West, Ian M. 2016. Geology of the New Forest, Hampshire, U.K: Bibliography and References. Internet site: www.southampton.ac.uk/~imw/New-Forest-Geology-Bibliography.htm. Version: Revised 26th July 2016.
Geology of the New Forest - Bibliography, supplement to Geology of the Wessex Coast - by Ian West

Ian West,

Romsey, Hampshire
and: Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences,
Southampton University,

Webpage hosted by courtesy of iSolutions , Southampton University

| Home and List of Webpages | Field Guide Maps and Introduction |New Forest Geology Guide. |Fawley Power Station geology |Solent Geology - Introduction |Solent Bibliograpy - undivided list |Solent Bibliograpy - Topics |Beaulieu River Estuary |Calshot Spit and Stanswood Bay |Lepe Beach and Stone Point |Highcliffe, Barton & Hordle Cliff |Hordle Cliff and Milford-on-Sea |Lymington-Keyhaven Coast |Highcliffe, Barton & Hordle - coast erosion |Highcliffe, Barton & Hordle - Bibliography | |Isle of Wight Bibliography |Bournemouth Cliffs

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The New Forest is an important area of heathland and forest near the south coast of central southern England. It was established as the King's hunting forest shortly after the Norman Conquest in 1066. Being an unusually extensive, open, semi-wild area in an agricultural and developed part of the country it is now of very great value for recreation, conservation, wildlife, grazing of ponies and forestry. This bibliography lists publications on the geology of the area with some notes, some extracts and an index. The New Forest is underlain by Eocene sands and clays, often very fossiliferous with sharks' teeth, molluscs and corals, and the strata are occasionally exposed in stream beds or artificial excavations. Ferruginous (chalybeate) springs emerge from oxidising pyritic and glauconitic sediments in places. Subangular flint gravel terraces of Pleistocene age lie above and the tops of these are whitened on the heaths by podsol soil profile. Peat is developed in valleys. The coast to the south provides very good cliff sections through these strata at Barton and Hordle Cliff. Petroleum exploration is active in the region and conficts between exploration and conservation can arise. The papers listed here will give information on these and other topics.

For descriptive information on the geology of the New Forest please go to the separate New Forest Geology Guide , a new webpage which is progressivley being expanded.

With regard to literature, a related bibliography on the Solent Estuarine System is also provided, as part of this set of webpages.

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MAIN REFERENCE LIST - GEOLOGICAL AND GENERAL - UNDIVIDED


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Allen , L.G. and Gibbard, P.L. 1993. Pleistocene evolution of the Solent River of southern England. Quaternary Science Reviews, Elsevier, 12, 503-528. Authors are both from the Subdepartment of Quaternary Research, Botany School, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EA, UK. Abstract: The Solent River no longer exists since most of its course was drowned by eustatic sea level rise during the Flandrian Stage (Holocene). Previously, it flowed eastwards across southeast Dorset and south Hampshire as an extension of the River Frome. As such, it formed the axial major stream of the Hampshire Basin. A sequence of fluvial aggradations, ranging in height from 125 m O.D. to below sea level, provide evidence of the former courses of this substantial river and its tributaries. Detailed study of the deposits, supported by analysis of clast lithological assemblages provide the basis for the recognition of a series of lithostratigraphical units throughout the area. The facies and sedimentary structures indicate that the bulk of the deposits accumulated in a braided river environment under periglacial climates. Late Pleistocene fossiliferous sediments of Ipswichian and Flandrian age provide a biostratigraphical framework.The results demonstrate that the Solent River was a substantial system, comparable in size to the present Thames, and was a tributary ofthe 'Channel River' during periods of low sea level (cold stages). Evolution of the river reflects its response to climatic change, local geological structure and long term tectonic activity. Although datable deposits limit determination of the age of the Solent River sequence, it is undoubtedly of considerable antiquity and potentially extends back to the Early Pleistocene. Discussion of the sequence includes placing the events within their regional context. [End of abstract. - Notes: This is an important paper on the Pleistocene deposits of the southern Hampshire Basin. Many gravel terraces are recognised and named, but are not correlated in detail with the numbered terraces of the British Geological Survey (Southampton and Bournemouth sheets). The paper includes discussion of the following gravel terraces in the Bournemouth-Southampton area from lowest to highest: Pennington Gravel (Pennington near Lymington, and with Ipswichian Interglacial deposits); Lepe Lower Gravel (Lepe Beach, under the Interglacial deposit, pre-Ipswichian); North End Copse / Holdenhurst Gravel; Pennington Gravel / Burton Rough Gravel/ Southbourne Gravel; ; Lepe Upper Gravel (Lepe Beach, Devensian); Milford-on-Sea Gravel / Bransgore Gravel /Knighton Lodge Gravel; Stanswood Bay Gravel / West Southbourne Gravel / Taddiford Farm Gravel / High Cliff Gravel / Ensbury Park Gravel; Tom's Down Gravel (near Fawley); Old Milton Gravel; Mount Pleasant Gravel; Setley Plain Gravel (New Forest); Beaulieu Heath Gravel (New Forest); Tiptoe Gravel; Sway Gravel; Holmsley Ridge Gravel (western New Forest); Whitefield Hill Gravel. The Wareham-Dorchester Pleistocene gravels are also discussed. The paper includes interesting data on gravel composition, mostly flint and chert and including the presence of Portland Rhaxella chert and oolitic chert and Upper Greensand chert.]
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Allison , P. 1980. The New Forest: A Photographic Record of 100 Years of Forest Life. Pioneer Publications Ltd., Beaulieu, 127p. Second Edition (first published 1979).

Anonymous. 1981. Oil hunt will light up the forest. New Forest Commoner's Notebook. Southern Evening Echo, Thursday, March 5, 1981. "In view of the ever-increasing opposition to the drilling for oil in the forest I am surprised that there has been little or no mention of the all night floodlighting of the drilling sites. Oil company representatives have stated that as a matter of security this floodlighting is essential. Furthermore though the company was reluctant to say how many drilling sites might be established, it appears that if the Denny site is successful further drilling will take place and up to half a dozen might be opened. -- What a prospect! Five or six brilliantly lit areas in the very depth of the forest where from time immemorial wild creatures have roamed unmolested, and if, subsequently, donkey engines [nodding donkeys - beam pumps] are installed, these floodlit monstrosities may continue for years. -- Historians of the future will surely record our generation as the one which condoned "The Rape of the New Forest". " [end of section on this topic; article continues on deer poaching]

Anonymous Notes. 1982. North Baddesley Borehole. Hoe No. 1. Hoe Lane. Amoco. (some unpublished records exist).

Anonymous. 1988. BP's Wytch Farm pipelines forging ahead. Pipes and Pipelines International, 33, n 4 Jul-Aug 1988. p 67, 14. (BP has constructed over 150km of pipeline to transport oil from Wytch Farm oilfield to the Fawley refinery and thence across Southampton Water to the Hamble Oil Terminal. The Purbeck pipeline is a result of the large reserves of oil and associated gas in the Wytch Farm area, The paper describes pipeline construction methods, as well directional drilling and water crossings.Pipeline crosses the New Forest.)


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Bale , R.B.A. 1984. Mineralogical and Geochemical studies of Upper Eocene Sediments in the Hampshire Basin of Southern England. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, 483pp plus plates and appendix.By Rafiu Babatunde Adetunji Bale ["Tunde Bale"]. April 1984. [mostly on the Barton Group and Headon Hill Formation of the Barton-on-Sea to Milford-on-Sea coast and the coastal sections of Alum Bay and Whitecliff Bay, Isle of Wight]
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Barber , K. E. 1974. The New Forest. In Champion, S. and ApSimon, A. (eds.) The Prehistoric Society - Southampton Conference Field Guide. Southampton, 28. By Dr. Keith Barber.

Barber, K. E. 1975. Vegetational history of the New Forest: a preliminary note. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 30, 5 - 8.

Barber, K. E. 1981. New Forest bogs - a unique ecological resource. Hampshire and Isle of Wight Naturalists Trust Newsletter, Autumn 1981. 1-2.

Barber, K. E. 1981. Pollen-analytical palaeoecology in Hampshire: problems and potential. In Shennan, S. and Schadla-Hall, T. (eds.) The Archaeology of Hampshire. Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society Monograph Series No.1, Winchester, 91-94.

Barber, K.E. 1987, Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide. Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge. Prepared to accompany the Annual Field Meeting held at Southampton and Cowes, 21-25 April, 1987. 180 pp. paperback. Edited and compiled by Professor Keith Barber, Department of Geography, Southampton University. With 20 contributions mostly relevant to the Solent area, the New Forest and the Isle of Wight.

Barber, K. E. 1987 The context of Quaternary events in Wessex and the Isle of Wight. In Barber, K. E. (ed.) Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide. Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, 1 - 4.

Barber, K. E. and Clarke, M. J. 1987. Cranes Moor, New Forest: palynology and macrofossil stratigraphy. In Barber, K. E. (ed.) Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide, Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, 33-44.

Barber, K. E. 1988. Cranes Moor, New Forest - scientific and educational importance in relation to pine clearance activities. Report to the Forestry Commission, Lyndhurst.


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Barton, C.M., Hopson, P.M., Newell, A.J. and Royse, K.R. 2003. Geology of the Ringwood District. [an Explanation booklet for Geological Map Sheet 314, Ringwood] British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham. Unfortunately, this is not a large BGS Memoir of the Southampton or Bournemouth type, but only brief report of 34 pages.
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Beddington , W.G. and Christy, E.B. 1936 (first ed.), 1966 (fourth edition - used here). It Happened in Hampshire; Doings, Sayings, Interests, past and present. Collected from Villages in Hampshire by Members of the Hampshire Federation of Women's Institutes. Compiled and arranged by Winifred G. Beddington and Elsa B. Christy, illustrations by Betty A. Haggard. Published by the The Hampshire Federation of Women's Institutes, 56 Hyde Abbey Road, Winchester, Hampshire, SO23 7DA. 215pp. plus index. [with a short, elementary, section on the Geology, pp. 98-99 in Chapter 6, Natural History. More useful information in Chapter 4, Industries, Past and Present, p. 71 et seq.. Here there are references to glass sand at Eling near Marchwood, and discussion of old iron works. Septaria, marling of the land etc are other subjects discussed briefly.]
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BERR. (Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, British Government). Undated. Geothermal Energy. pdf file. This outlines the principles of using geothermal energy in the UK. It is relevant to the Marchwood No.1 and the Southampton Geothermal Well.
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Bristow , C.R., Freshney, E.C. and Penn, I.E. 1991. Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheet 329 (England and Wales). British Geological Survey, London, 116p. See also the old memoir - White, H.J.O. 1917. Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Great Britain, 2nd Edition.




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British Geological Survey, BGS (Geological Maps)

Four geological maps, Bournemouth, Ringwood, Southampton and Lymington sheets, cover the New Forest with the junction between them being at Burley. The Southampton and Bournemouth sheets have been remapped recently and show more detail, revised boundaries and have a different terminology and style from the older maps.

Index and history of the British Geological Survey, geological maps of the New Forest, Southampton, and adjacent regions

British Geological Survey Map 315. Southampton Sheet. - British Geological Survey, 1:50,000 Series, England and Wales, Sheet 315, Solid and Drift Geology. Original geological survey on the 1:63,360 scale by H.W. Bristow, published 1856 and 1858. Resurveyed and republished in 1899. Resurveyed on the 1:10,000 scale by Edwards, R.A, Freshney, E.C., Holder, M.T. and Scrivener, R.C. in 1973-80. Published on 1:50,000 scale in 1987. (This map includes the eastern New Forest to northing 230 and the following are within the area: Ashurst, Lyndhurst, Cadnam, Sherfield English, Stoney Cross, Fritham, Netley Marsh, Beaulieu Road Station, Beaulieu Heath, Minstead, Copythorne). Accompanied by explanatory memoir - Edwards, R.A. and Freshney, E.C. 1987. Geology of the Country around Southampton: Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheet 315 (England and Wales). 111 p.; R.A. Edwards and E.C. Freshney; contributors I.F. Smith (and others). Natural Environment Research Council, H.M.S.O. [Covers the northeastern New Forest.]

British Geological Survey, Map 329. 1991. 1:50000 Series, England and Wales Sheet 329, Bournemouth. Solid and Drift Geology. Resurveyed on 1:10,000 scale by C.R. Bristow, E.C. Freshney and B.J. Williams in 1984-86. Resurvey largely funded by the Department of the Environment (D.O.E.). See also Memoir by Bristow, C.R., Freshney, E.C. and Penn, I.E. 1991. Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoir for 1,50,000 geological sheet 329 (England and Wales) B.G.S. London, 116p.( Note division of "Bagshot Sands" into Poole Formation, Branksome Sand Formation and Boscombe Sand Formation.) [This map covers the southwestern New Forest.]

British Geological Survey Map. 1975 (and earlier), 1997. Lymington Sheet 330. Originally at 1 inch to one mile. A "facsimile" reprint at 1:50,000 was published in 1997. [southeastern New Forest]

British Geological Survey Map. 1895. Ringwood Sheet 314. Originally, 1895 and later reprints, at 1 inch to one mile. Reconstituted, without resurvey, in 1976, on the scale of 1:50,000. [northwestern New Forest, including Ringwood, Fordingbridge and part of Burley]


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BGS - Memoirs and Sheet Explanations of the British Geological Survey

Barton, C.M. et al. 2003. Sheet Explanation for Sheet E314, Ringwood, Solid and Drift, 1:50,000 series. ISBN 0852724640. 9 British pounds (in 2010), obtainable from the British Geological Survey, bookshop online.

British Geological Survey. - Bristow, C.R., Freshney, E.C. and Penn, I.E. 1991. Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheet 329 (England and Wales). British Geological Survey, London, 116p. See also the old memoir - White, H.J.O. 1917. Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Great Britain, 2nd Edition.

British Geological Survey - Edwards, R.A. and Freshney, E.C. 1987. Geology of the Country around Southampton . Memoir for 1:50,000 geological map sheet 315 (England and Wales). British Geological Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 111 pp. ISBN 0 11 884396 6. Original Price - £7.50. Contributors: Geophysics - Smith, I.F.; Palaeontology: Boulter, M.C., Clark, R.D., Cooper, J., Harland, R., Hughes, M.J. and King, C.; Petrography - Merriman, R.J. and Morton, A.C.; Stratigraphy: Holder, M.T., King, C. and Scrivener, R.C.; Water Supply - Monkhouse, R.A. [This is the key Geological Survey publication on Southampton and adjacent area, including part of the New Forest. It is an almost A4 size, slim, green, paperback book with BGS - Southampton on the side. It is present in Southampton University, Hartley Library, the National Oceanographic Library, Southampton Oceanography Centre and probably in many university and local public libraries. It is easily obtainable and may still be in print.]

British Geological Survey. - White, H.J.O. 1915. The Geology of the Country near Lymington and Portsmouth. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, pp. v + 78.

British Geological Survey. - White, H.J.O. 1917. Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoirs of the Geological Survey, 2nd Edition. (This is the old Geological Survey Memoir - see also - Bristow, C.R., Freshney, E.C. and Penn, I.E. 1991. Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheet 329 (England and Wales). British Geological Survey, London, 116p. There is also the early edition of 1898 by Reid, C.)
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BGS - Mineral Assessment Reports

British Geological Survey (Institute of Geological Sciences), Mineral Assessment Reports - Clarke, M.R. 1981. The Sand and Gravel Resources of the Country North of Bournemouth, Dorset. Description of part of 1:25:000 sheets SU 00, 10, 20, SZ 09, 19 and 29. Mineral Assessment Report No. 51. [This includes Burley to the NE and Ringwood at the northern margin of the area. The SE direction almost reaches New Milton.] London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 130 pp, with a folded map.
(Includes part of the New Forest around Holmsley and Burley and west to the Avon Valley. Extends at far north as Whitemoor and the edge of Ringwood. Southern limit is near Hinton Admiral and Burton Common. The map includes borehole data and is more detailed than the 1:50,000 geological maps but only in two colours. -- " Block D - There are number of workings in the various terrace deposits in this block, but only one, that at Holmsley Ridge (215010), is currently active (Plate 1). " This is in part of the 9th Pleistocene gravel terrace which have a mean thickness of 4.1m within the general survey area of block D. " Plate 1. Cryoturbated sand and gravel, Holmsley Ridge. the River Terrace Deposits of the 9th terrace are exposed in a pit at Holsmley Ridge (215010). The upper part of the mineral deposits is highly contorted and records the effects of periglacial cryoturbation during Pleistocene times. the lower part of the sand and gravel is relatively undisturbed and retains its original bedding." The photograph is monochrone, three-quarters page and shows the contortions clearly.)

British Geological Survey (Institute of Geological Sciences), Mineral Assessment Report - Kubala, M. 1980. The Sand and Gravel Resources of the Country around Fordingbridge, Hampshire. Sheet SU 11 and parts of SU 00, 01, 20 and 21. Mineral Assessment Report No. 50. British Geological Survey. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 100 pp. with a folded map.

