West, Ian M. 2017. Geology of the Solent Estuaries - Bibliography - General. Internet webpage - http://www.southampton.ac.uk/~imw/Solent-Bibliography-General.htm. Version: 25th June 2017.
Solent Bibliography - General

Ian West,
Romsey, Hampshire
and Visiting Scientist at:
Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences,
Southampton University
Website hosted by courtesy of Isolutions, Southampton University

Home and List of Webpages | |Solent Introduction |Solent Bibliography - General |Lepe Beach and Stone Point |Lymington, Keyhaven and West Solent Shores |Submerged Forest, Hayling Island |Erratics of the Hampshire - Sussex Coastal Plain |Map of the Solent River Buried Valley |Borehole Data - Solent Estuarine System |Solent - Chilling Cliff, Brownwich Cliff and Hill Head |Fawley Power Station |Hurst Spit |Highcliff and Barton Geology |Hordle Cliff and Milford-on-Sea |Highcliffe, Barton and Hordle - Bibliography |Isle of Wight Geology - Bibliography |New Forest Geology Guide| |New Forest Geological Bibliography|

Click here for the full LIST OF WEBPAGES

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Solent Bibliography - books

Publication on the Southampton No. 1 Geothermal Well: Geological Well Completion Report, 1982 - available from British Geological Survey

Marchwood No.1 and Southampton No.1 borehole logs




The bibliography is on the geology etc relating to the Solent Estuarine System. These estuaries are near the centre of the south coast of southern England. They include Southampton Water, the West Solent, the Spithead, Portsmouth Harbour, Langstone Harbour and Chichester Harbour and several minor estuaries. The largest city in the area is Southampton, although Portsmouth is also large. The Solent and Spithead separate the Isle of Wight from the Hampshire mainland. The strata under the estuaries are mainly Tertiary (Palaeocene, Eocene and Oligocene) with Pleistocene and Holocene deposits above. Cretaceous Chalk cliffs are present on the Isle of Wight at the Needles in the west and Culver Cliff in the East. These Chalk headlands form effective limits to the estuaries.

This first part of the bibliography is an introductory section of selected references in a continuous list, undivided. It continues as a bibliography arranged under topics, with an index. The first part, this page, is at present more up-to-date, and the second part will be revised when time permits. For publications under topics see the - Solent Bibliography - Topics (Second Section)




Websites Relating to the Solent Estuaries - Associated (Please proceed further down for the literature bibliography)

Lepe Beach, the Solent, Hampshire. West, I.M. 2006. Lepe Beach and Stone Point, Hampshire. Internet field guide. http://www.southampton.ac.uk/~imw/Lepe-Beach.htm. Lepe Beach is situated southeast of the New Forest and is the closest mainland coast to the Isle of Wight. There are exposures here of Devensian Gravel (Pleistocene) overlying, at one location, an Ipswhichian Interglacial deposit with elephant remains, and a lower and older gravel. Beneath the Pleistocene gravels are the clays of the Headon Hill Formation (Solent Group), although exposures are small. On the beach at Lepe are various rocks which have been brought in for sea-defences, as balast, from shipwrecks, or transported for building purposes. These include much Bembridge Limestone, Purbeck Stone including a dinosaur footprint, and Carboniferous Limestone.

Solent Shores Field Trip

Submerged Forest, Hayling Island

Erratics of the Hampshire - Sussex Coastal Plain

Map of the Solent River Buried Valley

Borehole Data - Solent Estuarine System

Fawley Power Station

Highcliff, Barton and Hordle Cliff

Isle of Wight Geology - Bibliography

New Forest Geology Guide|

New Forest Geology Bibliography|

Some Websites Relating to the Solent Estuaries - External

(Please proceed further down for the literature bibliography)

Solent Forum. This site provides information on the work of the Solent Forum and its member organisations. The Forum is a regional coastal body that was established in 1992, to improve the management of the Solent and its coastline.

Publications of Solent Forum.

Newsletter of Solent Forum. Available online. This newsletter contains many varied and interesting, short articles regarding the Solent. Although they are rarely geological, they often deal with coastal erosion, gravel extraction, historic changes and other matters related to geology. Each issue online contains a table of contents. Forthcoming issues are to be in PDF format. The titles and commencement of a few example articles are given below:

Guidance on the Extraction by Dredging of Sand, Gravel and Other Minerals from the English Seabed. Newsletter of Solent Forum, September, 2002. Marine sand and gravel makes an important contribution to meeting the nation's demand for construction aggregate materials. It is particularly important in London and the South East of England, where it accounts for almost a third of the total regional demand for sand and gravel. To ensure that extraction does not cause unacceptable adverse impacts, a range of controls have been imposed on dredging activities. Currently, dredging licences are issued by the Crown Estate. A non-statutory "Government View" (GV) procedure was introduced in 1968, under which a licence is only issued if the Government has indicated that it is content that the impacts on the environment of the proposed dredging activity are acceptable... continues.

Spit Dynamics and Coastal Management at East Head. Newsletter of Solent Forum, September, 2002. East Head spit at the entrance to Chichester harbour has a long history of change and there has been recent concern about a repeat of the 1963 breach. To address these concerns Marine Environmental Research led a multidisciplinary study involving a number of organisations including HR Wallingford Ltd, Geosea (Canada) Ltd and the University of Portsmouth. Careful study of historical information indicates that the onset of this change predates the majority of the defences. This underlines the fact that most of the current sediment supply problems result from a longer term reduction over the late Holocene period...continues.

Digital Mapping of the Historic Coastline Of Hampshire. Newsletter of Solent Forum. Hampshire County Council has commissioned Wessex Archaeology to undertake digital mapping of the historic coastline of Hampshire. The work involved digitising the lines of the high and low water marks as shown on two Admiralty charts (dated 1781 and 1847), four periods of Ordnance Survey mapping (between 1843 and the 1960s), and the modern 'landline' OS data. The main outcome is a digital database that has been incorporated into the County Council’s Geographical Information System...continues.

The Cumulative Effects of Offshore Marine Aggregate Extraction. Newsletter of Solent Forum. Scoping Study by the Isle of Wight Centre for the Coastal Environment. The extraction of marine aggregates for the construction industry has proved to be an emotive issue throughout the SCOPAC region (Lyme Regis to Worthing including the Isle of Wight) due to the large number of licensed areas within its coastal waters. Concerns have been raised in relation to the cumulative effects of aggregate extraction on coastal processes, the benthic environment, fisheries and maritime archaeology...continues.

Keyhaven and Pennington Marshes. Newsletter of Solent Forum. Gravel extraction and landfilling at Manor Farm Pennington, granted planning permission in the 1970s, has in recent years reached the boundary of Keyhaven and Pennington Marshes, an important coastal nature reserve owned and managed by Hampshire County Council. Last October the marshes were designated as a Special Protection Area, and the lagoons became a candidate Special Area of Conservation...continues.

Maps of the Solent. Part of Solent Forum Website. This includes maps on bathymetry, oceanography and ancient monuments around the Solent. Specific examples include: Oil Licences in the English Channel; Shoreline Management Plans; Marine Aggregate Extraction. Coastal Scheduled Ancient Monuments.

Oil and Gas - Strategic Guidance for the Solent. Part of Solent Forum Website. Long-term aim: 'to resist oil or gas exploration within the Solent, unless it could be carried out with no harm to the established interests or the environment'...continues.

Hampshire County Council, Museums and Archives: Geology. What do we have ? Over 17,000 catalogued Hampshire rocks and fossils, the majority of which were collected during the past 50 years; numerous rocks, minerals and fossils from elsewhere in the British Isles, mostly collected more than 100 years ago; a comprehensive library containing, books, publications, borehole logs, maps, site plans and photographs..continues.

Hampshire County Council. Geological Localities in Hampshire. Permanent geological exposures provide the best opportunities for collecting. These are most frequently found along the coast particularly where sea cliffs are continuously eroding. Away from the coast permanent exposures are much more difficult to find and are usually the result of river water erosion, active quarrying operations and engineering projects. Overgrown geological sections in cuttings and disused quarries may also offer access to stratigraphy and provide good representative geological specimens but these well-visited sites can be a disappointing source of fossils...continues.

. Recent coastal protection and associated temporary exposures to the Middle Eocene coastal sections at Lee-on-the-Solent, Gosport, Hampshire. by D.J. Kemp M.Phil, Keeper of Geology Hampshire County Council Museums Service, October 1999. Recent coastal protection work at Lee-on-the-Solent, Gosport, Hampshire has had a substantial effect on the foreshore. This paper examines the impact on this nationally important Middle Eocene, (Barton and Bracklesham Group), geological Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). The changes to this site before, during and after contract completion and the long-term effects are examined. The engineering impact is discussed, additional geological and palaeontological data is recorded and two comprehensive faunal lists are given... [continues].

Hampshire County Council - Geology - Quaternary Period. The Quaternary period began with the Pleistocene stage approximately 1.64 million years ago. This stage is represented by superficial deposits of sand, mud/clay and particularly terraced gravels, which were the by-product of water erosion and changes in sea level during the various interglacial episodes at this time. The Holocene (or post-glacial) stage began 0.01 million years ago and still continues...

Hampshire County Council - Geology - Fareham Area. Access to the geology of the Paleogene (Ypresian & Lutetian stages) and Cretaceous (Campanian stage) underlying the Fareham area is mostly restricted to overgrown quarries, rail cuttings and engineering contracts. Outfall construction site near Fareham These localities include the former chalk quarry excavated in the Campanian stage at Downend Lane; temporary excavations in the Ypresian Stage at the former Burlsedon brickworks site at Swanwick; construction of Peel Common sewage works; and pipe excavation work between Tanners Lane and Peak Lane... [continues]

The Southampton Mineral and Fossil Society (SMFS) - Fossil Page. This features news and fossils from the South Coast of England, one of the richest and most diverse areas in the country. The SMFS Fossil Page has generated the most interest from visitors. The campaign to reinstate the SSSI at Lee-on-the Solent has resulted in removal of some of the shingle placed on the beach but the exposures are still not fully uncovered. We wait to see what the winter storms will do. The page will continue to feature the fossils found at Lee, for the moment, as these have been so popular... [continues]. Fossils from the Eocene exposures at Lee-on-the-Solent. Just before the beach re-nourishment was started this piece of jaw with two teeth belonging to Anchelophus sp. [see the good photograph], a primitive horse, was discovered by SMFS member Jean Hole. This extremely rare early mammal fossil has not yet been described and there is no longer any possibility of examining the exposure for further material... [continues]

Southampton Mineral and Fossil Society. Extract from a section of this website (copied some time in the past): The following is part of the Fossil Page section of this Web Site on: Death of a Fossil Site - Lee-on-the-Solent, Hampshire. This site is an important Middle Eocene exposure and famous for the variety of fossils that can be found. Such is the importance of this site that it was confirmed as an SSSI by English Nature. This site has now been destroyed by Gosport Borough Council. They have completely covered the exposure with large limestone blocks and backfilled with gravel dredged from the Solent. The following extract is from English Nature. "The important site at Lee-on-the-Solent yielded the first British bird fossils of mid-Eocene age. The avifauna includes type material for five species, and shows the continuity of typical Lower Eocene families such as Rallidae and the Phasianidae; one of only a few locations to yield a mid-Eocene avifauna." ..... ":The site is particularly rich in sharks teeth. Thirty-seven species of shark are recorded, including nineteen rays and five species of chimaeroids. This locality yields the unique species Alopias leeensis and a chimaeroid, Elasmodus kempi. Chimaeroids, poorly known cartilaginous fish are rarely found as fossils and the site yields important evidence of the order. Seventy-seven species of teleost have been recorded here, forty-five of these from otoliths. " -- See the SMFS Web Site for photographs of the reclamation work and for images of sharks teeth and other details.

Isle of Wight Nostalgia - Geology. How the Island was formed. The oldest rocks visible on the Island which contain the bones of reptiles, including dinosaurs, were laid down about 110 million years ago when the English Channel and much of southern England formed part of the valley of a large river. Later the area sank and was invaded by a gradually deepening sea which laid down sands and clays. As the sea became deeper a new type of deposit was laid down; the Chalk. This is a limestone formed from the fossilised skeletons of microscopic planktonic algae. Over millions of years the slow accumulation of their remains built up the great thickness of Chalk that we can see in Tennyson Down...continues.

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Advisory Committee on Sand and Gravel. 1950. Part 5 Wessex. 43 pp. H.M.S.O. London.
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Alduc, D. , Auffret, J.P., Carpentier, G., Lautridou, J.P., Lefebvre, D. et Porcher, M. 1979. Nouvelle donnees sur le Pleistocene de la basse vallee de la Seine et son prolongement sous-marin en Manche Orientale. Bulletin d'Information des Geologues du Bassin de Paris, 16, 27-34. [New information on the Pleistocene of the lower valley of the River Seine and its sub-marine extension in the eastern English Channel. (Of relevance because the Solent River system connected during Pleistocene glacials with the English Channel extension of the River Seine. See also Allen and Gibbard, 1994.)]
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Algan, O. , Clayton, T., Tranter, M. and Collins, M.B. 1994. Estuarine mixing of clay minerals in the Solent region, southern England. Sedimentary Geology, 92, 241-256. The clay mineral composition of the fine fraction (less than 2 microns) of sediments from the Solent Estuarine System was determined by X-ray diffraction, in order to understand the origin, distribution and transport pathways of fine-grained sediments within this environment. The spatial distribution of clay minerals in the region is shown to be due to estuarine mixing processes. Riverine input from the rivers Itchen, Test, and Hamble is characterised by high smectite content and a low kaolinite plus chlorite to illite ratio. This input is believed to contain a substantial contribution of clays minerals derived from the Chalk. These fluvially derived clay minerals are mixed with a second clay mineral suite of marine origin, containing lower smectite and a higher kaolinite plus chlorite to illite ratio. The clays minerals in the marine suite are believed to be derived mainly from Tertiary and/or Recent sediments by the reworking of bed material within the estuaries, or by tidal currents and wave erosion of coastal outcrops. Mixing between these two sources occurs as a result of estuarine circulation dynamics.
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Allen, D.J. , Barker,J. A., and Downing, R. A. 1983. The production test and resource assessment of the Southampton (Western Esplanade) Geothermal Well. Reports of the Institute of Geological Science, Investigation of the Geothermal Potential of the UK. Also: Institute of Geological Science and Department of Energy. 1983. Southampton No. 1 Composite Log, Scale 1:500 Large concertina-folded borehole log. Also Institute of Geological Sciences and Department of Energy. 1980. Marchwood No. 1 Composite Log, Scale 1:500. Compiled by the Deep Geology Unit, Institute of Geological Science. Large concertina-folded borehole log. See: Institute of Geological Sciences for more information.

Allen, L.G . 1991. The Evolution of the Solent River System during the Pleistocene. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge.

Allen, L.G. and Gibbard, P.L. 1993. Pleistocene evolution of the Solent River of southern England. Quaternary Science Reviews, Elsevier, 12, 503-528. Authors are both from the Subdepartment of Quaternary Research, Botany School, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EA, UK. Abstract: The Solent River no longer exists since most of its course was drowned by eustatic sea level rise during the Flandrian Stage (Holocene). Previously, it flowed eastwards across southeast Dorset and south Hampshire as an extension of the River Frome. As such, it formed the axial major stream of the Hampshire Basin. A sequence of fluvial aggradations, ranging in height from 125 m O.D. to below sea level, provide evidence of the former courses of this substantial river and its tributaries. Detailed study of the deposits, supported by analysis of clast lithological assemblages provide the basis for the recognition of a series of lithostratigraphical units throughout the area. The facies and sedimentary structures indicate that the bulk of the deposits accumulated in a braided river environment under periglacial climates. Late Pleistocene fossiliferous sediments of Ipswichian and Flandrian age provide a biostratigraphical framework.The results demonstrate that the Solent River was a substantial system, comparable in size to the present Thames, and was a tributary ofthe 'Channel River' during periods of low sea level (cold stages). Evolution of the river reflects its response to climatic change, local geological structure and long term tectonic activity. Although datable deposits limit determination of the age of the Solent River sequence, it is undoubtedly of considerable antiquity and potentially extends back to the Early Pleistocene. Discussion of the sequence includes placing the events within their regional context. [End of abstract. - Notes: This is an important paper on the Pleistocene deposits of the southern Hampshire Basin. Many gravel terraces are recognised and named, but are not correlated in detail with the numbered terraces of the British Geological Survey (Southampton and Bournemouth sheets). The paper includes discussion of the following gravel terraces in the Bournemouth-Southampton area from lowest to highest: Pennington Gravel (Pennington near Lymington, and with Ipswichian Interglacial deposits); Lepe Lower Gravel (Lepe Beach, under the Interglacial deposit, pre-Ipswichian); North End Copse / Holdenhurst Gravel; Pennington Gravel / Burton Rough Gravel/ Southbourne Gravel; ; Lepe Upper Gravel (Lepe Beach, Devensian); Milford-on-Sea Gravel / Bransgore Gravel /Knighton Lodge Gravel; Stanswood Bay Gravel / West Southbourne Gravel / Taddiford Farm Gravel / High Cliff Gravel / Ensbury Park Gravel; Tom's Down Gravel (near Fawley); Old Milton Gravel; Mount Pleasant Gravel; Setley Plain Gravel (New Forest); Beaulieu Heath Gravel (New Forest); Tiptoe Gravel; Sway Gravel; Holmsley Ridge Gravel (western New Forest); Whitefield Hill Gravel. The Wareham-Dorchester Pleistocene gravels are also discussed. The paper includes interesting data on gravel composition, mostly flint and chert and including the presence of Portland Rhaxella chert and oolitic chert and Upper Greensand chert.]

