John Wiley and Sons, 2000.
    M.A. Hale and D.N. Mavris. Enabling advanced design methods in an internet-capable framework. World Aviation Congress and Exposition, San Francisco, CA, October 19-21, SAE/AIAA 199901 -5578, 1999.
    J.M. Hammersley and D.C. Handscomb. Monte Carlo Methods. London: Methuen and Co., 1964.
    M.H. Hansen and B. Yu. Model selection and the principle of minimum description length. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 96:746-774, 2001.
    C.D. Harris. Nasa supercritical airfoils: A matrix of family-related airfoils. Technical report, NASA TP 2969, 1990.
    L. Hascoet, S. Fidanova, and C. Held. Adjoining independent computations. In G. Corliss, C. Faure, A. Griewank, L. Hascoet, and U. Naumann, editors, Automatic Differentiation: From Simulation to Optimization, Computer and Information Science, pages 285-290. Springer, New York, 2001.
    T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, and J. Friedman. The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction. Springer-Verlag, 2001.
    E.B. Haugen. Probabilistic Approaches to Design. John Wiley and Sons, London, 1968.
    A.S. Hedayat, N.J.A. Sloane, and J. Stufken. Orthogonal Arrays: Theory and Applications. Springer, 1999.
    J.C. Helton, J.D. Johnson, and W.L. Oberkampf. An exploration of alternative approaches to the representation of uncertainty in model predictions. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 85:39-71, 2004.
    F.M. Hemez and Y. Ben-Haim. Info-gap robustness for the correlation of tests and simulations of a non-linear transient. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 18:1443-1467, 2004.
    R.M. Hicks and P.A. Henne. Wing design by numerical optimization. Journal of Aircraft, 15:407-412, 1978.
    G.E. Hinton and S.J. Nowlan. How learning can guide evolution. Complex Systems, 1: 495-502, 1987.
    C. Hirsch. Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows. John Wiley, 1988.
    C.M.E. Holden. Visualization Methodologies in Aircraft Design Optimization. PhD thesis, University of Southampton, 2004.
    M.E. Holden. Aeroelastic optimization using the collocation method. PhD thesis, University of Stanford, 1999.
    R. Hooke and T.A. Jeeves. Direct search solution of numerical and statistical problems. Westinghouse Research Labs. Scientific Paper, 1960.
    J.R.M. Hosking, E.P.D. Pednault, and M. Sudan. A statistical perspective on data mining. Future Generation Computing Systems, 13:117-134, 1997.
    P.J. Huber. Robust Statistics. John-Wiley and Sons, 1981.
    T.J.R. Hughes. The Finite Element Method. Prentice-Hall, 1987.
    K.F. Hulme, C.L. Bloebaum, and Y. Nozaki. A performance-based investigation of parallel and serial approaches to multidisciplinary analysis convergence. AIAA Paper AIAA-2000- 4812, 2000.
    M.G. Hutchinson, E.R. Unger, W.H. Mason, and R.T. Haftka. Variable complexity aerodynamic optimization of a high speed civil transport wing. Journal of Aircraft, 31:110-116, 1994.
    L. Huyse. Free-form airfoil shape optimization under uncertainty using maximum expected value and second-order second-moment strategies. NASA/CR-2001-211020, 2001.
    L. Huyse and R.M. Lewis. Aerodynamic shape optimization of two-dimensional airfoils under uncertain conditions. NASA/CR-2001-210648, 2001.
    ICAD. ICAD user guide, http://www.ktiworld.com/our products/icad.shtml. Knowledge Technologies International, 2002.
    IGES. Initial graphics exchange specification (IGES) (fips pub 177-1). National Technical
    Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce and National Computer Graphics Association, http://www.itl.nist.gov/fipspubs/fip177-1.htm,, 1996.
    I.C.F. Ipsen and C.D. Meyer. The idea behind Krylov methods. American Mathematical Monthly, 105:889-899, 1998.
    K. Ito and S.S. Ravindran. A reduced-order method for simulation and control of fluid flows. Journal of Computational Physics, 143:403-425, 1998.
    A.J. Izenman. Recent developments in nonparametric density estimation. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 86:205-224, 1991.
    R.H.F. Jackson and G.P. McCormick. Second order sensitivity analysis in factorable programming. Mathematical Programming, 41:1-28, 1988.
    A. Jameson. Aerodynamic design via control theory. J. Sci. Comp., 3:233-260, 1988.
    A. Jameson. A perspective on computational algorithms for aerodynamic analysis and design. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 37:197-243, 2001a.
    A. Jameson and S. Kim. Reduction of the adjoint gradient formula for aerodynamic shape optimization problems. AIAA Journal, 41:2114-2129, 2003.
    A. Jameson and J. Vassberg. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aerodynamic design: Its current and future impact. AIAA Paper 2001-0538, 2001.
    Y. Jin, M. Olhofer, and B. Sendhoff. A framework for evolutionary optimization with approximate fitness functions. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 6:481-494, 2003.
    T. Joachims. Making large scale support vector machine learning possible. In B. Sch"olkopf, C. Burges, and A. Smola, editors, Advances in Kernel Methods. MIT Press, 1999.
    E.H. Johnson. Adjoint sensitivity analysis in msc/nastran. In MSC 1997 Aerospace Users Conference Proceedings, 1997.
    M. Johnson, L. Moore, and D. Ylvisaker. Minimax and maximin distance designs. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, 26:131-148, 1990.
    D. R. Jones, M. Schonlau, and W.J. Welch. Efficient global optimisation of expensive blackbox functions. Journal of Global Optimisation, 13(4):455-492, 1998.
    G.K. Kanji. 100 Statistical Tests. Sage Publications Ltd., 1999.
    M.K. Karakasis, A. P. Giotis, and K.C. Giannakoglou. Inexact information aided, low-cost, distributed genetic algorithms for aerodynamic shape optimization. International Journal for numerical methods in fluids, 43:1149-1166, 2003.
    M. Karpel, B. Moulin, and M. Idan. Robust aeroservoelastic design with structural variations and modeling uncertainties. Journal of Aircraft, 40:946-954, 2003.
    A.J. Keane. Wing optimization using design of experiment, response surface, and data fusion methods. Journal of Aircraft, 40:741-750, 2003.
    A.J. Keane. Design search and optimisation using radial basis functions with regression capabilities. In I.C. Parmee, editor, Proc. Conf. on Adaptive Computing in Design and Manufacture VI, Bristol, pages 39-49. Springer Verlag, 2004.
    A.J. Keane and A.P. Bright. Passive vibration control via unusual geometries: experiments on model aerospace structures. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 190:713-719, 1996.
    A.J. Keane and N. Petruzzelli. Aircraft wing design using GA-based multi-level strategies. AIAA Paper 2000-4937, 2000.
    A.J. Keane, P. Temarel, X.-J. Wu, and Y. Wu. Hydroelasticity of non-beamlike ships in waves. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, 334:339-355, 1991.
    M. Kennedy and A. O'Hagan. Predicting the output from a complex computer code when fast approximations are available. Biometrika, 87:1-13, 2000.
    J.Y. Kim, N.R. Aluru, and D.A. Tortorelli. Improved multi-level Newton solvers for fully coupled multi-physics problems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 58:563-480, 2003.