British Geological Survey (Institute of Geological Sciences), Mineral Assessment Report - Mathers, S.J. The Sand and Gravel Resources of the Country around Lymington and Beaulieu, Hampshire. Description of parts of 1:25000 sheets SU 20, 30 and 40, and SZ29, 39 and 49. Mineral Assessment Report No. 122. British Geological Survey. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 62 pp. with folded map.




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Burton , E. St.J. 1933. Faunal horizons of the Barton Beds of Hampshire. Proceedings of the Geologist's Association, 44, 131-167. [By the late Mr StJohn Burton of Barton-on-Sea, fossil collector, palaeontologist and musician. This is the classic paper on the fossils of Barton-on-Sea on the Hampshire near the New Forest with a large and important faunal list. In addition there is some discussion of the Barton Beds in the New Forest. - The western limits of the Barton Beds in the district here dealt with are defined by the eastern flank of the Avon Valley. Upper Eocene Beds have been traced northward from the coast section east of Cliff End near Highcliff, to Bransgore, Crow, and and eastward of Poulner, near Ringwood. ----- North of Poulner, the boudaries turn north-eastward to Highwood, Broomy Plain, Holly Hatch Inclosure, and Fritham Plain. The most northerly extension of the Barton Beds is to Longcross and at Black Bush Plain, near Bramshaw. Thence in a south-easterly direction they run to about half a mile from Brook, where they turn nearly westward nearly to Fritham Lodge and south-eastward again, to within a quarter of a mile from Cadnam. Then past Woodlands, Hounsdown, Marchwood, and skirting Southampton Water, to Hythe, Fawley, Ower and Eaglehurst on the coast. ----- Clement Reid mentions blue sandy and shelly clay (Barton Beds) with Ostrea and fish remains in the stream-bank, half a mile east of the Knight Wood Oak; but on the occasion of a visit to the locality in 1931 the author was unable to trace any fossils: the horizon, however, may be identified as the Chama-Bed (Upper Barton). ---- Knight Bros. Lower Brickyard, Bransgore. - Lower Barton, lignite, pyrite, no fossils. --- Knight Brothers, Higher Brickyard. Half a mile NE of Bransgore at 150 ft OD. - Very fossiliferous section correlating with Middle Barton Beds of the coast. Detailed information provided. --- Ayle's (formerly Seymour's) Brickyard, Poulner, Ringwood. Three quarters of a mile east of Poulner on the Ringwood-Romsey road, and lies above the 200 foot contour. Described in the Ringwood memoir by Clement Reid (1902). Very fossiliferous Barton Clay. Many molluscs, sharks teeth, otoliths. -- Section along the Totton to Fawley railway line - 1924. Sharks' teeth, coral and mollusc fragments. See other papers of Burton, St.J. (1930s) on the Barton coast section. There is some limited reference to Barton strata in the New Forest. Fossiliferous ironstone occurs in the Burley area.]
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Burton , E. St.J. 1933. Faunal horizons of the Barton Beds of Hampshire. Proceedings of the Geologist's Association, 44, 131-167. Classic paper on the fossils of Barton-on-Sea on the Hampshire near the New Forest with a large and important faunal list. In addition there is some discussion of the Barton Beds in the New Forest. - The western limits of the Barton Beds in the district here dealt with are defined by the eastern flank of the Avon Valley. Upper Eocene Beds have been traced northward from the coast section east of Cliff End near Highcliff, to Bransgore, Crow, and and eastward of Poulner, near Ringwood. ----- North of Poulner, the boudaries turn north-eastward to Highwood, Broomy Plain, Holly Hatch Inclosure, and Fritham Plain. The most northerly extension of the Barton Beds is to Longcross and at Black Bush Plain, near Bramshaw. Thence in a south-easterly direction they run to about half a mile from Brook, where they turn nearly westward nearly to Fritham Lodge and south-eastward again, to within a quarter of a mile from Cadnam. Then past Woodlands, Hounsdown, Marchwood, and skirting Southampton Water, to Hythe, Fawley, Ower and Eaglehurst on the coast. ----- Clement Reid mentions blue sandy and shelly clay (Barton Beds) with Ostrea and fish remains in the stream-bank, half a mile east of the Knight Wood Oak; but on the occasion of a visit to the locality in 1931 the author was unable to trace any fossils: the horizon, however, may be identified as the Chama-Bed (Upper Barton). ---- Knight Bros. Lower Brickyard, Bransgore. - Lower Barton, lignite, pyrite, no fossils. --- Knight Brothers, Higher Brickyard. Half a mile NE of Bransgore at 150 ft OD. - Very fossiliferous section correlating with Middle Barton Beds of the coast. Detailed information provided. --- Ayle's (formerly Seymour's) Brickyard, Poulner, Ringwood. Three quarters of a mile east of Poulner on the Ringwood-Romsey road, and lies above the 200 foot contour. Described in the Ringwood memoir by Clement Reid (1902). Very fossiliferous Barton Clay. Many molluscs, sharks teeth, otoliths. -- Section along the Totton to Fawley railway line - 1924. Sharks' teeth, coral and mollusc fragments. See other papers of Burton, St.J. (1930s) on the Barton coast section. There is some limited reference to Barton strata in the New Forest. Fossiliferous ironstone occurs in the Burley area.
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Bury , H. 1933. The Plateau Gravels of the Bournemouth area. Proceedings of the Geologists's Association, 44, 314-335.
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Casey , J., Cohen, E., Copley, G.J., Edlin, H.L., Hook, O., De Bairacli Levy, J., Venning, F.E.W., Widnell, H., Myers, W.R., Pigott, B,. 1966. The New Forest. Revised Edition. J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd., London, 201 pp., original edition - Gallery Press.
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Chatwin , C.P. 1960. British Regional Geology: the Hampshire Basin and Adjoining Areas. 3rd Ed. London, H.M.S.O. See later edition by Melville and Freshney, 1982 - Melville, R.V. and Freshney, E.C. 1982. British Regional Geology: The Hampshire Basin and Adjoining Areas. Fourth Edition, Institute of Geological Sciences,London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 146p.
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Clarke , M. J. 1988. Past and present mire communities of the New Forest and their conservation. PhD thesis, University of Southampton.

Clarke, M.R. 1981. The Sand and Gravel Resources of the Country North of Bournemouth, Dorset. Description of parts of 1:25,000 sheets SU 00, 10, 20, SZ 09, 19 and 29. Mineral Assessment Reports of the Institute of Geological Sciences, No. 51 (now British Geological Survey, ), 128 pp with 1:25,000 map. [Includes part of the New Forest around Holmsley and Burley and west to the Avon Valley. Extends at far north as Whitemoor and the edge of Ringwood. Southern limit is near Hinton Admiral and Burton Common. The map includes borehole data and is more detailed than the 1:50,000 geological maps but only in two colours. See also other reports in this series - Ringwood and Fordingbridge, Lymington and Beaulieu etc.]
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Copley , G.J. 1966. The Background (Chapter 1) in: Casey, J. et al. 1966. The New Forest. J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd., London, Revised Edition. (Names indicating claypits etc - Potersford in Ashurst, Crockhill, Crockford. Claypits at Dibden, Tyler's Copse and Brick Kiln Inclosure.)
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Cordiner , R.J. and Bone, D.A. 1986. Exposures of Barton Beds along the Highland Water in the New Forest, Hants. Tertiary Research, 7 (4), 133-137. Abstract: Exposures of the Barton Beds in the New Forest are poorly known and no faunas have been recorded previously. Descriptions are given of stream sections in Highland Water which have provided details of the stratigraphy and palaeontology of the Barton Beds. Faunal lists are also given. By Roger J. Cordiner and David A. Bone. [Exposures at Warwick Slade, Holmhill Inclosure and Highland Water Inclosure. Shelly faunas and some fish remains have been found from these, particularly in dry weather when the stream water is low.]
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Crane , M.D. and Quayle, J. 1986. Two new hexapod crabs of the genus Goniocypoda Woodward (Crustacea, Decapoda) from the Hampshire Basin. Tertiary Research, 7 (4), 101-105.
Abstract: Two new species of Goniocypoda H. Woodward, 1867, are described from the Bracklesham Beds of Hampshire. The first of these, G. collinsi sp. nov., is known from a single specimen from Brook in the New Forest; the second, G. elmorensis sp. nov., is known from several specimens though to be derived from the Elmore Formation, Huntingbridge Division, Lee-on-the-Solent, Hampshire.
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Curry , D., Adams, C.G., Boulter, M.C., Dilley, F.C., Eames, F.E., Funnell, B.M., Wellis, M.K. 1978. A Correlation of Tertiary Rocks in the British Isles. Geological Society, London, Special Report No. 12, 72pp. [Not specifically on the New Forest, but relevant to Eocene strata under the New Forest.]

Curry, D., Hodson, F. and West, I.M. 1968. The Eocene succession in the Fawley Transmission Tunnel. With an appendix on the clay mineralogy of the strata by R. J. GilkesProceedings of the Geologists' Association, 79, 179-206. Abstract: A tunnel to carry electricity transmission cables beneath Southampton Water from Fawley to Chilling has been excavated in Upper Bracklesham Beds [Bracklesham Group]. The regional dip to the south-west is between 1 degree and 2 degrees. Beneath the tunnel at Chilling on the east bank, and encountered only in borings, are laminated sandy clays [Marsh Farm Formation] probably of Lutetian age. Above these at the eastern end of the tunnel, Auversian Beds [mostly Selsey Sand Formation] were found, including a highly fossiliferous sand with Campanile [large turreted gastropod]. West of this point increasingly higher horizons of these beds followed, including almost all of the know subdivisions of the Auversian... The macrofauna and petrography of the individual beds in the tunnel section have been studied. Three main lithofacies are present. Fauna, sedimentary features and clay mineralogy of the lowest [Marsh Farm Formation] suggests that it is, at least in part, estuarine. The middle facies [Selsey Sand Formation] contains much quartz sand and glauconite with common molluscan and nannoplankton [coccoliths and discoaster] fossils. Here, there is evidence of marine conditions with appreciable current and wave action. The upper facies [previously Huntingbridge Member of the Bracklesham, but now classified as basal Barton Clay in the Southampton Geological Survey Memoir - Edwards and Freshney, 1987] consists predominantly of clays with some phosphatic and pyritised fossils. These strata were probably laid down in deeper and less oxygenated marine waters than those in which the underlying beds were deposited. [Not on the New Forest but on the adjacent area to the southeast.]

Curry, D., King, A.D., King, C. and Stinton, F.C. 1977. The Bracklesham Beds (Eocene) of Bracklesham Bay and Selsey, Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 88, 243-254. [Not on the New Forest but deals with the major reference section for the Bracklesham strata which are present in the New Forest.]

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Daley, B. and Balson, P. 1999. British Tertiary Stratigraphy. Geological Conservation Review, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, Volume 15, 388 pages, hardcover. By Brian Daley (Editor) and P. Balson (Editor).[is this P.S. Balson?] 60 pounds on the Internet, but out of stock.
"This volume provides descriptions and a scientific evaluation and interpretation of those Tertiary Geological Conservation Review sites which have SSSI status on the grounds of their stratigraphical importance and value in palaeoenvironmental, palaeogeographical and palaeoclimatological interpretation. Thirty-four Palaeogene sites are described, ranging in age from late Palaeocene to early Oligocene. Some are the most stratigraphically extensive of Tertiary sites in western Europe and individually provide a record extending over millions of years. By contrast, the smaller sites may represent a unique environmental biota. The twenty-four Neogene sites described are restricted stratigraphically and geographically but together constitute a network providing a key insight into British Neogene environments."


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Davies , A.G. 1952. The Brockenhurst Beds at Victoria Tilery, Brockenhurst, Hampshire. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, vol. 63, 215-219.


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Diedrich, C.G. 2012. Eocene (Lutetian) shark-rich palaeoenvironments of the southern North Sea Basin in Europe: Biodiversity of the Marine Furstenau Formation including ealry white and megatooth sharks. International Journal of Oceanography, vol. 2012, Article ID 565326, 22pp. Available free online. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License. C.D. Diedrich is at PaleoLogic, Nansenstrasse, Halle, Germany. Hindawi Publishing Corporation.
log-in data: http://hindawi.com/journals/ijocean/2012/565326/
Abstract: The Furstenau Formation (Lutetian, Palaeogene, Eocene [broadly equivalent in age to the Bracklesham strata of the New Forest, Bournemouth, Bracklesham Bay and the Southampton Water region]) is based on type type sections near Furstenau in Germany (central Europe) and is built of 22m. thick marine glauconitic and strongly bioturbated sands, clays and a vertebrate-rich conglomerate bed. The conglomerate layer from the early Lutetian transgression reworked Lower Cretaceous, and Paleogene marine sediments. It is dominated by pebbles from the local mountains which must have been transported by an ancient river in a delta fan. Marine reworked Lower Cretaceous and Paleogene pebbles/fossils derived from the underlying deposits of northern Germany ( = southern pre North Sea basin). The benthic macrofauna is cold upwelling influenced and non-tropical and medium diverse. The vertebrate fish fauna is extremely rich in sharks' teeth, with about 5,000 teeth per cubic meter of gravel. The dominant froms are teeth from sand shark ancestors Striatolamia macrota, followed by white shark ancestors Carcharodon auriculatus. Even teeth from the megatooth shark ancestors Striatolamia macrota , followed by white shark ancestors Carcharodon auriculatus. Even teeth from the megatooth shark ancestor Carcharodon sokolovi are present in a moderately diverse and condensed Paleogene fish fauna that also includes rays, chimaeras,and more than 80 different bony fish. Fragmentary turtle remains are present, and a few terrestrial vertebrates and even marine mammals with phocids, sirenians and possibly whales.

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Edlin , H.L. 1951 (reprinted 1957). Forestry Commission Guide: New Forest. London, H.M.S.O. 90 p.
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Edwards, A.M. 1987. The New Forest Companion: A Walker's Guide. 114, Arcady Books Ltd., Ashurst, Southampton. In 1079 William the Conqueror declared the wild country stretching from Southampton Water to the Avon valley and from the Wiltshire Downs to the Solent his own special hunting ground and no one has been able to farm the Forest without the monarch's permission. [general information - not geological]
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British Geological Survey Memoir and Map 315 for the Southampton Area

Edwards , R.A. and Freshney, E.C. 1987. British Geological Survey, Geological Map, Sheet 315 (England and Wales), Southampton, Solid and Drift, 1:50,000 (new edition). Described by the Edwards and Freshney (1987) memoir on the Geology of the Country around Southampton.

Edwards, R.A. and Freshney, E.C. 1987. Geology of the Country around Southampton. Memoir for 1:50,000 geological map sheet 315 (England and Wales). British Geological Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 111pp. ISBN 0 11 884396 6. Original Price - £7.50. Contributors: Geophysics - Smith, I.F.; Palaeontology: Boulter, M.C., Clark, R.D., Cooper, J., Harland, R., Hughes, M.J. and King, C.; Petrography - Merriman, R.J. and Morton, A.C.; Stratigraphy: Holder, M.T., King, C. and Scrivener, R.C.; Water Supply - Monkhouse, R.A. [This is the key Geological Survey publication on Southampton and adjacent area, including part of the New Forest. It is an almost A4 size, slim, green, paperback book with BGS - Southampton on the side. It is present in Southampton University, Hartley Library, the National Oceanographic Library, Southampton Oceanography Centre and probably in many university and local public libraries. It is easily obtainable and may still be in print.] [Regarding the New Forest - Ramnor Inclosure Borehole, 1977, 3114 0475 near Brockenhurst. Headon Formation going down to London Clay 342 m. Bunker's Hill Borehole, 1977, 3038 1498 near Copythorne, Cadnam. Bracklesham Group, Marsh Farm Formation going down to Upper Chalk. 186m. Much other New Forest information.]


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Edwards-Milne and Haime, 1850. British Fossil Corals. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, [see pages 20 and 40].
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Elwes , J.W. 1887. Excavations at Bramshaw, New Forest. Papers and Proceedings of Hampshire Field Club, 1, 17-20. Some notes regarding J.W. Elwes are from the Newsletter of the Geological Curators Group, No. 4, Sept. 1975. Available in full online. [Notes on Elwes's work and collections Elwes's name appears in the membership lists of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society (as published in their Proceedings from the first issue (1887) until 1890. During this period his address is given as Otterbourne, a small village to the south of Winchester. We have been unable to trace any obituary notice in these Proceedings. At Otterbourne Elwes kept "A very complete collection of fossils from the Hampshire Tertiaries." (Dale, 1888). It appears that it was this collection that was acquired by William Reed (1810-1892), described (Anon. 1892) as "A large collection of Eocene fossils in a beautiful state of preservation, in which the several subdivisions of the deposits of that period in England are fully represented." The name Elwes is not, incidentally, mentioned in this account. This collection subsequently passed to the Yorkshire Museum. Reference is also made (Woodward, 1904:286) to a donation of London Clay fossils from Fareham to the British Museum (Natural History) in 1890. This wholesale disposal of collections in 1890 is interesting and may be significant, particularly in view of the fact that we have been unable to find any reference to Elwes after that date. It is apparent from Elwes's published work that he collaborated in the field with many workers.- Consequently we may expect to find material collected by, or with, him in many collections. The 1887 work on Brook Common, Bramshaw, in the New Forest, was carried out in conjunction with T. W. Shore (1840-1905), H. Keeping (1827-1924) and D. Flynn (fl, 1887-1891). Material was "shared by the Hartley [i.e. Southampton University] and Manchester Museums, and certain private collectors." (Elwes, 1887: 19).]


