West, Ian M. 2014. Geology of the Wessex Coast (including the UNESCO World Heritage Jurassic Coast and the Isle of Wight and part of East Devon) - Home and List of Webpages. Very large geological Internet site: http://www.southampton.ac.uk/~imw/index.htm. Version: 4th July 2014. [Fri-new]
(Listing of 145 geological webpages, as counted by SurfOffline on 20 December 2013, with 6439 primary images, i.e. photographs etc, with about 10,000 primary and secondary, larger images.)

Ian West
Romsey, Hampshire

and:
a Visiting Scientist at:
Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences,
Southampton University,

Website hosted by iSolutions, Website archived at the British Library
Aerial photographs courtesy of The Channel Coastal Observatory .
R.H. Worth Prize award for website by the Geological Society of London (2008)
Photography, copyright and IT agents - Tonya Loades and Joanna Bentley.




. LIST OF 145 GEOLOGICAL WEBPAGES BY IAN WEST

(19 years of webpage-writing from 1995 to 2014, with older pages updated, but almost all in progress and mostly unfinished. With about 10,000 images. This whole site can be downloaded in order to archive for non-commercial, academic use, but is regularly updated in part)

.

Old Harry Rocks, Old Harry and Old Harry's Wife, near Studland, Dorset, 19th August 2009

 Kimmeridge Bay, Dorset, in a southwesterly gale, 24th September 2012

INTRODUCTION AND BRITAIN, GENERAL
Geology of Britain - Introduction with Geological Maps
Geology of Wessex Coast - Introduction with Geol Maps
Geology Wessex Coast - Home and List of Webpages (this)

BARTON AND CHRISTCHURCH BAY, TERTIARY CLIFF EXPOSURES
Barton - and Highcliffe - Barton Clay & Sand (Eocene)
Barton - and Highcliffe - Coast Erosion & Sea Defences
Barton - and Highcliffe - History of Coast Erosion and Sea Defences
Barton - Area - Hordle Cliff - Headon Hill Formation, Solent Group (Eocene)
Barton - Highcliffe, and Hordle Cliff, Bibliography
Barton - Region -Hurst Spit, Barrier Beach, West Solent, Hampshire

BOURNEMOUTH AREA, EAST DORSET, TERTIARY CLIFFS
Bournemouth - Cliffs, Eocene sands, clay and plant beds
Bournemouth - Hengistbury Head - Eocene strata & Mudeford Spit
Bournemouth - Hengistbury Head - Bibliography
Bournemouth - Sandbanks Sand Spit, Geomorphology
Bournemouth - Region - Brownsea Island, in Poole Harbour (copperas etc)

BRIDPORT AREA, LOWER JURASSIC, WEST DORSET
Bridport - Sands, - East Cliff (Lower Jurassic)
Bridport - Area - West Bay, Bridport Harbour and Beach
Bridport - West Bay - West Cliff to Eype Mouth
Bridport - Area - Burton Bradstock, Burton Cliff
Bridport - Area - Golden Cap and Seatown, Jurassic
Bridport - Area - Eype Mouth, Jurassic (in prep)

CHESIL BEACH, DORSET (See also - Portland)
Chesil Beach - General Introduction to Tombolo
Chesil Beach - Hurricanes, Storms and Storm Surges (floods)
Chesil Beach - Pebbles, including rare rock types
Chesil Beach - Magnetite, Lodestone, Pebbles from Shipwreck
Chesil Beach - the Fleet Lagoon (in prep)
Chesil Beach - Geology Bibliography

EAST DEVON, TRIASSIC RED BEDS AND CRETACOUS
Devon - Dawlish Warren Sand Spit, Exe Estuary
Devon - Teignmouth to Dawlish.
Devon - West of Lyme Regis & Axmouth-Lyme Undercliffs
Devon - Beer and Seaton
Devon - Sidmouth and Ladram Bay
Devon - Budleigh Salterton, Exmouth and Littleham Cove
Devon - Dartmoor Granite
Devon - Torquay and Babbacombe

