Seeing that I have solved this problem twice (forgetting the solution after having done it once), I will write down the essential steps.

To be able to use equations in the static Pelican Blog generator, the key is to include a code snippet like

```
<!-- Using MathJax, with the delimiters $ -->
<!-- Conflict with pygments for the .mo and .mi -->
<script type="text/x-mathjax-config">
MathJax.Hub.Config({
"HTML-CSS": {
styles: {
".MathJax .mo, .MathJax .mi": {color: "black ! important"}}
},
tex2jax: {inlineMath: [['$','$'], ['\\\\(','\\\\)']],processEscapes: true}
});
</script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="http://cdn.mathjax.org/mathjax/latest/MathJax.js?config=TeX-AMS_HTML"></script>
</head>
```

in the `template/base.html` theme file (just before the `<body>` section.)

This has been copied from Amic Frouvelle.

Once activated, this source:

.. math:: \alpha = 10^2

renders nicely into

Inline mathematical expressions can be surrounded by `\$` just as in
LaTeX. However, we need to use a double backslash instead of a single
backslash. For example `\$\\alpha = 10^2\$` would be rendered as
$\alpha = 10^2$ in the line.

Update: February 2014. Have now found this pelican plugin.

https://github.com/barrysteyn/pelican_plugin-latex

Testing $\alpha=0.3$ and $10^2$.

This seems easier as it does not require changing the template/base.html file.