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Everard , C.E. 1954. The Solent River: a geomorphological study. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers,vol. 20, pp. 41-58.

Everard, C.E. 1954. Submerged gravel and peat in Southampton Water. Proceedings of Hampshire Field Club, 18, 263-285.

Everard, C.E. 1957. The streams of the New Forest: a study in drainage evolution. Proceedings of Hampshire Field Club, 19, 240-252.

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Falcon , N.L. and Kent, P.E. 1960. Geological Results of Petroleum Exploration in Britain 1945-1957. Geological Society of London, Memoir No. 2, 56pp + foldout diagrams. By Norman Leslie Falcon, M.A. F.R.S., Chief Geologist, The British Petroleum Company Limited, and Percy Edward Kent, D.Sc., Ph.D., Geological Advisor, BP Exploration (Canada). London, 4th August, 1960.

[Example extract]
2. General Exploration:
(a) Southern England (Table I):
(i) Dorset and the Hampshire Basin:
The extent of oil shows at outcrop in Dorset marginal to the Hampshire basin has continued to attract our interest. The borehole at Poxwell originally proved the complexity of the movements in pre-Albian times (Taitt & Kent 1939), and holes drilled through the Chalk at Chaldon Down, north of Lulworth, passed directly from Albian to Kimmeridge Clay, showing that strong local pre-Albian uplift continued eastwards from outcrop (Arkell 1947B). Telluric surveys carried out over this area showed a number of anomalies but their interpretation was uncertain, and seismic and gravity surveys south of the Tertiary syncline of Wareham failed to give clear-cut results beneath the Chalk blanket.
The next stage, in progress at the time of writing, has included further investigation of outcropping structures in Dorset and seismic work in the less strongly disturbed area north of the Ballard Down fault in Dorset and in the Tertiary basin in Hampshire. The first of the outcropping structures to be drilled was the fold at Chaldon Herring, which had a superficial appearance of simplicity (Arkell 1947B). Four boreholes in a N.-S. line across the culmination proved it to be a structure of Poxwell type, flanked by a fault with a large pre-Albian throw, with the additional complication that the fault plane had been sharply distorted by the final phase of folding. An account by M. R. House is in the press. Further operations on outcropping structures are planned on the Weymouth anticline near Langton Herring (see Postscript Note, p. 49) and also at Broadbench, where an earlier hole found a minor oil show in the Corallian.
Within the Tertiary outcrop two areas have received detailed attention by seismic reflection survey. The first is near Wareham, where gravity and seismic refraction survey had proved an anomaly. The second is the Ringwood gravity high in Hampshire (White 1949), where reflection survey has detailed a sub circular crest maximum in the Jurassic; the shape and size of this structure suggest that it could be an uplift caused by a local intrusion of Triassic salt at depth, analogous to the domal uplift of Compton Valence (Falcon & Kent 1950).
Footnote:
Since this account was prepared, drilling of Fordingbridge No. 1 [in the New Forest] has shown that this structure is pre-Albian, like those of Dorset, for Gault rests directly on Kimmeridge Clay, with elimination of the thick Portland, Purbeck, Wealden and Lower Greensand (see Postscript Note). Also, a test well drilling near Bere Regis, north-west of Wareham, at the time of going to press, located on a seismic reflection high, has proved Oxford Clay immediately below the Gault.

[Additional example extract - Fordingbridge No. 1 Well at Ogdens in the New Forest]
(c) Fordingbridge, Hampshire
Lat. 500 54' 17.7"; long. 010 43' 59.6"; elevation 229 feet O.D.
The section of Fordingbridge No 1, drilled on a gravity and seismic high at Ogdens (Hasley Hill), near Fordingbridge, is still being worked out, but the following brief account may be given.
Drilling began in the Tertiary beds of the Hampshire basin; the Chalk was reached at 678 feet and. the Upper Greensand and Gault penetrated from 1997 to 2251 feet. Beneath the Gault the well passed directly into Kimmeridge Clay, shown by a core 20 feet below the top to be Lower Kimmeridge (with Aulacostephanus, etc.). Only 210 feet of Kimmeridge Clay remained beneath the Gault. The unconformity eliminates the Lower Greensand, Wealden, Purbeck, Portland and Upper Kimmeridge, measuring approximately 4000 feet in eastern Dorset (the nearest outcrops) and some 2700 feet at Portsdown on the other side of the same Tertiary basin. This represents a very considerable pre-Albian uplift.
Beneath the Kimmeridge the boring proved a normal sequence of Corallian (about 170 feet), Oxford Clay (about 430 feet), Cornbrash (35 feet) and Great Oolite Series (404 feet). The last-named was mainly limestone, with only a minor development of argillaceous beds which could be ascribed to the Fuller's Earth, in marked contrast to recent borings nearer the Dorset coast (see the account of the Radipole borings). Below, 118 feet of sandy and ferruginous limestones and ironstones are ascribed to the Inferior Oolite, and beneath this the well proved an Upper Lias development of Bridport Sands type, 250 feet thick. The remainder of the Lias was normal, except that the Middle and Lower subdivisions totalled only about 450 feet and rested upon 60 feet of beds ascribed on fossil evidence to the Rhaetic. The well was completed at 4487 feet, 106 feet into the Keuper [Mercia Mudstone]. [continues with details of Radipole No. 1 borehole, Weymouth]

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Fisher , G.C. 1971. Brickearth, and its influence on the character of the soils in the S.E. New Forest. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 28, 99-109.

Fisher, O. 1862. On the Bracklesham Beds of the Isle of Wight Basin. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, (for 1861), 66-94. By the Rev. Osmond Fisher, M.A., F.G.S. [Discusses New Forest, Eocene, fossil localities on p. 79 et seq., particularly at Hunting Bridge (or Huntingbridge), Shepherd's Gutter, Brook and Canterton. Includes mention of a coral like Paracyathus caryophyllus in the equivalent of the Studley Wood coral bed]


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Flower , N. 1979. Nature Conservancy Council Bibliography Series: No. 3. The New Forest. 34p. ISSN 0143-1722. There is an incomplete list of references to geology.
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Freshney , E.C., Bristow, C.R. and Williams, B.J. 1984. Geology of Sheet SZ 19(Hurn Christchurch); Part of 1:50,000 sheet 329 (Bournemouth). Geological Report for DOE: Land Use Planning. (Exeter: British Geological Survey). Natural Environment Research Council, British Geological Survey.

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Gardner , J.S., Keeping, H. and Monckton, H.W. 1888. The Upper Eocene, comprising the Barton and Upper Bagshot Formations. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 44, 578-635. [Information on the New Forest, particularly 19th Century railway cuttings between Christchurch and Brockenhurst.]

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GECKOELLA ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS. 2010. Geological Survey of Latchmore Brook, Claypits Bottom, (Studley Wood GCR Site), New Forest, Hampshire [Selsey Formation, Bracklesham Group, fossiliferous New Forest stream exposures]. Geckoella Environmental Consultants pvt ltd. (about 50 pages, available online). Commissioned by Forestry Commission, 21st - 23rd June, 2010. Report Date 5th July 2008. Geckoella Environmental Consultants, Suite 323, 7 Bridge Street, Taunton, Somerset, TA1 1TG, UK. email. Geckoella@gmail.com. Website: www. Geckoella.com for Sri Lanka company. Website for UK: http://www.geckoella.co.uk/geology/
[The report is mentioned because the Forestry Commission is considering filling in or altering this rare New Forest, fossiliferous geological exposure, so as to develop a bog. Some dispute is arising because of this matter. Meetings are taking place.]
Extract from "Previous Work - Stratigraphy".
"A useful overview of previous work undertaken at this site, especially regarding its stratigraphy, can be found in Daley and Balson (1999). It has been estimated that a thickness of approximately 10.5 to 11.5 metres of clays, silty and sandy clays and glauconitic muds are present in the Latchmore Brook/ Studley Wood sections (Daley and Balson, 1999). Although the precise stratigraphical assignment of the strata is still not agreed, it is clear that the sediments occupy a position adjacent to the Selsey Sand Formation/ Barton Clay Formation boundary, and provide a fossiliferous sequence across the Lutetian/Bartonian stages of the Eocene. As Todd (1990) mentioned, this site was rather surprisingly unknown to 19th century geologists (such as Keeping and Fisher) who discovered other fossiliferous locations in the New Forest, including Shepherd's Gutter. J. G. Turner discovered fossils at the north-eastern end of the site before 1956, although it was C. King who re-discovered much of the section following his consultation of notes made by Wrigley who recorded fossils in the banks of Latchmore Brook in the 1930s.
The geology and stratigraphy at various locations along Latchmore Brook is illustrated in Figure 4, which is a composite map based on Todd (1990), West (2003) and 2010 survey work. The geological sequence is complicated by a fault striking 230 degrees with a downthrow of 4 metres to the southeast (Todd, 1990). Latchmore Brook exploits this fault line for a short distance close to the northeast inclosure corner of Studley Wood, and immediately downstream this fault causes the Studley Wood Member to outcrop in the west bank of the brook, whilst the opposite east bank exposes the Elsmore Member (Unit 3a).
Apart from Todd's (1990) paper on the site, few detailed stratigraphic descriptions have been published. Brief summaries appear in Curry (1968), Stinton (1970) Kemp et al. (1979), and Edwards and Freshney (1987). Stinton recognised three beds (in ascending order - the Nummulite Bed, the Huntingbridge Bed and the Coral Bed). Todd (1990) recognised six 'units' at the locality: his lowest units (SW1a and SW1b) comprise the Studley Wood Member (equivalent to the Nummulite Bed of Swinton) for which the Studley Wood is the stratotype. Todd's remaining units area are assigned to the Elmore Member, with Units SW2, SW3a and SW3b representing the 'Huntingbridge (Shell) Bed', and his Unit 4 including, at its base, the 'Coral Bed'." [continues]

[Discussion is ongoing now in early 2016 about the Forestry's Commission's proposals to infill, at least to some extent, the stream which provides the exposures. See the following extract:
The Verderers, The National Park and The Forestry Commission obtained extensive funds in 2010 under a 10 year Higher Level Stewardship Scheme which includes "wetland restoration" by infilling ancient streams across the New Forest. An Environmental Impact Assessment has been undertaken over the past 2 years at Latchmore, and this will be published and submitted shortly as part of a Planning Application. Last month the Area Manager of Natural England informed John Shepherd of the proposal to infill the SSSI geological interest feature at Studley Castle as part of the scheme. Ian West is visiting the site with Ailsa Farrand.]

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Gilbert , H.M. and Godwin, G.N. 1891. Bibliotheca Hantoniensis. Ye Olde Boke Shoppe, 26 Above Bar, Southampton.

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Green , J.F.N. 1936. The terraces of southernmost England. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 92, 58-88. [Pleistocene gravels].

Green, J.F.N. 1946. The terraces of Bournemouth, Hants. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, 57, 82-101. [Pleistocene gravels].

Green, J.F.N. 1947. Some gravels and gravel pits in Hampshire and Dorset. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, 58, 128-143.

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Harrison , W.J. 1877. A Sketch of the Geology of Hampshire. Pp. 3-5 . Reprinted from " White's History, Gazetteer and Directory of the County." Sheffield. William White. [Of historic interest only.]
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Hodson , F. and Shelford, P.H. 1964. Geology, In: A Survey of Southampton and its Region. (F.J. Monkhouse, ed.) pp.15-36. British Association for the Advancement of Science, Southampton. [not detailed but probably mentioning some areas within the New Forest]

Hodson, F. and West, I.M. 1972. The Holocene deposits of Fawley, Hampshire and the development of Southampton Water. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 83, 421-444. Abstract: Holocene estuarine deposits up to 21 m. in thickness, which were encountered in boreholes and excavations at Fawley, partly fill the southwestern side of the drowned valley of Southampton Water. Saltmarsh clays with peat lie above and below tidal-flat clays of Atlantic age. The mollusc, foraminifera and ostracod faunas and the coccolith and diatom floras of these Holocene deposits are discusssed. Gravels of Calshot Spit are interbedded with these sediments to a depth which suggests the existence of the spit in Atlantic times or earlier. The spit has deflected the deep channel eastwards and has protected the south-western borders of the estuary from erosion... In the northern part of Southampton Water, late Holocene estuarine beds transgress northward over Holocene freshwater sediments. Much of the thick estuarine sequence at Fawley corresponds in age to a thin freshwater succession in the north. [Adjacent to the southeastern New Forest]
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Hodgson , J.M. and Whitfield, W.A.D. 1990. Applied Soil Mapping in the Southampton Area. Soil Survey and Land Research Centre, Cranfield Institute of Technology, Silsoe, 1990. Department of the Environment, Contract Number PECD 7/1/242. 145pp. plus folded maps.
Location and limits of  the Soil Survey of Hodgson and Whitfield (1990), which includes a northeastern part of the New Forest National Park


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Hughes , P. and Barber, K. 2003. Advertisement on a website. Research studentship in palaeoecology. Palaeoecology of early-Holocene mire development in the New Forest and Dorset. In part of: www.geog.southampton.ac.uk. ["The valley and basin bogs of the New Forest and Dorset provide a valuable and rather rare opportunity to study the past landscapes and bog development of southern Britain. the early-Holocene in particular has received relatively little attention even though well preserved deposits exist at sites such as Cranes Moor and Church Moor in the New Forest and Rimsmoor and Morden Bog in Dorset. ... Cranes Moor preserves unusual Sphagnum - rich deposits from the start of the Holocene. ... Cranes Moor was possibly the only Sphagnum - rich bog in the New Forest but was it capable of recording an early-Holocene palaeoclimatic signal? Church Moor contains a distinctive early-Holocene fire history but the extent to which this record present human disturbance or prevailing palaeoclimatic conditions is unknown." .. continues - occupying about the equivalent of one printed page. This advertisement is probably temporary but the topics could be followed through the work of Professor Keith Barber and colleagues. See for example: Barber, K. E. and Clarke, M. J. 1987. Cranes Moor, New Forest: palynology and macrofossil stratigraphy. In Barber, K. E. (ed.) Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide, Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, 33-44.]
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Institute of Geological Sciences . 1978. I.G.S. Boreholes 1977. Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences, 78/21. [This includes Ramnor Inclosure Borehole in the New Forest near Brockenhurst. Institute of Geological Sciences is now the British Geological Survey.]

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Jones , T.R. 1887. Note on Nummulites elegans Sowerby and other English nummulites. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 43, 132-149. Brief notes on Hunting Bridge, Shephard's Gutter (Bramshaw), Kings Garden Gutter. Hunting Bridge Specimens figured. Bracklesham Group.
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Kellaway , G.A., Redding, J.H., Shephard-Thorn, E.R. and Destombes, J.P. 1975. The Quaternary history of the English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A.279, 189-218. Abstract: Several lines of evidence for former glaciation of the English Channel are considered. These include the following major geomorphical features: (1) extensive areas of flat featureless sea bed bounded by cliffs with residual steep-sided rock masses rising about 60-150 m above them, (2) terrace forms bounded by breaks in slope or low cliffs, (3) palaeovalley systems related to the present land drainage, (4) enclosed deeps (fosses); all except (3) may be attributed to a glacial origin. The distribution of erratics on the Channel floor and in the modern and raised beaches of its coasts are attributed to widespread Saalian glaciation. This glaciation was responsible for the deposition of morainic material at Selsey and the damming-up of glacial Lake Solent. The so-called' 100 foot raised beach' of west Sussex is now re-interpreted as a fluvioglacial deposit laid down at the northern margin of the English Channel ice. It is thought that at the height of the Saalian glaciation mean sea-level fell to between 90 and 180 m below O.D. and that for a time the ice was grounded near the western margin of the continental shelf. Possible reconstructions of the limits and main movements of the Weichselian and Saalian ice sheets covering the British Isles and English Channel are included. [Interesting but controversial theory. Well-referenced and with very useful observations. New Forest - relevance - discussion of New Forest Pleistocene gravels.]
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Keen , D.H. 1980. The environment of deposition of the south Hampshire Plateau Gravels. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 36, 15-24.
"The Plateau Gravels of the New Forest and Bournemouth form a conspicuous feature of the superficial geology of southern England. Considerable discussion has continued about the origin of these gravels since their first comprehensive description in mid-nineteenth century (Codrington, 1870). Three depositional environments have been postulated for the gravels: a fluvial environment (White, 1917); a marine environment (Codrington, 1870; Everard, 1954) and a glacio-fluvial environment (Kellaway, Redding, Shepard-Thorn and Destombes, 1975). Additionally, Palmer and Cooke (1923) and J.F.N. Green (1946) suggested that both fluvial and marine action were responsible for the deposition of the gravels and the cutting of the benches on which they rest." .. [continues]
(Brickearth compositions given, in addition to gravel data. Brickearths considered fluvial. Brickearth at Barton has clay content. Sarsens mapped.)..
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Kemp, D.J., King, A., King C. and Quayle, J. 1979. Stratigraphy and biota of the Elmore Formation (Huntingbridge Division, Bracklesham Group) Lee on the Solent, Hants. Tertiary Research, vol. 3 (4), 171-183, Leiden.
Abstract: The exposures of the Huntingbridge division (Bracklesham Group) on the foreshore at Elmore, Lee-on-the-Solent, (Hants) have been investigated by surface mapping, collection of macrofossils, and investigation of microfossils in samples from three auger boreholes. The sequence comprises 9.05m of sandy clays with thinner beds of silty sand and silty clays, overlain by Pleistocene and Recent deposits. Fossil horizons recognised include the 'Coral bed', and a representative of the 'Rimela canalis bed', here recorded for the first time in mainland Hampshire. An extensive fauna of vertebrate and crustacean remains is listed. A correlation with other localities is established, and the term "Elmore Formation" is proposed for the fine-grained facies of the Huntingbridge division.
This particular paper is not specifically on the New Forest. However it is very relevant to present and former exposures of the Bracklesham Group - Barton Clay Formation junction, which is exposed in the New Forest. It refers, in particular, to the equivalent of the Coral Bed of Studley Wood. It should be read in conjunction with papers on the Huntingbridge or Hunting Bridge stata.