    S. Kirkpatrick, C.D. Gelatt Jr., and M.P. Vecchi. Optimization by simulated annealing. Science, 220:671-680, 1983.
    U. Kirsch. Reduced basis approximation of structural displacements for optimal design. AIAA Journal, 29:1751-1758, 1991.
    U. Kirsch. Efficient sensitivity analysis for structural optimization. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 117:143-156, 1994.
    U. Kirsch. Effective move limits for approximate structural optimization. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, 123:210-217, 1997.
    U. Kirsch. A unified reanalysis approach for structural analysis, design, and optimization. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 25:67-85, 2003.
    U. Kirsch and M. Bogomolni. Procedures for approximate eigenproblem reanalysis of structures. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 60:1969-1986, 2004.
    U. Kirsch and S. Liu. Structural reanalysis for general layout modifications. AIAA Journal, 35:382-388, 1997.
    U. Kirsch and P.Y. Papalambros. Structural reanalysis for topological modifications - a unified approach. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 21:333-344, 2001.
    G.H. Klopfer and D. Nixon. Non isentropic potential formulation for transonic flows. AIAA Paper 83-0375, 1983.
    J.D. Knowles and D.W. Corne. The pareto archived evolution strategy: A new baseline algorithm for pareto multiobjective optimization. In Proc. Cong. Evolutionary Computation, CEC'99, IEEE, Piscataway, 1999.
    P.N. Koch, R.-J. Yang, and L. Gu. Design for six sigma through robust optimization. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 26:235-248, 2004.
    J.R. Koehler and A.B. Owen. Computer experiments. In S. Ghosh and C.R. Rao, editors, Handbook of Statistics, pages 261-308. Elsevier, 1996.
    T.G. Kolda, R.M. Lewis, and V. Torczon. Optimization by direct search: New perspectives on some classical and modern methods. SIAM Review, 45:385-482, 2003.
    I. Kroo, S. Altus, R. Braun, P. Gage, and I. Sobieski. Multidisciplinary optimization methods for aircraft preliminary design. AIAA Paper 94-4325-CP, 1994.
    G. Kuruvila, S. Ta'asan, and M. D. Salas. Airfoil design and optimization by the one shot method. AIAA Paper 95-0478, 1995.
    C.L. Ladson and C.W. Brooks Jr. Development of a computer program to obtain ordinates for the naca 6- and 6a-series airfoils. NASA TM X-3069, 1974.
    C.L. Ladson and C.W. Brooks Jr. Development of a computer program to obtain ordinates for naca 4-digit, 4-digit modified, 5-digit, and 16-series airfoils. NASA TM X-3284, 1975.
    J.C. Lagarias, J.A. Reeds, M.H. Wright, and P.E. Wright. Convergence properties of the Nelder-Mead simplex method in low dimensions. SIAM Journal on Optimization, 9:112- 147, 1998.
    R.S. Langley. Unified approach to probabilistic and possibilistic analysis of uncertain systems. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 126:1163-1172, 1999.
    E. Larsson and B. Fornberg. A numerical study of some radial basis function based solution methods for elliptic pdes. Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 2004.
    C.T. Lawrence and A.L. Tits. A computationally efficient feasible sequential quadratic programming algorithm. SIAM Journal on Optimization, 11:1092-1118, 2001.
    A. Le Moigne and N. Qin. Variable-fidelity aerodynamic optimization for turbulent flows using a discrete adjoint formulation. AIAA Journal, 42:1281-1292, 2004.
    S.J. Leary, A. Bhaskar, and A.J. Keane. Screening and approximation methods for efficient structural optimization. AIAA Paper 2002-5540, 2002.
    S.J. Leary, A. Bhaskar, and A.J. Keane. A knowledge-based approach to data fusion in multilevel optimisation. Journal of Global Optimization, 2004a.
    S.J. Leary, A. Bhaskar, and A.J. Keane. Surrogate modeling for optimization adjoint CFD codes. AIAA Journal, 42:631-641, 2004b.
    R.L. Lee and D.L. Loh. Structural optimization of turbine blade firtrees. AIAA Paper 88-2995, 1988.
    P.A. LeGresley and J.J. Alonso. Airfoil design optimization using reduced order models based on proper orthogonal decomposition. AIAA Paper 2000-2545, 2000.
    P.A. LeGresley and J.J. Alonso. Dynamic domain decomposition and error correction for reduced order models. AIAA Paper 2003-0250, 2003.
    J.P. Leiva and B.C. Watson. Automatic generation of basis vectors for shape optimization in the genesis programme. AIAA Paper 1998-4852, 1998.
    J. Lepine, F. Guibault, J.-Y. Trepanier, and F. Pepin. Optimized nonuniform rational bspline geometrical representation for aerodynamic design of wings. AIAA Journal, 39, 2001.
    D. Levin. The approximation power of moving least-squares. Mathematics of Computation, 67:1517-1532, 1998.
    R.M. Lewis. Numerical computation of sensitivities and the adjoint approach. NASA/CR97-206247, 1997.
    S. Li and W.K. Liu. Meshfree and particle methods and their applications. Applied Mechanics Review, 5:1-34, 2002.
    K. H. Liang, X. Yao, and C. Newton. Evolutionary search of approximated n-dimensional landscapes. International Journal of Knowledge-Based Intelligent Engineering Systems, 4:172-183, 2000.
    Y. Liao, S.C. Fang, and H.L. Nuttle. Relaxed conditions for radial basis networks to be universal approximators. Neural Networks, 16:1019-1028, 2003.
    J.L. Lions. Optimal control of systems governed by partial differential equations. (translated by S.K. Mitter) Springer-Verlag, 1971.
    T.J. Liszka, C.A.M. Duarte, and W.W. Tworzydlo. hp-meshless cloud method. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 139:263-288, 1996.
    B. Liu, R.T. Haftka, and M.A. Akg"un. Two-level composite wing structural optimization using response surfaces. Proc. First ASMO UK / ISSMO conf. on Engineering Design Optimization, Ilkley, pages 19-27, 1999.
    R.C. Lock. Prediction of the drag of aerofoils and wings at high subsonic speeds. Aeronautical Journal, June/July, 1986.
    M. Lo`eve. Probability Theory, Fourth Edition. Springer, 1977.
    M.E. Lores, P.R. Smith, and R.A. Large. Numerical optimization - an assessment of its role in transport aircraft aerodynamic design through a case study. In 12th ICAS Congress, Munich, pages 41-42, 1980.
    D.J. Lucia. Reduced order modeling for high speed flows with moving shocks. PhD thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 2001.
    J.N. Lyness and G. Trapp. Numerical differentiation of analytic functions. SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis, 4:202-210, 1967.
    D.J.C. MacKay. Bayesian Methods for Adaptive Models. PhD thesis, California Institute of Technology, 1992.
    D.J.C. MacKay. Information Theory, Inference, and Learning Algorithms. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
    H.O. Madsen, S. Krenk, and N.C. Lind. Methods of Structural Safety. Prentice-Hall, 1986.
    P.G. Maghami, S.M. Joshi, and E.S. Armstrong. An optimisation-based integration controlsstructure design methodology for flexible space structures. NASA-TP-3283, 1993.