Allen, L.G., Gibbard, P.L., Pettit, M.E., Preece, R.C. and Robinson, J.E. 1996. Late Pleistocene interglacial deposits at Pennington Marshes, Lymington, Hampshire, southern England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, vol. 107, 39-50. By Lorraine G. Allen, Phillip L. Gibbard, Mary E. Pettit, Richard C. Preece and J. Eric Robinson (First three authors from the Subdepartment of Quaternary Research, Botany School, University of Cambridge; Preece from University Museum of Zoology, University of Cambridge and Robinson from Department of Geology, University College, London.). Abstract: Fossiliferous organic sediments interstratified within fluvial gravels at Pennington Marshes, Lymington, have been recovered in boreholes and investigated. The organic deposit, here defined as the Pennington Organic Bed, occurs between -3.9 to -5.3 m OD and has been traced 200 m across the immediate area. Pollen analyses indicate a temperate flora of interglacial character. Molluscan and ostracod assemblages contain no brackish elements and are typical of a shallow, freshwater stream or abandoned channel. A change from an aquatic to a terrestrial molluscan fauna indicates progressive drying out of the water body. The Pennington Organic Bed cannot be confidently attributed to any particular stage, but since it occurs within a lower terrace than that at Stone Point, 15 km to the NE, it is probably younger and an early Ipswichian age (Ip Ha?) is suggested. The Pennington Lower Gravel, below the organic deposit, is therefore probably Wolstonian and the Pennington Upper Gravel, above them, Devensian in age. The estuarine interglacial deposits at Stone Point, previously believed to have been Ipswichian, are likely to belong to an earlier stage. It is possible, although less likely, that they accumulated during a later part of the Ipswichian as the transgression aggraded to the level of the higher terrace surface. Similarly, if the gravels at Stone Point resulted from a tributary river, rather than the Solent River itself, this could also explain the altimetric differences and allow the organic deposits to be attributed to different parts of the same stage. However, there is no evidence to support either of these alternative possibilities.

Allen, M.J. and Gardiner, J. 2002. Langstone Harbour. Shorter Contributions in: Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, vol. 123 for 2001, pp. 101-121. [Notes on an archaeological survey of the Harbour, with references. Submerged forests 3350-2910 cal BC and 2310-1950 cal. BC. The old river system was shallow and existed in the Bronze Age.]

Allen, L.G. and Gibbard, P.L. 1993. Pleistocene evolution of the Solent River of southern England. Quaternary Science Reviews, Elsevier, 12, 503-528. Authors are both from the Subdepartment of Quaternary Research, Botany School, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EA, UK. Abstract: The Solent River no longer exists since most of its course was drowned by eustatic sea level rise during the Flandrian Stage (Holocene). Previously, it flowed eastwards across southeast Dorset and south Hampshire as an extension of the River Frome. As such, it formed the axial major stream of the Hampshire Basin. A sequence of fluvial aggradations, ranging in height from 125 m O.D. to below sea level, provide evidence of the former courses of this substantial river and its tributaries. Detailed study of the deposits, supported by analysis of clast lithological assemblages provide the basis for the recognition of a series of lithostratigraphical units throughout the area. The facies and sedimentary structures indicate that the bulk of the deposits accumulated in a braided river environment under periglacial climates. Late Pleistocene fossiliferous sediments of Ipswichian and Flandrian age provide a biostratigraphical framework.The results demonstrate that the Solent River was a substantial system, comparable in size to the present Thames, and was a tributary ofthe 'Channel River' during periods of low sea level (cold stages). Evolution of the river reflects its response to climatic change, local geological structure and long term tectonic activity. Although datable deposits limit determination of the age of the Solent River sequence, it is undoubtedly of considerable antiquity and potentially extends back to the Early Pleistocene. Discussion of the sequence includes placing the events within their regional context. [End of abstract. - Notes: This is an important paper on the Pleistocene deposits of the southern Hampshire Basin. Many gravel terraces are recognised and named, but are not correlated in detail with the numbered terraces of the British Geological Survey (Southampton and Bournemouth sheets). The paper includes discussion of the following gravel terraces in the Bournemouth-Southampton area from lowest to highest: Pennington Gravel (Pennington near Lymington, and with Ipswichian Interglacial deposits); Lepe Lower Gravel (Lepe Beach, under the Interglacial deposit, pre-Ipswichian); North End Copse / Holdenhurst Gravel; Pennington Gravel / Burton Rough Gravel/ Southbourne Gravel; ; Lepe Upper Gravel (Lepe Beach, Devensian); Milford-on-Sea Gravel / Bransgore Gravel /Knighton Lodge Gravel; Stanswood Bay Gravel / West Southbourne Gravel / Taddiford Farm Gravel / High Cliff Gravel / Ensbury Park Gravel; Tom's Down Gravel (near Fawley); Old Milton Gravel; Mount Pleasant Gravel; Setley Plain Gravel (New Forest); Beaulieu Heath Gravel (New Forest); Tiptoe Gravel; Sway Gravel; Holmsley Ridge Gravel (western New Forest); Whitefield Hill Gravel. The Wareham-Dorchester Pleistocene gravels are also discussed. The paper includes interesting data on gravel composition, mostly flint and chert and including the presence of Portland Rhaxella chert and oolitic chert and Upper Greensand chert.]
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Akeroyd, A . 1972. Archaeological and historical evidence for subsidence in southern Britain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A272, 15169.
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Anderson, F.W. 1933. The new docks excavations, Southampton. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 12, 169-176.

The New Docks Excavations, Southampton
By F.W. Anderson, M.Sc.

During the earlier stages of the construction of New Docks at Southampton a large number of excavations and borings were made into the Bracklesham Beds underlying the peat, gravel and river mud of the River Test. These new docks, which are being built by the Southern Railway Company, are situated on the east bank of the Test and lie north of the existing docks. There is to be a large quay, 7,000ft. long, which will cut across a bay of the river which stretches from the Royal Pier to Millbrook Point. This will mean the draining of some 400 acres of mud-banks lying within the bay, and filling in the drained area with tipped material, thus making a large area of reclaimed land stretching from the new quay wall to the West Station.
Also, an approach channel is to be dredged from the existing deep channel near the Ocean Dock to and alongside the new quays. At the western end, near Millbrook Station, two new graving docks are proposed, one of which is now in the course of construction.
The first important dock construction in Southampton was that of the Outer Dock opened in 1842. This was followed by the Inner Dock, the Empress Dock and four graving docks. The Empress Dock, which was opened in 1890, was the first of the large excavations which have yielded so much valuable information to the Geologist. Until the new quays were constructed the deepest dock was the great Ocean Dock opened in 1912 to accommodate the enormous Atlantic liners: it has a depth of 40ft. at low tide. Fortunately the excavation of the Empress Dock, from 1887 to 1889, was carefully watched by that indefatigable observer T. W. Shore, the originator, and for many years the secretary of the Hampshire Field Club. Mr. Shore published a detailed account of the excavations in the Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club in 1889. (The New Dock Excavation at Southampton, by T. W. Shore, F.G.S., F.C.S., and J. W. Elwes, Proceedings Hampshire Field Club, 1889, pp. 43-56.)
The present workings have been closely watched by Professor W. Rae Sherriffs and myself since the beginning of the excavations and we are grateful for this opportunity to place, on record the valuable information thus acquired.
My best thanks are also due to the Southern Railway Engineers, Mr. Wentworth-Shields and his staff, who have offered every facility to observe the construction of these docks and collect data and specimens. The greater part of the sections accompanying this paper was constructed from information supplied by him.... [continues]


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Anonymous. 1840. Providential Escape of the Village of Keyhaven from Destruction.
Lymington, November 21st 1840 (referring to a hurricane on the previous Friday). Hants Advertiser (Hampshire Advertiser, published in Southampton). (Article kindly contributed by J.J. Greenwood, the New Forest historian)

The hurricane on Friday caused the highest flood that has ever been known to occur at Keyhaven, near this place, and so suddenly did it come on that all the houses were so feet deep in water before the furniture could be removed. The marsh was strewed with the wreck of pales, gates, boats, gear etc. and the farmers have sustained considerable losses in corn and other stock. All this, one would suppose was a sufficent calamity for one season, but no! the worst of it was not then known - for on Saturday morning it appeared that an awful breach had been made in bank near Saltgrass [i.e. near Saltgrass Lane at the Milford End of Hurst Spit; the 1979 and 1989 breaches were in this part], and for want of being immediately repaired, it increased considerably - inasmuch that at 3 o'clock on Sunday morning Colonel Hawker who happened to be at his cottage at Keyhaven at the time, was called up with an alarm of
"the water, the water - for God's sake, get up, Sir."
The sea at that time was up to the door of the colonel's cottage, though in a dead calm with a white frost. We said fortunate that Colonel Hawker happened to be present at the time - it was indeed so for the inhabitants of the neighbourhood that day that he was present, to bring his powerful energies, his coolness and experience to the rescue. He waded through the water, already of considerable depth to rouse the inhabitants, to point out the impending danger and the proper means of averting it. He not only directed what was best to be done but stood to the work himself for hours together, and encouraged, assisted and supported the collected labourers until the breach was secured. On Monday, Mr. Ingram (a clever man) was sent to make the necessary repairs, but for want of earlier notice he could not have the piles etc. prepared, and therefore could not make a beginning, before one o'clock. On his arrival at that time no marl was provided, and so little prospect appeared of getting any in time that the business was in danger of being wholly suspended. In this emergency Col. Hawker availed himself of the postman's cart, which chanced to be at the spot and drove with all speed to Mrs. Whitby, the lady of the manor, stating to her the probable destruction of the whole village, if a gale should arise whilst this breach remained in its chief barrier. The lady instantly put all her men and horses to work, and before nine o'clock on Tuesday morning the quantity of marl required had arrived - "all hands" having worked night and day, and to this promptness in according Col. Hawker's exertions the inhabitants of that locality owe the safety of their lives and property. On Tuesday the work began with 12 able men, and as many others as could be collected; it poured with rain the whole day, inasmuch that had not the colonel headed the party and cheered them on himself, and causing them to have good refreshments, they would have sunk under their work; and as it was he had to use some persuasion to make them fill up the bank to the top. But as providentially happened, this was completed by two o'clock; about four there came on a wind from the south that threatened everything to alarm us. At five the wind rose to the most tremendous hurricane ever remembered here by the oldest person; and by seven the houses were all in waves, and in utter darkness. The tide did not recede until two hours after its time, and in short, the village remained til 10 o'clock in awful jeopardy; and the with the prospect of an accumulated sea at the morning flood after five. But, as the Almighty ordered it, the wind changed soon after midnight, and put an end to the alarm. Had this breach not been replaced just in time, the whole bank must have gone and would never have restored quick enough to save the village because a moderate flood every 12 hours would have washed away the work done during the ebb; and it is very improbable with such a breach, that the water would have gone off low enough to admit of a foundation being laid and Keyhaven and all the farms and property there must have become one complete wreck!? Colonel Hawker had his punts all afloat in his yard ready to rescue his guns, and the inmates of the cottages, in case the new work of the breach should have gone; but through Mr. Ingram's indefatigable exertions it stood, and thank God, all has ended in a change of wind and perfect safety. It is, no doubt, known to most of our readers, that Keyhaven is the winter shooting station of the gallant colonel, where he keeps up a complete establishment for wild fowl shooting.
Hants Advertiser


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Anonymous. 1855. The new Portsmouth, Southsea, Anglesey & Hayling Island guide: comprising a description of the Dockyard...: to which is added a complete hand book to the beauties of the Isle of Wight. 1855. 8th ed.
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Anonymous . 1978. U.K. production booms onshore too. International Petroleum Times, May 15th, 1978, p.8.
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ApSimon, A., Gamble, C. and Shackley, D.M. 1977. Pleistocene raised beaches on Ports Down, Hampshire. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 33, 17-32. Summary: Three raised beach exposures on Ports Down between Fareham and Portsmouth, are described. Two of the exposures indicate a transgression reaching c.37.5-38.5 m above H.W.M., which is equated with the Goodwood (Sussex) raised beach, for which archaeological evidence suggests a Hoxnian Interglacial age, the third indicates a transgression to c.16 m., equated with the Portland raised beach.

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Bale, R.B.A. 1984. Mineralogical and Geochemical studies of Upper Eocene Sediments in the Hampshire Basin of Southern England. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, 483 pp. plus plates and appendix. By Professor Rafiu Babatunde Adetunji Bale ["Tunde Bale"]. April 1984. [mostly on the Barton Group and Headon Hill Formation of the Barton-on-Sea to Milford-on-Sea coast and the coastal sections of Alum Bay and Whitecliff Bay, Isle of Wight]. [This is a very impressive and very large thesis.]
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Barber, K.E. 1987, Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide. Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge. Prepared to accompany the Annual Field Meeting held at Southampton and Cowes, 21-25 April, 1987. 180 pp. paperback. Edited and compiled by Professor Keith Barber, Department of Geography, Southampton University. With 20 contributions mostly relevant to the Solent area, the New Forest and the Isle of Wight.
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Barker, D. 1972. The ostracods. Appendix to Hodson and West: The Holocene deposits of Fawley, Hampshire and the development of Southampton Water. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 83, 438. By Dennis Barker.

Barker, D. 1974. Eocene ostracods from the Fawley Transmission Tunnel. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 85, 387-389.
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Barker, J.A. [et al.?] 1988. Monitoring and modelling of the Southampton geothermal reservoir: progress report [first progress report]. (2 copies in Southampton University, Hartley Library, Cope Collection, Quarto, SOU 66.5.)

Barker, J.A. [et al.?] 1989. Monitoring and modelling of the Southampton geothermal reservoir: progress report [second progress report?]. (2 copies in Southampton University, Hartley Library, Cope Collection, Quarto, SOU 66.5.)

Barker, J.A., Bird, M.J. and Darling, W.G. > 1989. Monitoring and modelling of the Southampton geothermal reservoir, 3: third progress report. By J.A. Barker, M.J. Bird, and W.G. Darling. British Geological Survey, Hydrogeology series; 89/31. 19pp. (2 copies in Southampton University, Hartley Library, Cope Collection, Quarto, SOU 66.5.)

Barker, J.A., Rowe, W.G.E., Bird, M.J. and Darling W.G. 1991. Monitoring and modelling of the Southampton geothermal reservoir, 4: Final Report. By J.A. Barker, Rowe, W.G.E, Bird, M.J. and Darling, W.G.. British Geological Survey, Hydrogeology series. 71pp. (2 copies in Southampton University, Hartley Library, Cope Collection, Quarto, SOU 66.5.)
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Barton, M.E. 1973. The degradation of the Barton Clay cliffs of Hampshire. Quarterly Journal Engineering Geology, 6, 423-440. [A key paper. By Professor Max Barton of Southampton University, the expert on the Engineering Geology aspects of the Barton cliffs.]

Barton, M.E. 1978. Engineering geology applied to dock and harbour engineering in Southampton Water. By M.E. Barton, Department of Civil Engineering, The University, Southampton SO9 5NH. Read at: Regional meeting of the Engineering Group of the Geological Society, London, 21pp. Abstract: A brief survey of the main dock and harbour engineering works in the estuary of Southampton Water is given with particular emphasis on the development of the Port of Southampton. The geology of Southampton Water is reviewed in terms of the lithology of the main formations and the recent geological history. An outline is given of the geotechnical characteristics of the various formations with some quantitative results, although much soil testing is still required. Particular applications of the engineering geology selected for description are those for which detailed studies of the geology contribute significantly to both the design and construction of the engineering works. Particular engineering works and problems treated include foundations for quay walls and dry docks, control of artesian pore pressures, selection of berthing areas and channels, stability of slopes including underwater slopes, dredging and the characteristics of the reclaimed lands. Those aspects of the geology which are of the most help in respect of these various engineering works and problems are the geological structure and lithological characteristics of the Bracldesham Beds, the nature of the sub- Pleistocene erosion surface, the nature and disposition of the superficial deposits, the geohydrology, and the recent evolutionary history of the estuary.

Barton, M.E. and Roche, M.H. 1984. A geological appraisal of the site of the foundation failure of the giant oil tanks at Fawley, Hampshire. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, London, 17, 307-318. Abstract: Two giant oil tanks (79.3m diameter by 19.5m high) were constructed at Fawley in 1967-68. The tanks were founded on a reinforced concrete slab supported by piles of varying lengths taken through alluvium and end-bearing in Valley Gravel which overlies Barton Clay (Eocene). Totals of 1580 and 1652 piles, respectively were used for each tank. The foundations failed during water-loading tests with a maximum depression of 0.425m in one of the reinforced concrete slabs. Post-mortem examination of the foundations revealed defects in a number of the piles, and after further tests and investigations, Professor G.A. Leonards concluded that the failure was due to defective piles... The success of the original design was critically dependent on the geology. Particular problems on which attention was focussed included the continuity and thickness of the gravels, their variation in density, the character of the interface between Valley Gravel and Barton Clay and the lithological variations within the alluvium. These problems are examined here in relation to the existing geological knowledge of the region. Of particular significance is the conclusion that, in part, the variation in density within the gravels is due to the existence of Flandrian gravel overlying Pleistocene terrace gravel. Isopachytes of the gravels have been drawn along with contours on the upper and lower surfaces. These are compared with the settlement contours of the failed foundation slab and it is concluded that there is no correlation between them.
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Bates, M.R. , Parfitt, SA and Roberts, M.B. 1997. The chronology, palaeogeography and archaeological significance of the marine Quaternary record of the West Sussex coastal plain, southern England, UK. Quaternary Science Reviews, 16, 1227-1252.