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King , A.D. and King, C. 1977. The stratigraphy of the Earnley "division" (Bracklesham Group) at Copythorne, Hampshire. Tertiary Research, 1, 115-118.

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Kubala , M. 1980. The Sand and Gravel Resources of the Country around Fordingbridge, Hampshire. Sheet SU 11 and parts of SU 00, 01, 20 and 21. Mineral Assessment Reports. British Geological Survey.

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Lewin , J.A. 1966. Fossil ice wedges in Hampshire. Nature, London, 211, 728.

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Linaker , E.E. 1981. Reclaiming Christchurch Bay: an exciting pipe dream lives again. Hampshire County Magazine, Vol. 21, No. 10, pp. 61-62. (In 1966 John Arlott wrote in the same magazine asking for writers on marinas to put forward a project for Christchurch Bay. Linaker responded, writing under the name "The Ocean Tramp", and suggested a mound breakwater from Hengistbury on Christchurch Ledge to Hurst Castle. It was to include marinas, fishing boat harbours, fish farming lagoons and a fresh water reservoir fed by rivers from Christchurch harbour. A new town was also suggested and the idea was badly received. This paper includes a modified version without the town. An idea of a major airport is mentioned. Such a scheme would prevent coast erosion at Barton and Highcliffe etc. [Not strictly on New Forest but is mentioned here because of its possible impact on the area, had the plan ever been activated].

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Martini , E. 1970. The Upper Eocene Brockenhurst Bed. Geological Magazine, 107, 225-228. Abstract: Calcareous nannoplankton from the Brockenhurst Bed of Whitecliff Bay, Isle of Wight, belongs to zone NP 20 of the standard Palaeogene calcareous nannoplankton zonation, indicating that the stratigraphic position of the Brockenhurst bed is in the uppermost Eocene, and not equivalent to the type Lattorfian (Lower Oligocene).

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Mathers , S.J. 1982. The Sand and Gravel Resources of the Country Around Lymington and Beaulieu, Hampshire: description of parts of 1:25,000 sheet SU 20,30 and 40 and SZ 29, 39 and 49. 58 pages, diagrams, tables etc. 0 11 887417 9. Mineral Assessment Reports No 122. British Geological Survey.

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Melville , R.V. and Freshney, E.C. 1982. British Regional Geology: The Hampshire Basin and Adjoining Areas. Fourth Edition, Institute of Geological Sciences,London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 146p.

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Morton, A. 2016. A Collection of Eocene and Oligocene Fossils; compiled by Alan Morton. Go to:
A Collection of Eocene and Oligocene Fossils, compiled by Alan Morton.
This Eocene and Oligocene Web Site of Alan Morton displays more than 2,000 of the characteristic fossils of the Eocene and Oligocene deposits of England. The photographs are of very high quality and very impressive. The main subsections, which can clicked on to enter, are: London Clay, Bracklesham Beds, Barton Beds, Headon Beds, and Hamstead, Osborne and Bembridge Beds. The particular collection that is the source of the specimen or specimens is cited. The author of the species is given, and with the date. The size is given in millimetres. Varieties are specified, with the name of the author. The CONTENTS list includes: THE COLLECTION; Instructions; What's New; Stratigraphy; References; Links; Acknowledgements; Contact Alan Morton. This website has been given the "Golden Trilobite Award" of the Palaeontological Association. It is an extremely useful and quite remarkable website.

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Newbould , P.J. 1960. The ecology of Cranesmoor, a New Forest valley bog. 1. The present vegetation. Journal of Ecology, 48 361-383. [This is not a geological paper but is included out of interest. Cranesmoor or Cranes Moor is a National Nature Reserve to the west of Burley. It is a poorly-drained stream valley shown on the Bournemouth Sheet Geological Survey map as containing "head", which is probably sandy hillwash in this case. The "head" overlies Barton Clay and the Chama Sand, notorious for springs and seepages. Becton Sand is on higher ground of Burley to the east. The western continuation is Bagnum Bog. See also Hughes and Barber.]

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New Forest District Council . 1987. Coastal Defences and the New Forest District Council. A4 Report, September, 1987.

New Forest District Council. Undated. Naish Beach, Barton-on-Sea Coast Protection Scheme. Project No. 02117. New Forest District Council, Technical Services, Town Hall, Avenue Road, Lymington, Hampshire, SO41 9ZG. Ian B. Mackintosh, Director of Technical Services, John Rainbow, Assistant Director of Technical Services.

New Forest District Council. 1997. Coastal Management Plan, 1997. Produced by the New Forest District Council. Graphics by Deborah Tee.

New Forest District Council. 2000. Hurst Spit: a long term stabilisation strategy. A Newspaper of the New Forest District Council. 11 large pages with some colour. "The long term stabilisation of Hurst Spit is an important part of the New Forest District Council's strategy. It is a major step in the development of the New Forest Coastal Management Plan and is the culmination of an extensive programme of research and monitoring. The strategy has been designed to provide an effective form of coast protection to the low lying land adjoining the Western Solent, whilst maintaining the sensitive environmental balance of the area. This newspaper describes the background of the project, the construction of the engineering works and the future management strategy for Hurst Spit.


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New Forest Erosion Survey. 2012. Vol. 1. pdf document. A comparitive photographic survey with text. It shows erosion at various sites in the New Forest at different years. Erosion is related to horse riding, cycling and walking.
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Ordnance Survey. New Forest; Southampton, Ringwood, Lymington, Christchurch and part of Bournemouth. 1:25000 Outdoor Leisure Map. This is the standard large scale Ordnance Survey map of the New Forest for walking, geology, horse-riding etc. It is easily obtainable in local shops and probably can be ordered online. It is essential for study or field work in the New Forest.

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Palaeontological Association . 1954. Directory of British Fossiliferous Localities. London. 268 pp.

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Pasmore , A.H. 1977. Natural water supplies in the northern part of the New Forest - Summer 1976. Hampshire Field Club, New Forest Section, Report No. 14, 5-10. By Anthony Pasmore

Pasmore, A. H. 1993. New Forest Explosives; An Account of the Schultze Gunpowder Company of Eyeworth, and the Armaments Research Department, Millersford: The New Forest Section, Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, Edited by Anthony H. Pasmore. Booklet of 34 pp. Not geological but relevant to New Forest drainage and polution.
Note from p. 3 Introduction follow.
"Introduction: The purpose of this booklet is to make generally available two rare and interesting documents relating to the modern history of the New Forest. Both deal with explosives and the part played by the Forest in their manufacture and testing, although the two sites described operated for very different purposes and at different periods of time. They had in common, however, the need for a large pool of civilian labour and for remoteness and isolation because of the dangerous nature of the work undertaken.
The first document is an illustrated trade pamphlet issued by the Schultze Gunpowder Company of Eyeworth Lodge [near Irons Well, near Fritham] n or or shortly after 1896. One or two copies of the original booklet survive as treasured possessions of local people, but this invaluable local history source deserves to be made more widely available and it is reproduced in full. The second part of this booklet comprises the republication of an article which appeared in Picture Post in 1945, recording the word of an unnamed explosives range "somewhere in England, in the depths of the countryside", now otherwise known as the Armaments Research Department, Millersford.
The reporduction of these two documents in isolation from any historical background would give a rather incomprehensible picture for the non-specialist reader, but no comprehensive research on either site has yet been undertaken. Indeed, if any of the Schultze Company records are eventually discovered, the Eyeworth Site [near Fritham, New Forest] alone should provide material for a substantial volume. Similarly the Turf Hill establishment must have generated records which have yet to come to light, although preliminary searches in the Public Record Office have failed to locate them. As an interim measure, therefore, I have provided brief introductory notes to both the factory and the range, setting them in their New Forest and period context. I hope that these notes and the republished material to which they relate will serve to stimulate further and perhaps definitive research. A.H.P. , Sept. 1993."
[An important part of the process of explosives manufacture in the New Forest was the major use of Nitrating tanks (at least 9 of these are shown in a photograph). Wood fibre is steeped in three parts sulphuric and one part nitric acid of very high specific gravity, i.e. very strong. The natural drainage is into the Latchmore Brook via an upper tributary. Not surprisingly dead fish and eels were found 5 miles downstream at Gorley. There had been an escape of acid during repair of a tank.
Col. Smith of the Eyeworth Gunpowder Factory gave reassurance to the Office of Woods: "To show you that there is no cause for alarm, I beg to inform you that the acids used at the works are nitre and sulphuric acids, both of which are used in medicine and are administered to invalids at tonics."!

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PLINT
[now - Dr Guy Plint, (Professor Guy Plint) Department of Earth Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. He has written key papers on the Eocene sediments of the Hampshire Basin, southern England, including Bournemouth, New Forest, Isle of Wight, English Channel Hampshire-Dieppe Basin etc.]

Plint, A. G. 1980. Sedimentary Studies in the Middle Eocene of the Hampshire Basin. Unpublished DPhil Thesis, University of Oxford (3 volumes).

Plint, A.G. 1982. Eocene sedimentation and tectonics in the Hampshire Basin. Journal of the Geological Society of London, vol. 139, pp. 249-254.
Abstract
Sedimentary evidence in the Eocene (Cuisian-Lutetian) of the Hampshire Basin indicates important intra-Eocene movement on the Isle of Wight and Purbeck Monoclines, and on the Ridgeway Fault. Evidence for syn-depositional movement includes Jurassic and Cretaceous chert and flint pebbles in the Eocene, the distribution of which suggests derivation from both E and W. At Whitecliff Bay, two units of cross-bedded sand have northward-directed palaeocurrents and may have been deposited as localized fans of debris reworked from earlier Tertiary sediments on the upwarped side of the monocline. Three units of laminated muds are intercalated with marine sediments in the eastern part of the basin and suggest periods of low salinity, tideless conditions. These episodes are attributed to the periodic isolation of the Hampshire Basin from the fully marine Dieppe Basin to the SE. This may have been the result of intermittent movement on a tectonic barrier to the SE of Selsey. The onset of uplift and subsequent exposure of the Chalk along the southern margin of the basin proceeded unevenly from ?early Cuisian to late Lutetian times. Movement on the Portsdown Anticline probably occurred over a similar period. The Isle of Wight and Purbeck Monoclines are the superficial expressions of faults in the Palaeozoic basement, and not the result of lateral 'Alpine' pressures. A minor series of syn-depositional folds trend NW-SE across the basin and may reflect a component of sinistral strike-slip on basement faults. [This key paper has a good, speculative palaeogeographic map showing sediment sources. It has references to Curry, Daley and Edwards, Gale etc.] [The paper is also also relevant to Creechbarrow Hill and Creechbarrow Limestone, Dorset, the underlying sediments of which contain unabraded or sub-rounded flint nodules, weighing up to 30lb or 136kg - Huddleston 1903. Re Creechbarrow see also the work of Hooker on vertebrates.]

Plint , A.G. 1983. Facies, environments and sedimentary cycles in the Middle Eocene, Bracklesham Formation of the Hampshire Basin: evidence for global sea-level changes? Sedimentology, 30, 625-653.
Abstract:
The Bracklesham Formation is of Middle Eocene age and occurs throughout the Hampshire Basin of southern England. The basin is elongated east-west and filled with Lower Tertiary sediments. Its southern margin is marked by either large, northward-facing monoclines, or faults, both of which underwent differential movement, with uplift of the southern side throughout the Middle Eocene. The Bracklesham Formation, which is up to 240 m thick, shows pronounced lateral facies changes with dominantly marine sediments in the east passing to alluvial sediments in the west. Four principal sedimentary environments: marine, lagoonal, estuarine and alluvial are distinguished. Marine sediments comprise six facies including offshore silty clays and glauconitic silty sands, beach and aeolian dune sands, and flint conglomerates formed on pebble beaches. Offshore sediments predominate in the eastern part of the basin, as far west as Alum Bay [Isle of Wight], where they are replaced by nearshore sediments. Lagoonal sediments comprise four facies and formed in back-barrier lagoons, coastal marshes and, on occasions, were deposited over much of the basin during periods of low salinity and restricted tidal motion. Five estuarine facies represent tidal channels, channel mouth-bars and abandoned channels. These sediments suggest that much of the Bracklesham Formation was deposited under micro- to meso-tidal conditions. Alluvial sediments dominate the formation to the west of Alum Bay. They comprise coarse to fine sands deposited on the point-bars of meandering rivers, interbedded with thick sequences of laminated interchannel mudstones, deposited in marshes, swamps and lakes. Extensive layers of ball clay were periodically deposited in a lake occupying much of the alluvial basin. In alluvial areas, fault movement exposed Mesozoic rocks along the southern margin of the basin, the erosion of which generated fault-scarp alluvial fan gravels. Locally, pisolitic limestone formed in pools fed by springs emerging at the faulted Chalk-Tertiary contact. In marine areas, flint pebbles were eroded from coastal exposures of chalk and accumulated on pebble beaches and in estuaries. From other evidence it is suggested that older Tertiary sediments were also reworked. The Bracklesham Formation is strongly cyclic and was deposited during five marine transgressions, the effects of which can be recognized throughout the basin in both marine and alluvial areas. Each of the five transgressive cycles is a few tens of metres thick and contains little evidence of intervening major regression. The cycles are thought to represent small-scale eustatic sea-level rises ('paracycles,) superimposed upon a major transgressive 'cycle' that began at the base of the Bracklesham Formation, following a major regression, and was terminated, at the top of the Barton Formation by another major regression. This major cycle can be recognized world-wide and may reflect a period of rapid northward extension of the mid-Atlantic ridge.

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Plint, A.G. 1988. Global eustasy and the Eocene sequence in the Hampshire Basin, England. Basin Research, vol. 1, pp. 11-22.
Abstract:
Recent improvements in biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic control in the Eocene sediments of the Hampshire Basin prompted direct comparison of depositional sequences in outcrop with those predicted by the latest and most detailed Exxon coastal onlap chart. This study focused on the upper two cycles of the London Clay Formation, the Bracklesham Group and the Barton Formation, comprising nine depositional sequences, each a few 10s of metres thick. The sediments were divided into three basic facies associations: marine, estuarine and alluvial. Depositional sequences invariably rest on a regional erosion surface cut during sea-level lowstand. The lower part of each sequence consists typically of 'estuarine' sediments (including tidal channel, lagoon, tidal flat and marsh deposits), laid down under brackish conditions during the early stages of sea-level rise. Estuarine deposits are typically erosively overlain by marine shoreface or shelf deposits; the eroded, pebble-strewn contact marks the passage of the marine shoreface. Marine deposits may be erosively overlain by alluvial sediments that record coastal progradation in response to stable or slowly falling sea level. Magnetostratigraphy, in the form of truncated or absent magnetozones provides supporting evidence for significant erosion during periods of lowstand. Every sequence can be matched to the Exxon coastal onlap chart, with one exception, which, on biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic evidence has been shown to be absent from the Hampshire Basin. The Exxon chart suggests that in this exceptional instance, coastal onlap was insufficient to effect marine deposition in the Hampshire Basin.

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[Clement Reid, FRS, was a British Geologist and palaeobotanist. He was born in 1853 and specialised in Tertiary geology. He died at Milford-on-Sea, Hampshire in 1916. He was awarded the Murchison Fund and the Bigsby Medal of the Geological Society of London. He became Vice-President of the Geological Society of London, 1913-1914. He wrote many papers on the Southampton, New Forest and general Hampshire area in addition to work elsewhere.]