    S. Mallat and Z. Zhang. Matching pursuit in a time-frequency dictionary. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 41:3397-3415, 1993.
    B. Malone and M. Papay. ModelCenter rfl; an integration environment for simulation based design. Phoenix Integration, Inc., Blacksburg, VA 24060, 2000.
    J.B. Malone, J.M. Housner, and J.K. Lytle. The design of future airbreathing engine systems within an intelligent synthesis environments. ISABE Paper 99-7173, Proc. 14th Int. Symp. on Air Breathing Engines (XIV ISABE), ed. P.J. Waltrup, Florence, page 87, 1999.
    A. Marshall. The use of multi-stage sampling schemes in Monte Carlo computations. In M. Meyer, editor, Symposium on Monte Carlo Methods, pages 123-140. Wiley, 1956.
    J.G. Marshall and M. Imregun. A review of aeroelasticity methods with emphasis on turbomachinery applications. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 10:237-267, 1996.
    S. Martello and P. Toth. Knapsack Problems: algorithms and computer implentations. Wiley, Chichester, U.K., 1990.
    J.D. Martin and T.W. Simpson. On the use of Kriging models to approximate deterministic computer models. In Proceedings of DETC, DETC2004/DAC-57300, 2004.
    J.R.R.A. Martins. A Coupled-Adjoint Method for High-Fidelity Aero-Structural Optimization. PhD thesis, Stanford University, 2002.
    J.R.R.A. Martins, J.J. Alonso, and J.J. Reuther. High-fidelity aerostructural design optimization of a supersonic business jet. Journal of Aircraft, 41:523-530, 2004.
    J.R.R.A Martins, J.J. Alonso, and J.J. Reuther. A coupled-adjoint sensitivity analysis method for high-fidelity aero-structural design. Optimization and Engineering, 6:33-62, 2005.
    J.R.R.A. Martins, P. Sturdza, and J.J. Alonso. The complex-step derivative approximation. ACM Transactions On Mathematical Software, 29:245-262, 2003.
    B. Maskew. Prediction of subsonic aerodynamic characteristics: A case for low-order panel methods. Journal of Aircraft, 19, 1982.
    B. Maskew. Calculation of flow characteristics for general configurations using panel methods. In Proc. of the Third GAMM-Seminar, Panel Methods in Fluid Mechanics with Emphasis on Aerodynamics. Friedr. Vieweg and Sohn, 1987.
    G. Matheron. Principles of geostatistics. Economic Geology, 58:1246-1266, 1963.
    K. Maute, M. Nikbay, and C. Farhat. Coupled analytical sensitivity analysis and optimization of three-dimensional nonlinear aeroelastic systems. AIAA Journal, 39:2051-2061, 2001.
    L.A. McCullers. Aircraft configuration optimization using optimized flight profiles. In
    J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, editor, Proceedings of the Symposium on Recent Experiences in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, pages 395-412, 1984.
    M.D. McKay, W.J. Conover, and R.J. Beckman. A comparison of three methods for selecting values of input variables in the analysis of output from a computer code. Technometrics, 21:239-245, 1979.
    R. Mead. The design of experiments. Cambridge University Press, 1988.
    M. Meckesheimer, R.R. Barton, T.W. Simpson, F. Limayem, and B. Yannou. Metamodeling of combined discrete/continuous responses. AIAA Journal, 39:1950-1959, 2001.
    M. Meckesheimer, A.J. Booker, R.R. Barton, and T.W. Simpson. Computationally inexpensive metamodel assessment strategies. AIAA Journal, 40:2053-2060, 2002.
    R.E. Melchers. Structural Reliability Analysis and Prediction. John-Wiley and Sons, 1999.
    J.W. Melody and H.C. Briggs. Analysis of structural and optical interactions of the precision optical interferometer. Proc. SPIE, 1947:44-57, 1993.
    J.W. Melody and G.W. Neat. Integrated modeling methodology validation using the microprecision interferometer testbed. 35th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Kobe, 1996.
    A. Messac. Physical programming: Effective optimization for computational design. AIAA Journal, 34:149-158, 1996.
    N. Michelena, H. Park, and P.Y. Papalambros. Convergence properties of analytical target cascading. AIAA Journal, 41:897-905, 2003.
    C.A. Michelli. Interpolation of scattered data: Distance matrices and conditionally positive definite functions. Constructive Approximation, 2:11-22, 1986.
    A.J. Miller. Contribution to the discussion of "regression, prediction and shrinkage" by J. B. Copas. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 45:346-347, 1983.
    W.C. Mills-Curran, R.V. Lust, and L.A. Schmit. Approximation methods for space frame synthesis. AIAA Journal, 21:1571-1580, 1983.
    N. Milton, N. Shadbolt, H. Cottam, and M. Hammersley. Towards a knowledge technology for knowledge management. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 1999.
    G. Mitchell. R.J. Mitchell, World Famous Aircraft Designer - Schooldays to Spitfire. Nelson and Saunders Publishers, 1986.
    T.J. Mitchell and M.D. Morris. Bayesian design and analysis of computer experiments: Two examples. Statistica Sinica, 2:359-379, 1992.
    T.J. Mitchell, M.D. Morris, and D. Ylvisaker. Existence of smoothened stationary processes on an interval. Stochastic Processes and Their Applications, 35:109-119, 1990.
    B. Mohammadi and O. Pironneau. Applied Shape Optimization for Fluids. Oxford University Press, 2001.
    D.C. Montgomery. Design and Analysis of Experiments. John Wiley and Sons, fourth edition, 1997.
    J.J Mor'e and D. Thuente. Line search algorithms with guaranteed sufficient decrease. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 20:286-307, 1994.
    M.D. Morris. Factorial sampling plans for preliminary computational experiments. Technometrics, 33:161-174, 1991.
    M.D. Morris, T.J. Mitchell, and D. Ylvisaker. Bayesian design and analysis of computer experiments: Use of derivatives in surface prediction. Technometrics, 35:243-255, 1993.
    M. Moshrefi-Torbati, A.J. Keane, S.J. Elliott, M.J. Brennan, and E. Rogers. The integration of advanced active and passive structural vibration control. Advances in Vibration Engineering, 2:1-12, 2003.
    R.L. Muhanna and R.L. Mullen. Uncertainty in mechanics problems - interval-based approach. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 127:557-566, 2001.
    D.V. Murthy and R.T. Haftka. Approximations to eigenvalues of modified general matrices. Computers and Structures, 29:903-917, 1988.
    R.H. Myers and D.C. Montgomery. Response Surface Methodology: Process and Product Optimization Using Designed Experiments. John Wiley and Sons, 1995.
    D. Nagy. Modal representation of geometrically nonlinear behavior by the finite element method. Computers and Structures, 10:683, 1979.
    P.B. Nair. On the theoretical foundations of stochastic reduced basis methods. AIAA Paper 2001-1677, 2001.
    P.B. Nair. Equivalence between the combined approximations technique and Krylov subspace methods. AIAA Journal, 40:1021-1023, 2002a.
    P.B. Nair. Physics-based surrogate modeling of parameterized PDEs for optimization and uncertainty analysis. AIAA Paper 2002-1586, 2002b.