Bates, M.R. 2001. The meeting of the waters: raised beaches and river gravels of the Sussex coastal plain / Hampshire Basin. In: Wenban-Smith, F.F. and Hosfield, R.T. (Editors) 2001. Palaeolithic Archaeology of the Solent River. Lithic Studies Society Occasional Paper, No. 7, 2001, 111pp. Proceedings of the Lithic Studies Society day meeting held at the Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton on Saturday 15th January 2000.
Abstract:
Integrating Pleistocene sediments from continental systems and the marine stratigraphic record is a key objective for Quaternary science. In many cases correlation of these records is only possible through comparison of proxy records. However, this objective may be realised in those areas of the world where marine marginal sediments occur in close proximity to terrestrial fluvial deposits in the lower reaches of major river valleys. One such location is the Sussex/Hampshire corridor in southern England. Pleistocene sediments within the area of the former Solent River system and the West Sussex Coastal Plain are evidence for a wide variety of different depositional systems ranging from temperate flood plains and marine beaches to cold climate braided river channels. These deposits may contain archaeological material such as handaxes as well as faunal and floral remains. The proximity of sediments of both temperate and cold climate types within the lower reaches of the modern major river valleys should allow correlation between the temperate and cold climate stratigraphic records in this area. This evidence may be used to link the marine and fluvial stratigraphic records. This paper describes the nature of the different types of evidence from the Sussex/Hampshire corridor and considers some of the problems and pitfalls in the use of this information in the construction of an integrated stratigraphic frameworkfor the area.
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BERR. (Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, British Government). Undated. Geothermal Energy. pdf file. This outlines the principles of using geothermal energy in the UK. It is relevant to the Marchwood No.1 and the Southampton Geothermal Well.
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Birch, B.P. 1964. Soils. In: A Survey of Southampton and its Region. (F.J. Monkhouse, ed.), pp. 66-72. British Association for the Advancement of Science, Southampton.
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Bloodworth, K. 1979. Cruel sea breaches Hurst shingle bank. Southern Evening Echo, newspaper for Thursday 15 February. [Hurst Spit or Hurst Castle Spit, at Milford-on-Sea, Hampshire, at the western end of the West Solent.]
"Hurst shingle bank at the entrance to the Solent was breached by heavy seas yesterday and bulldozers stood by in case of any further break-throughs. Twenty foot waves rolled in from the Christchurch Ledge" and lunchtime's high water was the highest of the week. Huge waves crashed over the spit. Flooding was reported along the Milford sea front near the Marine Cafe and shingle was hurled into the road.
The breach was at New Lane, Keyhaven, the weakest part of the spit. New Forest Council have just finished re-building and reinforcing the bank with hundreds of tons of stone after the December [1978] gales when the spit was breached in several spots and the bank was pushed backwards in places up to 40ft [12m]." [end of article]
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Bone, A. and Bone, D. 1985. Fossils from Bracklesham to Selsey. Private Publication, 32 pp. 8 pls. Chichester.

Bone, D.A. and James, J.P. 1975. Report of field meeting to Chichester Harbour, Sussex. Tertiary Times, 2/3, 99-100.


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Boswell, K.C. A detailed profile of the river Test. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, 57, 102-116.
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Bowen, D.Q. 1979. Quaternary correlations. Nature, London, 277, 171172.
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Bradley, C.A. , MacDonald, A.T. and Webber, N.B. 1964. Hydrology and Water Supply. In: A Survey of Southampton and its Region. (F.J. Monkhouse, ed.), pp.93-104. British Association for the Advancement of Science, Southampton.
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Bratchell, G.E., Leggett, A.J. and Simon, N.E. 1974. The performance of two large oil tanks founded on compacted gravel at Fawley, Southampton, Hampshire. Proceedings of the Conference on Settlement of Structures, held at Cambridge University. Pentech Press, London, pp. 3-9.
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Bray, M.J. and Hooke, J.M. 1997. Coastal cliff prediction with accelerating sea-level rise.Journal of Coastal Research, 13 (2), 453-467.

Bray, M.J., Carter, D.J. and Hooke, J.M. 1992. Sea-Level Rise and Global Warming: Scenarios, Physical Impacts and Policies. Portsmouth Polytechnic. Report to SCOPAC. 205 pp.

Bray, M.J., Hooke, J.M. and Carter, D.J. 1994. Tidal Information: Improving the Understanding of Relative Sea-Level Rise on the South Coast of England. University of Portsmouth, Report to SCOPAC, 86 pp.

Bray, M.J., Hooke, J.M. and Carter, D.J. 1997. Planning for sea-level rise on the south coast of England: advising the decision-makers. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, N.S., 22, 13-30.

Bray, M.J., Hooke, J.M. and Carter, D.J. 2000. Sea level rise in the Solent region. Pp. 101-102 in: Collins, M. and Ansell, K. 2000. Solent Science - A Review. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 385pp. By M.I. Bray, I.M. Hooke and D.l Carter of the Department of Geography. University of Portsmouth, Buckingham Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth, PO1 3HE, U.K. [Extract:] Introduction: Sea-level has been a major factor in the evolution of the Solent Rapid post-glacial sealevel recovery, between 15,000 and 5,000 years BP, inundated the system and continuing rising sea-levels control contemporary biogeomorphologicaI environments; similarly, they pose a potential threat to human occupation and uses. Concerns relating to the future effects of climate change and sea-level rise have led to several studies specific to the Solent region (Ball et al., 1991; Bray et al., 1992, 1994, 1997). [This is a short paper; see the other Bray publications for more detail. Marsh sedimentation results of local relative sea-level (Cundy and Croudace, 1996) indicate 4 to 5 mm per annum at present. A model indicates increase in rate to 6.5 mm per annum by 2050 but there, of course, uncertainties.]

Bray, M.J., Hooke, J.M., Carter, D.J. and Clifton, J. 2000. Littoral transport pathways, cells, and budgets within the Solent. Pp. 103-106 in: Collins, M. and Ansell, K. 2000. Solent Science - A Review. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 385pp.
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Bridgeland, D.R. 1999. Analysis of the raised beach gravel deposit at Boxgrove and related sites. Pp. 100-111 in: Roberts, M.B. and Parfitt, S.A. (Eds.) Boxgrove: a Middle Pleistocene Hominid Site at Eartham Quarry, Boxgrove, West Sussex. English Heritage, London. [See also Apsimon on the Slindon Raised Beach.

Bridgland, D.R. 2000. River terrace systems in north-west Europe: an archive of environmental change, uplift and early human occupation. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 1293-1303. Abstract: Staircases of large-scale aggradational river terraces are a notable feature of many valleys in the temperate latitudes, particularly in areas beyond the reach of erosive activities of Pleistocene ice sheets. It is now recognised that the cyclic fluctuations of climate during the Quaternary have driven the generation of terraces, throught the direct and indirect influence of both climate and precipitation on fluviatile activity. Where fossiliferous deposits are preserved within terrace sequences it is often possible to date these and to correlate them with the oceanic record, thus providing an important framework for the evidence of environmental change on land. Middle and Late Pleistocene terraces in different areas can commonly be seen to have formed in synchrony with glacial-interglacial cycles or with longer-periodicity megacycles. Climatic forcing alone is insufficient to cause terraces to form, however; uplift is also necessary, so that terrace sequences can provide a useful record of crustal movement. In northwest Europe, where some of the best known studies of river terrace sequences have been carried out, the fluviatile deposits are also an important repository for Palaeolithic artifacts, from which a record of early human occupation can be constructed. End of Abstract. [Notes relevant to the Solent area: p. 1294 - ..many rivers today flow in valleys that formerly extended over wide areas of continental shelf, but have been truncated by the Holocene marine transgression, which inundated and submerged their lower reaches. A future fall in sea-level would merely lead these rivers to extend themselves into these drowned reaches once again, with no requirement for significant incision." p. 1296 - "In addition to the contrast between terrace systems formed in synchony with glacial-interglacial climatic change and others with fewer terraces, perhaps driven by climatic megacycles, it seems that some sequences contain more terraces than there are full climatic cyles with which to correlate them. An example is the Solent terrace system in southern England (Fig. 5)." - Fig 5 is a very useful diagram showing a staircase of 12 terraces above sea-level, each named and their relationships in height to raised beach deposits. p. 1300. - " The extensive terrace staircase of the Solent River, for example, preserves biostratigraphic evidence only within its lowest terraces, but has yielded substantial collections of artefacts.... The terrace formed by the Taddiford Farm Gravel (Allen and Gibbard, 1994) is the richest in artefacts.." p. 1300 - " Britain, which had become an island during high sea-level phases by the late Middle Pleistocene (Preece, 1995), was apparently not occupied by humans during the last interglacial (Substage 5e).." p. 1300 - "Terraces have only formed in areas that have experienced uplift during this period and the heights of terraces above valley floors may be seen as an approximate measure of crustal elevation since the deposits were laid down. The redistribution of eroded material from fluvial catchments to depositional basins or marginal catchment areas, a process in which rivers themselves may have been the main agents, may be responsible for the uplift by causing an isostatic response to crustal unloading.."

Bridgland, D.R. 2001. The Pleistocene evolution and palaeolithic occupation of the Solent River. Pp. 15-25 in: Wenban-Smith, F.F. and Horsfield, R.T. 2001. Palaeolithic Archaeology of the Solent River, Proceedings of the Lithic Studies Society day meeting held at the Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton on Saturday 15th January, 2000. Lithic Studies Society Occasional Paper No. 7 (2001). Published by the Lithic Studies Society, c/o British Museum (Quaternary Section), Franks House, 38-46 Orsman Road, London, N1 5QJ. ISBN 0-9513246-3-2, ISSN 0950-9208. 111 pp., paperback. Abstract: The Solent River, its valley now beneath the seaway between the Isle of Wight and the English mainland, was an important agent of drainage in the Hampshire Basin throughout the Pleistocene. During this time it left an extensive staircase of north-bank terraces, now forming the hinterland to the south coast, with comparable terraces extending up the more important tributary rivers. Many of the terraces dating from the Middle Pleistocene contain Lower Palaeolithic artefacts, although these are absent from the older terraces, which pre-date human occupation, and from the lowest terraces and valley-floor gravels, which signifies the disappearance of humans from Britain prior to the last interglacial. Only the last two lnterglacials are directly represented within the sedimentological sequences of the Solent and its tributaries, so it is necessary to turn to other evidence to assess the ages of the higher terraces. Palaeolithic archaeology, perhaps surprisingly, provides a number of age indications. The first appearance of artefacts is thought likely to be around 600,000 years ago; then twisted ovates are prevalent in assemblages from OIS 11, suggesting that the Old Milton Gravel incorporates material of that age; finally Levallois technique appears in the Taddiford Farm Gravel, which by analogy with the Thames is therefore thought to date from around the OIS 9/8 transition. The Solent has more Middle Pleistocene terraces than other UK rivers, perhaps because rejuvenation has taken place twice during each climatic cycle. The age indications from the archaeological data enable some attempt at modelling the formation of these terraces in response to both climate change and background uplift, although the results remain speculative. [This is a key paper with particularly good, new maps of the Solent River system.]
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Bristow, H.W. 1862. The Geology of the Isle of Wight. Memoir of the Geological Survey of England and Wales, pp.xix + 138.

Bristow, H.W., Reid, C. and Strahan, A. 1889. The Geology of the Isle of Wight, (2nd Edition). Memoir of the Geological Survey of England and Wales, pp.xiv + 349.
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BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (BGS)

British Geological Survey - Bristow, H.W. 1862. The Geology of the Isle of Wight. Memoir of the Geological Survey of England and Wales, pp.xix + 138. [also see Geological Survey publications under author names.]

British Geological Survey - Bristow, H.W., Reid, C. and Strahan, A. 1889. The Geology of the Isle of Wight, (2nd Edition). Memoir of the Geological Survey of England and Wales, pp.xiv + 349.

British Geological Survey - Edwards, R.A. and Freshney, E.C. 1987. Geology of the Country around Southampton . Memoir for 1:50,000 geological map sheet 315 (England and Wales). British Geological Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 111pp. ISBN 0 11 884396 6. Original Price - £7.50. Contributors: Geophysics - Smith, I.F.; Palaeontology: Boulter, M.C., Clark, R.D., Cooper, J., Harland, R., Hughes, M.J. and King, C.; Petrography - Merriman, R.J. and Morton, A.C.; Stratigraphy: Holder, M.T., King, C. and Scrivener, R.C.; Water Supply - Monkhouse, R.A. [This is the key Geological Survey publication on Southampton and adjacent area, including part of the New Forest. It is an almost A4 size, slim, green, paperback book with BGS - Southampton on the side. It is present in Southampton University, Hartley Library, the National Oceanographic Library, Southampton Oceanography Centre and probably in many university and local public libraries. It is easily obtainable and may still be in print.]

British Geological Survey - Edwards, R.A., Scrivener, R.C., and Forster, A. 1987. Applied geological mapping: Southampton area. Volume 1, Main report and Appendix. Research Report of the British Geological Survey, ICSO/87/2. With 10 following volumes contain 62 maps, mostly 1:25,000 scale, on drift, solid geology, made ground, old workings, sites of special scientific interest etc. See also: Volume 2 - Maps of Solid Geology; Volume 3 - Maps of Drift Geology; Volume 4 - Maps of Drift Thickness; Volume 5 - Maps of Rockhead Contours; Volume 6 - Maps of Mineral Resources; Volume 7 - Maps of Worked Ground; Volume 8 - Maps of Availability of Geotechnical Test Data; Volume 9 - Maps of Engineering Geology, Slope Angle and Aquifer Distribution; Volume 10 - Maps of Borehole Locations and Sites of Special Scientific Interest. [This is a large set of A4 paperback publications, 21cm in total width. A set for reference only is housed in cardboard boxes in the Hartley Library of Southampton University (special collections) and probably in the National Oceanographic Library, Southampton Oceanography Centre. The set should be consulted for geological and environmental detail of the Southampton area. It has many applications, such as for example, as the details of the ground beneath a house or other building. In addition to information on the geological bedrock, it provides information on made ground, waste disposal and former gravel quarries.] (See also the Southampton Memoir - Edwards and Freshney (1987) and the separate geological research reports: Laxton, J.L. 1987. Computer database of geological, borehole and geotechnical information for applied geological mapping of the Southampton area Research Report of the British Geological Survey, No. ICSO/87/4. and Loudon, T.V. and Mennim, K.C. 1987. Mapping techniques, using computer storage and presentation, for applied geological mapping of the Southampton area.Research Report of the British Geological Survey, No. ICSO/87/3.)

British Geological Survey - Hopson, P.M. 2000. Geology of the Fareham and Portsmouth District, A brief explanation of the geological map Sheet 316 Fareham and part of Sheet 331 Portsmouth. British Geological Survey. This is the short account of the map and much cheaper than the full Sheet Description, also listed here.

British Geological Survey - Hopson, P.M. 1999. Geology of the Fareham and Portsmouth District. With contribution by Woods, M.A.. Sheet description for the British Geological Survey 1:50,000 Series Sheet 316 and mainland portion of Sheet 331 (England and Wales). Keyworth, Nottingham, British Geological Survey. 45pp. including colour illustrations. In 2010, this cost 35 pounds sterling.
Summary:
This Sheet Description covers the area shown on Sheet 316 Fareham and Sheet 331 Portsmouth, but excludes the northeastern part of the Isle of Wight, which is described elsewhere. Thus the district includes part of Hampshire and West Sussex.
The Chalk of the South Downs and an inlier of chalk forming the Portsdown Anticline dominate the landscape. It provides a characteristic east - west trending, escarpment topography to this district that forms the southwestern part of the Weald anticline. Palaeogene strata form the low ground of the Bere Forest and also the coastal plain with its extensive natural harbours of Chichester, Langstone and Portsmouth. The broad coastal plain is urbanised and industrialised around the naval and ferry port of Portsmouth and its satellites Gosport, Fareham, Horndean and Havant. Numerous north-south orientated valleys cut across the east-west chalk escarpment; many are 'dry' for much of their length. The larger valleys that support permanent surface flows are the River Meon, in the west and the River Ems in the east.
This report contains a brief history of geological research in the district which started with the Geological Survey's one inch mapping in the 1850s, and includes the search for oil and gas in the 1980s. A summary of the geological history spans the end Carboniferous Variscan orogeny, Permian and Triassic basin development, Mesozoic, and Cainozoic deposition, basin inversion and erosion.
The main part of the report describes both the rocks that have been proved in boreholes (Devonian, Permian/Triassic, Jurassic and lowest Cretaceous) and those that crop out in the district. The Lower Greensand Group and the Gault crop out in the north-east, but the Chalk Group underlies most of the district. The lithostratigraphy of all the formations and members shown on the 1:50,000 Series map is described. Particular emphasis is given to the deposition and diagenetic processes involved in the formation of the chalk.
The largely unconsolidated Palaeogene beds have been worked from many quarries in the past. They include the Lambeth, Thames, Bracklesham and Barton groups, and the sequence consists predominantly of clay, silt and sand.
The Quaternary deposits are described in relation to their mode of origin and they include the residual deposits, fluvial and organic deposits, aeolian deposits, marine and estuarine deposits, landslip and made ground.
A section is devoted to applied geological issues, such as geotechnical factors that should be taken into consideration in any land development. The chalk is a major aquifer in the region and an account of its hydrogeology is given. Other resources described are sand and gravel, building stone and hydrocarbons.
The Information Sources lists all the BGS publications relevant to the district and gives information on how to gain access to BGS collections and databases, including borehole records, geophysical, geochemical and geotechnical data. References cited in the text are available from BGS Library, Keyworth.

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British Geological Survey - White, H.J.O. 1915. The Geology of the Country near Lymington and Portsmouth. Memoir of the Geological Survey of England and Wales, pp.v + 78.

British Geological Survey - White, H.J.O. 1921. A Short Account of the Geology of the Isle of Wight. Memoir Geological Survey of England and Wales, pp.v + 219 (reprinted in 1968 and later).

BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MAPS

Index and history of the British Geological Survey, geological maps of the New Forest, Southampton, and adjacent regions

British Geological Survey Map 315. Southampton Sheet. - British Geological Survey, 1:50,000 Series, England and Wales, Sheet 315, Solid and Drift Geology. New Edition - 1987. Original geological survey on the 1:63,360 scale by H.W. Bristow, published 1856 and 1858. Resurveyed and republished in 1899. Resurveyed on the 1:10,000 scale by Edwards, R.A, Freshney, E.C., Holder, M.T. and Scrivener, R.C. in 1973-80. Published on 1:50,000 scale in 1987. Accompanied by explanatory memoir - Edwards, R.A. and Freshney, E.C. 1987. Geology of the Country around Southampton: Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheet 315 (England and Wales). 111 p.; R.A. Edwards and E.C. Freshney; contributors I.F. Smith (and others). Natural Environment Research Council, H.M.S.O.

British Geological Survey. Geological map Sheet 315 Southampton. Old edition 1 inch to 1 mile, 1899, and reprinted 1948 and 1964 etc. Initial survey by Bristow with resurvey by Whitaker and Reid. Useful for comparison with current edition.

British Geological Survey. Geological map, Sheet 316 Fareham and part of Sheet 331 Portsmouth. 1998 New Edition. (Includes Fareham, Portchester, Droxford, Titchfield Common, Portsdown, Bere Forest, Waterlooville, Rowlands Castle, South Harting, Hambledon, Meonstoke Emsworth, Southbourne, etc.) Solid and Drift Edition, 1:50,000, England and Wales Sheet. Published as Old Series Sheets 9 and 11 in 1864 and 1858. New Edition by Reid in 1893. Resurved in 1879. Sheet 315 published with Drift in 1900. Reprinted with some revisions in 1993. Reprinted in 1958 and 1971. Resurved by Freshney et al. Published 1998. [This map uses the new terminology for the Chalk, i.e. Newhaven Chalk Member etc.]

British Geological Survey. Geological map Sheet - Isle of Wight - `parts of sheets 330,331,344,345.

British Geological Survey. Geological map Sheet - 332 - Bognor, Drift.





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Brown, R.C., Gilbertson, D.D., Green, C.O. and Keen, D.H. 1975. Stratigraphy and environmental significance of Pleistocene deposits at Stone, Hampshire. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 86, 349-363. Abstract: The stratigraphy of the Pleistocene deposits at Stone is described. A threefold division of the deposits is apparent. providing evidence of two separate phases of aggradation. The earlier phase is represented by the fluvial Lower Gravel. occupying a depression cut in Tertiary rocks to below present sea-level. This aggradation predates the rise of sea-level in the Ipswichian interglacial. Ipswichian organic deposits rest on the dissected surface of the Lower Gravel. Alternating brackish and fresher water horizons suggest an intermittent rise of sea-level in Zone f of the interglacial. The fluvial Upper Gravel appears to overlie the Zone f deposits. and may indicate deteriorating climatic conditions towards the end of the interglacial.
    1. Introduction: On the Hampshire coast at Stone (National Grid Reference SZ 457984), Pleistocene deposits comprising gravel, sand, clay and peat outcrop on the foreshore and in the cliff behind it. Organic horizons were first described at Stone by Reid (1893). He recognised their Pleistocene age and identified a flora indicative of mild climatic conditions. The stratigraphy of the Pleistocene deposits was considered briefly by Palmer & Cooke (1923); they recognised the gravels of a 15 ft. (4.6 m) terrace at Stone overlying the organic deposits, but they considered the latter to predate not only the 15 ft. terrace but also an earlier 50 ft. (15.2 m) terrace. The organic horizons were re-examined by West & Sparks (1960), who placed them, on the basis of pollen evidence, in Zone f of the Ipswichian interglacial (Ip IIb). At the time of the latter investigation the site was largely covered by recent intertidal sediments and no detailed stratigraphical study was possible. The present account provides a reappraisal of the stratigraphy of the site and describes organic sediments, including several horizons .of Phragmites peat, at levels slightly above O.D. and therefore higher than the material discussed by West & Sparks. .. [continues] [For similar and related material see also: Green, C.P. and Keen, D.H. 1987. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironments of the Stone Point deposits: the 1975 investigation. Pp. 17-20 in: Barber, K.E. 1987, Wessex and the Isle of Wight, Field Guide. Quaternary Research Association. Prepared to accompany the Annual Field Meeting held at Southampton and Cowes, 21-25 April, 1987. 180 pp.]
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Bruce, P. 2008. Solent Hazards. 5th Edition, Second Revision. By Peter Bruce. 111 pp. Boldre Marine, Kestrel Cottage, Shirley Holms, Lymington, Hampshire, S)41 8NH. Price in 2008 - 16 pounds sterling, 95 pence.[Contains many excellent oblique aerial photographs of Solent shores in addition to very informative text].
Editions: First published, May 1985, Second edition Nov. 1985, Third Oct. 1987, Third reprinted, Sept. 1989, Third reprinted, Oct. 1990, Fourth edition published July, 1994, Fourth edition revised, November 1997, Fifth edition published May 2001, Fifth edition revised June 2003, Fifth edition, second revision April 2008. See also by the same author: Solent Tides, and Wight Hazards.
From the back cover: "This unique book, now its enlarged and updated fifth edition, has become the established work of reference for all Solent mariners. In addition to vital local knowledge of the Solent that enables power craft owners, fishermen and yachtsmen, whether cruising or racing, to avoid the many hazards, its gives some delightful historical gems and other information of general interest. Aerial photographs taken at extreme low water spring tides, reveal the hazards in a most explicit manner while the text gives details, often not to be found on the chart or in any other publication, of rocks, wrecks, and obstructions, and how best to avoid them. In short, this book enables anyone to become a Solent expert almost overnight.
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Brydone, R.M. 1912. The Stratigraphy of the Chalk of Hants. Dulau, London. 116 pp. and map. [Classic work on the zones of the Chalk in Hampshire with good coloured map]
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Buchan, S., Robbie, J.A., Butler, A.J., Holmes, S.C.A. and Morris, L.S.O. 1942. Water Supply from Underground Sources of Reading, Southampton District. Geological Survey U.K., Wartime Pamphlet, No. 15, Part 6, 63pp.
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Burnett, A.D. and Fookes, P.G. 1974. A regional engineering study of the London Clay in the London and Hampshire Basins. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 7, 257-295.
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Publication - The Solent Estuarine System

Burton, J.D. 1980. The Solent Estuarine System: an Assessment of Present Knowledge. N.E.R.C. Publications Series C, No. 22 November 1980, ed. J.D. Burton, 100 p. NERC. [Useful review publication, paperback.]
Preface: This review of the Solent is the fifth in a series on major UK estuarine systems to be published by the Natural Environment Research Council. Its preparation is the result of an initiative by Dr J. D. Burton of the Oceanography Department, Southampton University, following several meetings of an ad hoc group of scientists with active interests in the region. I am pleased to acknowledge the valuable role played by Dr Burton in suggesting the composition of the review and acting as local editor.
    Geographically, the text covers the Solent proper, Spithead, Southampton Water, the harbours of Portsmouth, Langstone and Chichester, as well as the major estuaries entering the system. The individual contributions range widely across the physical and biological sciences and provide an up-to-date assessment of the scientific knowledge of the area. The review represents the first attempt to draw together information on such a diversity of subjects since the Survey of Southampton and Its Region was published by Southampton University Press for the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1964. In fact, this volume still provides useful and valid information on several topics which it has not been possible to include in the present review. This is particularly true for the sections on weather and climate and on the zooplankton of Southampton Water. The format for this review of the Solent is slightly different to that for the previous publications in the series in that the contributors have, in general, gone into greater detail and in some cases provided extensive information which has not appeared elsewhere. It is to be hoped that this publication will be of use to the scientific community and to all with an interest in the Solent, and will serve to identify some of the gaps in our knowledge of this most important estuarine system. R. J. H. Beverton, Secretary of Council, NERC.
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Bury, H. 1927. The rivers of the Hampshire Basin. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 10, 111. [By Mr. Henry Bury (pronounced "Berry") who was still much involved in the activities of Bournemouth Natural Science Society at the age of 90.] Extract: "Summary: The principal conclusions arrived at may be summed up as follow : (1.) The main rivers of the Hampshire Basin were formed as consequents on a coastal plain, and when the sea had retreated sufficiently, joined the Solent River. (2.) Their synclinal tributaries probably arose as subsequents, in remnants of the Eocene strata. (3.) There is no good ground for supposing that either the Avon or any other river ever extended far beyond its present limits. (4.) The belief that the Upper Avon formerly joined Southampton Water, and was captured by the Lower Avon, is not justified either by the actual facts at the alleged point of capture, or by theoretical deductions from the supposed effects of the breach of the Solent River. (5.) The capture of the Solent River by the sea took place either very late in the Pleistocene or early in the Holocene."

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Caltex Services Ltd. 1957. Southampton Refinery; Proposed Marine Facilities. Report on Site Investigation, June 1957. Report by Rendel, Palmer and Tritton. Eleven pages of text, with logs of 25 shallow boreholes. Appendices contain the data of geotechnical tests (Liquid limit, plastic limit, sulphate content, lateral pressure, compression strength, density, moisture content, cohesion, pore-water pressure etc.). The study was part of a preliminary examination to arrange and supervise a borehole investigation programme for a marine oil terminal on the east bank of Southampton Water. This was in the vicinity of an area which had previously been selected for possible development as a new oil refinery site. Location: The proposed refinery site is on the eastern side of Southampton Water to the south-west of Hook Village and the tentative location of the marine terminal lay to the west of the site and south of the mouth of the Hamble River [No oil refinery was ever constructed on this east bank of the estuary but this is one of the investigations made with that purpose in mind. There is also a very close-contoured aerial survey, a copy of which is held at Southampton University.]. The boreholes are in Tertiary Bracklesham strata, overlain by Pleistocene gravel at various levels, and in some cases with Holocene muds, peat and gravel above. In geological terms the results are not remarkable but provide local detail on gravel terraces and Bracklesham stratigraphy.
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Camden, W. 1586, 1587 Latin editions, 1610 and 1637 English editions. Britannia, a chorographicall description of the most flourishing kingdomes, England, Scotland and Ireland. London, 1109 pp. [reference from Tomalin (2000)]
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CCPEM. 2008. The Centre for Coastal Processes, Engineering and Management. Southampton University. See: CCPEM News (Online Newsletter), for various points of information regarding the Solent Estuarine System, and other matters.
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Chatwin, C.P. 1960. The Hampshire Basin and Adjoining Areas (3rd Edition). British Regional Geology Handbooks, Geological Survey U.K., pp.iv + 99. (see also fourth edition by Melville and Freshney, 1982).
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Chitty, J. 1983. The River is Within Us: A Maritime History of Lymington. Written and edited, by Jean Chitty, first published in 1983 by Belhaven, 8 King's Saltern Road, Lymington, Hampshire, SO4 9QF.
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Churchill , D.M. 1965. The displacement of deposits formed at sea level 6500 years ago in southern Britain. Quaternaria, 7, 239-249. Introduction: Submerged forests on the present coast of Britain, probably attracted interest long before Pepys drew attention to the presence of hazel fruits in peat exposed in the dock excavation at Tilbury, some 300 years ago. One coastal peat bed that is known to have formed in situ, is recorded at 60 to 65 feet below O. D. (Godwin and Willis, 1964) from \Port Talbot in Southern Wales. The bottom of the peat there has been dated at 10,000 B. C. A deeper but undated bed is the peat revealed by recent borings on the seaward side of the Chesil Beach near Weymouth, where it was found 83 to 85 feet below O. D., and in Holland, Jelgersma (1961) recorded five centimetres of peat 75 feet below sea-level that was radiocarbon dated to circa 7,700 B. C. Overlying these and younger peat deposits that have developed in situ there are estuarine and marine clays,. silts and sands, as well as other peat beds that alternate with these, as at Fawley near Southampton and at Tilbury. The occurrence of such deposits has been recognised by Reid 1913, Wright 1937, and Godwin 1943, as the product of rising sea-level, downwarping or both of these processes at work since the time when the deposits were formed.
    The extent to which the relative shift of land- and sea-level is indicated by the presence of coastal peat deposits, requires the careful consideration of the relationship of the peat bed to its contemporary sea-level. Godwin (1943) has stressed the need for caution in relating a sequence of peat overlain by marine clay, to a changing in sea-level. Such peat beds may accumulate close to the mid-tide level behind barriers such as shingle spits and sand dunes, which can break down, expose the peats to the full tidal range and bury them under marine sediments without any change in level. Such a sequence as this however is characterized by sharp lithological boundaries and an absence of gradual succession by plants and animals. When a demonstrable sere that extends gradually, without interruption, from marine sands or clays with shallow water molluscs, foraminifera and diatoms, through saltmarsh clays with saltmarsh plants such as Suaeda maritima and molluscs such as Hydrobia or Scrobicularia, into brackish-water peaty clays with such plants as Cladium and Phragmites, and thence into eutrophic fen peats, fen carr or fen wood, there is some justification to suppose that the lowermost peat facies could have grown at a level somewhere in the tidal range, and thus be related to sea-level.
    For the present purpose of measuring subsequent changes in level, the lowermost datable peat from such a continuous succession of marine to freshwater deposits, provides the closest practicable index to sea-level. At the same time such facies may have formed at any level between that of mid- and high-tide. At only two sites (Burnham and lmmingham) have the peats used in this study not been shown to be part of a continuous halosere, and only because they are thin beds containing high frequencies of Chenopodiaceae pollen and found alternating with estuarine clays, is there any reason for including in them here.
    The extent to which the level of the deposits may be altered during their post-depositional history by loss of water or compaction of the underlying sediments by thick overburden, can result in peats in a maximal compression ranging between 80 to 90 percent of the original thickness (Jelgersma, 1961), and in sands as little as 2% (Athy, 1930). Clearly the horizons least susceptible to changes in level due to the progressive accumulation of overburden, are those organic horizons in contact with the underlying mineral substratum. Those most susceptible to changes of level are those organic horizons in contact with overlying mineral deposits as well as those. deposits that overlie deeper peat beds. Among the sites studied here, it is only at Tilbury and Alphen that the peats concerned are not those from the lowermost contact with the mineral substratum, and therefore liable to some downward compression.
    Another error of consequence in the present context is the time lag from when mineral sedimentation ceases to when the sedge fen or fen carr stage of the succession is reached. Only contiguous sampling for radiocarbon assay can give a precise indication of the time taken for colonisation at each site. However after radiocarbon dating the saltmarsh sequence described by Swinnerton (1931) from Chapel Point on the Lincolnshire coast, it was found that the entire sequence from the top of the lower peat through the phase of salt marsh clay accumulation and thence to Phragmites peat accumulation, followed by a reversion. to estuarine clay deposition, took only 700 years (Wright and Churchill, 1965). At Ynyslas the brackish water Phragmites peat immediately overlying the brackish water clays has not been dated but the radiocarbon age of the birch and brushwood peat, a rather late stage of the succession, gave an age 500 years younger than that expected for the Phragmites peat, whihc is believed to have formed at circa 6,500 B.P. [End of "Introduction". Continues with "Sites"]
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Churchward , S. 2006. Strange case of Dicky Dunn and the bog bodies. Southern Daily Echo, newspaper, Weekend Edition, Saturday, July 15, 2006, Saturday Review Section. By Senior Features Writer - Sally Churchward,
[See also: Fawley Power Station website.]
It is one of Hampshire's great mysteries. It has it all - strange alien-looking bodies, mysterious people in white coats, a possible cover-up and a lot of unanswered questions. It could have come straight out of The X-Files. More than 40 years later the truth about the Fawley bog bodies is still not known.
Unconfirmed stories have been circulating in the Hampshire archaeological community and in pubs for decades about two alien-like bodies that were supposedly found by men excavating at Fawley power station.
The actual facts of about what really happened are as sketchy as they are tantalising. Reportedly a man called Dennis "Dicky" Dunn from Shakespeare Avenue, Totton, was working on shafts being tunnelled at Fawley in about 1965.
Having dug down about 75 feet they came to a layer of peat. Here they were shocked to discover what appeared to be two small bodies, about four feet long, of alien-like appearance.
Work was stopped and some people in white coats came and removed the bodies - and they were never heard of again. Later on Mr Dunn asked the foreman what had happened to the bodies and was told that no bodies had been found - they had just been tree trunks. He then contacted the Daily Echo to see if anyone there had heard anything and spoke to the gravedigger at Fawley Church to see whether bodies had been reburied but no one knew anything.
Sadly Mr Dunn died in February but his wife Doreen still vividly remembers when he came home from work and told her what he had seen.
"He said there were some fingers from the bodies that had broken off and he wished he'd kept them," she said. "He was always convinced that he'd seen the bodies. At the time lots of the men he worked with used to come to our house and they were all talking about seeing the bodies."
There were lots of Irish workers in Mr Dunn's team and he and his wife suspected that the bodies may have been taken to Ireland where they were subsequently "discovered".
Mr Dunn's story lives on thanks to his former neighbour Alan Murray. Mr Dunn was sure that he had seen the bodies and asked his neighbour, who had a computer, to have a look on the Internet to see if he could find anyone else who knew anything. They didn't find anything so eventually Mr Murray posted the story on a website, but this has provoked more questions than answers.
Did the bodies really exist? If so, were they the ancient remains of people from the Neolithic era or did they come from elsewhere?
Who were the people in white coats who took them away? Were they; as Mr Dunn believed, scientists from the University of Southampton or did they come from elsewhere? What happened to them after they were taken away? And why has no one else come forward to say they saw something similar?
Graham Parkes, chairman of Waterside Heritage and a keen amateur archaeologist, believes the rumours about the bog bodies are nothing more than a local urban myth.
"There are different interpretations about what was found," he said. "One version is that two blackened tree stumps were found by the contractors which were interpreted as bodies by a third party who apparently only saw them from a distance.
"But if they had been bodies they would have to have been reported to the police, which they weren't."
"The people doing the work said they came across a layer of peat and within it they found some misshapen pieces of wood.
"As there isn't any real evidence to support any other theory; you have to veer towards it being wood."
"If there had been bodies they would have been in peat on top of a layer of clay or soil."
"Apparently they had to dig through a lot of different layers before they hit the peat which would, have put what they found rather far back in geological history for it to have contained any bodies."
"There is no evidence that they were bodies but it's become an urban myth." Local archaeology and history groups including Southampton Archaeology; Fawley Historians and the County Archaeologist for Hampshire have heard the rumours and had enquiries over the years about the story behind the "bodies" but they have no hard facts about the matter.
Dr Ian West from the National Oceanography Centre at the University of Southampton has posted Mr Dunn's story on his [Fawley Power Station] website.
The story was written up by neighbour, Mr Murray; who also included sketches of the bodies based on Mr Dunn's recollections.
The website includes a section on the geology of Fawley and Dr West says that from a geological perspective it is possible that Neolithic bodies could have been at the site.
"Geologically it is quite possible in that the bodies were supposed to be found in Neolithic peat which is under a lot of Southampton," said Dr West.
He had hoped that giving publicity to the story would help get to the bottom of it but no fresh information has come to light. So what is the truth behind the bog bodies of Fawley? Was there really a conspiracy that covered up a find of human remains?
Or was it just a case of someone with a vivid imagination misinterpreting what they saw?
The truth is out there.
[The article includes an illustration of the bodies, as shown in the Fawley Power Station webpage. It also includes a photograph of the late Mr. Dunn.]
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Clarke, J. 1826. The Delineater, or, A Picturesque, Historical and Topographical Description of the Isle of Wight. By James Clarke. [ 7th ed. Southampton University, Cope Collection,Cope 98.035 1826/ 52289804]
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Codrington, T. 1870. On the superficial deposits of the south of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 26, 528-551.
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Colebourn, P. 1984. Hampshire's Countryside Heritage: The Coast. Hampshire County Council, County Planning Department, 47p.
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Colenutt, G.W. 1890. The fossil chelonians of the Oligocene strata of the Isle of Wight. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, vol. 1, pt.4, 57-63. Example extract:
   "As might be imagined from the indestructible nature of the skeleton, the remains of turtles are by no means uncommon in a fossil state, some of the best preserved specimens being found in our Oligocene clays and marls. The turtles range back as far as the Jurassic series, but they do not appear to have approached their zenith until the Tertiary age, while at the present time the living members of this order range over more extended areas and consist of more species than in any previous period.
   In the Oligocene beds of the Isle of Wight we find the remains of three chelonians. The most common is Trionyx incrassatus, a form nearly related to the recent Trionyx or mud turtle of North America. The fragments of the carapace and thoracic plates of this species are often met with in most of the Oligocene clays, and they may be at once identified by the peculiar granulated outside surface. The Trionycidae were singular in having a carapace which did not cover the whole of the back, but which formed a large oval plate, around which the leathery skin of the animal projected. The ends of the ribs protruded from the sides of the carapace in the manner shown in Fig. I. The plastron was not attached along its sides to the carapace, as was the case in the Emydidae and from its edge projected several bony spikes, the use of which is obscure. In addition to the plastron there were several dermal plates on the under side of the body, and apparently unattached to the internal skeleton. One of these plates is shown in Fig. 2.
    Almost as common as those of Trionyx are the remains of Emys, a being which inhabited in great numbers the shallow lagoons and tidal rivers of this epoch. Unlike the Trionyx the external parts of the skeleton are quite smooth, and when the animal was alive were coated with a horny shell, the fine furrows by which the shell was attached being usually well shown. The range of this species seems even more extensive than the Trionyx, and we find its remains in nearly all the beds, from the Hamstead down to the limestones of the Lower Headon. There is a third species of chelonian, the remains of which are comparatively rare, and the outer surface of whose carapace is furrowed in lines, much after the manner of the larger species of recent land tortoises. This is apparently a species of Platemys (?) but the means of identification of this species are limited, for so far as I know the chelonidre of these beds have never been studied in an exhaustive manner. I have met with the remains of this species in several localities, but chiefly in the Osborne beds of King's Quay and in the Bembridge marls of Thorness Bay.
   All along the north shore of the Island plenty of fragments of plates of Emys and Trionyx may be found among the shingle on the beach, having been washed out of the clays of the Hamstead, Bembridge, and Osborne series, which crop out in the cliffs. The bones may often be found embedded in situ in the clay strata, more especially along Hamstead cliff and in Thorness Bay. On the shore at the base of Hamstead cliff the clays are very prolific in organic remains ; and this bit of coast is of great interest, inasmuch as it is almost the only locality where anything like a workable section of the Hamstead beds can be examined. Here we can begin at the" black band" and work our way up through the various beds of the series. There are very few other places in the Island where we can get at these clays at all, except at Hamstead itself; in the brick pit at Ashlake, near Wootton Bridge, however, we find the black band well exposed, and from it plenty of the characteristic shells may be obtained; also at Alverstone brickyard some portion of the Hamstead beds may be seen. Just below the coastguard's hut, on the top of the cliff above Sticelet Ledge, at the north east corner of Thorness Bay, the black band is also exposed, but only extends for a short distance. With these few exceptions the Hamstead beds are difficult of access, though Mr. Clement Reid, in the course of the recent geological survey of the Island, has demonstrated their existence over a very large part of the northern half of our area-a fact previously unknown. From the Osborne beds on the shore below Chapelcorner Copse, near King's Quay, I have obtained many very interesting turtle remains, among the more noticeable being a fine cervical vertebra of a large Trionyx; this bone shows admirably the peculiar arrangement of hinges or jointing, enabling the creature to swiftly withdraw its neck. From this place I have also obtained a perfect rib of Trionyx, and also nearly the whole of the half of one of the thoracic plates, showing the peculiar bony points or spikes projecting at the end of the plate. Many fragments of carapace and a few imperfect limb bones were also found here. The remains of all three species of chelonians have been found in these beds, which is easily accounted for, as the Osborne clays were more or less estuarine in their origin; animals of various and diverse habits would therefore naturally come within the area of deposit.
    The Bembridge beds, however, are the most prolific in yielding turtle remains, and Thorness Bay is one of the best localities for examining the strata. The clays on the shore below Burnt Wood are peculiarly rich in fossils, and from this place I have been fortunate in obtaining a number of most interesting specimens..."[continues].