Reid, C. 1989. The Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain. (old edition - see also White 1917 and the recent edition by Bristow et al. , 1991. By Clement Reid.

Reid, C. 1892. The Pleistocene deposits of the Sussex coast and their equivalents in other districts. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 48, pp. 344-361. (Elephant remains at Lepe Beach).

Reid, C. 1902. The Geology of the Country around Southampton . Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, Sheet 315. (old edition - see new edition by Edwards and Freshney, 1987). By Clement Reid.
Chapter 1. - Introduction.
Sheet 315 of the Geological Survey Map [this is a reference to an old edition - that is a current edition available from the British Geological Survey] takes in an area of 215 square miles, of which about 5 square miles are occupied by water at all states of the tide. The whole of this area, with the exception of a few square miles to the north-west, which belong to Wiltshire, is included in the county of Hampshire; about one-third of it belongs to the New Forest. The towns within the district are Southampton, Romsey, Lyndhurst, Eastleigh, and Botley. The wide tidal estuary and harbour of Southampton Water, with its tributaries the Test, Itchen, and Hamble, forms the most noticeable feature; for the country though undulating is devoid of conspicuous heights. Its highest hills are merely flat-topped isolated table-lands, ending on every side in steep scarps, which have been carved out of once-continuous plains of gravel-capped Tertiary strata. None of the bare Tertiary or Chalk hills reaches a height equal to this gravel plateau, which rises to 415 feet where it is crossed by the road to Fordingbridge. The formations represented in Sheet 315 are the following :
(Peat. Recent Alluvium.)
(Marl [in some stream valleys)
(Brickearth)
Valley Gravel [Pleistocene].
Plateau Gravel [Pliestocene].
Clay with Flints.
Oligocene [now regarded as Eocene].. Headon Beds.
Barton Sands. [Eocene]
Barton Clay. [Eocene]
Bracklesham Series. [Eocene]
Bagshot Sands. [Eocene, using old terminology here]
London Clay. [Eocene]
Reading Beds. [Eocene]
Upper Cretaceous Upper Chalk.

Within this area no borings have yet been made [that is by 1902!] sufficiently deep to reach any rock older than the Chalk [now there is data from deep petroleum exploration].

[The full text is available online at the following address. However, it is not well-formatted or easy to read.
https://archive.org/stream/cu31924004553016/cu31924004553016_djvu.txt
--]
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Rishbeth , O.H.T. 1926. Bibliography of the Hampshire Basin. The Geography Teacher, No. 76, vol. 13, part 6, Autumn 1926, 489-496. Southampton University Hartley Library - Cope Collection.
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Rogers , W. H. Date? Guide to the New Forest. Southampton. Section on: Geology, pp 26,27.
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Rollin, K. 200?. Low-temperature Geothermal Energy. Energy Resources, B.G.S. British Geological Survey. Provides an introduction to geothermal investigations by the British Geological Survey of various parts of the UK, including the Wessex Basin of southern England. Available online as a pdf file.
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Sibley , P. and Fletcher, R. 1986. Discovering the New Forest. Robert Hale, London. 207pp. By Patricia Sibley and Robin Fletcher. [general information - not geological]

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Shore , T.W. 1882. Guide to Southampton and Neighbourhood. 8vo, 126 pp. Southampton.

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Small , D. 1975 (reprinted 1981). Explore the New Forest: an Official Guide by the Forestry Commission. London, H.M.S.O., 125 p. [See p. 74 - "Ironshill where it is believed ironstone was worked." On the Geological Survey sheet 315 new Southampton map Ironshill Enclosure, near Ashurst, is shown with Becton Sand (Barton Sand) above Barton Clay. Any ironstone could be at the level of the shell bed of Barton on Sea or in the Becton Sand.]
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St. Barbe , H. 1914. New Forest geology. Pp 357-364 in: Morris, D. (Ed.) 1914. A Natural History of Bournemouth and District. By the Members of the Bournemouth Natural Science Society, Bournemouth. Published by Bournemouth Natural Science Society, 399p. [Central part of the Tertiary synclinal axis under Beaulieu Heath. Roydon brickyard by the Lymington River. Approached by a farm road which leaves the high road about one and a half miles south of Brockenhurst near the Oddfellows' Arms (near Setley) . The river must be crossed at Roydon Manor. Middle Headon. 12 feet of section of blue or grey clays with occasional septaria. Voluta, Murex, Cardita - like Middle Headon of Whitecliff. The Brockenhurst Beds are at Whitley Ridge cutting east of Brockenhurst but not now visible. The strata are even more marine than at Roydon. ]

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Stinton , F.C. 1970. Field meeting in the New Forest, Hants, 11th May 1969. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 81, 269-274. By Fred Stinton, a keen and active amateur geologist and palaeontologist, professsionally the medical Chief Technician of Boscombe Hospital, Bournemouth. He was a member of Bournemouth Natural Science Society and known to the present writer.
Thirty-five members assembled at Southampton Central Station, where a coach was boarded. The object of the meeting was to study the Tertiary outcrops of the New Forest, ranging from the Oligocene [now Eocene] Middle Headon Beds down to the Eocene Upper Bracklesham Beds. The probable correlation of these outcrops with others in the Hampshire Basin and in continental Europe would be discussed in the light of the faunal findings at each site. .. continues
[ Includes: Park Hill Inclosure, Lyndhurst Hill, Warwick Slade, Highland Water, Studley Wood Inclosure, Latchmore Brook, Brook Golf Course, King's Garn Gutter, Brook Bed in the banks of the Coalmeer Gutter, Brook, Shepherd's Gutter, Bramshaw. All available sectionsd are in drainage trenches or stream banks]

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Stinton, F.C. 1971. Report of Field Meeting to the New Forest, Hampshire. Tertiary Times, vol. 1, part 3, pp. 43-44. By Fred Stinton.

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Stinton, F.C. 1975. Fish Otoliths from the English Eocene, Part 1. Monographs of the Palaeontolographical Society, London, pp 1-56, plates 1-3. By Fred Stinton of Bournemouth.
Abstract: This monograph on the English Eocene fish otoliths will appear in parts. Part 1 includes a revised English Eocene stratigraphy and a list of localities from which otololiths were obtained. The morphology and functions of otoliths of modern fishes are described, together with their relationships to fossil teleost faunas. Otoliths rarely occur with skeletal remains and reasons for this are considered. Otoliths are of limited use as zonal indicators but they may provide evidence of local ecological conditions. The systematic section describes 55 species of otoliths (29 new and 6 under open nomenclature) referable to 21 extant genera, representing 10 families from the Lepisosteidae to the Ophichthyidae in the classification of Greenwood et al. (1966). [end of abstract].[See pp. 9-11 for notes on localities. There is some information on: Holmsley, Sway, Brockenhurst, Royden, Parkhill Inclosure, Lyndhurst Hill, Coalmeer Gutter, Brook, Bramshaw, Studley Wood, Cadnam and Netley Marsh. On p. 8 the succession of strata in the Holmsley road cutting is given. There are, incidently, another 3 parts to this otolith publication with the last in April, 1980.]


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Sumner -
Mr. Heywood Sumner, F.S.A. of Cuckoo Hill, South Gorley, Fordingbridge, artist, archaeologist and antiquarian.
Note from Wikipedia: "George Heywood Maunoir Sumner (usually Heywood Sumner) (1853-1940) was originally an English painter, illustrator and craftsman, closely involved with the Arts and Crafts movement and the late-Victorian London art world. In his mid-forties he relocated to Cuckoo Hill, near Fordingbridge in Hampshire, England, and spent the rest of his life actively investigating and recording the archaeology, geology and folklore of the New Forest and Cranborne Chase regions. (See: Cunliffe, B. 1985. Heywood Sumner's Wessex. Roy Gasson Associates. ISBN 0948495014).

Sumner, H. 1917. The Ancient Earthworks of the New Forest. 142pp. with 42 Plans, full page and double page, and 30 illustrations. Described and delineated in plans founded on the 25 inch to 1 mile Ordnance Survey, with a coloured map showing the physical features and ancient sites of the New Forest, founded on the half inch to 1 mile Ordnance Survey. Only 200 copies printed. Original price 1 pound.

Sumner, H. 1924. A Guide to the New Forest. With 10 illustrations and a map. Price 1s 6d. Published by C. Brown & Son, High Street Ringwood.

Sumner, H. 1927. Excavations in New Forest Roman Pottery Sites. Being the record of the discovery and excavation of seven pottery kilns and a potter's hut, with maps, plans, figures of pottery, and illustrations. Hardcover, Chiswick Press. Price 12s 6d. (now 95 pounds at Amazon)

Sumner, H. 1931. Local Papers; Archaeological & Topographical Hampshire, Dorset & Wiltshire. By Heywood Sumner, F.S.A. London, Printed at the Chiswick Press, Brunswick Park Road, N.11. Price 12s 6d. 248pp.

Sumner, H. 1931. The discovery of a large fragment of Mammoth tusk (Elephas primigenius) in the Avon valley drift gravel at Ibsley. Pp.133-146. In: Sumner, H. 1931. Local Papers; Archaeological & Topographical Hampshire, Dorset & Wiltshire. By Heywood Sumner, F.S.A. London, Printed at the Chiswick Press, Brunswick Park Road, N.11. Price 12s 6d. 248pp. Read before Bournemouth Natural Science Society, 1930. [with notes on other elephant discoveries in the Avon Valley].

Sumner, H. 1931. Natural landmarks in Bournemouth and New Forest District. Pp. 121-132. In: Sumner, H. 1931. Local Papers; Archaeological & Topographical Hampshire, Dorset & Wiltshire. By Heywood Sumner, F.S.A. London, Printed at the Chiswick Press, Brunswick Park Road, N.11. Price 12s 6d. 248pp. Also; Bournemouth Natural Science Society, Proceedings, 1929.

Sumner, H. 1931. J. Norden's survey of Medieval coppices in the New Forest, A.D. 1609. Pp. 147-177. In: Sumner, H. 1931. Local Papers; Archaeological & Topographical Hampshire, Dorset & Wiltshire. By Heywood Sumner, F.S.A. London, Printed at the Chiswick Press, Brunswick Park Road, N.11. Price 12s 6d. 248pp. Also: Proceedings of Hampshire Field Club, 1929. [not geological, but with interesting New Forest history]

Sumner, H. 1931. A winter walk in the New Forest. Pp. 179-194. In: Sumner, H. 1931. Local Papers; Archaeological & Topographical Hampshire, Dorset & Wiltshire. By Heywood Sumner, F.S.A. London, Printed at the Chiswick Press, Brunswick Park Road, N.11. Price 12s 6d. 248pp. Also: Proceedings of Hampshire Field Club, 1925. [Only brief mention of geology]

Sumner, H. 1931. Latchmore Brook, New Forest. pp. 195-211. In: Sumner, H. 1931. Local Papers; Archaeological & Topographical Hampshire, Dorset & Wiltshire. By Heywood Sumner, F.S.A. London, Printed at the Chiswick Press, Brunswick Park Road, N.11. Price 12s 6d. 248pp. [some geomorphology, but no appreciable geology]

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Tavener , L.E. 1951. The geological structure of the New Forest. Pp 19-24 in: Edlin, H.L. 1951 (reprinted 1957). Forestry Commission Guide: New Forest. London, H.M.S.O. 90 p.

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Todd , J.A. 1990. The stratigraphy and correlation of the Selsey Formation and Barton Clay Formation (M. Eocene) of Studley Wood, Hampshire. Tertiary Research, vol. 12, part 1, pp. 37-50.
Five text-figs. which are mainly maps and correlation diagrams, no photographs. Leiden, May, 1990. By Jonathon A. Todd, Chichester, West Sussex.
Abstract: Streambank exposures of the Selsey Formation and Barton Clay Formation at Studley Wood, Hampshire are described in detail. The term Studley Wood Member is proposed for the topmost Selsey Formation and the term Elmore Member is accepted for sediments of the lowest Barton Clay Formation. A revised correlation of the upper Selsey division and lower Barton Clay Formation of the Hampshire Basin is given. A large and previously unnoticed hiatus is shown to be present between these strata at most localities. The boundary between them as recently established by the British Geological Survey is discussed and redefined. [End of Abstract].
J.A. Todd, Chichester, West Sussex. Accepted 16th September, 1980.
[Notes: The geologist etc. whom he thanks in the acknowledgements for assistance in the field and with the manuscript are: David Bone, Allan Lawson, Steve Tracey and Jerry Hooker. This paper is important now, in February 2016, because of plans to fill in the stream and cover the geological exposures. Objections are being raised to the burying of a geological stratotype. i.e. the Studley Wood Member.]
Note, incidently, that the Geckoella (2008) Report commissioned by the Forestry Commission, with regard to controversial plans to infill the brook and cover the geological exposures and their fossil content, uses a key map from Todd as their fig. 4 - Geology of Latchmore Brook, Studley Wood.

[Further Introductory Notes: Fossils here at Studley Wood were unknown to 19 century workers "Huntingbridge bed" fossils were found in 1956, (Curry's, 1968, French account. See also Fred Stinton's (1970) paper and also the correlation diagram of Kemp et al. (1979). Todd provides a map of Claypits Bottom and Studley Wood with outcrop localities. There are also studies of the unfossiliferous strata in the Latchmore Brook upstream and downstream from the fossil site. There is a small stratigraphic section of the Studley Wood Member and the Elmore Member at Studley Wood. The paper has references to Kings Garn Gutter (near Fritham) and Shephards Gutter (Bramshaw) where the Studley Wood Member has also been exposed. The publication is much concerned with formal establishment of a new stratigraphic term - the Studley Wood Member and correlation with sections at other localities. There is a useful reference list. To understand this paper fully it may be helpful to read in advance Fisher (1862) on the Hunting Bridge fossil bed and Stinton's (1970) paper mentioned above.]
[Here is a short extract from the beginning of Todd's paper]
"The stream of Latchmore Brook flows south-westwards into the River Avon which delimits the western boundary of the New Forest. In its upper part, it cuts a valley through Pleistocene Plateau Gravel, Eocene Barton Clay Formation and Selsey Formation sediments. Due to rapid downcutting the last two are exposed in banks of up to 3.5m in height. From the southern half of Claypits Bottom south-westwards through Studley Wood Inclosure, where the fossiliferous sections occur, into Islands Thorns Inclosure, the bank sections decrease in height with the shallowing stream gradient (Text-fig. 1).
Rather suprisingly this site was unknown to Keeping, Fisher and other nineteenth century workers who discovered the famous fossiliferous New Forest sites. However the 2.5 to 3m of rock [i.e. clay, silt or sand] underlying soil level is decalcified, except in a few small pockets, and the stream may have only comparitively recently exposed unweathered sediments. This may account for the late discovery of typical "Huntingbridge bed" fossils at "Claypits Bottom" by J.G. Turner sometime before August 1956 when they were presented to the British Museum (Natural History) [i.e. the Natural History Museum]. A short account of the stratigraphy was published in French by Curry (1968) and a similar summary in English by Stinton (1970). Kemp et al. (1979) gave a correlation diagram with sections of similar age which superseded that of Murray and Wright (1974)....... "

The paper of Todd on the Studley Wood Member has become important in February 2016 because at this date there were plans in progress by the Forestry Commission to fill in this important geological exposure and then to convert it into an artificial bog. There were many objections to such a destructive scheme. It would have involved covering and concealing the type section of the Studley Wood Member and making the site inaccessible.]

Todd - Extract - New Stratigraphical Term, pp. 40-41
This defining section of Todd's paper is given below because of its importance, regarding the dispute about the intentions of the Forestry Commission to cover and conceal the geological exposures. People and organisations are, in February 2016, objecting to effective destruction of the Studley Wood Geological Conservation Review (GCR) site. At about this date, meeting are being held and the matter is under discussion at various levels. Todd's (1990) paper gives a formal description of the strata and describes this GCR, Geological Conservation Review site.


"FORMAL: ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW STRATIGRAPHICAL TERM
(by Jonathon A. Todd, May 1990).