    P.B. Nair. Projection schemes in stochastic finite element analysis. In E. Nikolaidis, D.M. Ghiocel, and S. Singhal, editors, CRC Engineering Design Reliability Handbook. CRC Press, 2004.
    P.B. Nair, A. Choudhury, and A.J. Keane. A Bayesian framework for uncertainty analysis using deterministic black-box simulation codes. AIAA Paper 2001-1676, 2001.
    P.B. Nair, A. Choudhury, and A.J. Keane. Some greedy algorithms for sparse regression and classification with Mercer kernels. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3:781-801, 2002.
    P.B. Nair and A.J. Keane. Passive vibration suppression of flexible space structures via optimal geometric redesign. AIAA Journal, 39:1338-1346, 2001.
    P.B. Nair and A.J. Keane. A coevolutionary architecture for distributed optimization of complex coupled systems. AIAA Journal, 40:1434-1443, 2002a.
    P.B. Nair and A.J. Keane. Stochastic reduced basis methods. AIAA Journal, 40:1653-1664, 2002b.
    P.B. Nair, A.J. Keane, and R.S. Langley. Improved first-order approximation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. AIAA Journal, 36:1721-1727, 1998a.
    P.B. Nair, A.J. Keane, and R.P. Shimpi. Combining approximation concepts with genetic algorithm-based structural optimization procedures. AIAA Paper 98-1912, 1998b.
    V.N. Nair. Taguchi's parameter design: a panel discussion. Technometrics, 34:127-161, 1992.
    B.K. Natarajan. Sparse approximate solutions to linear systems. SIAM Journal of Computing, 25:227-234, 1995.
    B.K. Natarajan. On learning functions from noise-free and noisy examples via Occam's razor. SIAM Journal of Computing, 29:712-727, 1999.
    R.M. Neal. Bayesian Learning for Neural Networks. Lecture Notes in Statistics. Springer, 1996.
    R.M. Neal. Regression and classification using Gaussian process priors (with discussion). In J.M. Bernardo, editor, Bayesian Statistics 6, pages 475-501. Oxford University Press, 1998.
    J.A. Nelder and R. Mead. A simplex method for function minimization. Computer Journal, 7:308-313, 1965.
    P.A. Nelson and S.J. Elliott. Active Control of Sound. Academic Press, London, 1992.
    A. Neumaier. Interval Methods for Systems of Equations. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
    H. Niederreiter. Random Number Generation and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods. SIAM, 1992.
    E.J. Nielsen. Aerodynamic Design Sensitivities on an Unstructured Mesh Using the Navier Stokes Equations and a Discrete Adjoint Formulation. PhD thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1998.
    E. Nikolaidis, S. Chen, H. Cudney, R.T. Haftka, and R. Roca. Comparison of probability and possibility for design against catastrophic failure under uncertainty. Journal of Mechanical Design, 126:386-394, 2004a.
    E. Nikolaidis, D.M. Ghiocel, and S. Singhal, editors. Engineering Design Reliability Handbook. CRC Press, 2004b.
    A.K. Noor. Recent advances in reduction methods for nonlinear problems. Computers and Structures, 13:31, 1981.
    J.D. Northall, J.G. Moore, and J. Moore. Three-dimensional viscous flow calculations for loss predictions in turbine blade rows. Conference Paper No. C267, 1987.
    J.K. Northrop. The development of the all-wing aircraft. 35th Wilbur Wright Memorial Lecture, Royal Aeronautical Society, 1947.
    H. Nowacki. Modelling of design decisions for CAD. In G. Goos and J. Hartmanis, editors, Lecture notes in computer science no. 89: CAD modelling, systems engineering, CADsystems, Berlin, 1980. Springer-Verlag.
    S. Obayashi and T. Tsukahara. Comparison of optimization algorithms for aerodynamic shape design. AIAA Journal, 35:1413-1415, 1997.
    S. Obayashi and Y. Yamaguchi. Multiobjective genetic algorithm for mutidisciplinary design of transonic wing planform. Journal of Aircraft, 34:690-692, 1997.
    W.L. Oberkampf, J.C. Helton, C.A. Joslyn, S.F. Wojtkiewicz, and S. Ferson. Challenge problems - uncertainty in system response given uncertain parameters. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 85:11-19, 2004.
    J.T. Oden, I. Babuska, F. Nobile, Y. Feng, and R. Tempone. Theory and methodology for estimation and control of errors due to modeling, approximation, and uncertainty. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 194:195-204, 2005.
    A. O'Hagan. Monte Carlo is fundamentally unsound. The Statistician, 36:247-249, 1987.
    A. O'Hagan, M.C. Kennedy, and J.E. Oakley. Uncertainty analysis and other inference tools for complex computer codes (with discussion). In Bayesian Statistics 6, pages 503-524. Oxford University Press, 1999.
    Y.S. Ong and A.J. Keane. Meta-:amarckian learning in memetic algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 8:99-109, 2004.
    Y.S. Ong, P.B. Nair, and A.J. Keane. Evolutionary optimization of computationally expensive problems via surrogate modeling. AIAA Journal, 40:687-696, 2003.
    Y.S. Ong, P.B. Nair, A.J. Keane, and Z.Z. Zhou. Surrogate-assisted evolutionary optimization frameworks for high-fidelity engineering design problems. In Y. Jin, editor, Knowledge Incorporation in Evolutionary Computation, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Springer Verlag, 2004.
    C.E. Orozco and O.N. Ghattas. A reduced SAND method for optimal design of non-linear structures. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 40:2759-2774, 1997.
    J.M. Ortega and W.C. Rheinboldt. Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. Academic Press, 1970.
    E. Panier and A.L. Tits. On combining feasibility, descent and superlinear convergence in inequality constrained optimization. Mathematical Programming, 59:261-276, 1993.
    M. Papila and R.T. Haftka. Response surface approximations: Noise, error repair, and modeling errors. AIAA Journal, 38:2336-2343, 2000.
    J.M. Parks. On stochastic optimization: Taguchi methods demystified its limitations and fallacy clarified. Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 16:87-101, 2001.
    I.C. Parmee. The maintenance of search diversity for effective design space decomposition using cluster-oriented genetic algorithms (cogas) and multi-agent strategies (gaant). In I.C. Parmee, editor, Adaptive Computing in Engineering Design and Control - '96. University of Plymouth, 1996.
    I.C. Parmee. Improving problem definition through interactive evolutionary computation. J. Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacture, 16(3), 2004.
    S.V. Patankar. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.
    M.J. Patil, D.H. Hodges, and C.E.S. Cesnik. Nonlinear aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft in subsonic flow. Journal of Aircraft, 37:753-760, 2000.
    K. Pepper, P. Waterson, and C. Clegg. The role of human and organisational factors in the implementation of new it systems to support aerospace design. Proc. 13th. Int. Conf. on Engineering Design - ICED 01, 2001.
    J.S. Peterson. The reduced basis method for incompressible viscous calculations. SIAM Journal of Scientific and Statistical Computing, 10:777, 1989.
    N. Petruzzelli and A.J. Keane. Wave drag estimation for use with panel codes. J. of Aircraft, 38:778-782, 2001.
    M.S. Phadke. Quality Engineering Using Robust Design. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 1989.