SWANAGE AREA, UPPER JURASSIC AND CRETACEOUS, DORSET
Swanage - Durlston Bay, - Peveril Point, Upper Purbeck
Swanage - Durlston Bay, Middle Purbeck (Berriasian - Cretaceous)
Swanage - Durlston Bay - Lower Purbeck (Jurassic-Cretaceous)
Swanage - Durlston Bay - Central Zigzag Part & Coast Erosion
Swanage - Durlston Head - Lower Purbeck Group and Portland Stone
Swanage - Durlston Bay - Geological Bibliography
Swanworth Quarry, Portland & Purbeck, with Kimmeridge Boreholes

ISLE OF WIGHT, CRETACEOUS AND TERTIARY GEOLOGY
WIGHT - ISLE OF WIGHT GEOLOGY - INTRODUCTION
Wight - Isle of Wight, Whitecliff Bay, Tertiary Section.
Wight - Alum Bay, Tertiary coloured sands, Isle of Wight
Wight - The Needles, Chalk Stacks, Isle of Wight
Wight - Colwell Bay, northwestern Isle of Wight
Wight - Brighstone Bay, Compton Bay, southwest coast of the Isle of Wight
Wight - Isle of Wight Geology - Bibliography

KIMMERIDGE AREA,KIMMERIDGE CLAY AND OIL SHALE, DORSET
KIMMERIDGE - BAY, KIMMERIDGE CLAY - INTRODUCTION
Kimmeridge - East to Hen Cliff, Yellow Ledge & Cuddle
Kimmeridge - East, the Blackstone, OIL SHALE, near Clavell's Hard
Kimmeridge - East, Burning Beach, Burning Cliffs - oil shale fires
Kimmeridge - East, Rope Lake Head to Freshwater Steps, with coccolith bands
Kimmeridge - East, Chapman's Pool, Houns-tout Cliff & Egmont Bight
Kimmeridge - West to Hobarrrow Bay, Brandy Bay and Gad Cliff
Kimmeridge - Fossils, ammonites, ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, etc
Kimmeridge Clay Boreholes at Swanworth Quarry
Kimmeridge - Bibliography - Start - Main Part.
Kimmeridge - Bibliography Continued.
Petroleum Geology of the South Downs and western Weald - including Shale Oil and Gas

LULWORTH COVE AREA, JURASSIC AND CRETACEOUS, DORSET
LULWORTH COVE - GEOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION
Lulworth Cove - Purbeck Group - East Side of Cove
Lulworth Cove - Purbeck Group - West Side of Cove
Lulworth Area - Fossil Forest - Part 1 - the Geology of the Ledge
Lulworth Area - Fossil Forest - Part 2 - the Fossil Trees
Lulworth Area - Stair Hole, Purbeck and Wealden
Lulworth Area - Dungy Head and St. Oswald's Bay
Lulworth Area - St. Oswald's Bay and Dungy Head
Lulworth Area - Durdle Door, natural arch
Lulworth Area - White Nothe to Bats Head (west of Durdle Door)
Lulworth Area - Mupe Bay and Bacon Hole (in Army Range, east of Lulworth Cove)
Lulworth Area - Worbarrow Bay, in the Army Range
Lulworth Area - Geological Bibliography
Lulworth Area - Strata and Fossils (additional notes)

LYME REGIS AND CHARMOUTH - LIAS, JURASSIC, WEST DORSET
LYME REGIS - WEST TO MONMOUTH BEACH, PINHAY BAY & UNDERCLIFFS
Lyme Regis - East to Charmouth (Black Ven)
Lyme Regis - Town and Seafront
Lyme Regis - area - Charmouth, Stonebarrow, St. Gabriel's
Lyme Regis - Liassic Fossils
Lyme Regis - Geological Bibliography
Lyme Regis - Burning Cliffs & the Lyme Volcano
Lyme Regis - Area - Golden Cap and Seatown

NEW FOREST GEOLOGY, HAMPSHIRE AND DORSET
New Forest - Geology Guide
New Forest - Geology - Bibliography
New Forest - Beaulieu River Estuary
New Forest - Lepe Beach and Stone Point
New Forest - area - Solent - Lymington, Keyhaven, West Solent

OSMINGTON, RINGSTEAD AND WHITE NOTHE, CORALLIAN, KIMMERIDGE AND CRETACEOUS.
Osmington Mills - Introduction - Upper Jurassic
Osmington Mills - Osmington Mills to Ringstead
Osmington Mills - Corallian Bencliff Grit and Oil-sand
Osmington Mills - Osmington Oolite Formation, Corallian, Upper Jurassic
Osmington Mills - Black Head Area, Kimmeridge Clay
Osmington Mills - Corallian Fossils
Osmington Mills - Corallian Bibliography
Osmington Mills - Region - Ringstead Bay - White Nothe, Dorset
Osmington Mills - Region - White Nothe to Bats Head (in prep)
Osmington Mills - Region -Bowleaze Cove to Redcliff Point (in prep)
Poxwell Quarry and Poxwell Anticline .