Colenutt, G.W. 1891. Notes on the geology of the north-east coast of the Isle of Wight. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, vol. 2, pt.1, 20-32. Extract: "When viewed from the waters of the Solent: the north-east coast of the Island (that is the district bordering on the sea between East Cowes on the west and St. Helen's old church on the east) appears to offer few attractions to the geologist in the way of cliffs or shore sections, the coast-line being fairly regular, trending in a sweep south-eastwards from Old Castle Point, and, with the exceptions of the creek at King's Quay and Wootton Creek, having no important breaks in the shore line. The land appears to slope regularly down towards the shore, and woods and pastures come right down to the beach for nearly the whole distance. Several streams, fed by springs lying inland or carrying off the rainfall from the higher lands, find their way down to the Solent, and the result of their action, extending over a great lapse of time, is seen in the succession of gently sweeping valleys regularly succeeding each other and running back from the coast. The streams are of little importance in themselves, but as factors in the causes which have produced the configuration of this part of the Island, their influence cannot be overlooked. The soft gravel beds and the underlying Oligocene clays and marls have proved an easy prey to the denudinginfluences of these small brooks. The strata of which this part of the Island is formed are not such as we should expect to find constituting important cliffs, for, when saturated with water in the winter time, many of the clays and marls have a tendency to "settle" or slide down in a body towards the beach, and the only parts of this coast-line where we find anything in the nature of real cliffs are near Old Castle Point, to the east of Sea View, and in Priory Bay, but even here the great mud streams and the vast amount of soft sliding talus precludes the geologist from access to most of the sections. On account of the wasting- nature of the strata, and from the fact that for the greater part of the distance private residences abut on the shore, sea walls have been built to stop the inroads of the sea, and the geologist is again shut out from the possibility of examining many workable coast sections. From these several facts very little attention appears to have been given to this piece of shore line by geologists, and the result of personal observations extending over a number of years may possibly be of interest, the more so as, guided by the information contained in this paper; some of the less known and rarer of the org-anic remains occurring in our Oligocene clays may be sought for and not improbably found by those interested in such matters. It is not intended to give an exhaustive account of the geology of the north-east coast, but the aim of this paper is merely to point out the best localities for fossils, and to give some idea of the different strata cropping out along the shore. Nor will the usual and more correct custom of treating of the strata in geological order be adopted; but the shore sections will be described in the order in which they come, commencing at East Cowes and working our way along to St. Helen's Church. We shall find as the result of our investigations that three of the groups of Oligocene beds crop out along this bit of shore - the Headon, Osborne, and Bembridge beds - and at several unlikely looking places interesting examinations can be made of the various strata. It is essential when starting on a geological ramble along this coast to take careful note of the tide, and to arrange our arrival at the starting point at about half ebb; and this precaution it may be remarked applies equally to most of the coasts of the Island, as at many places it is quite impossible to get along the shore except when the tide is out. Along the distriCt we have selected to examine, many of the sections proposed to be visited are not in the broken ground bordering on the beach, but among the shingle itself and out on the shore towards low water mark..."[continues in similar style but with reports of fossils such as molluscs and fish, and with discussion of localities such as Wootton Creek, Players' Copse, Chapelcross Copse, Ryde House, Sea View, Priory Bay, St. Helen's Church, Appley Towers, Kings Quay, Woodside House, Norris Castle, Old Castle Point etc. Only one stratigraphical table which is regarding Wootton Creek and a fish bed.]

Colenutt, G.W. 1893. The Bembridge Limestone ("Binstead Stone") of the Isle of Wight. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, vol. 2, pt. 2, 167-180. Extract: "In one of the picturesque valleys which run back from the north-east coast of the Island, and straggling along the side of the high road which crosses the valley, lies the village of Binstead, now little better than a suburb of the town of Ryde, and much modernised by the unattractive addition of staring red brick cottages with slated roofs, replacing quaint old grey stone buildings, sometimes tiled, but more often thatched. The village no longer knows the old industry which during many centuries, and up till quite recent times, made this district famous throughout the south of England as the place from whence the finest local building stone was obtained. In one of the picturesque valleys which run back from the north-east coast of the Island, and straggling along the side of the high road which crosses the valley, lies the I village of Binstead, now little better than a suburb of the town of Ryde, and much modernised by the unattractive addition of staring red brick cottages with slated roofs, replacing quaint old grey stone buildings, sometimes tiled, but more often thatched. The village no longer knows the old industry which during many centuries, aDd up till quite recent times, made this district famous throughout the south of England as the place from whence the finest local build: ing stone was obtained.    
Modern improvements in brick-making have almost abolished the use of Binstead stone as a building material, and the closing of other quarries of the celebrated Isle of Wight Limestone, besides those at Binstead, suggests the desirability of placing on record some account of the Limestone and its uses, and of the places from whence it has been obtained. The subject too is interesting in a double sense, for, apart from the extreme importance of the Bembridge Limestone as a geological formation of an almost unique nature (occurring nowhere in the United Kingdom except in the Isle of Wight), the constant recurrence of the stone throughout the county of Hampshire in the structures of Churches and other old buildings suggests historical investigations of considerable local value. Although, Binstead was always the most important of the places whence the Limestone was obtained, and the past history of the village and of Quarr might of itself form the subject of much interesting research ..."[continues, with discussion on various fossils of the Bembridge Limestone such as Palaeotherium and whether it had a proboscis like the living tapir, why there were no turtles in the lake, and with discussion on use of Bembridge Limestone (Binstead Stone) in various old buildings. The Romans inscribed a block of Bembridge Limestone at Bitterne to the goddess Ancasta. Bishop William of Wykeham at Winchester bought the rights to hewing stone at Quarr. Exposures on the Solent shores are mentioned. Interesting general reading!]

Colenutt, G.W. 1896. The Plateau and Valley Gravels of the Isle of Wight. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 3, 143-153.

Colenutt, G.W. 1938. Fifty years of Island coast erosion. Proceedings of the Isle of Wight Natural History and Archaeological Society, 3, 50-57.
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Coles, K.A. 1963. Creeks and Harbours of the Solent: with Langstone, Chichester Harbours and the The Isle of Wight. By K. Allard Coles, Seventh Edition, revised with many charts and 70 new photographs. Edward Arnold, London, 139pp.



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Collins Chart of 1693 showing the Solent and the Isle of Wight, southern England. This is just an illustrative image of low resolution.

Collins, G. 1693. Chart of the Solent and the Isle of Wight. By Captain Greenville Collins, appointed in 1662 to survey the coasts of Great Britain. [This does not contain geological information but is useful in showing the original coastline of the Solent and Isle of Wight prior to much reclamation and development. There are differences from the modern coastline on the north coast of the West Solent, in the area of Lee-on-the-Solent, in the eastern harbours and at Brading on the Isle of Wight. Obviously it must be used with caution in case of errors. The author of this work, Captain Greenville Collins, was a Royal Navy officer who was later promoted to Commander and became Hydrographer to the King. In 1681 Samuel Pepys, Secretary of the Admiralty, appointed Captain Collins to survey the coasts of the British Isles which took about eight years. The result was that in 1693 'Great Britain's Coasting Pilot' was published. In spite of some inaccuracies, Collins' charts proved of great value and were re-issued more than twenty times without revision. With regard to the Solent and Isle of Wight chart, of interest here, there were various editions and reprints. A later edition was published in 1753, and a slightly reduced facsimile was produced in 1965 and a small version in 1967. Copies may be obtainable from antique map dealers.]

Collins, M. and Ansell, K. 2000. Solent Science - A Review. Proceedings in Marine Science, 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 385pp. including location and subject indexes. ISBN - 0-444-504-65-6, hard cover only. Price new from Amazon UK in 2004 - 85 pounds -50p. A key symposium volume edited by Professor Michael Collins of Southampton Oceanography Centre and Kate Ansell of the Solent Forum, Winchester. Based on a Solent Science Conference held at Southampton Oceanography Centre in 1998. [Copies are held in the National Oceanographic Library of Southampton Oceanography Centre, Southampton University. There are several in the Short Loan collection and on the main shelves. ]
Extract from the Preface: "The overall aim of the Solent Science Conference was to clarify the extent of our existing knowledge of science in the Solent and identify information gaps. The Conference enabled a wide range of organisations, including both the suppliers and users of scientific information, to review how existing information is utilised in the making of 'real life' decisions; likewise, how this approach and interaction can be improved. This Conference is the first in what is intended to be a series of conferences; these will facilitate the dissemination of information on the Solent. Such meetings will also encourage dialogue between the various scientific disciplines and between the scientists and the wider community.
These Proceedings incorporate scientific papers dealing with four different topics, covered over the two days of the Conference: coastal processes; water quality and chemistry; biodiversity and conservation; and integrative Solent case studies. The papers are supplemented by a range of short contributions (presented originally as posters), which examine more specific pieces of research, and the findings of the Conference Workshops. Additionally, two maps have been included in the Preface, showing the general location and main sites referenced."
Contents:
Drummond, M. 2000. An introduction to Solent Science. By Maldwin Drummond, O.B.E., J.P., D.L., Hon. D.Sc., Chairman of Solent Forum.
Brand, P. 2000. Opening address. By Dr. Peter Brand. M.P. House of Commons.
Tomalin, D. 2004. Geomorphological evolution of the Solent seaway and the severance of Wight: A review. pp. 9-19.
Velegrakis, A. 2000. Geology, geomorphology and sediments of the Solent System. pp 21- 43.
Sharples, J. 2000. Water circulation in Southampton Water and the Solent.
Tomalin, D. 2000. Wisdom of hindsight: palaeo-environmentaI and archaeological evidence of long-term processual changes and coastline sustainability.
McCue, J. 2000. Shoreline management plans - A science or an art?
Late Pleistocene / Holocene evolution of the upstream section of the Solent River - Velegrakis, A.F., Dix, J.K. and Collins, M.B.
Sea level rise in the Solent region - Bray, M.J., Hooke, J.M and Carter; D.J.
Littoral sediment transport pathways, cells and budgets within the Solent. Bray. MJ., Hooke, JM, Carter; D.J. and Clifton, J.
Residual circulation and associated sediment dynamics in the eastern approaches to the Solent - Paphitis, D., Velegrakis, A.F. and Collins, M.B.
Seabed mobility studies in the Solent region - Velegrakis, A.F., Brampton, A.H., Evans, C.D.R., and Collins, M.B.
Lee-on-the-Solent coast protection scheme - Banyard, L. and Fowler, R.
Findings of the Coastal Processes Workshops.
Nutrients in the Solent - David Hydes.
Trace metals in water, sediments and biota of the Solent system: A synopsis of existing information - Peter J. Statham.
Microbiological quality of the Solent - David Lowthion.
Behaviour of organic carbon in Southampton Water - Mark Varney.
Sewage contamination of bathing waters: health effects - Gareth Rees.
M2 tidally-induced water mass transport and water exchange in Southampton Water and the Solent - Shi. L. and Purdie. D.A.
Fluxes of dissolved inorganic phosphorous to the Solent from the River Itchen during 1995, 1996 and 1998 - Wright, P. N., Xiong. J. and Hydes. D.J.
Evaluation of the environmental risk of the use of preservative treated wood in Langstone Harbour - Cragg. S.M., Brown. C.J.. Prael, A. and Eaton. R.A.
The prevention of biofilm formation and marine settlementon protective coatings prepared from low-surface energy materials Graham. P., Stone, M., Thorpe. A., Joint. I., Nevell. T. and Tsibouklis. J.
Findings of the Water Quality and Chemistry Workshops.
Viewpoint: conservation, policy and management of maritime biodiversity - Dan Laffoley.
Coastal habitats of the Solent - Sarah Fowler.
Marine habitats and communities - Ken J. Collins and Jenny J. Mallinson.
Ornithology of the Solent - Dave Burges.
Fisheries of Southampton Water and the Solent - Antony Jensen.
Underwater light in tidal waters: possible impact on macro-algae communities - Charrier, S., Weeks, A., Lewey, S. and Robinson. I.
Phytoplankton - annual sequences in the Ramble Estuary - O' Mahony. J. and Weeks, A.
Truncatella subcylindrica (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) in the Solent area: its distribution. status and conservation - Light, J.M. and Killeen, I.J.
Evolution and current status of the saltrnarsh grass, Spartina anglica, in the Solent - Raybould. A.F.. Gray, A.J. and Hornby, D.D.
Saltmarsh monitoring studies adjacent to the Fawley refinery - May. S.
Use of the dog-wheIk. Nucella lapillus, as a bio-indicator of tributyltin (T'BT) contamination in the Solent and around the Isle of Wight - Herbert, R.J.H., Bray. S. and Hawkins, S.J.
The biology and distribution of the kelp, Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, in the Solent - Farrell, P. and Fletcher, R.
The Sussex Seasearch project - Irving. R.
Analysis of the numbers and distribution of wildfowl and waders as an aid to estuarine management - De Potier, A.
Findings of the Biodiversity and Conservation Workshops.
Aggregate extraction - Elizabeth Dower.
Main channel deepening - Port of Southampton - 1996/7 - Colin Greenwell.
Evaluating the intertidal wetlands of the Solent - David Johnson.
Developing a research agenda for the future - lan Townend.
Conclusions and close - Maldwin Drummond.