    Phoenix Integration Inc. Process integration using ModelCenter rfl. Technical White Paper, Phoenix Integration, Inc., Blacksburg, VA 24060, 2000.
    O. Pironneau. On optimum design in fluid mechanics. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 64: 97-110, 1974.
    S. Plimpton, S. Attaway, B. Hendrickson, J. Swegle, C. Vaughan, and D. Gardner. Transient dynamics simulations: Parallel algorithms for contact detection and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Proc. Supercomputing, 1996.
    T. Poggio and F. Girosi. Networks for approximation and learning. Proceedings of the IEEE, 78:1481-1497, 1990.
    T. Poggio, R. Rifkin, S. Mukherjee, and P. Niyogi. General conditions for predictivity in learning theory. Nature, 428:419-422, 2004.
    M.A. Potter. The Design and Analysis of a Computational Model of Cooperative Coevolution. PhD thesis, George Mason University, 1997.
    M.A. Potter and K.A. De Jong. A cooperative coevolutionary approach to function optimization. In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Parallel Problem Solving from nature, pages 249-257. Springer-Verlag, 1994.
    M.J.D. Powell. Radial basis functions for multivariable interpolation: A review. In J.C. Mason and M.G. Cox, editors, Algorithms for Approximation. Oxford University Press, 1987.
    J.W. Pratt, H. Raiffa, and R. Schlaifer. Introduction to Statistical Decision Theory. MIT Press, 1996.
    W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolsky, and W.T. Vetterling. Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing. Cambridge University Press, 1986.
    W.H. Press, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, and B.P. Flannery. Numerical recipes in Fortran: the art of scientific computing. Cambridge University Press, second edition, 1992.
    C. Prud'homme, D.V. Rovas, and K. Veroy. Reliable real-time solution of parametrized partial differential equations: Reduced-basis output bound methods. ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, 124:70-80, 2002.
    P. Pugh. The Magic of a Name: The Rolls-Royce Story, Part Two: The Power Behind the Jets. Icon Books, 2001.
    G.D. Pusch, C. Bischof, and C. Carle. On automatic differentiation of codes with complex arithmetic with respect to real variables. Technical Report Technical Report ANL/MCSTM188, Argonne National Laboratory, 1995.
    T. Pyzdek. The Six Sigma Handbook. McGraw-Hill Trade, 2000.
    R. Rackwitz. Reliability analysis-a review and some perspectives. Structural Safety, 23: 365-395, 2001.
    A. Ralston and P. Rabinowitz. A First Course in Numerical Analysis. Dover Publications, second edition, 2001.
    S.S. Rao. Engineering Optimization: Theory and Practice. John-Wiley and Sons, 1996.
    S.S. Rao and L.T. Cao. Optimum design of mechanical systems involving uncertain parameters. Journal of Mechanical Design, 124:465-472, 2002.
    S.S. Rao and L. Chen. Numerical solution of fuzzy linear equations in engineering analysis. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 43:391-408, 1998.
    C.E. Rasmussen. Evaluation of Gaussian Processes and Other Methods for Nonlinear Regression. PhD thesis, University of Toronto, 1996.
    C.E. Rasmussen and Z. Ghahramani. Bayesian Monte Carlo. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 15, pages 489-496, 2003.
    A. Ratle. Kriging as a surrogate fitness landscape in evolutionary optimization. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design Analysis and Manufacturing, 15:37-49, 2001.
    P. Ravamoorthy and K. Padmavathi. Airfoil design by numerical optimization. Journal of Aircraft, 14:219-221, 1977.
    A.B. Ravi, P.B. Nair, M. Tan, and W.G. Price. Optimal feedforward and feedback control of vortex shedding using trust-region algorithms. AIAA Paper 2002-3076, 2002.
    S.S. Ravindran. Proper orthogonal decomposition in optimal control of fluids. NASA TM1999-209113, 1999.
    M.T. Reagan, H.N. Najm, R.G. Ghanem, and O.M. Knio. Uncertainty quantification in reacting-flow simulations through non-intrusive spectral projection. Combustion and Flame, 132:545-555, 2003.
    J.N. Reddy. An Introduction to the Finite Element Method. McGraw-Hill, New York, second edition, 1993.
    G. Redeker. DLR-F4 wing body combination, a selection of experimental test cases for the validation of CFD codes. Technical Report AR-303, AGARD, 1994.
    L. Reichel and W.B. Gragg. Algorithm 686: Fortran subroutines for updating the QR decomposition. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 16:369-377, 1990.
    J. Renaud and G. Gabriele. Improved coordination in non-hierarchic system optimization. AIAA Journal, 31:2367-2373, 1993.
    J.J. Reuther, A. Jameson, J. Alonso, M.J. Rimlinger, and D. Saunders. Constrained multipoint aerodynamic shape optimization using an adjoint formulation and parallel computers, parts 1 and 2. Journal of Aircraft, 36:51-74, 1999a.
    G.M. Robinson and A.J. Keane. Concise orthogonal representation of supercritical airfoils. Journal of Aircraft, 38:580-583, 2001.
    J.F. Rodriguez, J.E. Renaud, and L.T. Watson. Convergence of trust region augmented Lagrangian methods using variable-fidelity approximation data. Structural Optimization, 15:1-7, 1998.
    J.L. Rogers. Tools and techniques for managing complex design projects. Journal of Aircraft, 36:266-274, 1999.
    D.L. Rondeau, E. Peck, S.M. Tapfield, A.F. Williams, and S.E. Allwright. Generative design and optimisation of the primary structure for a commercial transport wing. AIAA Paper 1996-4135, 1996.
    D.L. Rondeau and K. Soumil. The primary structure of commercial transport aircraft wings: Rapid generation of finite element models using knowledge-based methods. Proc. MSC Aerospace Users' Conf, http://www.mscsoftware.com/support/library/conf/auc99/p02999.pdf, 1999.
    M. Rosenblatt. Remarks on a multivariate transformation. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 23:470-472, 1952.
    H.H. Rosenbrock. An automatic method for finding the greatest or least value of a function. Computer Journal, 3:175-184, 1960.
    T.J. Ross. Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications. John Wiley, second edition, 2004.
    W.B. Rouse. A note on the nature of creativity in engineering: Implications for supporting system design,. Information Processing and Management, 22:279-285, 1986a.
    W.B. Rouse. On the value of information in system design: A framework for understanding and aiding designers. Information Processing & Management, 22:217-228, 1986b.
    G.I.N. Rozvany. Aims, scope, methods, history and unified terminology of computer-aided topology optimization in structural mechanics. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 21:90-108, 2001.
    P. Ruffles. Improving the new product introduction process in manufacturing companies. International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management, 1:1-19, 2000.
    Y. Saad. Iterative Methods for Sparse Linear Systems. PWS, 1996.
    Y. Saad and H.A. Van der Vorst. Iterative solution of linear systems in the 20th century. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 123:1-33, 2000.
    T.L. Saaty. The analytic hierarchy process. Technical report, University of Pittsburgh, 1988.
    J. Sacks, W.J. Welch, T.J. Mitchell, and H.P. Wynn. Design and analysis of computer experiments (with discussion). Statistical Science, 4:409-435, 1989.