STUDLEY WOOD MEMBER

Status:
Formal lithostratigraphical unit representing, where present, the uppermost member of the Selsey Formation and the youngest marine unit of Selsey division age in the Hampshire Basin.
Stratotype:
Banks of Latchmore Brook, within Studley Wood inclosure, 4 km. west of Bramshaw, Hampshire.
Grid Reference:
SU 2273 1593
Lithology:
See description of the Unit SW1 above. Recorded at Ramnor Inclosure borehole as a very shelly "olive-grey clayey sand passing to greyish olive-green clayey sand" with abundant Nummulites cf. prestwichianus and some patchy carbonate cementation (Freshney, 1978; Edwards and Freshney, 1987b).
Thickness:
greater than 4m at stratotype
At Ramnor Inclosure borehole 10.98m thick (Edwards and Freshney, 1987b), revised from 9.28m as recorded by Freshney (1978).
At British Gas Sandhills No. 1 borehole [northern Isle of Wight] c. 7.5m thick (Edwards and Freshney, 1987a, text-fig. 2). An unknown thickness, ?3.5m (Edwards and Freshney, 1987a, text-fig 2). An unknown thickness, ?3.5m (Edwards and Freshney 1987b: 54, fig. 29; 57) or 0.5m (Ibid: 55) is present at Huntingbridge.
At Shepherds Gutter, Bramshaw, 0.5m plus, of sand with Nummulites (Curry 1978) above unit 5 of Stinton (1970) but below the Elmore Member is probably attributable to this Member.
Fauna:
Abundant Nummulites cf. prestwichianus (see Curry, 1937, pl. 20, figs 10-11) and N. variolarius and a rich and diverse foraminiferas and ostracod fauna. A large number of marine molluscs, particularly small species , with rarer genera, occur. Corals, bryozoans and fish remains are common. Todd et al. (in prep.) will give details.
Relations:
At stratotype contact with underlying strata unknown, but presumably rests conformably on either an equivalent of Shepherds Gutter unit 5, a silty clay (Stinton, 1970) or on an unknown thickness of other intervening Selsey Formation sediments.
At Ramnor Inclosure borehole it overlies, "Clay greenish-grey, sandy and silty, to extremely sandy and silty with pale silt bands and laminae; shelly, with common bivalves, gastropods and N. variolarius" (Edwards and Freshney, 1987b: 87).
Overlain unconformably by the transgressive Elsmore Member, Barton Clay Formation at all localities.
Geographical Distribution
Outcrops in the Shepherds Gutter (Bramshaw)/ Kings Garn Gutter (near Fritham)/ Latchmore Brook (Studley Wood) area of the New Forest, Hampshire. Recorded in boreholes at Ramnor Inclosure, near Brockenhurst, Hampshire (SU 3114 0475) and at Sandhills No. 1 borehole, near Porchfield, Isle of Wight (SZ 4570 9085). Presumably subsurface between all the above.
Its presence at Kings Garn Gutter is implied in Fisher's letter to Jones (in Jones, 1887) where he records a stratum with Nummulites cf. prestwichianus and N. variolarius lying "at the bottom of a thick bed of Bracklesham fossils" (i.e. his Hunting Bridge bed). Molluscs from Huntingbridge with preservation typical of the Studley Wood Member at the stratotype are present within the Edwards Collection in the British Museum (Natural History) [now the Natural History Museum, London]. "
Age
NP 16 (Aubrey et al. 1986), latest Lutetian (in the sense of the original definition, see Hooker, 1986: 415-418) or slightly earlier in the late Lutetian (sensu Hardenbol & Berggren, 1978).
Synonymy
Nummulite Bed, Unit A (Stinton, 1970)
Nummulite prestwichianus var. Bed (Cooper, 1976)
Nummulite Bed (Edwards & Freshney, 1987b: 54, fig. 29, 55, 57)
Studley Wood Nummulite Bed (ibid: 57, fig. 30, 59)
These are all informal and inadequately described units.

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Tracey, S., Todd, J.A., Le Renard, J., King, C. and Goodchild, M. 1996. Distribution of mollusca in units S1 to S9 of the Selsey Formation (middle Lutetian), Selsey Peninsula, West Sussex. Tertiary Research, vol. 16, parts 1-4, pp. 97-139, 1 textfig, 3 plates, 1 table. Leiden, June 1996. By Steve Tracey (University of Greenwich), Jonathon A. Todd (Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland , Jacques Le Renard, (Paris, France), Chris King (New Malden, England) and Mike Goodchild (Chichester, West Sussex).[these are from the addresses at the time in 1996 and are given in full the paper]. Paper accepted 1st April 1966.
[Note: This is a major work and it is a detailed and well-illustrated paper with fossil photographs and tables showing the beds in which various species occur. It is a very thorough work of reference. The complete paper is available free online and can be easily printed out. It contains information and illustrations of Middle Eocene, Bracklesham Group, fossils not only from Bracklesham Bay and the Selsey Peninsula but also from Lee-on-the-Solent and from the New Forest, from localities such as Brook and Shepherd's Gutter.]
Abstract: The first detailed assessment of the taxonomy and stratigraphical distribution of the Mollusca occurring in the Selsey Formation (Middle Eocene) around the Selsey Peninsula (Hampshire Basin, southern England), has been undertaken. The resulting faunal list has been divided into two parts. The first, presented here, is for the older units (S1 to S9, SL1 to SL3) and comprises some 572 species level taxa. Their stratigraphical distribution and subjective abundance within this interval is tabulated, using the bed numbers of Curry et al. (1977). References to published figures are provided for each species, together with a selective synonomy. A revised lithological summary is also given, containing new information on the characteristic molluscan faunas present.

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Tremlett , W.E. 1961. Geology of the Matley and Denny Nature Reserve, New Forest. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 22, 1-7.

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Tuckfield , C.G. 1964. Gully erosion in the New Forest, Hampshire. American Journal of Science, 262, 795-807.

Tuckfield, C.G. 1973. Seepage steps in the New Forest, Hampshire, England. Water Resources Research, 9, 367-377.

Tuckfield, C.G. 1980. Rejuvenation features in the Cadnam River basin in the New Forest. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 36, 5-13.
[Severe erosion now affecting many streams in the upper basin of the Cadnam River is caused by a cycle of rejuvation which apparently postdates the capture of that river by the River Blackwater at 22m. Pulse of erosion is moving headward at approximately 2 m. per annum. Useful map of streams around the King's Garn Gutter, Coalmeer, Brook area etc. that might be useful for finding Bracklesham exposures.]

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Tylor , A. 1850. On the occurrence of productive iron ore in the Eocene formations of Hampshire. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 6, 133-134.

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Venning , F.E.W. 1966. Geology: Chapter 4, pp. 53-56. In: Casey, J., Cohen, E., Copley, G.J., Edlin, H.L., Hook, O., De Bairacli Levy, J., Venning, F.E.W., Widnell, H., Myers, W.R., Pigott, B,. 1966. The New Forest. 1966 Revised Edition. J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd., London, 201 pp. (Original edition, Gallery Press, London, 1960). Includes map showing the pre-1964 and post-1964 perambulations of the New Forest.
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Wessex Exploration Limited.2008. Worldwide Oil and Gas Exploration. Go to website: Wessex Exploration Limited.

With regard to the New Forest National Park see:
Lymington and New Milton - Petroleum Exploration License - PDL089
Here is a small extract from the start of the webpage. Particularly see the good maps.

"Wessex Exploration Limited, bidding on its own in the 9th Landward Bid Round was awarded Petroleum Exploration and Development License (PEDL) 089 on 4 September, 2000. PEDL 089 is located in southern Hampshire near the towns of Lymington and New Milton, on the mainland opposite the western end of the Isle of Wight. The work obligation for the initial term of the PEDL was met when Northern Petroleum drilled the Bouldnor Copse 1 well, and fifty percent of the PEDL was relinquished in September, 2006. The PEDL is now in its second exploration period.
Wessex on 11 September, 2002 made an "Out of Round" application for a Petroleum Production License over the area immediately offshore from and adjacent to PEDL 089. Wessex was awarded License P1153 over this offshore area, effective 3 October, 2003. The primary term of this license expired in October, 2007, but was renewed by DBERR into a second exploration period.
A preliminary structural map of the Hurst Castle Prospect at the Sherwood Sandstone level is shown on the next page. Estimated P10 oil-in-place is of the order of 190 million barrels for the Sherwood reservoir alone, with possible recoverable reserve of 36 million barrels. A separate structural map shows four-way dip closure offshore, with possible P50 recoverable reserves in the 16 million barrel range." ... [continues]

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West , R.G. and Sparks, B.W. 1960. Coastal interglacial deposits of the English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B., Biological Sciences, No. 701, Vol. 243, pp. 95-133, 27th October, 1960, with an Appendix on the Mammalia by A.T. Sutcliffe. Published by the Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London W1. Communicated by H. Godwin, F.R.S. Addresses of authors: R.G. West - Subdepartment of Quaternary Research, University of Cambridge; B.W. Sparks, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge. Abstract: Fossiliferous Late-Pleistocene deposits on the foreshore of the English Channel at Selsey (Sussex), Stone (Hampshire), and near Arromanches (Calvados), have been investigated. At each site analyses of pollen, macroscopic plant remains and Mollusca have been made and from these vegetational, faunal, environmental and climatic conditions have been reconstructed. ... At Selsey, it is shown that the deposits, which lie in a channel cut in Eocene rocks, are of Ipswichian (Eemian or Last) Interglacial age. Pollen analysis of the sediments of the channel filling show that they formed during zones b, c, d, e and f of this interglacial, which show the succcession from open parkland vegetation to birch-, to pine, to oak-dominated forests. Analysis of the macroscopic plant remains and of the molluscs suggests a rapid climatic amelioration at the beginning of the interglacial, so that by the beginning of zone f there are indications of summer warmth exceeding that of the present day in the area. In the upper part of the channel filling, estuarine deposits overlie freshwater deposits. It is shown that the marine transgression causing the change was taking place in zone f and was probably responsible later for the raised beach deposits which overlie the channel deposits and form the cliff at Selsey Bill. ... At Stone pollen analysis shows that brackish water deposits, below present high tide level were formed in zone f of the Ipswichian Interglacial. At that time Quercus, Pinus, and Acer were the chief trees forming the forest in that region. The macroscopic plant remains and the Mollusca indicate that the deposit was formed under saltmarsh conditions. As at Selsey, the raised beach gravel found overlying the interglacial deposit is related to the same marine transgression that produced the brackish water conditions... Near Arromanches, at St Come de Fresne and Asnelles-Belle-Plage, two deposits showing a change from marine to freshwater sediments were investigated. The analysis of pollen and the Mollusca showed the prevalence of pine forest and its replacement by open steppe-like conditions as the marine regression occurred. After the regression, limon covered the freshwater deposits. The fossiliferous deposits are tentatively correlated with zone i of the Eemian Interglacial... The relative land and sea-level changes indicated by the deposits are considered. It is concluded that in the English Channel, during the Ipswichian (Eemian) Interglacial, sea-level rose above its present height in zone f and fell below it during zone i. The Selsey-Brighton raised beach and the Normannien II raised beach are correlated with the same marine transgression. It is pointed out that if the Selsey-Brighton raised beach is to be correlated with the Monastirian II level of 7-8m, then this level should be correlated with the Ipswichian (Eemian) Interglacial. [end of abstract.]

West, I.M. 1980. Geology of the Solent Estuarine System In: The Solent Estuarine System: an assessment of present knowledge, N.E.R.C. Publications, Series C.22: 6 18, 1980.

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Westlake , E. 1889. Outlines of the geology of Fordingbridge and neighbourhood, including the valley of the Avon. Titmus Mitchell.
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Whitaker , W. 1873. List of works on the Geology, Mineralogy and Palaeontology of the Hampshire Basin. Journal of Proceedings of the Winchester and Hampshire Scientific Literary Society for 1875, 108-127.

Whitaker, W. 1910. The Water Supply of Hampshire (including the Isle of Wight) with Records of Sinkings and Borings. Memoir of the Geological Survey of England and Wales, pp.v + 252. By William Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S., with contributions by Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc., LL.D., W. Matthews, M.Inst.C.E., and J.C. Thresh, M.D., D.Sc., D.P.H. Published by order of the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, London, 1910, Price Five Shillings. [With valuable records of old boreholes, wells and springs in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, including Southampton and much of the New Forest. The book includes discussion of the geology and rainfall of the area etc. It is a useful old source of reference.] P> .

White , H.J.O. 1915. The Geology of the Country near Lymington and Portsmouth. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, pp. v + 78.

White, H.J.O. 1917. Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoirs of the Geological Survey, 2nd Edition. (This is the old Geological Survey Memoir - see also - Bristow, C.R., Freshney, E.C. and Penn, I.E. 1991. Geology of the Country around Bournemouth. Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheet 329 (England and Wales). British Geological Survey, London, 116p. There is also the early edition of 1898 by Reid.)

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[END OF MAIN, UNDIVIDED SECTION]

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TOPICS SECTION

[an extra - not at all comprehensive, preferably use the main section above]

REFERENCES ARRANGED IN TOPICS OR THEMES [this is very incomplete: the main system is aphabetical above.]

(These sections may not have the full set of references, so please also consult the main list.)

Topics - General Topographic, Historical and Other References.

Langford, A. 1992. The Strange Death of King William Rufus: a New Forest Mystery. Historical Notes by Roy Gasson. 31 pp. Ensign Publications, Southampton.

Sanders, I. 1927. Ancient road from Purlieu to Lepe. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 10, Pt. 1, 35-39. Roman Road. Ancient gravel excavation at Pits Copse near Stone Farm. Once a small estuary here now infilled. Note that Dr Anthony Long (formerly Geography Dept.) has worked on the similar small estuary now infilled at Stanswood. Sanders suggested that the flats up to Stone Farm were once an open estuary up which vessels laden with stone were wont to sail. After unloading they required balast for the return voyage and here are the pits from which they took it, and the extent of the pits is evidence of of the large amount of traffic of which this was the scene.

Small, D. 1975 (reprinted 1981). Explore the New Forest: an Official Guide by the Forestry Commission. London, H.M.S.O., 125 p. .

Taverner, J. 1991. New Forest flora. Hampshire: the County Magazine, July 1991, vol 321, no. 9, 44-45.

Tubbs, C.R. 1968. The New Forest: An Ecological History. David and Charles, Newton Abbot, 248 pp.

Tubbs, C.R. 1986. The New Forest. London. .

Westlake, J. 1977. Sandy Balls for All Seasons. Sandy Balls Press, Godshill, Fordingbridge, 80p. General natural history and some silificied fossils. Reference to collector - Ernest Westlake.

Westlake, J. 1982. Gypsy Caravan. Not geological but contains biographical material re Ernest Westlake (geologist).

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Topics - Barton Clay and Barton Sand
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Stinton, F.C. 1970. Field meeting in the New Forest, Hants. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 81 (2), 269-274. [Stinton noted that very fossiliferous deposits occur below stream level in Highland Water at Warwick Slade. Cordiner and Bone (1986) have recorded fossiliferous Chama Bed of the Barton succession here.]

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Todd, J.A. 1990. The stratigraphy and correlation of the Selsey Formation and Barton Clay Formation (M. Eocene) of Studley Wood, Hampshire. Tertiary Research 12 (1), 37-50. Five text-figs. which are mainly maps and correlation diagrams, no photographs. Leiden, May, 1990. Abstract: Streambank exposures of the Selsey Formation and the Barton Clay Formation at Studley Wood, Hampshire are described in detail. The term Studley Wood Member is proposed for the topmost Selsey Formation and the term Elmore Member is accepted for sediments of the lowest Barton Clay Formation. A revised correlation of the upper Selsey division and lower Barton Clay Formation of the Hampshire Basin is given. A large and previously unnoticed hiatus is shown to be present between these strata at most localities. The boundary between them as recently established by the British Geological Survey is discussed and redefined. [End of Abstract]. [Notes: Unknown to 19 century workers, "Huntingbridge bed" fossils found in 1956, see Curry's (1968) French account, particularly Stinton (1970) and also correlation diagram of Kemp et al. (1979). Map of Claypits Bottom and Studley Wood with outcrop localities, also studies of the unfossiliferous strata in the Latchmore Brook upstream and downstream from the fossil site. A small stratigraphic section of the Studley Wood Member and the Elmore Member. References to Kings Garn Gutter (near Fritham) and Shephards Gutter (Bramshaw) where the Studley Wood Member has also been exposed. The paper is much concerned with formal establishment of a new stratigraphic term - the Studley Wood Member and correlation with sections at other localities. Useful reference list. To understand this paper fully it is useful to read in advance Fisher (1862) on the Hunting Bridge fossil bed and Stinton's (1970) brief but clear account of the Studley Wood exposures.]

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Topics - Beaulieu Area

Algan, O., Clayton, T., Tranter, M. and Collins, M.B. 1994. Estuarine mixing of clay minerals in the Solent region, southern England. Sedimentary Geology, 92, 241-256.

Codd, K.A. 1972. A Study of Clay and Silt of Beaulieu River Bottom Sediment. M.Sc. Dissertation, Southampton University. Oceanography Dept.

Defoe, D. 1705 (Probable date) A Collection of the Most Remarkable Casualties Disasters which happen'd in the Late Dreadful Tempest both by Sea and Land on Friday the Twenty-fixth of November, Seventeen Hundred and Three. (The salt marsh between Inchmerry and Exbury may have been partly built up from sediment deposited in the 1703 great storm and the old beach with shells may lie landward of this ).

Hooke, J.M. and Riley, R.C. 1992. Historical changes on the Hampshire coast 1870-1965. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society for 1991, v. 47, pp. 203-224.

Houghton, S.D. 1986. Coccolith Assemblages in Recent Marine and Estuarine Sediments from the Continental Shelf of Northwest Europe. Thesis submitted in the University of Southampton, July 1986. 465p. (See Beaulieu Estuary p. 240-243.)