Collins Chart of 1693 showing the  Solent and the Isle of Wight, southern England. This is an illustrative image of low resolution.

Collins, G. 1693. Chart of the Solent and the Isle of Wight. By Captain Greenville Collins, appointed in 1662 to survey the coasts of Great Britain. [This does not contain geological information but is useful in showing the original coastline of the Solent and Isle of Wight prior to much reclamation and development. There are differences from the modern coastline on the north coast of the West Solent, in the area of Lee-on-the-Solent, in the eastern harbours and at Brading on the Isle of Wight. Obviously it must be used with caution in case of errors. The author of this work, Captain Greenville Collins, was a Royal Navy officer who was later promoted to Commander and became Hydrographer to the King. In 1681 Samuel Pepys, Secretary of the Admiralty, appointed Captain Collins to survey the coasts of the British Isles which took about eight years. The result was that in 1693 'Great Britain's Coasting Pilot' was published. In spite of some inaccuracies, Collins' charts proved of great value and were re-issued more than twenty times without revision. With regard to the Solent and Isle of Wight chart, of interest here, there were various editions and reprints. A later edition was published in 1753, and a slightly reduced facsimile was produced in 1965 and a small version in 1967. Copies may be obtainable from antique map dealers.]
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Cooper, J. 1976. British Tertiary stratigraphical and rock terms formal and informal, additional to Curry, 1958, Lexique Stratigraphique International; with a stratigraphical table. Tertiary Research Group, Special Paper No. 1.
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Cope, S.N., Bradbury, A.P. and Gorcyzynska, M. 2008. Solent Dynamic Coast Project: Main Report. January 2008. Channel Coastal Observatory, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton. Available online as a large pdf file. The main descriptive text and diagrams run to about 185 pages, and this is most useful to people seeking information on the Solent. There are many more pages of questionnaire sheets, intended for purposes of management.
[This is a very important and key publication that should be read by anyone interested in the Solent, its environments, its erosion, and its predicted future. In particular it contains many comparative aerial photographs from various years.]
Summary Information on the Project:
Solent Dynamic Coast Project

The Solent Dynamic Coast Project (SDCP) was conducted to inform development of the North Solent Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) to ensure compliance with the requirements of the European Union Habitats and Birds Directives. The focus was on mudflat and saltmarsh habitats as these form the largest expanse of coastal habitats across the north Solent that are immediately under threat from climate change and coastal management decisions. The consequent effect to coastal grazing marsh was also considered. The main objectives were to;
clarify legal drivers and liabilities to provide information to planning authorities on the need to preserve inter-tidal habitat creation sites for their purpose.
quantify the amount of inter-tidal coastal squeeze over the next 100 years that requires replacement habitat
identify sites where inter-tidal habitat creation is physically possible
quantify the amount of inter-tidal habitat creation sites that could potentially offset intertidal coastal squeeze over the next 100 years
undertake preliminary ranking and assessment of the feasibility of conducting managed re-alignment relative to other impacting variables
develop a region-wide framework of potential inter-tidal habitat mitigation and compensation sites
The majority of defences in the North Solent are fronted and backed by European designations, such as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs). Maintaining or improving these defences, must comply with European environmental legislation. Certain flood defence schemes have been delayed for over two years because replacement inter-tidal habitat could not be found to offset the projected coastal squeeze, resulting from the operational works.
As a result, the SDCP was initiated on behalf of the operating authorities within the North Solent region. The project covered the area between Hurst Spit, in Hampshire and Pagham Harbour, in West Sussex. The project verified mudflat and saltmarsh loss calculated by the Solent Coastal Habitat Management Plan (CHaMP, 2003) using a robust methodology of historical aerial photography interpretation (HPI) and analysis of topographic and tidal elevation data. It also estimated the area of coastal squeeze requiring compensation across the North Solent over the next 100 years assuming maintenance of all existing sea defences.
Potential habitat creation sites across the North Solent were identified using topographic and tidal elevation data. In order to assess the viability of the potential sites, local coastal managers were interviewed using a questionnaire based on Government economics and environmental criteria devised by the Environment Agency (EA), Natural England (NE) and the Channel Coastal Observatory (CCO). The questionnaire categorised the sites into preferred options for, hold the line, managed re-alignment or no active intervention (abandonment) for time epochs 0-19, 20-49, 50-100 and 100 years or more, for consistency with SMP guidance. The area of designated freshwater habitat requiring replacement as a result of potential managed re-alignment was also identified.
The SDCP approach was innovative and has not been applied elsewhere in the UK The mixture of scientific data and input by local coastal managers has produced detailed guidance for inter-tidal habitat creation that will feed into the North Solent SMP. The set of rules applied to rank potential inter-tidal habitat creation sites into time epochs for potential re-alignment or abandonment was based on a suite of assumptions that are subject to change. The Isle of Wight Mitigation Study (which in addition to inter-tidal habitats, assessed other coastal Biodiversity Action Plan habitats), and the SDCP will inform second round SMP's from which findings will feed into the EA Southern Region's Regional Habitat Creation Programme (RHCP).
The work has been undertaken by the key statutory authorities. However, this study has not involved any decision making on the part of any statutory authority. The options suggested in this study are there to facilitate future debate and decision making as part of the SMP process. No landowners or wider stakeholders have been consulted as part of the project. These views will be sought as part of the SMP process. The SMP process will integrate all aspects of sustainable development, social, economic as well as environmental, prior to any final decisions on coastal management being made.
For further information please contact Dr Samantha Cope tel 023 8059 8469 email snc@noc.soton.ac.uk
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Cordiner, R. 2006. The Cretaceous and Palaeocene Geology of Chichester Harbour . By Roger J. Cordiner of Bognor Regis, West Sussex. Geode Publications, Bognor Regis, September 2006. A copy can be ordered from Roger Cordiner, 39 Devonshire Road, Bognor Regis, West Sussex, PO21 2SY for £6 plus 1.50 p & p.
Cordiner, R. 2006. The Quaternary Geology of Chichester Harbour . By Roger J. Cordiner of Bognor Regis, West Sussex. Geode Publications, Bognor Regis, September 2006. A copy can be ordered from Roger Cordiner, 39 Devonshire Road, Bognor Regis, West Sussex, PO21 2SY for £6 plus 1.50 p & p.
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Costa, L.I. and Downie, C. 1976. The distribution of the dinoflagellate Wetzeliella in the Palaeogene of North-Western Europe. Palaeontology, 19, 591-614.
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Coughlan, J. 1982. Solent Shores - The Scene Today. In: Solent Saltmarsh Symposium, edited by F. Stranak and J. Coughlan, Solent Protection Society, Winchester, pp. 22-24.
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Crawford, O.G.S. 1949. Trinity Chapel and Fair. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 17, 45-53.
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Croudace, I.W. and Cundy, A.B. 1995. Heavy metals and hydrocarbon pollution in recent sediments from Southampton Water, southern England; a geochemical and isotopic study. Environmental Science Technology, 29, 1288-1296.
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Culshaw, M.G. Report of the Suitability, with Respect to Foundation Conditions, of an area near Marchwood Power Station, Hampshire, for the Siting of a Large Drill Rig. Institute of Geological Sciences [British Geological Survey], Special Services Division, Engineering Geology Unit, Report No. 79/14. 4 pages of text, plus maps and borehole logs. No abstract is available, so first page given below as an example of contents: 1. Introduction: The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) is proposing to locate a large drilling rig within the boundaries of Marchwood Power Station, Hampshire (Figs. 1 & 2) for the purposes of drilling a deep borehole (3000 metres). The hole is to be drilled as part of a research project into sources of geothermal energy and if results are positive, the Power Station will be utilised to convert the energy into electrical power. A site for the borehole was selected on the basis of closeness to the power station, ease of access, convenience of services and because this site is a reasonable distance from the nearest houses so that noise pollution would be limited (the rig operates 24 hours a day) (Fig. 2). However, after selection it was found that the site is underlain by very soft silty clay with interbedded peats. This alluvium overlies terrace gravels and Eocene Bracklesham Beds. Because of the very poor nature of the alluvium for a foundation for a heavy rig (weighing several hundred tons) the Engineering Geology Unit (EGU) of the Institute of Geological Sciences (IGS) was asked to comment on the engineering difficulties in using this site and, if necessary, to suggest alternative locations within the Power Station boundaries. A further difficulty was that because of financial constraints, drilling is scheduled to start at the beginning of October. Consequently, a site visit was made by the writer, on the 6th of July 1979 in the company of Dr B. Kelk of NERC, Dr A. White of Marchwood Engineering laboratories, and Mr J. Smythe, Chief Security Officer for the power station. As a result of this visit and of discussions with Dr E. Freshney of the South-West England field unit of IGS and Dr I. West of the Geology Department of the University of Southampton, it was decided to carry out a short site investigation at the proposed geothermal borehole location in the coalyard of the power station.
Preliminary examination of existing records suggested that 5 to 6 metres of Alluvium would be found. In anticipation of this-an alternative site was proposed, still situated within the power station boundaries and some 300 to 400 metres inland from the coalyard site. It was anticipated that this site would be underlain by little, if any, soft Alluvium. However, this site was only likely to-be used if the coalyard location could not be prepared within limitations of time and cost. ...[continues with text, site plans and logs of two borehole. See also the log of the Marchwood Geothermal Borehole and associated publications.]
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Cundy, A.B. 1994. Radionuclide and geochemical studies of recent sediments from the Solent estuarine system. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geology (now School of Ocean and Earth Sciences), University of Southampton. By Andrew B. Cundy. Supervised by Dr. Ian Croudace and Dr. Ian West. [Determines recent sea-level rise of about 4mm per annum, an increase on the usual Holocene figure of about 1 to 2 mm per annum. Radionuclide markers, including those from Chernobyl and Winfrith are found at certain levels in salt marsh sediments of Southampton Water and elsewhere, and can be used for dating.]

Cundy, A.B. and Croudace, I.W. 1995. Sedimentary and geochemical variations in a salt marsh/mud flat environment from the mesotidal Hamble estuary, southern England. Marine Chemistry, 51, pp. 115-132. By Andrew B. Cundy and Ian W. Croudace, Department of Geology (subsequently SOES), Southampton University, Southampton.
Abstract: The sediment record in a salt marsh contains valuable information on anthropogenic and natural inputs. The reliability of this record for a single core depends on how representative the sample is for the whole marsh and whether the various indicator elements are immobile. A detailed radiometric and geochemical study has been carried out on a series of salt marsh cores from the Hamble estuary, southern England, a temperate mesotidal estuary. Cores have been taken in two transects to assess cross-marsh variations in sediment accretion, trace element deposition and early diagenesis. From this, conclusions are drawn about variations in sedimentary processes and marsh stability, trace element focusing and the effect of early diagenetic movements on historical pollution records. Sediment accumulation rates across the salt marsh vary between 4 and 8 mm per annum (137 Cs and 210 Pb dating) and are apparently independent of elevation in the marsh. 210 Pb, 137 Cs and anthropomorphic Cu data show that the fronting mud is eroding, which may lead to increased wave attack and erosion at the marsh edge. The salt marsh itself, however, is accumulating at a rate significantly higher than the local rate of mean sea-level rise. The atmospheric deposition record of 210 Pb xs is not well-preserved in the more organic-rich sediment at the rear of the salt marsh. 210 Pb and Pb are apparently mobilised in highly reduced sediments beneath the permanent water table and precipitate in overlying partially reduced sediment with hydrous Mn and Fe oxides. Such diagenetic movement of 210 Pb and Pb is localised and not laterally continuous. At sites showing possible early diagenetic remobilisation of 210 Pb the accuracy of 210 Pb dating is reduced. Remobilisation of 210 Pb does not preclude 210 Pb dating, however, if peaks arising from redox mobility are identified and eliminated by comparison with other geochemical data (Fe, Pb, S, etc). Of the trace elements examined, Cu shows a clear pollution spike. Anthropogenic Cu introduced into the Hamble estuary from the Esso refinery at Fawley, Southampton Water peaked around 1970 and has significantly reduced since 1971. Cu, 210 Pb xs and 137 Cs are focused to some degree at the front end of the marsh due to input of material labelled with these elements which has since been eroded from the surrounding mud flat areas. [End of abstract. Notice particularly the statement on p. 116 "Salt marshes on the central south coast of England (Hampshire and Dorset) are vertically accreting in response to a recent sea-level rise of c. -- mm per annum (Cundy, 1994)."]

Cundy, A.B. and Croudace, I.W. 1996 Sediment accretion and recent sea-level rise in the Solent, southern England: inferences from radiometric and geochemical studies. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 43 (4), 449-467.

A detailed radionuclide and geochemical study has been carried out on recent sediments from the Solent estuarine system, Southern England. The vertical distributions of a series of radionuclides (210Pb, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239, 240Pu, 241Am and 60Co) have been examined which provide a measure of the rate of sediment accumulation in Southern England estuaries. The reliable use of radionuclides as indicators of sediment accumulation depends in part on their chemical immobility (lack of redox migration). 60Co, in particular, shows evidence for redox mobilization, hence it is essential to use a number of chemically different or inert radionuclides to eliminate possible bias in calculated sediment accumulation rates. While local (intra-estuary) effects influence rates of sediment accumulation, the main control of vertical saltmarsh growth over the Solent area is a rise in mean sea level. Dating of saltmarsh cores indicates a 4 - 5 mm year-1 rise in relative sea level over the last 100 years, in good agreement with tide gauge data. Comparison with data from the literature implies that a recent acceleration in sea-level rise has occurred, from 1.2 mm year-1 to 4 - 5.5 mm year-1, possibly due to changes in tidal regime or an acceleration in crustal subsidence.
[Bear in mind that local sedimentation rates on saltmarshes may signicantly exceed the local sea-level rise.]

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Cundy, A.B., Long, A.J., Hill, C.T., Spencer, C. and Croudace, I.W. 2002. Sedimentary response of Pagham Harbour, southern England to barrier breaching in AD 1910. Geomorphology, 46, 163-176. Abstract: This paper examines the evolution of Pagham Harbour, southern England following storm-induced breaching of a protective barrier in AD 1910. Stratigraphic studies of sediments collected from intertidal areas show the presence of a distinct stratigraphic horizon in the northeast of Pagham Harbour at ca. 0 to +1.0 m Ordnance Datum (OD). Radiometric data indicate that this horizon is a 'reclamation surface' formed after land claim in AD 1846. Following marine flooding in AD 1910, sediment has accreted relatively rapidly (at a broadly constant rate of between 4 and 8 mm a-1), wave and/or tidal energy have decreased and extensive marshes have developed. An asymptotic reduction in sediment accretion rate through time, as predicted in various theoretical models of salt marsh accretion, is not observed. Over the entire Pagham Harbour area, the period between AD 1948 and AD 1986 has seen an average marsh loss of 0.0087 km2 a-1, which is relatively small in comparison with other more exposed sites in the local area. Historically breached sites such as Pagham Harbour are common around European coasts, and these provide important natural laboratories within which the medium-term (decadal to centennial) coastal response to barrier breaching, and to managed-realignment coastal protection schemes, can be assessed.
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[Professor Denis Curry: the late Professor Denis Curry, Eocene specialist]

Curry, D. 1966. Problems of correlation in the Anglo-Paris-Belgium Basin. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 77, 437-467. [By the late Professor Dennis Curry (the Eocene specialist and author of many publications, and incidently the co-owner of Curry's electrical stores).]

Curry, D., Adams, C.G., Boulter, M.C., Dilley, F.C., Eames, F.E., Funnell, B.M., Wellis, M.K. 1978. A Correlation of Tertiary Rocks in the British Isles. Geological Society, London, Special Report No. 12, 72pp.

Curry, D., Daley, B., Edwards, N., Middlemiss, F.A., Stinton, F.C. and Wright, C.W. 1972. The Isle of Wight. Geologists' Association Guides No. 25 (3rd edition), 27pp.