    I. Sadrehaghighi, R.E. Smith, and S.N. Tiwari. Grid sensitivity and aerodynamic optimization of generic airfoils. Journal of Aircraft, 32:1234-1239, 1995.
    J.A. Samareh. Status and future of geometry modeling and grid generation for design and optimization. Journal of Aircraft, 36:97-104, 1999.
    J.A. Samareh. Novel multidisciplinary shape parameterization approach. Journal of Aircraft, 38:1015-1024, 2001a.
    J.A. Samareh. Survey of shape parameterization techniques for high-fidelity multidisciplinary shape optimization. AIAA Journal, 39:877-884, 2001b.
    J.A. Samareh and K.G. Bhatia. A unified approach to modelling multidisciplinary interactions. AIAA Paper 2000-4704, 2000.
    S.M. Sanchez. A robust design tutorial. In J. D. Tew, S. Manivannan, D. A. Sadowski, and A. F. Seila, editors, Proceedings of the 1994 Winter Simulation Conference, 1994.
    T.J. Santner, B.J. Williams, and W.I. Notz. The Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments. Springer, 2003.
    M. Sasena, P. Papalambros, and P. Goovaerts. Global optimization of problems with disconnected feasible regions via surrogate modeling. AIAA Paper 2002-25573, 2002.
    J.W. Saywer. Design of the gas turbine. In Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook, volume 1, 1975.
    R. Schaback and H. Wendland. Adaptive greedy techniques for approximate solution of large RBF systems. Numerical Algorithms, 24:239-254, 2000.
    J. David Schaffer, editor. Proc. 3rd International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA, June, 1989. Morgan Kaufmann.
    L.A. Schmit. Structural synthesis. Proc. ASCE Structural Engineering Conference, ED-23, 648, 1960.
    L.A. Schmit and B. Farshi. Some approximation concepts for structural synthesis. AIAA Journal, 12:692-699, 1974.
    L.A. Schmit and H. Miura. Approximation concepts for efficient structural synthesis. NASA CR-2552, 1976.
    L.A. Schmit and R.L. Fox. An integrated approach to structural synthesis and analysis. AIAA Journal, 3:1104-1112, 1965.
    B. Sch"olkopf and A.J. Smola. Learning with Kernels: Support Vector Machines, Regularization, Optimization, and Beyond. MIT Press, 2001.
    M. Schonlau. Computer Experiments and Global Optimization. PhD thesis, University of Waterloo, 1997.
    U. Schramm and W.D. Pilkey. The coupling of geometric description and finite elements using NURBS - a study in shape optimisation. Finite elements in Analysis and Design, 15: 11-34, 1993.
    H.-P. Schwefel. Evolution and Optimum Seeking. John Wiley and Sons,, 1995.
    T.W. Sederberg and S.R. Parry. Free-form deformation of solid geometric models. Computer Graphics, 20:151-160, 1986.
    M. Sefrioui and J. Periaux. Nash genetic algorithms: examples and applications. In Proc. Congress on Evolutionary Computing (CEC00), La Jolla, pages 509-516, 2000.
    P. Sen and J.-B. Yang. Multiple Criteria Decision Support in Engineering Design. SpringerVerlag, 1998.
    S. Shahpar. Three-dimensional design and optimisation of turbomachinery blades using the Navier-Stokes equations. ISABE Paper 2001-1053, Proc. 15th Int. Symp. on Air Breathing Engines (XV ISABE), Bangalore, 2001.
    K. Shankar and A.J. Keane. Energy flow predictions in a structure of rigidly joined beams using receptance theory. Journal of Sound Vibration, 185:867-890, 1995.
    D. Shepard. A two dimensional interpolation function for irregularly spaced data. In Proc. 23rd National Conference, ACM, New York, pages 517-523, 1968.
    J.N. Siddall. Optimal Engineering Design: Principles and Applications. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1982.
    T.W. Simpson, A.J. Booker, D. Ghosh, A.A. Giunta, P.N. Koch, and R.-J. Yang. Approximation methods for multidisciplinary analysis and optimization: a panel discussion. Journal of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 27:302-313, 2004.
    T.W. Simpson, D.K.J. Lin, and W. Chen. Sampling strategies for computer experiments: Design and analysis. International Journal of Reliability and Applications, 2(3):209-240, 2001.
    T.W. Simpson, J.D. Peplinksi, P.N. Koch, and J.K. Allen. On the use of statistics in design and the implications for deterministic computer experiments. In Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, page DETC97/DTM3881, 1997.
    P.M. Sinclair. An exact integral (field panel) method for the calculation of two-dimensional transonic potential flow around complex configurations. Aeronautical J., pages 227-236, 1986.
    S.W. Sirlin and R.A Laskin. Sizing of active piezoelectric struts for vibration suppression on a space-based interferometer. Proc. 1st US/Japan Conference on Adaptive Structures, pages 47-63, 1990.
    L. Sirovich. Turbulence and the dynamics of coherent structures. parts i-iii. Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, XLV(3):561-590, 1987.
    M.J. Smith, D.H. Hodges, and C.E.S. Cesnik. An evaluation of computational algorithms to interface between CFD and CSD methodologies. Technical Report Report WL-TR-96- 3055, Flight Dynamics Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 1995.
    E. Snelson, C.E. Rasmussen, and Z. Ghahramani. Warping Gaussian processes. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 16, 2004.
    A. S'obester. Enhancements to Global Optimisation. PhD thesis, University of Southampton, 2004.
    A. S'obester and A.J. Keane. Empirical comparison of gradient-based methods on an engineinlet shape optimization problem. AIAA Paper 2002-5507, 2002.
    A. S'obester, S.J. Leary, and A.J. Keane. On the design of optimization strategies based on global response surface approximation models. Journal of of Global Optimization, 2005.
    A. S'obester, P.B. Nair, and A.J. Keane. Evolving intervening variables for response surface approximations. AIAA Paper 2004-4379, 2004.
    I.P. Sobieski. Collaborative Optimization Using Response Surface Estimation. PhD thesis, University of Stanford, 1998.
    J. Sobieszczanksi-Sobieski, J.F. Barthelemy, and K. M. Ripley. Sensitivity of optimum solution to problem parameters. AIAA Journal, 20:1291-1299, 1982.
    J. Sobieszczanski and R.T. Haftka. Multidisciplinary aerospace design optimization: survey of recent developments. Structural Optimization, 14:1-23, 1997.
    J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski. Optimization by decomposition: a step from hierarchic to nonhierarchic systems. NASA TM-101494, 1989.
    J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski. Sensitivity analysis and multidisciplinary optimization for aircraft design: Recent advances and results. Journal of Aircraft, 27:993-1001, 1990a.
    J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski. Sensitivity of complex, internally coupled systems. AIAA Journal, 28:153-160, 1990b.
    J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.S. Agte, and R.R. Sandusky. Bi-level integrated system synthesis (bliss). NASA TM-1998-208715, 1998.
    J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, T.D. Altus, and R.R. Sandusky. Bilevel integrated system synthesis for concurrent and distributed processing. AIAA Journal, 41:1996-2003, 2003.