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY - OIL AND GAS, SOUTH OF ENGLAND
Petroleum Geology - South of England
Petroleum Geology of the Western Weald and South Downs (Shale Oil etc.)
Petroleum Geology - South of England - Bibliography
Petroleum Geology - Portland - Isle of Wight Offshore Basin (English Channel Inversion)
Osmington Mills - Corallian Bencliff Grit and Oil-sand
Kimmeridge - the Oil Shale at Clavell's Hard mining area
Kimmeridge - East, Burning Beach, Burning Cliffs - oil shale fires
Kimmeridge Clay Boreholes at Swanworth Quarry
Poxwell Quarry and Poxwell Anticline - Details .

PORTLAND - ISLE OF PORTLAND, PORTLAND STONE, DORSET
Portland - Isle of, Geology - General Introduction
Portland - Portland Bill, Portland Stone, Purbeck, Cryoturbation
Portland - Portland Stone Quarries
Portland - Quarry - Withies Croft, Portland Stone
Portland - The Chesil Beach - Great Shingle Beach
Portland - Dinosaur Footprints in Purbeck Group
Purbeck - Formation - Fossil Forest and Isle of Portland Fossil Trees
Portland - Portland Harbour, Jurassic
Portland - Coast - Mutton Cove to Wallsend, Portland Stone
Portland - Portland Group Fossils
Portland - Isle of - Geological Bibliography

PURBECK GROUP, UPPER JURASSIC - LOWER CRETACEOUS, DORSET (LULWORTH AND DURLSTON FORMATIONS)
Purbeck Group, - Facies (Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous)
Purbeck - Evaporites (late Jurassic)
Purbeck - Durlston Bay, Swanage - Peveril Point, Upper Purbeck
Purbeck - Durlston Bay, Middle Purbeck Group
Purbeck - Durlston Bay - Lower Purbeck Group.
Purbeck - Durlston Bay - Central Zigzag Part and Erosion
Purbeck - Durlston Head - Lower Purbeck & Portland Stone
Purbeck Group - Geological Bibliography - General
Purbeck Group - Geological Bibliography - Topics, Alphabetic.
Purbeck Group - Durdle Door, natural arch
Purbeck - Group - Fossil Forest Exposure, thrombolites, evaporites
Purbeck - Group - Fossil Forest and Isle of Portland Fossil Trees
Purbeck - Ridgway Railway Cutting, Weymouth - Purbeck Group
Purbeck - Portesham Quarry, north of Weymouth.
Purbeck - Poxwell Quarry, east of Weymouth.
Purbeck - Group - Dinosaur Footprints of the Isle of Portland
Purbeck - Group - Bibliography - Vertebrates
Purbeck - Group - Analogues

SOLENT ESTUARINE SYSTEM, AND SOUTHAMPTON REGION
Solent - Estuaries - Geological Introduction
Solent - Beaulieu River Estuary, Geomorphology
Solent - Boreholes with geological data
Solent - Geology Bibliography - General
Solent - Geology Bibliography - Topics, Alphabetically
Solent - Calshot Spit, Stanswood Bay, Tertiary and Pleistocene
Solent - Chilling, Brownwich Cliffs and Hill Head - Pleistocene and Erosion
Solent - Lepe Beach and Stone Point - Geology, Geomorphology
Solent - Lymington, Keyhaven and West Solent - Geology
Solent - Submerged Forest off Hayling Island
Solent - Sarsens and Erratics of the Wessex Coast
Solent - Geology of Fawley Power Station, Tertiary and Pleistocene
Solent - Hurst Spit, Barrier Beach, Geomorphology and Rocks.
Solent - Selsey Bill and Bracklesham Bay, Sussex, Tertiary, Pleistocene.