Curry, D., Hodson, F. and West, I.M. 1968. The Eocene succession in the Fawley Transmission Tunnel. With an appendix on the clay mineralogy of the strata by R. J. GilkesProceedings of the Geologists' Association, 79, 179-206. Abstract: A tunnel to carry electricity transmission cables beneath Southampton Water from Fawley to Chilling has been excavated in Upper Bracklesham Beds [Bracklesham Group]. The regional dip to the south-west is between 1 degree and 2 degrees. Beneath the tunnel at Chilling on the east bank, and encountered only in borings, are laminated sandy clays [Marsh Farm Formation] probably of Lutetian age. Above these at the eastern end of the tunnel, Auversian Beds [mostly Selsey Sand Formation] were found, including a highly fossiliferous sand with Campanile [large turreted gastropod]. West of this point increasingly higher horizons of these beds followed, including almost all of the know subdivisions of the Auversian... The macrofauna and petrography of the individual beds in the tunnel section have been studied. Three main lithofacies are present. Fauna, sedimentary features and clay mineralogy of the lowest [Marsh Farm Formation] suggests that it is, at least in part, estuarine. The middle facies [Selsey Sand Formation] contains much quartz sand and glauconite with common molluscan and nannoplankton [coccoliths and discoaster] fossils. Here, there is evidence of marine conditions with appreciable current and wave action. The upper facies [previously Huntingbridge Member of the Bracklesham, but now classified as basal Barton Clay in the Southampton Geological Survey Memoir - Edwards and Freshney, 1987] consists predominantly of clays with some phosphatic and pyritised fossils. These strata were probably laid down in deeper and less oxygenated marine waters than those in which the underlying beds were deposited.

Curry, D., King, A.D., King, C. and Stinton, F.C. 1977. The Bracklesham Beds (Eocene) of Bracklesham Bay and Selsey, Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 88, 243-254.

Curry, D. and Wisden, D.E. 1958. Geology of some British coastal areas: the Southampton district including Barton (Hampshire) and Bracklesham (Sussex) coastal sections. Geologists' Association, London, Excursion Guide No. 14. [a brief account in a slim paperback but with key diagrams.].

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Daley, B. 1972. Macroinvertebrate assemblages from the Bembridge Marls (Oligocene) of the Isle of Wight, England, and their environmental significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 11, 11-32.

Daley, B., Edwards, N. and Insole, A.N. 1979. Lithostratigraphical nomenclature of the English Palaeogene succession. Geological Magazine, 116, 65-66.

Daley, B. and Insole, A. 1984 (reprinted 1987). Geologists' Association Guide: No. 25, The Isle of Wight. 36 p.
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Darwin-Fox, W. 1862. See Fox (1862).

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DEFOE STORM 1703
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Defoe, D. 1704. Report of a major hurricane in November 1703, with similarities to November 1824 hurricane, both causing major sea flooding and destruction. The 1 in 250 year (roughly) storm has not reappeared since 1824. We have had a 1 in 60 year storm in 2014, but it was not on scale of these major hurricanes. The 1703 storm overtopped the Hurst Spit; the 1824 storm drove it back about 40 metres. A similar great hurricane must reappear sooner or later, but the sea defences now are generally inadequate to deal with great hurricanes.

[or 1705 - [Probable date. Refers to 1703 storm which was obviously then recent and contains many letters dated 1704. Date not seen on the title page.]

A Collection of the Most Remarkable Casualties Disasters which happen'd in the Late Dreadful Tempest both by Sea and Land on Friday the Twenty-fixth of November, Seventeen Hundred and Three. To which is added Several Suprising Deliverances. The Natural Causes and Original of Winds. Of the Opinion of the Ancients that this Island was More Subject to Storms than Other Parts of the World. With Several Other Curious Observations upon the Storm. The Whole Divided into Chapters under Proper Headings. 2nd Ed. George Sawbridge, London, 272 pp. By Daniel Defoe.

Modern edition is available:
Daniel Defoe, The Storm. The book is obtainable in paperback, edited and with notes by Richard Hamblyn, Penguin Books, 228pp. 2003 and 2005; it can be bought from Amazon. Some notes based on this, follow:

Rise in sea-level during the storm. Sea rising in some place 6 or 8 feet higher (about 2.5 metres). This is similar to the effects of the 1824 storm with a sea level rise of 2 to 3 metres above the previous known high. At the present time storm surges can rise from 1 to more than 5 metres above high tide, but more than 3 metres is not expected in the English Channel, because there is no record of higher figures. (higher surges are not impossible of course, even if very unlikely)/
[The November 1703 storm had a major effect on the mouth of the Beaulieu River and thus Lepe Beach.]
[New Forest Damage: 4,000 trees were uprooted in the New Forest on the 26th to 27th November 1703. . p. 127. Six chimney stacks were blown completely clear of New Park House (north of Brockenhurst) without damaging the roof or the inhabitants and they landed several yards from the house. This provides evidence of sudden very severe wind force.
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Defra / Environment Agency. 2007. Saltmarsh Management Manual. Joint Defra / Environment Agency Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management R. and D. Programme. Technical Report SC030220. Product Code SCHO0307BMKH-E-P. Environment Agency, Royal Haskoning, Defra. Authors: Chris Adnitt, Dr. David Brew, Dr. Richard Cottle, Matt Hardwick, Sian John, Daniel Leggett, Sean McNully, Dr. Nicola Meakins, Robert Staniland - all the above are staff of Royal Haskononing UK. Foreword by Steve Killeen, Head of Science, Environment Agency.
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Devoy, R.J.N. 1972. Environmental changes in the Solent area during the Flandrian Era. Unpublished dissertation for the B.A. Honours Degree in Geography. University of Durham, 47pp.

Devoy, R.J.N. 1982. Analysis of the geological evidence for Holocene sea-level movements in Southeast England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association , vol. 93, part 1, pp. 65-90.
Abstract: Sea-level indicators in the form of shells, geosols, over-consolidated horizons and biogenic material interleaved in marine sediments, provide evidence of relative sea-level movements. Data collected largely from studies undertaken since 1950, show the sea surface rising from below -30 m O.D. at c. 9300 BP to above +0.5 m O.D. by c. 1700 BP. Details of individual studies are discussed on an areal basis. Ninety four indicator points dated either by radiocarbon or relative pollen techniques have been established and plotted on a time-depth graph. Of these, 55 were taken as providing reliable 14C and height evidence for the movement of MHWST. Statistical analysis of this data, using multiple regression and series of events techniques, suggests that a smoothly rising, exponential form of sea level rise does not form the best solution to the data and that alterations in the speed and direction of recovery may have occurred. A non-random environmental process may have been of primary importance in influencing the development and timing of sea-level indicators. Evidence is presented for the influences of climatic change and man in inducing coastal flooding after c. 3000 BP.
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Diesing, M., Coggan, R., and Vanstaen, K. 2009. Widespread rocky reef occurrence in the central English Channel and the implications for predictive habitat mapping. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, (Accepted Manuscript 19th May 2009, available online 28th May 2009). By Markus Diesing, Corresponding Author, Roger Coggan and Koen Vanstaen, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT, United Kingdom. Email address given for corresponding author - markus.diesing@cefas.co.uk.
Abstract:
Reefs are one of the marine habitats listed in Annex I of the European Union's Habitats Directive, which aims to establish a coherent European ecological network of special areas of conservation. EU Member States are required to prepare and propose a national list of sites for evaluation under the scheme, but currently the occurrence of reefs in the United Kingdom's nearshore and offshore areas is not well documented. Here we report on our search for rocky reefs in the central English Channel, which unexpectedly revealed an extensive reef system covering an area of 1100 km2. Prior to our work, it was generally perceived that the seabed in this area comprised mostly gravel, with a few isolated rock outcrops.
Our approach to determining the location, extent and character of these reefs incorporated broad, medium and finescale analyses over a 3200 km2 area of seabed, using single- and multi-beam acoustic data, ground-truthed by underwater video and stills imagery. A benthic terrain model was developed in ArcGIS to map topographic features at the broad and medium scales. Biotope assignments were made at the fine scale through detailed analysis of video footage obtained from 30 sampling stations. The study area has a complex geological history and lies at the centre of a major bedload parting zone. Together, these strongly influence the seabed character and the distribution of biotopes. An integrated assessment of the physical and biological features was used to map the study area to level 4 of the EUNIS habitat classification system.
Similar physical conditions exist in other areas of the UK continental shelf, raising the prospect of predicting where other rocky reef systems might occur. In the absence of a co-ordinated national seabed survey programme, such predictions, coupled with interpretation of existing single-beam bathymetry data, can help prioritise areas where limited survey resources could be most effectively deployed.
[Reefs are Lower Cretaceous, predominantly sandstones, shales, mudstones and siltstones of the Wealden Group. Not specifically on the Purbeck Formation. Shows palaeovalley south of the Isle of Wight in some detail]
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Dingwall, R.G. 1971. The Structural and Stratigraphical Geology of a Portion of the Eastern English Channel . Institute of Geological Science, Report 71/8 pp.vii + 24. Abstract: A geological map covering 7000 square nautical miles of solid rock floor of a section of the Eastern English Channel is presented. This map is based on the results of a systematic sampling and continuous reflection profiling (Sparkers) grid. A total of 279 core stations have been manned and 3500 nautical miles of sparkers, magnetometer and echo sounding traverses were carried out.
The bathymetric data suggest that tidal scour is the important eroding agent because the bathymetry not only illustrates the physical differences between the different sea-bed stratigraphical units but also shows the major structural features. The geological maps show a series of major strike-faulted anticlines and synclines which traverse WSW - ENE, turning E - W. and finally WNW - ESE. These major structures consist of strata ranging in age from Permo-Trias to Tertiary: The strata involved have been folded and faulted during IntraCretaceous and Tertiary movements.
Quantitative interpretation of several of the magnetic anomalies shows that the depth to the basement varies considerably. The differences in depth to the basement are associated with the shallow geological structures. Basement control is therefore suggested to be the cause for the newly mapped offshore structures.
    The English Channel probably consists of, at least, two major depositional areas, the Wessex Basin and the Western English Channel Trough. At times throughout their geological history these basins were probably linked across the western edge of the Wessex Basin. The edge of this basin is probably situated along a line from Start Point to the Cherbourg Peninsula. It is suggested that a series of more positive basement features are present within the Wessex Basin. These features have affected the structural and depositional history of the Mesozoic and Tertiary strata. [with a monochrome map, fig. 14, showing amongst other features, the solid geology of the sea-floor adjacent to the Solent.]

Dingwall, R.G. 1975. Sub-bottom infilled channels in an area of the eastern English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A.279, 233-241.
Abstract: Contouring of geophysical and hydrographic data obtained during a regional geological and geophysical reconnaissance programme has resulted in the discovery of an extensive system of narrow, steep-sided, sub-bottom infilled channels.
These channels, which occur to the north of the Cherbourg Peninsula, are, to a certain extent, structurally and stratigraphically controlled by the Cretaceous and Jurassic age strata into which they are cut, and appear to be the remnants of earlier river valleys filled with locally derived bedded and unbedded sands, silts, flints, boulders, clays and gravels. The depth reached by this infilling material is variable, ranging up to 200 m below sea-bed.
It is suggested that this system may have originated during late Tertiary (Miocene) and that during the Plio-Pleistocene, when sea level was lower, a combination of tidal scour and fluvial erosion entrenched the system into the exposed sea floor. The present tidal regime and the differing physical characteristics of the strata involved suggest that the present bathymetry is a result of tidal scour.
Introduction: Between 1968 and 1970 a continuous seismic profiling, echo-sounding, magnetic and solid rock sampling programme was carried out over a portion of the eastern English Channel. Results of this survey have been summarized by Dingwall (1971). This paper is concerned with the system of sub-bottom infill channels which occur to the north of the Cherbourg Peninsula and is a continuation of work carried out by Hamilton & Smith (1970, 1972) ; Curry, Hamilton & Smith (1970) and Larsonneur (197Ia, b). Detailed geological, geophysical and hydrographic data published on the Hurd Deep (Boillot 1963; Hamilton & Smith 1968, 1970, 1972), the Fosse du Hague and the Fosse du Cotentin (Robert 1969) has resulted in several different hypotheses for their origins. Hamilton & Smith (1972, pp. 60-61) have discussed these hypotheses in detail and it is therefore proposed not to enter into details but rather to suggest within the area under discussion and in the light of the additional geophysical data a possible regional interpretation. [continues]


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Dix, J.K. 2001.The Geology of the Solent River System. Pp. 7-14 in: Wenban-Smith, F.F. and Horsfield, R.T. 2001. Palaeolithic Archaeology of the Solent River, Proceedings of the Lithic Studies Society day meeting held at the Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton on Saturday 15th January, 2000. Lithic Studies Society Occasional Paper No. 7 (2001). Published by the Lithic Studies Society, c/o British Museum (Quaternary Section), Franks House, 38-46 Orsman Road, London, N1 5QJ. ISBN 0-9513246-3-2, ISSN 0950-9208. 111 pp., paperback. Abstract: The geology of the Hampshire Basin is dominated by Cretaceous Chalk and the, unconformably, overlying muds, sands and gravels of the early Tertiary deposits. Relatively gentle deformation of these sequences has resulted in the creation of the natural basin identified today and within which is contained the catchment of the Solent River system. This river system developed throughout the Pleistocene and as such is believed to have dominated the landscape for this entire period. There has been significant modification of the river system by every interglacial highstand, most recently with the Holocene transgression which has flooded the lower reaches of the Devensian version and as such has caused considerable re-working of the currently submerged deposits. Associated with this river system is a sporadic but well documented assemblage of Lower and Middle Palaeolithic artefacts. The existence and distribution of these assemblages is intimately linked to the underlying geology and the basin's more recent history. A synthesis of the Caenozoic and Pleistocene history is therefore presented as a backdrop to more detailed discussions presented within the rest of this volume. A short discussion of the key future research issues related to our understanding of the Solent River system will be presented.[end of abstract].
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Dixon, F. 1850. The Geology and Fossils of the Tertiary and Cretaceous Formation of Sussex. Longmans, London. [old book]
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Dobson, E. B. 1964. The growth of Warren Farm Spit, Hampshire. [Needs Ore Point, or Needs Oar Point etc. of the mouth of the Beaulieu River]. Abstract of Papers, 20th International Geographical Union Conference, London, page 111 only. [not seen]
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Draper, J.C. 1951. Stone industries from Rainbow Bar, Hants. Archaeological Newsletter, 3 (9), 147-149. [Rainbow Bar is off Hillhead, near Lee-on-the-Solent. See also Hack (1999). ]

Draper, J.C. 1966. Mesolithic distribution in southeast Hampshire. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 23, 110-119.
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Dredging Investigations Limited. 1969. British Transport Docks Board, Southampton, Western Docks Extension Project, Phase 1, Stage 2, Site Investigation. Report D6898. In all seventy-five boreholes were sunk on the positions shown in drawing No. 2005/29. See also report No. D7069: A site investigation consisting of one hundred and four shell and auger boreholes was carried out in the River Test. With a map of the borehole locations and borehole record descriptions.
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Dunham, K. and Smith, A.J. (organisers) 1975. A discussion on the Geology of the English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A.279, 1-295 [An important symposium with 85 papers including a bibliography].
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Dunn, J.N. 1972. A General Survey of Langstone Harbour with Particular Reference to the Effects of Sewage. Hampshire River Authority and Hampshire County Council. [See also Portsmouth Polytechnic. ]
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Dyer, K.R. 1969. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southampton. [Title not known; on the Solent; by Dr Keith Dyer]

Dyer, K.R. 1970a. Sediment distribution in Christchurch Bay, S. England. Journal of Marine Biological Association, U.K., 50, 673-682.

Dyer, K.R. 1970b. Linear erosion furrows in Southampton Water. Nature, London , 225, 56-58.

Dyer, K.R. 1971. The distribution and movement of sediment in the Solent, southern England. Marine Geology, 11, 175-187. [Wrongly dated as 1970 in Dyer, 1972]. Abstract: Echo sounding, oblique Asdic surveying and sampling has shown the Solent to be extensively floored by gravel dunes. The dune asymmetry and the sediment distribution indicates transport eastwards from the principal source at Hurst Spit though with recirculating edies within the Solent. Current measurements show that the water flow meanders and that the recirculating eddies of sediments are associated with the positions of the meanders. The observed sediment distribution when compared with that predicted from the water flow shows that the gravel is often oversaturated with sand where currents are equal and opposite. Where the currents are asymmetrical the gravel is undersaturated with sand. Modified scree slopes appear where abrupt changes in the direction of sediment movement occur. [End of Abstract].

Dyer, K.R. 1972. Recent Sedimentation in the Solent Area. (Extrait du) Memoir Bureau Rech. Geol. Min., No. 79, 271-280. Abstract: Sparker surveys have shown that the river system, of which the Solent is a remnant, was incised to a base level of at least -50 m. Recent infilling of these channels in the east has been complex and is still continuing. In the west, evidence of the river channels has been mainly obliterated by erosion. Oblique asdic surveys have shown that the sea bed over much of the area is covered with dunes. Analysis of sea bed samples has shown that the dunes in the West Solent are composed of sandy-gravel with low shell content. Elsewhere sand and muds are important and shell content is generally higher. The predicted sediment transport paths show that coastal erosion in Christchurch Bay, on Selsey Bill and on the Isle of Wight is the main source of sediment. The relationship between the tidal currents and the sedimentary characteristics are discussed. [end of abstract]
Extract from the start: Introduction: The Solent and Southampton Water form the drowned remnants of a previously extensive river system, the " Solent River", that drained the Hampshire Basin. The southern side of this basin was a land area which extended from Dorset through the Isle of Wight. During the Pliocene period the sea level stood at about + 200 m O. D. (Wooldridge and Linton, 1955), and most of the present land surface was under water. Subsequently the land rose relative to the sea, but with pauses that cut gravel covered levels. Some of these levels have horizontal segments thought to have been beaches formed of material eroded from older terraces (Everard, 1954a). Everard (1954 b) has also described submerged gravel and peat within Southampton Water. The maximum incision recorded within Southampton Water is to -24.4 m O. D. (Curry, Hodson and West, 1968). The breaching of the Isle of Wight - Purbeck ridge probably occured fairly late in the ensuing Flandrian transgression, but must have been followed by rapid erosion of the soft, plateau gravel covered, Tertiary rocks. Rapid erosion is still occuring in Christchurch Bay, on Selsey Bill and on certain sections of the Isle of Wight cost. The Solent now separates the Isle of Wight from the mainland of Hampshire. Within the Solent, the maximum water depths are 60 m in Hurst Narrows at the western end, and about 32 m in the Spithead. Elsewhere the channel depths are about 15 m, but shoals and banks occur, especially in the East Solent... [continues, with useful maps including those of carbonate content of sediment, mean grain size, distribution of dunes, and seismic profile surveys]

Dyer, K.R. 1975. The buried channels of the "Solent River", southern England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 86, 239-245. By Dr. Keith Dyer, Institute of Oceanographic Sciences. Taunton. Somerset. Abstract: Extensive continuous seismic profiling has shown the 'Solent River' to have been incised to a base level of at least -46 m 0.0. and to have flowed to the east. The sequence of infilling in the area near the Nab Tower is complex, having originated mainly from a source to the south. In the East Solent there appear to be extensive gravels overlying bedrock to a depth of 2-3 m. except in the channel south of the Ryde Middle Bank. This Bank has been cut out of the Tertiary clays, but the Brambles Bank is a sedimentary feature situated on the extension of Southampton Water near its junction with the Solent River channel.