Human, M. 1961. Preliminary survey of the Warren Farm Spit at the mouth of the Beaulieu River, Hampshire. Wessex Geographer, 2, 22-30.

Manners, J.G. 1975. Die-back of Spartina in the Solent. Pp. 7-13 in: Stranack, F. and Coughlin, J. 1975. Patchy degeneration in Beaulieu Estuary in 1928. By mid 1950s about 150 acres lost in the Hampshire Basin. Lymington badly affected. Spartina marshes built up on top of pre-existing tidal flats colonised partly by Zostera. Rapid build up of sediment on Zostera. Channel die-back below levees. Pan die-back in and around pans. Die-back areas have a higher water content associated with high organic matter. Die-back areas have highly anaerobic sediment with high sulphide. Lack of oxygen causes die-back. Discussion - original sediment may have been coarser but Spartina has accumulated fine sediment leading to less oxygen.

Mathers, S.J. 1982. The Sand and Gravel Resources of the Country Around Lymington and Beaulieu, Hampshire: description of parts of 1:25,000 sheet SU 20,30 and 40 and SZ 29, 39 and 49. 58 pages, diagrams, tables etc. 0 11 887417 9. Mineral Assessment Reports No 122. British Geological Survey.

Stranack, F. and Coughlin, J. 1981. Solent Saltmarshes. Solent Protection Society. Solent Saltmarsh Symposium. 1981. Winchester.

Umnuay, G. 1981. The behaviour of dissolved phosphate during mixing in the Beaulieu Estuary and its relation to that of iron and other elements. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Southampton University. .

Wilson, P.J. 1982. Environmental and analytical studies of dissolved cadmium in the Beaulieu Estuary. M.Sc. dissertation, University of Southampton.

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Topics - Bracklesham Group

Edwards, R.A. & Freshney, E.C. 1987. Geology of the Country around Southampton: Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheet 315 (England and Wales). 111 p.; R.A. Edwards and E.C. Freshney; contributors I.F. Smith ... [and others]. Natural Environment Research Council, H.M.S.O. 1987. p. 55. The best exposures at present are in the banks (2662 1326) of Coalmere Gutter, just above its junction with King's Garn Gutter (Stinton, 1970). The Brook Bed is 3 to 5m thick in the type area and consists of very sandy clay and clayey sand. It contains an abundant fauna and Elwes (1887P noted that 135 species has been recorded. It has abundant Corbula wemmelensis in its upper part, abundant Turricula attenuata (elsewhere rare) and the presence of Athleta horridus and A. nodosus. Other characteristic species include the gastropod Sassia expansa, Tibia sublicida and Turricula inarata. A small exposure with abundant Corbula in slightly weathered glauconitic sandy clay was visible in 1993.

Elwes, J.W. 1887. Excavations at Bramshaw, New Forest. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 1, 17-20.

Fisher, O. 1862. On the Bracklesham Beds of the Isle of Wight Basin. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 18, 263-285. [Classic paper with New Forest information. Brook Bed etc of Brook and Bramshaw area.]

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Jones, T.R. 1887. Note on Nummulites elegans Sowerby and other English nummulites. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 43, 132-149. Brief notes on Hunting Bridge, Shephard's Gutter (Bramshaw), Kings Garden Gutter. Hunting Bridge Specimens figured. Bracklesham Group.

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King, A.D. and King, C. 1977. The stratigraphy of the Earnley division; (Bracklesham Group) at Copythorne, Hampshire. Tertiary Research, 1, 115-118.

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Palaeontological Association. 1954. Directory of British Fossiliferous Localities. London. 268 pp.

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Stinton, F.C. 1970. Field meeting in the New Forest. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 81, 269-274. (Mention of the Brook Bed in the banks of Coalmeer Gutter. Also Studley Wood, Latchmore Brook, Shepherd's Gutter and other classic New Forest exposures. )

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Tuckfield, C.G. 1980. Rejuvenation features in the Cadnam River basin in the New Forest. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Field Clb. Arch. Society, vol. 36, pp. 5-13. Severe erosion now affecting many streams in the upper basin of the Cadnam River is caused by a cycle of rejuvation which apparently postdates the capture of that river by the River Blackwater at 22m. Pulse of erosion is moving headward at approximately 2 m. per annum. Useful map of streams around the King's Garn Gutter, Coalmeer, Brook area etc. that could be used for finding Bracklesham exposures.

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Wise, J.R. Editions - 1863, 1867, 1880, 1895. The New Forest: its History and Scenery. London, Smith Elder and Co., 336p. Chapter 20, "The Geology", pp 234-249. Details of the Brook Bed, seen in a pit 20ft from King's Garn Gutter, Hunting Bridge Bed in Copse St. Leonard not far from Fritham road. The Shepherds Gutter Beds are half a mile down King's Garn Gutter. Solent Group. Charles Lyell discovered 40 years earlier - marl with Voluta geminata at Cutwalk Hill. Rediscovered in a well at Emery Down. - Marl with V. geminata - 7 ft., Middle Headon marine beds 16-19 ft., Lower Headon Hordle Freshwater beds 16 ft., Barton Sands, 20 ft seen. The Hordle Freshwater beds are said thin from 250 feet at Barton to only 15 ft. See also comments of Prestwich.

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Topics - Bracklesham Group Palaeogeography

Plint, A.G. 1988. Global eustacy and the Eocene sequence in the Hampshire Basin, England. Basin Research, vol. 1, 11-22. Transgressions. Highstands, lowstands, Exxon chart. Important for palaeoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy of the Brackleshams and other Tertiary.

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Bracklesham Group, Coalmeer Gutter - Near Brook (Canterton)

Edwards, R.A. & Freshney, E.C. 1987. Geology of the Country around Southampton: Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheet 315 (England and Wales). 111 p.; R.A. Edwards and E.C. Freshney; contributors I.F. Smith ... [and others]. Natural Environment Research Council, H.M.S.O. 1987. ( p. 55. The best exposures at present are in the banks (2662 1326) of Coalmere Gutter, just above its junction with King's Garn Gutter (Stinton, 1970). The Brook Bed is 3 to 5m thick in the type area and consists of very sandy clay and clayey sand. It contains an abundant fauna and Elwes (1887P noted that 135 species has been recorded. It has abundant Corbula wemmelensis in its upper part, abundant Turricula attenuata (elsewhere rare) and the presence of Athleta horridus and A. nodosus. Other characteristic species include the gastropod Sassia expansa, Tibia sublicida and Turricula inarata. A small exposure with abundant Corbula in slightly weathered glauconitic sandy clay was seen by me on Sunday October 25th, 1993.

Stinton, F.C. 1970. Field meeting in the New Forest. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association., 81, 269-274. (Mention of the Brook Bed in the banks of Coalmeer Gutter. Also Studley Wood, Latchmore Brook, Shepherd's Gutter and other classic New Forest exposures. Also Barton Chama Bed at Warwick Slade (Highland Water).)

Wise, J.R. 1867. The New Forest: its History and its Scenery. London i-viii and 1-336. (Original excavations of Keeping and Wise, graphically described by Wise (p. 245) were at Brook. No longer exposed but near to the Coalmeer Gutter, still with an exposure.)

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Elephant Remains

Stuart, A.J. 1976. The history of the mammal fauna during the Ipswichian/last Interglacial in England. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B. vol 276, No 945. (This includes discussion of fauna from Stone Point.)

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Eocene Foraminifera of the New Forest

Jones, T.R. 1887. Note on Nummulites elegans Sowerby and other English nummulites. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 43, 132-149. (Brief notes on Hunting Bridge, Shephard's Gutter (Bramshaw), Kings Garden Gutter. Hunting Bridge Specimens figured. Bracklesham Group.)

See Murray and Wright's work and various nummulite publications.

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Eocene Molluscs of the New Forest

Edwards, F.E. 1849-1861 (?). A monograph of the Eocene mollusca or descriptions of shells from the older Tertiaries of England. Part I-III. Palaeontographical Society. (References to Brook and Brockenhurst).

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Erosion

Tuckfield, C.G. 1973. A contribution to the study of erosion processes in the New Forest, Hampshire. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. London University, 277-332.

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Geomorphology - New Forest

Barber, K. E. 1987 (ed.) Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide. Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, 1 - 180.

Barber, K. E. 1987 The context of Quaternary events in Wessex and the Isle of Wight. In Barber, K. E. (ed.) Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide. Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, 1 - 4.

Jones, D.K.C. (ed.) 1980. The Shaping of Southern England. Inst. Brit. Geographers Spec. Public. No. 11. Academic Press, London, 274 pp. £14.60p. See papers within this.

Jones, D.K.C. 1981. The geomorphology of the British Isles: Southeast and Southern England. Methuen, London & New York. 332pp. Sub-Palaeogene map, Geomorphological map based on Small. Basement map.

Linton, D.L. 1932. The origin of the Wessex Rivers. Scottish Geographical Magazine, 48, 149-166.

Linton, D.L. 1964. Tertiary landscape evolution. In: Watson, J.W. and Sissons, J.B. (Eds.) The British Isles. 110-130. Nelson, London.

Small, R.J. 1964. Geomorphology. In: Monkhouse, F.J. (Ed.), A Survey of Southampton and its Region. British Association for the Advancement of Science.

Small, R.J. 1980. The Tertiary geomorphological evolution of south-east England - an alternative interpretation. Pp 49-70 in Jones. 1980. The Shaping of Southern England.

Tuckfield, C.G. 19--. Relict landslips in the New Forest, Hampshire. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club., 25, 518. , (These are mostly near Bramshaw.)

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GEOTHERMAL ENERGY (MARCHWOOD ETC)

See also references to Marchwood Borehole. There is much other literature on this topic.

Scott, P.W. and Senior, J.R. 1981. Geothermal energy: reports of a symposium. Proceedings of the Yorks. Geological Society, 19, 347-356. Brief comment on Marchwood Well.

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Holmsley Ridge

Clarke, M.R. 1981. The Sand and Gravel Resources of the Country North of Bournemouth, Dorset. Description of parts of 1:25,000 sheets SU 00, 10, 20, SZ 09, 19 and 29. Mineral Assessment Reports of the Institute of Geological Sciences, No. 51 (now British Geological Survey, ), 128 pp with 1:25,000 map. (Includes part of the New Forest around Holmsley and Burley and west to the Avon Valley. Extends at far north as Whitemoor and the edge of Ringwood. Southern limit is near Hinton Admiral and Burton Common. The map includes borehole data and is more detailed than the 1:50,000 geological maps but only in two colours. -- " Block D - There are number of workings in the various terrace deposits in this block, but only one, that at Holmsley Ridge (215010), is currently active (Plate 1). " This is in part of the 9th Pleistocene gravel terrace which have a mean thickness of 4.1m within the general survey area of block D. " Plate 1. Cryoturbated sand and gravel, Holmsley Ridge. the River Terrace Deposits of the 9th terrace are exposed in a pit at Holsmley Ridge (215010). The upper part of the mineral deposits is highly contorted and records the effects of periglacial cryoturbation during Pleistocene times. the lower part of the sand and gravel is relatively undisturbed and retains its original bedding." The photograph is monochrone, three-quarters page and shows the contortions clearly.

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Hydrogeology

Downing, R.A., Edmunds, W.M. and Gale, I.N. 1987. Regional groundwater flow in sedimentary basins in the U.K. Pp 105-125 in: Goff, J.C. and Williams, B.P.J. 1987. Fluid Flow in Sedimentary Basins and Aquifers. Geological Society Special Publication No. 34, 230 p. (Hampshire Province discussed. Much flow is towards the general southern New Forest area. )

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IRONS WELL, NEAR EYEWORTH, NEAR FRITHAM, NEW FOREST

Edlin, H.L. 1951 (reprinted 1957). Forestry Commission Guide: New Forest. London H.M.S.O. 90 p. ( P. 9 - M.G. Davis section - "Ocknell Pond still runs red where Tyrell stooped to wash his hands".)

Edwards, A.M. 1987. The New Forest Companion: A Walker's Guide. 114, Arcady Books Ltd., Ashurst, Southampton. p. 70. Eyeworth Pond. (Stream was dammed to make the present pond for cooling purposes and a whole factory complex was built with huts for the workmen. The firm produced sporting powder. Crock Hill, nearby was a Roman pottery site with kilns. Most of the pottery was slate coloured, grey or faint yellow. The kilns probably ceased production about AD 380.)

Shore, T.W. 1891. Springs and streams of Hampshire. Pap. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 2, 33-58. ( P. 46. Iron's well, at Fritham. Chalybeate with rapid oxidation its iron is deposited along the banks of the stream. Leper's Well. Later used for mangy dogs. Seems to have been still in use for dogs in 1891.)

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Lyell, Sir Charles

Bailey, E.B. 1962. Charles Lyell. Book. (Lived in the New Forest at Bartley Grange, Cadnam.)

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Maps - General

Ordnance Survey, New Forest. 1:25,000 Outdoor Leisure Map. (A very good general topographic map of the New Forest and readily available. Larger scale maps can be obtained from the Ordnance Survey or map dealers. On this map note some names with geological implications : Victoria Tilery Cottage near Brockenhurst, Crock Hill near Cadnam. Ironshill Enclosure near Ashurst, Clayhill and Brick Kiln enclosure near Lyndhurst. Claypits Bottom near Bramshaw Telegraph, Crock Hill near Island Thorns Enclosure. Clay Hill near Malwood.)

Hodgson, J.M. and Whitfield, W.A.D. 1990. Applied Soil Mapping in the Southampton Area. Department of the Environment Contract No. PECD 7/1/242. Soil Survey and Land Research Centre, Cranfield Institute of Technology, Silsoe. Report of 145 pages plus maps on scale 1:25,000. (The relevant map is based around Totton and includes a north-eastern part of New Forest near Southampton - Ashurst, Busketts Lawn Enclosure, Brockishill Enclosure, Ironshill Lodge, Gutter Heath, Coythorne Common, Foxbury Plantation, Paulton's Park, Langley, Pooksgreen, Marchwood. Westward to northing 300. Lyndhurst and the central part of the New Forest is not included.)

Venning, F.E.W. 1966. "Geology", Chapter 4, pp. 53-56. In: Casey, J., Cohen, E., Copley, G.J., Edlin, H.L., Hook, O., De Bairacli Levy, J., Venning, F.E.W., Widnell, H., Myers, W.R., Pigott, B,. 1966. The New Forest. 1966 Revised Edition. J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd., London, 201 pp. Original edition, not seen, Gallery Press, London, 1960. Includes map showing the pre-1964 and post-1964 perambulations of the New Forest.

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Maps - Geological

Bournemouth Sheet - 329. British Geological Survey, Solid and Drift, 1991. (Westernmost part of the New Forest. Limit is northing 230. Includes Crow Hill, Bisterne and Burley in the north, Sopley, Bransgore and Holmsley in the middle part of the east of the map and Christchurch Mudeford and Hinton in the south).

Institute of Geological Science. 19 .. 1:250,000 series, Wight Sheet 50 degrees N 0.2 degrees W.

Isle of Wight Sheet, British Geological Survey,1:50,000 Series Geological Maps, Parts of Sheets 330,331, 344 and 345 (older editions were on the scale of 1:63360 or one inch to one statute mile. This map includes the Lymington area and some of Beaulieu Heath).

Ringwood Sheet 314, British Geological Survey, 1:50,000 (or old series 1:63360 - one inch). Downton, Langley Wood, Ogden's Purlieu, Buckherd's Bottom, Dockens Water, Woodfalls, Lover, Hale, Burley Street, Picket Plain, Avon Valley etc. This only includes the westernmost part of the New Forest.

Southampton Sheet. - British Geological Survey, 1:50,000 Series, England and Wales, Sheet 315, Solid and Drift Geology. Original geological survey on the 1:63,360 scale by H.W. Bristow, published 1856 and 1858. Resurveyed and republished in 1899. Resurveyed on the 1:10,000 scale by Edwards, R.A, Freshney, E.C., Holder, M.T. and Scrivener, R.C. in 1973-80. Published on 1:50,000 scale in 1987. (This map includes the eastern New Forest to northing 230 and the following are within the area: Ashurst, Lyndhurst, Cadnam, Sherfield English, Stoney Cross, Fritham, Netley Marsh, Beaulieu Road Station, Beaulieu Heath, Minstead, Copythorne). Accompanied by explanatory memoir - Edwards, R.A. and Freshney, E.C. 1987. Geology of the Country around Southampton: Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheet 315 (England and Wales). 111 p.; R.A. Edwards and E.C. Freshney; contributors I.F. Smith (and others). Natural Environment Research Council, H.M.S.O.