STUDLAND AND SANDBANKS, DORSET (see also Bournemouth)
Studland - South Haven Peninsula, Geomorphology
Studland - Peninsula - Poole Harbour Side, Tertiary and Pleistocene.
Studland - Tertiary Cliffs and the Agglestone Rock, Geology
Studland - Harry Rocks to Ballard Point, Chalk Cliffs, Stacks
Studland - & Harry Rocks; Geological Bibliography
Studland - Brownsea Island, in Poole Harbour - Tertiary Geology
Studland - Area - Sandbanks - Sand Spit, Geomorphology and Sediments

SWANAGE, DORSET
Swanage - Harry Rocks to Ballard Point - Geology, Chalk Cliffs.
Swanage - Bay and Ballard Cliff - Cretaceous Geology
Swanage - Durlston Bay, Peveril Point, Upper Purbeck Group
Swanage - Durlston Bay, Middle Purbeck Group.
Swanage - Durlston Bay - Lower Purbeck Group.
Swanage - Durlston Bay - Central Zigzag Part, Purbeck Group.
Swanage - Durlston Head - Lower Purbeck Group & Portland Stone.
Swanage - Swanworth Quarry, Worth Matravers, Portland Stone.
Swanage - Durlston Bay - Bibliography

SWANAGE - COAST WEST OF SWANAGE (ISLE OF PURBECK)
Isle of Purbeck - St. Aldhelm's Head, Geology, Portland Stone
Isle of Purbeck - Winspit and Seacombe, - Portland Stone
Isle of Purbeck - Dancing Ledge and Adjacent Coast.
Isle of Purbeck - Anvil Point to Blackers Hole, Portland Stone.
Isle of Purbeck - St. Aldhelm's Hd to Durlston Head - Bibliography
Isle of Purbeck - Swanworth Quarry, Worth Matravers, Portland Stone.

WEYMOUTH, DORSET - INLAND AND ADJACENT
Weymouth Region - Ridgway Railway Cutting and Weymouth Relief Road.
Weymouth Region - Portesham Quarry, Purbeck Group
Weymouth Region - Fleet Lagoon, back of Chesil Beach
Weymouth Region - Portland Harbour, Jurassic exposures

SABKHA AND ARID ENVIRONMENTS
(only in preliminary stage, awaiting expansion)
Sabkhas - and Arid Environments - Introduction
Sabkhas - Qatar - Sabkhas, Salt Lakes and Arid Environments
Sabkhas - Select Bibiography of Sabkhas, Salt Lakes and Evaporites.

MISCELLANEOUS, SUPPLEMENTARY WEBPAGES (incomplete)
Yorkshire - Staithes - Lower Jurassic, Yorkshire Coast
Somerset - Geology of the Mendip Hills, Carboniferous
Ireland - Carboniferous Evaporites of County Leitrim, Ireland
Cyprus - Salt Lake and Coast of the Akrotiri Peninsula, Geology.
Questions and Exercises in Geology
Vertebrate Remains, Eocene, Pyrenees.

Publication List of Ian West.

PAPERS BY IAN WEST
(more will follow)
Evaporites and Associated Sediments of the Basal Purbeck Group of Dorset, by Ian West, 1975 [with some revisions]

Holocene Deposits of Fawley, Hampshire, and the Development of Southampton Water, by F. Hodson and I.M. West, 1972 [with some revisions]

Review of Evaporite Diagenesis in the Purbeck Formation of Southern England. By Ian West, 1979.

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Click on images for large, high resolution versions!
(do not use browser zoom on the low resolution versions)

Ian West at the extensional fault at the eastern end of the Clavell's Hard mining ledge, Kimmeridge, Dorset, 2010

Stair Hole, viewed from the western side, with  Lulworth Cove beyond, West Lulworth, Dorset, Wessex coast

This is the first page of a large set of Geological descriptive pages on the Wessex Coast of southern England, much of it a UNESCO World Heritage Site ("Jurassic Coast"). This is a classic area of East Devon, Dorset, Hampshire, West Sussex and the Isle of Wight. These geological webpages form one of the world's largest geological web sites with more than 100 separate web pages. The first versions were placed online in 1997 and they are improved and enlarged on a daily basis. There are now thousands of full screen, colour photographs of varied geological and geomorphological features and there are also associated geological bibliographies. The text in each webpage has linked references to the appropriate bibliography. The study and descriptions have emphasis on the superb coastal exposures of Dorset, Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Palaeogene strata are well-seen in the cliffs of this beautiful coastline. The various localities, many of them well-known classic sites, are described in terms of stratigraphy, sedimentology, geomorphology, faunal content and coast erosion and progradation, in addition to general background information on the environment. In additional there are some associated webpages on other specific geological topics such as sabkhas and Pyrenean geology. A search entry box will be found below.