    J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, M.S. Emiley, J.S. Agte, and R.R. Sandusky. Advancement of bi-level integrated system synthesis. AIAA Paper 2000-0421, 2000.
    I.M. Sobol. A Primer for the Monte Carlo Method. CRC Press, 1994.
    W. Song, A.J. Keane, J. Rees, A. Bhaskar, and S. Bagnall. Local shape optimization of turbine disc firtrees using nurbs. AIAA Paper 2002-5486, 2002a.
    W. Song, A.J. Keane, J. Rees, A. Bhaskar, and S. Bagnall. Turbine blade fir-tree root design optimisation using intelligent CAD and finite element analysis. Computers and Structures, 80:1853-1867, 2002b.
    P. Spellucci. domin, a subroutine for BFGS minimization. Technical report, Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany, 1996.
    H.B. Squire and A.D. Young. The calculation of profile drag of aerofoils. Technical Report RM 1838, ARC, 1937.
    W. Squire and G. Trapp. Using complex variables to estimate derivatives of real functions. SIAM Review, 40:110-112, 1998.
    N. Srinivas and K. Deb. Multiobjective optimization using nondominated sorting in genetic algorithms. Evolutionary Computing, 2:221-248, 1995.
    R.B. Statnikov and J.B. Matusov. Multicriteria Optimization and Engineering. Chapman and Hall, 1995.
    STEP. STEP, ISO 10303, industrial automation systems and integration - product data representation and exchange. International Standards Organisation TC 184 / SC4, 1994.
    G.W. Stewart and J. Sun. Matrix Perturbation Theory. Academic Press, 1990.
    D. Stinton. The Design of the Aeroplane. Blackwell Sciences Ltd., 1983.
    G. Stiny. Pictorial and Formal Aspects of Shape and Shape Grammars. Birkhauser Verlag,
    Basel, 1975. O.O. Storaasli and J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski. On the accuracy of the Taylor approximation for structural resizing. AIAA Journal, 12:231-233, 1974.
    N. Sugiura. Further analysis of the data by akaike's information criterion and the finite corrections. Communications in Statistics, A7:13-26, 1978.
    M. Tadjouddine, S.A. Forth, and A.J. Keane. Adjoint differentiation of a structural dynamics solver. In H.M. B"ucker, G. Corliss, P. Hovland, U. Naumann, and B. Norris, editors, Automatic Differentiation: Applications, Theory, and Tools, Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering. Springer, 2005.
    G. Taguchi. System of experimental design. UNIPUB/Kraus Inetrnational Publications, New York, 1987.
    G. Taguchi and Y. Wu. Introduction to off-line quality control. Technical report, Central Japan Quality Control Association, Nagoya, 1980.
    K. Takeda, O.R. Tutty, and A.D. Fitt. A comparison of four viscous models for the discrete vortex method. AIAA Paper 97-1977, 1997.
    L. Tang, R.E. Bartels, P.C. Chen, and D.D. Liu. Numerical investigation of transonic limit cycle oscillations of a two-dimensional supercritical wing. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 17:29-41, 2003.
    B.H. Thacker, D.S. Riha, H.R. Millwater, and M.P. Enbright. Errors and uncertainties in probabilistic engineering analysis. AIAA Paper 2001-1239, 2001.
    C.-A. Thole, S. Mayer, and A. Supalov. Fast solution of msc/nastran sparse matrix problems using a multi-level approach. 1997 Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods, Elect. Trans. Numer. Anal., 1997.
    D.M. Tidd, D.J. Strash, B. Epstein, A. Luntz, A. Nachson, and T. Rubin. Application of an efficient 3-d multigrid Euler method (MGAERO) to complete aircraft configurations. AIAA Paper 91-3236, 1991.
    V. Torczon and M.W. Trosset. Using approximations to accelerate engineering design optimization. AIAA Paper 98-4800, 1998. E.
    Torenbeek. Synthesis of Subsonic Airplane Design. Delft University Press and Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1984.
    E. Torenbeek. Development and application of a comprehensive, design sensitive weight prediction method for wing structures of transport category aircraft. Report LR 693, Delft University, 1992.
    V.V. Toropov and L.F. Alvarez. Development of MARS - multipoint approximation method based on the response surface fitting. AIAA Paper 98-4769, 1998.
    V.V. Toropov, A.A. Filatov, and A.A. Polynkin. Multiparameter structural optimization using FEM and multipoint explicit approximations. Structural Optimization, 6:1517-1532, 1993.
    V.V. Toropov, F. van Keulen, V.L. Markine, and L.F. Alvarez. Multipoint approximations based on response surface fitting: a summary of recent developments. In V. V. Toropov, editor, Proc. of 1st ASMO UK / ISSMO Conf. on Engineering Design Optimization, pages 371-380. MCB University Press, 1999.
    V. Tresp. A Bayesian committee machine. Neural Computation, 12:2719-2741, 2000.
    L. Trocine and L. Malone. Finding important independent variables through screening designs. In Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference, 2000.
    M.W. Trosset. Taguchi and robust optimization. Technical report, Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, 1996.
    M.W. Trosset, N.M. Alexandrov, and L.T. Watson. New methods for robust design using computer simulations. In Proceedings of the Section on Physical and Engineering Sciences. American Statistical Association, 2003.
    S. Tsutsui and A. Ghosh. Genetic algorithms with a robust solution searching scheme. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 1:201-208, 1997.
    S. Tsutsui and A. Ghosh. A comparative study on the effects of adding perturbations to phenotypic parameters in genetic algorithm with a robust solution searching scheme. In Proceedings of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Conference, pages 585-591, 1999.
    C.P. van Dam and K. Nikfetrat. Accurate prediction of drag using Euler methods. Journal of Aircraft, 29, 1992.
    F. Van Keulen, R.T. Haftka, and N.H. Kim. Review of options for structural design sensitivity analysis, part 1: Linear systems. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, in press.
    G. Vanderplaats. Automated optimization techniques for aircraft synthesis. AIAA Paper 76-909, 1976.
    G.N. Vanderplaats. Numerical optimization techniques for engineering design. McGrawHill, 1984.
    G.N. Vanderplaats. Structural design optimisation status and direction. Journal of Aircraft, 36:11-20, 1999.
    E. VanMarcke. Random Fields: Analysis and Synthesis. The MIT Press, 1983.
    V. Vapnik. Statistical Learning Theory. John-Wiley and Sons, 1998.
    V. Vapnik and A. Chervonenkis. On the uniform convergence of relative frequencies of events to their probabilities. Theory of Probability and its Applications, 16:264-280, 1971.
    S. Venkataraman and R.T. Haftka. Structural optimization: What has Moore's law done for us? AIAA Paper 2002-1342, 2002.
    G. Venter. Non-Dimensional Response Surfaces for Structural Optimization with Uncertainty. PhD thesis, University of Florida Gainsville, 1998.
    G. Venter and R.T. Haftka. Response surface approximations in fuzzy set based design optimization. Structural Optimization, 18(4):218-227, 1999.
    G. Venter, R.T. Haftka, and J.H. Starnes. Construction of response surface approximations for design optimization. AIAA Journal, 36:2242-2249, 1998.