Lymington Sheet 330. British Geological Survey. Part of this is on the Isle of Wight sheet. (Hurst Castle, Lymington, Boldre, Beaulieu Heath, Solent)

Salisbury Sheet. 298 British Geological Survey. Drift. (chalk area north of the New Forest. Charlton, Standlynch, Alderbury, West Grinstead, Pepperbox Hill. This does not strictly cover the area of the New Forest)
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Edwards, R.A., Scrivener and Forster, A. 1987. Applied Geological Mapping: Southampton Area. British Geological Survey. Main Report and Appendix and accompanying maps. Solid geology, drift geology, mineral resources, landfill, etc, 1:25,000. All relating to sheet 315 but with more detail for specific areas. Box of maps and report held in Southampton University Hartley Library (Cope Collection).
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Jones, D.K.C. 1981. The Geomorphology of the British Isles: Southeast and Southern England. Methuen, London & New York. 332pp. Paperback £5.95 (Sub-Palaeogene map, Geomorphological map based on Small. Basement map.)
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Trimmer, J. 1849. Note on the geology of the New Forest in relation to its capabilities for the growth of oak and of cultivation with illustrated map. In: Appendix to the First Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Wood and Forest. Quarto.

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Matley and Denny Nature Reserves

Tremlett, W.E. 1961. Geology of the Matley and Denny Nature Reserve. Pap. Proceedings of the Hampshire Fld. Clb., 22, 1-7. (Barton Sand to Middle Headon, peat and gravel.)

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Petroleum Geology
(also includes references regarding immediate surrounds of the New Forest)

Amoco (U.K.) Exploration Company, Ultramar Exploration Company. 1985. Larkwhistle Farm Oil Discovery: Consultative Document Describing the Appraisal Programme. May 1975. Unpublished document. Summary - Cope Special Collection.

Amoco (U.K.) Exploration Company, Ultramar Exploration Company. 1987. Furzedown: Consultative Document Describing the Exploration Proposals. Unpublished document. Cope Collection. Exploration near Kings Somborne and Michelmersh and Braishfield.

Blunden, J. 1975. The Mineral Resources of Britain: a Study in Exploitation and Planning. Hutchinson, 545 pp. ( This includes a 1972 map showing allocation of licences in southern England. Claims for the New Forest (Fig. 6.4). It states " drilling occurred" in the New Forest.)

BP Exploration. See various useful pamphlets and brochures on the Wytch Farm Oilfield, some with reference to the pipeline across the southern part of the New Forest.

Falcon, N.L. and Kent, P.E. (1960). Geological Results of Petroleum Exploration in Britain 19451957. Geological Society of London, Memoir No. 2, 56pp. The only exploratory oil borehole within the New Forest at Hasley Hill, near Ogdens. About 1960. Completed at 4487 feet in the Keuper (Mercia Mudstone). No published record of commercial oil discovery. No major environmental protest.

Marchwood No. 1 Borehole Composite Log. 1:500 (Marchwood Geothermal Well - deep borehole).

Mayhew, G. 1989. Preparing the Hamble (petroleum storage terminal in the U.K.) for its new role. Petroleum Review, 43, No. 513, 532-533.

Shell U.K. Ltd. 1982. Lyndhurst - Denny Lodge Borehole etc. Deviated well planned from Denny Enclosure. Environmental protest. Planning permission rejected at Public Enquiry. Sherwood, Great Oolite and Bridport reservoir targets. Map and section based on seismic.

Whittaker, A. 1980. Marchwood No. 1. Geological well completion report. Report of the Deep Geology Unit of the Institute of Geological Sciences, No. 80/5.

Wise, J.R. 1883 (republished in 1971 with a new introduction by J. Lavender). The New Forest: its History and Scenery. 335 pages. Main Library, Open Cope Collection, 97.03, . See Chapter XX - The Geology. Much of it is on the classic coast sections but there is an account of an excavation of a pit near King's Gairn Brook with abundant Bracklesham fossils including Pinna, Nautilus etc. Discussion of Shephards Gutter Bed, Brook Bed, Hunting Bridge Bed etc.

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Pleistocene - General

Barber, K. E. and Brown, A. G. 1987 Late Pleistocene organic deposits beneath the floodplain of the River Avon at Ibsley, Hampshire. In Barber, K. E. (ed.) Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide, Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, 65-74.

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Pleistocene Gravel

Burkitt, M.C. 1931. Age of certain gravels in the New Forest area. Nature, 128, p. 222 - ?.

Bury, H. 1923. Some aspects of the Hampshire Plateau Gravels. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia, 4, p. 15- ?

Bury, H. 1933. The Plateau Gravels of the Bournemouth area. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 44, 325- ?

Clarke, M.R. in press in 1981. Not seen. The sand and gravel resources of the country north of Bournemouth, Dorset. Description of parts of 1:25,000 sheets SU 00,10,20, SZ 09,19 and 29. --? pp.

Green, C.P. 1973. Pleistocene river gravels and the Stonehenge problem. Nature, 243, 214-216.

Green, J.F.N. 19... Part 46. Some gravels and gravel pits in Hampshire and Dorset. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association ....

Kubala, M. 1980. The sand and gravel resources of the country around Fordingbridge, Hampshire: description of the 1:25,000 sheet SU 11 and parts of SU 00, SU01, SU 10, SU 20 and SU 21. Mineral Assessment Report Institute of Geological Sciences, No. 50, 98 pp. .

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Pleistocene Gravel Implements

Crawford, O.G.S. 1922. The antiquity of map in Hampshire. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 9, 173- ?

Smith, R. 1915. Prehistoric problems in geology. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 36, ---. Stoney Cross implements.

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Pleistocene Gravel Terraces

See Southampton Geological Map and Memoir - Edwards and Freshney - for numbered Pleistocene terraces.

Green, J.F.N. 1936. The terraces of southernmost England. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society London, 92, p. lxxii.

Green, J.F.N. 1946. The terraces of Bournemouth, Hants. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 57, 82- ..

Keen, D.H. 1980. The environment of deposition of the south Hampshire Plateau Gravels. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 36, 15-24.

Kellaway, G.A. 1971. Glaciation and the stones of Stonehenge. Nature, London, 232, 30-35. Brief mention of higher Hampshire Basin gravels as outwash deposits.

Kellaway, G.A., Redding, J.H., Shephard-Thorn, E.R. and Destombes, J-P. 1975. The Quaternary History of the English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A 279, 189-218. (The theory of an English Channel glacier and the Purbeck detritus in high Avon terrace.

Sealy, K.R. 1955. The terraces of the Salisbury Avon. Geographical Journal, 121, 50-56.

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Pollen Analysis

Barber, K. E. and Brown, A. G. 1987 Late Pleistocene organic deposits beneath the floodplain of the River Avon at Ibsley, Hampshire. In Barber, K. E. (ed.) Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide, Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, 65-74.

Barber, K. E. and Clarke, M. J. 1987 Cranes Moor, New Forest: palynology and macrofossil stratigraphy. In Barber, K. E. (ed.) Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide, Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, 33-44.

Clarke, M.J. and Barber, K. E. 1987 Mire development from the Devensian Lateglacial to present at Church Moor, Hampshire. In Barber, K. E. (ed.) Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide, Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge. 23-32.

Waton, P.V. and Barber, K. E. 1987 Rimsmoor, Dorset: biostratigraphy and chronology of an infilled doline. In Barber, K. E. (ed.) Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide, Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, 75 - 80.

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Pottery Kilns

Sumner, H. 1927. Excavation of a (Roman) pottery kiln at Rough-Piece Linwood. Pap. & Proc Hants Fld. Clb., 10, p. 81-82. Linwood is east of Fritham.

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Soils of the New Forest

Allen, R.H. and Staines, S.J. 1988? unpublished. The New Forest. 52p. (This is a field guide on the soils. Dr Allen is a lecturer in the Civil Engineering Dept. The Geography Dept. is also involved. A copy kindly provided by Daphne Woods. )

Dowsett, L. 1986. Field Report: soils of the New Forest: Saturday 17th May 1986. Leader Ron Allen. Newsletter of the Southampton Field Studies Group. p.5 & 6. Provided by Daphne Woods. ( Summary of a soils field trip with localities at Matley, Mark Ash Wood etc with map references.)

Hodgson, J.M. and Whitfield, W.A.D. 1990. Applied Soil Mapping in the Southampton Area. Department of the Environment Contract No. PECD 7/1/242. Soil Survey and Land Research Centre, Cranfield Institute of Technology, Silsoe. Report of 145 pages plus maps on scale 1:25,000. (The relevant map is based around Totton and includes a north-eastern part of New Forest near Southampton - Ashurst, Busketts Lawn Enclosure, Brockishill Enclosure, Ironshill Lodge, Gutter Heath, Coythorne Common, Foxbury Plantation, Paulton's Park, Langley, Pooksgreen, Marchwood. Westward to northing 300. Lyndhurst and the central part of the New Forest is not included.)

Jarvis, M.G. and Findlay, D.C. 1984. Soils of the Southampton District. British Society of Soil Science. Southampton. 147 p.

Tubbs, C.R. 1968. The New Forest: An Ecological History. David and Charles, Newton Abbot, 248 pp. (Southampton University Hartley Library Cope Open, 97.50, Level 4. Forest soils are base deficient but not as much so as the Dorset heath soils. Cultivated areas are often on clay. The Solent Group area in the Beaulieu region has marl which is more readily cultivated and marling took place to cultivate adjacent areas. Woodland lawns are developed on the less acid clays of the Barton and Headon Formations. Streamside lawns have a "flush effect" and receive nutrients leached from higher ground. Clay soils can give a pH of 5.5 in the upper 6 inches of soil profile, although poor in phosphate. Coarse deficient soils can give 3.7. Acid grassland is usually in the range 4.5 to 5.4. Earthworms do not tolerate below 5. Forest podsols are the result of deforestation, some cultivation and subsequent leaching. Where drainage is unimpeded a humus-iron podsol is developed. Associated with is dwarf gorze (Ulex minor) , bell heather (E. cinerea) and purple moor grass. Where drainage is impeded a humus-gley podsol is developed. Cross leaved heath and purple moor grass. Burning. Heathlands are fire-climax environments. Ponies feed on purple moor grass. Faunistic depletion result of firearms developments in the 19th Century and the "vermin" outlook. Also collecting.)

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Solent Group (Headon Hill Formation, Brokenhurst Beds etc)

Duncan, P.M. 1866-72. A Monograph of British Fossil Corals. Palaeontographical Society. 13 species of Brockenhurst corals.

Duncan, P.M. 1868. First report on the British Fossil Corals. Report of the British Association for 1868, p. 70.

Duncan, P.M. 1882. On Asterosmilia Reedsi, a new species of coral from the Oligocene of Brockenhurst, Hants. Report of the British Association for 1881, pp 618-619.

Judd, J.W. 1881. On the occurrence of a cetacean in the Lower Oligocene strata of the Hampshire Basin. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 37, 708-712.

Judd, J.W. 1882. On the relations of the Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Hampshire Basin. Geological Magazine, 19, 284-285.

Moore, J.C. 1849. Notes on the occurrence of Eocene freshwater shells at Beaulieu, Langley etc .......... in Hampshire. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, v, 315.

Seeley, H.G. 1881. Note on a caudal vertebra of a cetacean discovered by Professor Judd in the Brockenhurst Beds, indicative of a new type allied to Balaenoptera (Balaenoptera Juddi). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 37, 709-714. Appendix to paper by Judd, 1881.

Tawney, E.B. 1882? On the outcrop of the Brockenhurst Bed near Lyndhurst - but check precise title. Report of the British Association for 1882, p. 540 - ?.

Tawney, E.B. 1883. On the outcrop of the Brockenhurst Bed near Lyndhurst (- but check precise title). Geological Magazine, decade 2, vol 10, 157-160.

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Stone Point, Lepe Beach.

Brown, R.C., Gilbertson, D.D., Green, C.P. and Keen, C.P. 1975. Stratigraphy and environmental significance of Pleistocene deposits at Stone Hampshire. Proceeding of the Geologists' Association., 86, 349-363.

Reynolds, P.J. 1987. Lepe Cliff: The Evidence for a Pre-Devensian Brickearth. In Barber, K. E. (ed.) Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide, Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, 21- 22.

Sanders, I. 1927. Ancient road from Purlieu to Lepe. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 10, Pt. 1, 35-39. Roman Road. Ancient gravel excavation at Pits Copse near Stone Farm. Once a small estuary here now infilled. Note that Dr Anthony Long has worked on the similar small estuary now infilled at Stanswood. Sanders suggested that the flats up to Stone Farm were once an open estuary up which vessels laden with stone were wont to sail. After unloading they required balast for the return voyage and here are the pits from which they took it, and the extent of the pits is evidence of of the large amount of traffic of which this was the scene.

West, R.G. and Sparks, B.W. (1960). Coastal interglacial deposits of the English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B.243, 95-133.

Also see other papers. Refer to Solent Estuarine System Bibliography. See also Barber field guide.

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Streams and Rivers

Bury, H. 1927. The rivers of the Hampshire Basin. Papers and Proceedings of Hampshire Field Club., 10, Pt.1, 1-11 (Watershed extends SSW from Longcross which is on the high plateau. Clement Reid's upper Avon extending SE to Southampton Water is discussed. )

Everard, C.E. 1957. The streams of the New Forest: a study in drainage evolution. Proceedings of Hampshire Field Club, 19, 240-252.

Shore, T.W. 1891. Springs and streams of Hampshire. Pap. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 2, 33-58. ( P. 46. Iron's well, at Fritham. Chalybeate with rapid oxidation its iron is deposited along the banks of the stream. Leper's Well. Later used for mangey dogs. Seems to have been still in use for dogs in 1891. )

Tremlett, W.E. 1964. The evolution of the Beaulieu drainage system in the southeastern New Forest. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club., 23, Part 2, 48-59. Applemore Gap. (Changes at 35 feet terrace level.)

Tuckfield, C.G. 1964. Gully erosion in the New Forest, Hampshire. American Journal of Science, 262, 795-807.

Tuckfield, C.G. 1973. A contribution to the study of erosion processes in the New Forest, Hampshire. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, London University, 277-332.

Tuckfield, C.G. 1980. Rejuvenation features in the Cadnam River basin in the New Forest. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society., 36, 5-13. ( Severe erosion now affecting many streams in the upper basin of the Cadnam River is caused by a cycle of rejuvation which apparently postdates the capture of that river bu the River Blackwater at 22m. Pulse of erosion is moving headward at approximately 2 m. per annum. Useful map of streams around the King's Garn Gutter, Coalmeer, Brook area etc.)

Tuckfield, C.G. 1980. Stream channel stability and forest drainage in the New Forest, Hampshire. Earth Surface Processes, 5, 317-329. Howen Bottom, Silver Stream, Akercome Bottom, Linford Bottom etc.

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Water Supply, Wells and Springs
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Brierly, J. 1890. New Forest water. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, No.4, 71-74. New Forest water at Malwood contains the humic acid - crenic acid and this corrodes pipes of metal. Iron dissolves as ferrous oxide leaving a shining surface and this is then further oxidised to red ferric oxide (precipitated).
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Shore , T.W. 1891. Springs and streams of Hampshire. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 2, 33-58. [P. 46. Iron's well, at Fritham. Chalybeate with rapid oxidation its iron is deposited along the banks of the stream. Leper's Well. Later used for mangy dogs. Seems to have been still in use for dogs in 1891.]
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Whitaker , W. 1910. The Water Supply of Hampshire. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain. [Reference to Iron's Well but not much new information.]

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Copyright © 2016 Ian West, Catherine West, Tonya Loades and Joanna Bentley. All rights reserved. This is a purely academic website and images and text may not be copied for publication or for use on other webpages or for any commercial activity. A reasonable number of images and some text may be used for non-commercial academic purposes, including field trip handouts, lectures, student projects, dissertations etc, providing source is acknowledged.

Disclaimer: Geological fieldwork involves some level of risk, which can be reduced by knowledge, experience and appropriate safety precautions. Persons undertaking field work should assess the risk, as far as possible, in accordance with weather, conditions on the day and the type of persons involved. In providing field guides on the Internet no person is advised here to undertake geological field work in any way that might involve them in unreasonable risk from cliffs, ledges, rocks, sea or other causes. Not all places need be visited and the descriptions and photographs here can be used as an alternative to visiting. Individuals and leaders should take appropriate safety precautions, and in bad conditions be prepared to cancell part or all of the field trip if necessary. Permission should be sought for entry into private land and no damage should take place. Attention should be paid to weather warnings, local warnings and danger signs. No liability for death, injury, damage to, or loss of property in connection with a field trip is accepted by providing these websites of geological information. Discussion of geological and geomorphological features, coast erosion, coastal retreat, storm surges etc are given here for academic and educational purposes only. They are not intended for assessment of risk to property or to life. No liability is accepted if this website is used beyond its academic purposes in attempting to determine measures of risk to life or property.

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Dr Ian West, author of these webpages

Webpage - written and produced by:


Ian West, M.Sc. Ph.D. F.G.S.

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at his private address, Romsey, Hampshire, kindly supported by Southampton University,and web-hosted by courtesy of iSolutions of Southampton University. The website does not necessarily represent the views of Southampton University. The website is written privately from home in Romsey, unfunded and with no staff other than the author, but generously and freely published by Southampton University. Field trips shown in photographs do not necessarily have any connection with Southampton University and may have been private or have been run by various organisations.