This site has very heavy use - more than half a million requests per week, including each photographic image. Thus, it is no longer necessary to keep any records of use, and there is no objective in obtaining additional visitors, although they are, of course, very welcome. The main aim is to improve the quality of the site academically for existing users and to provide an even greater quantity of detailed and reliable geological information.

Some safety guidance and safety warnings are given in specific webpages. These warnings are not comprehensive and may not be sufficient for all types of groups visiting the coast. The objectives of the website relate primarily to field work by geologists, researchers, university students, visiting groups or scientific societies and the safety warnings are intended primarily for these types of visitors. This website is frequently used by schools and such use is welcomed. However, some field localities, cliff sites etc, which are commonly visited by geologists may be unsuitable in terms of safety for school parties or individual children, and the website is not specifically planned as guidance for this type of field use. It is hoped that schools and school parties find it useful, but more stringent safety rules may be needed in the field (the author has experience only of leading university, society and oil company parties). Thus this is primarily a geological website for geologists, but it is intended also to be useful for other purposes, including information for general visitors and school parties. .

The technical level of the website is not at mathematical research level, but only at intermediate geological level, easily readable by anyone with a degree in geology, equivalent amateur experience, or just a geological interest.

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Some Selected Links on Wessex Coast Geology

Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site.
The Dorset and East Devon Coast World Heritage Site is England's first natural World Heritage Site - it is known as The Jurassic Coast. It covers 95 miles of coastline from East Devon to Dorset, with rocks recording 185 million years of the Earth's history.



The Channel Coastal Observatory , Southampton University, Southampton
Large-scale, vertical, aerial photographs of the Wessex Coast are available free for downloading to persons who register with this organisation. In addition there is much more technical information, such as Lidar and Multibeam Bathymetry. This is a highly recommended website. The following notes are from the Channel Coastal Observatory website.
"..The Channel Coastal Observatory is the data management and regional coordination centre for the Southeast Regional Coastal Monitoring Programme. The programme provides a consistent regional approach to coastal process monitoring, providing information for development of strategic shoreline management plans, coastal defence strategies and operational management of coastal protection and flood defence. The programme is managed on behalf of the Coastal Groups of the Southeast of England and is funded by DEFRA, in partnership with local Authorities of the southeast of England and the Environment Agency. The Channel Coastal Observatory is hosted by New Forest District Council, in partnership with the University of Southampton."


Dorset Geologists' Association Group.
This very active, local organisation holds field trips and lectures in Dorset and surrounding areas. These is not necessarily limited to famous locations but also to less well known coastal and inland areas. They are involved in many other activities, such as keeping local records, and these are listed on their website. Their Newsletter, which is online, contains reports on field trips.


Dorset Historic Coastal Photographs.
Exmouth to Milford on Sea 1800-2000 (including the East Devon and Dorset World Heritage Site). by Doreen Smith of the Dorset Group of the Geologists' Association.
These pages grew out of an original project to celebrate 150 years of the Geologists' Association and 200 years of the Geological Society. To this end I began collecting postcards, magic lantern slides, etchings and whatever else I could obtain on the subject of the WHS coastline. [continues]




UK Onshore Geophysical Library .
This is the major source of onshore seismic data for the UK, including that of the Wessex Coast area, suc as Devon, Dorset, Hampshire and the Isle of Wight.
"With over 75,000km of available seismic survey data as acquired by the onshore exploration industry, the Library strives to locate all available data items pertaining to each seismic profile, with the aim of providing a fully reconciled archive of original pre-stack field records de-multiplexed to SEG-Y."
Shown here is a north-south seismic section across the Weymouth Anticline, modified and with some notes added. See the original seismic section by going to the website: UK Onshore Geophysical Library.

Weymouth Relief Road, Dorset



DIGS, 2009. The Purbeck Limestone Group: Virtual geology field trips to Purbeck limestone quarries in south Dorset. CD. For more details see: DIGS in the Purbeck Group Bibliography.