    P. Vincent and Y. Bengio. Kernel matching pursuit. Machine Learning, 48:165-187, 2001.
    R. Vitali, R.T. Haftka, and B.V. Sankar. Multifidelity design of stiffened composite panel with a crack. 4th World Congress of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, paper 51-AAM2-1, Buffalo, 1999.
    T. von K'arm'an. Turbulence. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society, 41:1108-1141, 1937.
    T. von K'arm'an. Solved and unsolved problems of high-speed aerodynamics. Conf. High Speed Aerodynamics, Brooklyn, pages 11-39, 1955.
    B.G. Van Bloemen Waanders, M.S. Eldered, A.A. Guinta, G.M. Reese, M.K. Bhardwaj, and C.W. Fulcher. Multilevel parallel optimization using massively parallel structural dynamics. AIAA Paper 2001-1625, 2001.
    G. Wahba. Spline Models for Observational Data. SIAM, 1990.
    W. Waldman, M. Heller, and G.X. Chen. Optimal free-form shapes for shoulder fillets in flat plates under tension and bending. International Journal of Fatigue, 23:509-523, 2001.
    K.M. Wallace, C. Clegg, and A.J. Keane. Visions for engineering design - a multi-disciplinary perspective. Proc. 13th. Int. Conf. on Engineering Design - ICED 01, pages 107-114, 2001.
    J.L. Walsh, J.C. Townsend, A.O. Salas, J.A. Samareh, V. Mukhopadhyay, and J.-F. Barthelemy. Multidisciplinary high-fidelity analysis and optimization of aerospace vehicles, part 1: Formulation. AIAA Paper 2000-0418, 2000.
    B.P. Wang. Parameter optimization in multiquadric response surface approximations. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 26:219-223, 2004.
    L.P. Wang and R.V. Grandhi. Improved two-point function approximation for design optimization. AIAA Journal, 33:1720-1727, 1995.
    A. Watt and M. Watt. Advanced Animation and Rendering Techniques. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., New York, 1992.
    N.P. Weatherill, K. Morgan, and O. Hassan. An Introduction to Mesh Generation. John Wiley and Sons, 2005.
    W.J. Welch, R.J. Buck, J. Sacks, H.P. Wynn, T.J. Mitchell, and M.D. Morris. Screening, predicting and computer experiments. Technometrics, 34:15-25, 1992.
    W.J. Welch and J. Sacks. A system for quality improvement via computer experiments. Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, 20:477-495, 1991.
    W.J. Welch, T.K. Yu, S.M. Kang, and J. Sacks. Computer experiments for quality control by parameter design. Journal of Quality Technology, 22:15-22, 1990.
    H. Wendland. Numerical solution of variational problems by radial basis functions. In C.K. Chui and L.L. Schumaker, editors, Approximation Theory IX, Volume II: Computational Aspects, pages 361-368. Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville, 1999.
    R.E. Wengert. A simple automatic derivative evaluation program. Communications of ACM, 7:463-464, 1964.
    Sir F. Whittle. Gas turbine aero-thermodynamics, with special reference to aircraft propulsion. Pergamon Press, 1981.
    N. Wiener. The homogeneous chaos. American Journal of Mathematics, 60:897-936, 1938.
    S.S. Wiseall and J.C. Kelly. Take-up and adoption of optimisation technology for engineering design. Optimization in Industry, 2002.
    D.H. Wolpert and W.G. Macready. No free lunch theorems for optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 1:67-82, 1997.
    O. Wright and W. Wright. The Wright brothers aeroplane. Century Magazine, 1908.
    W. Wright. Some aeronautical experiments. presented to the Western Society of Engineers September 18, 1901, J. Western Society of Engineers, 1901, reprinted Smithsonian Institution Annual Report, 1901.
    Y.-T. Wu. Computational methods for efficient structural reliability and reliability sensitivity analysis. AIAA Journal, 32:1717-1723, 1994.
    B.A. Wujek, J.E. Renaud, S.M. Batill, and J.B. Brockman. Concurrent subspace optimization using design variable sharing in a distributed computing environment. In Proceedings of the 1995 Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Advances in Design Automation, ASME DE-Vol. 82, pages 181-188, 1995.
    Y.M. Xie and G.P. Steven. Evolutionary Structural Optimisation. Springer, London, 1997.
    D. Xiu and G.E. Karniadakis. The Wiener-Askey polynomial chaos for stochastic differential equations. SIAM Journal of Scientific Computing, 24:619-644, 2002.
    S. Xu and R.V. Grandhi. Effective two-point function approximation for design optimization. AIAA Journal, 36:2269-2275, 1998.
    F. Yates. The design and analysis of factorial experiments. Technical Report 35, Imperial Bureau of Soil Science, Harpenden, England, 1937.
    B.D. Youn and K.K. Choi. Selecting probabilistic approaches for reliability-based design optimization. AIAA Journal, 42:124-131, 2004.
    D. Yuret and M. de la Maza. Dynamic hill climbing: Overcoming the limitations of optimization techniques. In Proc. 2nd Turkish Symposium on AI and ANN, pages 254-260, 1993.
    L.A. Zadeh. Fuzzy sets. Information and Control, 8:338-353, 1965.
    J. Zentner, P.W.G. De Baets, and D.N. Marvis. Formulation of an integrating framework for conceptual object-oriented systems design. SAE Paper 2002-01-2955, 2002.
    G. Zha, M. Smith, K. Schwabacher, A. Rasheed, D. Gelsey, and M. Knight. High performance supersonic missile inlet design using automated optimization. Journal of Aircraft, 34:697, 1997.
    O. Zhang and A. Zerva. Accelerated iterative procedure for calculating eigenvector derivatives. AIAA Journal, 35:340-348, 1997.
    T. Zhang, G.H. Golub, and K.H. Law. Eigenvalue perturbation and generalized Krylov subspace method. Applied Numerical Mathematics, 27(2):185-202, 1998.
    T.A. Zhang, M.J. Hemsch, M.W. Hilburger, S.P. Kenny, J.M. Luckring, P. Maghami, S.L. Padula, and W.J. Stroud. Needs and opportunities for uncertainty-based multidisciplinary design methods for aerospace vehicles. NASA/TM-2002-211462, 2002.
    W. Zhongmin. Hermite-Birkhoff interpolation of scattered data by radial basis functions. Approximation Theory and Applications, 8:1-10, 1992.
    Z.Z. Zhou, Y.S. Ong, and P.B. Nair. Hierarchical surrogate-assisted evolutionary optimization framework. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2004.
    O.C. Zienkiewicz. The Finite Element Method. McGraw-Hill, London, third edition, 1977.
    G. Zoutendijk. Methods of Feasible Directions. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1960.
References suggested by readers
    Gano, S.E., Pérez, V.M., Renaud, J.E., Batill, S.M., Sanders, B., "Multilevel Variable Fidelity Optimization of a Morphing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle", Proceedings of the 45th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics & Materials Conference, AIAA 2004-1763, Palm Springs, California 19 - 22 Apr 2004.
    Gano, S.E., Sanders, B., Renaud, J.E., "Variable Fidelity Optimization Using a Kriging Based Scaling Function", Proceedings of the 10th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, AIAA-2004-4460, Albany New York, Aug 30-Sept 1, 2004.