Gesource: geography and environment gateway for UK HE and FE.
GEsource is the geography and environment hub of the Resource Discovery Network (RDN). GEsource provides access to high quality Internet resources for students, researchers and practitioners in geography and the environment through five distinct subject gateways: Environment, General Geography, Human Geography, Physical Geography, and Techniques and Approaches.


Wessex Hang Gliding and Paragliding Club.
"Eye in the Sky" - superb oblique aerial photographs of the Wessex Coast. See Home Page of Wessex Hang Gliding and Paragliding Club.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am very grateful to the many people and organisations who have helped in one way or another to make it possible to run this website. Individual acknowledgements are given in particular webpages on specific places. Southampton University has supported this site over the years. I particularly thank the Head of the School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, the Dean of the Faculty of Natural Science and the Environment, Professor Jonathon Bull, Dr. Ian Croudace and others who have helped keep the website running. I thank Frances Bradbury for regular help over the years. I appreciate the generous cooperation of iSolutions, Southampton University. My wife and family have assisted in many ways and their help is greatfully acknowledged. I very much appreciate the cooperation of the Channel Coastal Observatory in making available excellent aerial photographs of the region of study.

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Dr Ian West, author of these webpages
. Dr. Ian West is a university geologist, long a member of staff of Southampton University, now officially retired, with status of Visiting Scientist, but very busy with geological website work almost every day. He is a carbonate-evaporite sedimentologist and Jurassic enthusiast, who has long studied and researched on the Wessex Coast (and also in North Africa etc). He started by collecting vertebrate fossils from the local strata, in the early 1950s. He is often out on the cliffs of the Wessex Coast studying and photographing for this website. When not doing geology he is involved with family horses in the New Forest, and he is a member of the British Horse Society. This website is run, privately and unfunded, from his study at home in Romsey, Hampshire with the helpful cooperation of the Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences,
, Southampton University, and iSolutions (computer services) Southampton University. These webpages could never have been written without the generous background support and guidance of Ian's wife, Cathy and the daughters, Tonya and Joanna, and this is very much appreciated.

Ian West has been awarded the R.H. Worth Prize for 2008 of the Geological Society of London for the application to amateur geology of the website, the Geology of the Wessex Coast, of which this webpage is the introductory part. Agents and assistants regarding this website are: Tonya West, Bartley, Hampshire, email - tonyawesty@hotmail.co.uk (copyright and photography agent), and Joanna Bentley, Albrighton, West Midlands.

COPYRIGHT REGULATIONS REGARDING THIS WEBPAGE AND THIS WEBSITE.

Copyright © 2014 Ian West, Catherine West, Tonya Loades and Joanna Bentley. All rights reserved. This is a private, academic website intended to be useful for research, reference and educational purposes. Images and text may not be copied for publication or for use on other websites, without permission, or for any commercial activity. A reasonable number of images and some text may be used for non-commercial, non-charged, non-online and non-published academic purposes, including field trip handouts, student projects, dissertations etc, providing the source is acknowledged. All images so used must contain the original caption, including the copyright statement. Some images are not those of the author and the copyright is that of the original photographer and these are not for any use without specific permission from the source photographer. This particularly applies to aerial photographs, but also to some sets of field photographs.

Disclaimer: Geological fieldwork involves some level of risk, which can be reduced by knowledge, experience and appropriate safety precautions. Persons undertaking field work should assess the risk, as far as possible, in accordance with weather, conditions on the day and the type of persons involved. In providing field guides on the Internet no person is advised here to undertake geological field work in any way that might involve them in unreasonable risk from cliffs, ledges, rocks, sea or other causes. Not all places need be visited and the descriptions and photographs here can be used as an alternative to visiting. Individuals and leaders should take appropriate safety precautions, and in bad conditions be prepared to cancell part or all of the field trip if necessary. Permission should be sought for entry into private land and no damage should take place. Attention should be paid to weather warnings, local warnings and danger signs. No liability for death, injury, damage to, or loss of property in connection with a field trip is accepted by providing these websites of geological information. Discussion of geological and geomorphological features, coast erosion, coastal retreat, storm surges etc are given here for academic and educational purposes only. They are not intended for assessment of risk to property or to life. No liability is accepted if this website is used beyond its academic purposes in attempting to determine measures of risk to life or property.