Dyer, K.R. 197? Estuaries: A Physical Introduction. John Wiley and Sons, London, A Wiley-Interscience Publication. 133pp. [Contains some information on Southampton Water etc.].

Dyer, K.R. 1980. Sedimentation and sediment transport. Pp. 20-24 in : Burton, J.D. 1980. The Solent Estuarine System: an Assessment of Present Knowledge. N.E.R.C. Publications Series C, No. 22 November 1980, ed. J.D. Burton, 100 p. NERC. [Extract:] Introduction: The Solent, Southampton Water and their tributary inlets form the drowned remnants of a previously extensive river system (see Section 2) which was incised to at least - 45m below present sea level. During the ensuing Flandrian transgression, the Isle of Wight Purbeck ridge was breached, and this has been followed by fairly rapid erosion during the last few thousand years, of the soft, plateau-gravel covered Tertiary rocks which has released large quantities of clays, sands and gravel. Continuing erosion indicates that an equilibrium configuration has yet to be attained.
The tidal conditions within the area are complicated (see Section 5) with a tidal range that can reach 5m at Southampton. Within the Solowing a smooth curve, the currents change direction before high or low water. There is generally only a short period of slack water during the tidal cycle and the currents are almost symmetrical. The small differences that do occur, however, appear to be significant in the sedimentation patterns. In contrast, slack water within Southampton Water and the other inlets coincides with high or low tide, and complicated effects due to a double peak on the flood tide and a double high water at spring tides are present. These factors produce a fast, short duration, ebb flow and a slower, longer flood flow, with a long period of slack water at high tide.
The coastlines of the area are exposed to wave action which is generally from a SW or SE quarter due to the sheltering effect of the Isle of Wight. Maximum surface currents exceed 2m sec-l in the West Solent and l.5 m sec-l in the mouths of inlets such as Portsmouth Harbour.
Thickness of Sediment: Over most of the Solent area, seismic profiling has shown the sediment to be less than 2m thick. However, bare rock is not very extensive, and occurs only on the steep slopes of the channel in the West Solent, particularly in the vicinity of the Tertiary limestone ledges. The presence of other outcrops is shown by rolled clay fragments in some samples. Thicker sediments occur where the old river valleys have been filled in (Dyer, 1975), especially beneath the Brambles Bank, between the Nab Tower and St Helens Roads and beneath Calshot Spit, where a depth of 25m can be found.
Sedimentary Topography: Coastal features indicative of longshore sediment movement are common in the Solent area. Most of the estuaries and inlets have well developed spits (called 'duvers' on the Isle of Wight) which have been derived mostly from material from local cliff erosion (Fig 1), and some of the smaller inlets have been effectively sealed off. Tidal deltas occur at the entrances to Langstone and Chichester Harbours, while elsewhere it seems that the currents across the mouths of the inlets are too strong for deltas to be formed. However, bars are present across smaller inlets with low tidal prism volumes. There are three main banks within the Solent. The Solent Bank in the West Solent previously had a barchan shape, but is now of much lower relief (Hydraulics Research Station, 1977)...[continues].

Dyer, K.R. 1986. Coastal and Estuarine Sediment Dynamics. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 342 pp.

Dyer, K.R., Hamilton, N. and Pingree, R.D. 1969. A seismic refraction line across the Solent. Geological Magazine, 106, 92-95.

Dyer, K.R. and King, H.L. 1975. The residual water flow through the Solent, South England. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 42, 97-106.

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Eaton, G.L. 1971. The use of microplankton in resolving stratigraphical problems in the Eocene of the Isle of Wight. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 127, 281-282.

Eaton, G.L. 1976. Dinoflagellate cysts from the Bracklesham Beds (Eocene) of the Isle of Wight, Southern England. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology, 26, No. 6, 230-332.
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Edmunds, F.H. 1928. Wells and Springs of Sussex. Memoir of the Geological Survey of England and Wales, pp.viii + 263.
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Edwards , N. 1967. Oligocene Studies in Hampshire Basin. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Reading University, UK.

Edwards, N. 1971. Stratigraphy and correlation of the Headon, Osborne, Bembridge and Hempstead Beds (Palaeogene), Hampshire Basin a bibliography 1814-1970. Journal of the Society for Bibliography of Natural History, 6, 50-60.

Edwards, N. and Freshney, E.C. 1987. Lithostratigraphical classification of the Hampshire Basin Palaeogene deposits (Reading to Headon Formations). Tertiary Research, 8, 43-73.

British Geological Survey Memoir and Map 315 for the Southampton Area

Edwards, R.A. and Freshney, E.C. 1987. British Geological Survey, Geological Map, Sheet 315 (England and Wales), Southampton, Solid and Drift, 1:50,000 (new edition). Described by the Edwards and Freshney (1987) memoir on the Geology of the Country around Southampton.

Edwards, R.A. and Freshney, E.C. 1987. Geology of the Country around Southampton . Memoir for 1:50,000 geological map sheet 315 (England and Wales). British Geological Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 111pp. ISBN 0 11 884396 6. Original Price - £7.50. Contributors: Geophysics - Smith, I.F.; Palaeontology: Boulter, M.C., Clark, R.D., Cooper, J., Harland, R., Hughes, M.J. and King, C.; Petrography - Merriman, R.J. and Morton, A.C.; Stratigraphy: Holder, M.T., King, C. and Scrivener, R.C.; Water Supply - Monkhouse, R.A. [This is the key Geological Survey publication on Southampton and adjacent area, including part of the New Forest. It is an almost A4 size, slim, green, paperback book with BGS - Southampton on the side. It is present in Southampton University, Hartley Library, the National Oceanographic Library, Southampton Oceanography Centre and probably in many university and local public libraries. It is easily obtainable and may still be in print.]

Edwards, R.A., Scrivener, R.C., and Forster, A. 1987. Applied geological mapping: Southampton area. Volume 1, Main report and Appendix. Research Report of the British Geological Survey, ICSO/87/2. With 10 following volumes contain 62 maps, mostly 1:25,000 scale, on drift, solid geology, made ground, old workings, sites of special scientific interest etc. See also: Volume 2 - Maps of Solid Geology; Volume 3 - Maps of Drift Geology; Volume 4 - Maps of Drift Thickness; Volume 5 - Maps of Rockhead Contours; Volume 6 - Maps of Mineral Resources; Volume 7 - Maps of Worked Ground; Volume 8 - Maps of Availability of Geotechnical Test Data; Volume 9 - Maps of Engineering Geology, Slope Angle and Aquifer Distribution; Volume 10 - Maps of Borehole Locations and Sites of Special Scientific Interest. [This is a large set of A4 paperback publications, 21cm in total width. A set for reference only is housed in cardboard boxes in the Hartley Library of Southampton University (special collections) and probably in the National Oceanographic Library, Southampton Oceanography Centre. The set should be consulted for geological and environmental detail of the Southampton area. It has many applications, such as for example, as the details of the ground beneath a house or other building. In addition to information on the geological bedrock, it provides information on made ground, waste disposal and former gravel quarries.] (See also the Southampton Memoir - Edwards and Freshney (1987) and the separate geological research reports: Laxton, J.L. 1987. Computer database of geological, borehole and geotechnical information for applied geological mapping of the Southampton area Research Report of the British Geological Survey, No. ICSO/87/4. and Loudon, T.V. and Mennim, K.C. 1987. Mapping techniques, using computer storage and presentation, for applied geological mapping of the Southampton area.Research Report of the British Geological Survey, No. ICSO/87/3.)
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Elwes, J.W. 1890. Additional notes on fossils at Fareham and Southampton. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, vol.1, no. 4, pp. 80-83. Continued from Part 2, page 31, and Part 3, page 43. With a table of fossils of the London Clay at Fareham, St. Denys (once a notable fossil locality that was visited by the Geologists Association), Crowd Hill and the Southampton Well (the "Artesian Well" on Southampton Common). Here is an interesting extract regarding the Eastern Docks, Southampton: Fossils of the Bracklesham Beds at Southampton: Cerithium dixoni Desh. was omitted from the list published in the paper on the Dock Excavation (H.F.C. Proc. No. 3), and the following species were found later in the Sanguinolaria bed :- Pleurotoma goniaea Edw., Metula juncea, Sby. Voluta scabricula SoL, and a small Mitra. The occurrence of P. goniaea is of interest, as it has been found at Stubbington (bed f). A collection has lately been added to the Hartley Museum [precursor of Southampton University] from the bed at Freemantle, including Nummulites laevigatus. Mr. J. E. LeFeuvre is the donor, and the specimens were obtained many years ago when the railway was being made. The following association of species in the Dock beds, reminding one of a similar assemblage in the Headon beds, seems worth noting. Cantharus polygonus is closely related to the rare C. subcostatus of the Headon; Ostrea zonulata is scarcely distinct from O. velata; Cerithium dixoni represents C. pyrgotum, etc. The Voluta spinosa of the Headon beds (sometimes referred to V. depauperata) is a variety which frequently retains the colour markings, rarely found in the V. spinosa of the Bracklesham. The Sanguinolariae (hollowaysii and compressa) are nearly related, and other such examples might be quoted. The descendant species and varieties and their probable ancestors are thus associated at different periods of time. [I assume that this facies comparison is being made with the Brockenhurst Bed, which in modern terminology is at the base of the Colwell Bay Member of the Headon Hill Formation of the Solent Group. Note that some species names will have changed since 1890.]
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Englefield, Sir H. C. 1816. A Description of the Principal Picturesque Beauties, Antiquities and Geological Phaenomena, of the Isle of Wight. With additional observations on the strata of the Island, and their continuation in the adjacent parts of Dorsetshire, by Thomas Webster, Esq. Payne and Foss, 88 Pall-Mall, London. [Classic book with excellent engravings. Example from Webster's section - "Swanwich, June 16th. Dear Sir, I shall now proceed to described what I have observed in Dorsetshire, in pursuance of your request, that I would examine the chalk at Handfast point, which; being in a line with that of the Isle of Wight, appeared like a continuation of the same strata. -- For this purpose, I hired a small cutter at Yarmouth; and having sailed past the Needles, we directed our course westward towards the chalk cliffs of Dorsetshire, which were distinctly visible." -- continues ]
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Environment Agency. 2009. Planning for the Future; Portchester Castle to Emsworth Draft Coastal Flood and Erosion Risk Management Strategy. Summary Document. 23 pp. The Environment Agency is working in partnership with Fareham Borough, Portsmouth City, Havant Borough and Chichester District Councils to produce the Portchester Castle to Emsworth coastal flood and erosion risk management strategy. [A wide, card document with many colour illustrations. The text is informative but very brief. It is a public relations type of document, not a detailed, technical report.]
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Etheridge, R. 1883. Address of the President of Section C - Geology. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 52nd Meeting at Southampton in August, 1882. Transactions of Section C, pp. 502-529. By Robert Etheridge, F.R.S.L. and E., F.G.S., Assistant Keeper of the Geological and Palaeontological Department of the Natural History Museum (British Museum), London.[Consideration of the Eocene and Oligocene strata of Selsey, Bracklesham Bay, the Isle of Wight, Bournemouth, Hengistbury Head etc. The Brockenhurst Bed of the New Forest (Whitley Ridge railway cutting) and the Isle of Wight is discussed. Much of the information is from previous works such as Fisher, and Forbes but additional details are given. Edwards' fossil collection and correlation of Hampshire Basin strata with German and Paris Basin successions are other topics in this paper.]
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Evans, C. 1873. Geology of the neighbourhood of Portsmouth and Ryde. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 2, 61-76, 149-174.

Evans, G. 1979. Quaternary transgressions and regressions. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 136, 125-132.
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Everard, C.E. 1954a. The Solent river; a geomorphological study. Transaction of the Institute of British Geographers, 20, 41-58.

Everard, C.E. 1954b. Submerged gravel and peat in Southampton Water. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 18, 263-285.


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Exbury Gardens. Go to:
Exbury Gardens and Steam Railway website
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"Lionel de Rothschild moved to Exbury in 1912, purchasing Inchmery House with plans to create his gardens in the land surrounding this house. Unfortunately this didn’t prove to be possible and so in 1919 he purchased the Exbury Estate, neighbouring his Inchmery home, and set about creating the world famous Gardens.
Exbury village and Estate owe their appearance to the Mitford’s and Rothschild’s, who created the mix of architectural designs seen today. The Rothschilds of all the owners have probably had the greatest impact on the appearance of this quintessential Hampshire village and Estate...." [continues]

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Falcon, N.L. and Kent, P.E. 1960. Geological Results of Petroleum Exploration in Britain 1945-1957. Geological Society of London, Memoir No. 2, 56pp.
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Fiest-Castel, M. 1977. Evolution of the charophyte floras in the Upper Eocene and Lower Oligocene of the Isle of Wight. Palaeontology, 20, 143-157.

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The Rev. Osmond Fisher speaks in 1854 about his work on the Purbeck strata of Dorsetshire
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Fisher, O. 1871. Portland wood, on the coast of Sussex. Reply to Mr. Perceval. Geological Magazine, 8, 524-525.

Fisher, G.C. 1973. Brickearth and its influence on the character of soil, in the southeast New Forest. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 28, 99-109.

Fisher, O. 1962. On the Bracklesham Beds of the Isle of Wight basin. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 18, 65-94. By the Reverend Osmund Fisher of Cambridge University. [An early, but well-known, key paper on the details of the Bracklesham stratigraphy. It provides detail on Lee-on-the-Solent, Whitecliff Bay, Bracklesham Bay and other localities.]

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Forbes, E. 1856. On the Tertiary Fluvio-Marine Formation of the Isle of Wight. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and of the Museum of Practical Geology. Published by Order of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury. London. Printed for Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Published by Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans. 162pp & 10 Plates, some folding and hand-coloured. By Professor Edward Forbes, F.R.S. etc. [This pioneering work is the basis for later memoirs on the Isle of Wight. "The following description of the tertiary strata of the Isle of Wight is chiefly from the pen of the late Professor Edward Forbes, who made an important addition to our knowledge of these deposits, by showing that the beds at Hempstead, near Yarmouth, constitute the highest member of the Hampshire Basin. He also first detected the existance of the fossiliferous strata near Osborne, which, filling a vacuum in British geology, have proved to be the equivalents of certain deposits in the Paris basin. -- My eminent friend was, alas! taken away from us just after he had completed his observations, leaving an outline-sketch only, which he alone could have rapidly filled up, but which required considerable additonal labour when other minds were brought to the task -- Fortunately his admirers have so zealously combined on this occasion, as to bring out his MSS. on the Isle of Wight in a creditable manner. -- At the head of these friends stands Mr. Robt. Godwin-Austen, who combining the powers of a skilful geologist with his duties as an executor of the deceased, has acted as the principal editor of the work...." Extract of Notice by Roderick I. Murchison, Geological Survey Office, 1st October, 1856.]

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Fox, W.D. 1862. When and how was the Isle of Wight separated from the mainland? Geologist, 5, 452.
[Initial theory of the Solent River. By the Reverend Fox. Although short - a classic! Full article follows: ]

---------------------------

SIR
- On two different occasions inquiries have been made in the pages of the 'Geologist,' as to the period at which the Isle of Wight was torn from the mainland and entrusted to the rude guardianship of the ocean. The subject is an interesting one, especially in its geological aspects; and as I have given some attention to it, I will attempt to reply to the inquiries of your Lymington correspondent.    
I am not aware that there is the least particle of historical evidence that gives countenance to the famous passage in Diodorus Siculus that has been interpreted by various writers as proving that, when he lived, the channel of the Solent was fordable at low water. As the particular island of which Diodorus is speaking, was one from which the miners of Cornwall were in the habit of exporting their minerals, and there is a small isle (St. Michael's) on their own coast, to which such minerals could easily have been conveyed, and which, in its connection with the mainland, answers pretty closely to the historian's remarks; and further, as I know of no argument worth listening to why the miners of Cornwall should have transported their tin to the Isle of Wight for exportation, - on all these several grounds, I think one may safely conclude that neither Diodorus, nor any other writer of note, has left any evidencv whatsoever about the fordableness of the Solent, within historical times.    
The severance of this island from the mainland, it appears to me, was effected under very unusual circumstances, and at a very distant period. The present channel of the Solent, being pretty nearly equally deep and equally broad throughout its entire length of twelve or fourteen miles, proves at once that it was not formed in the usual way of island-severing channels, that is, by gradual encroachments of the sea on the two opposite sides of a narrow neck of land. If so formed, the middle part of tbe channel would naturally have been both narrower and shallower than the two mouths that first admitted the tide towards it; but this is not the case. Nor are there any important indestructible obstructing rocks on either side of the channel that could account for this peculiar formation. It is to be accounted for, therefore, not by the excavations of a gradually approaching sea, but, as I shall hereafter have to attempt to show, by its being originally the trunk or outlet of a very considerable river.    
Again, at the western mouth of the Solent, there is almost an immeasurable accumulation of rolled flints, with which are mingled a sufficient sprinkling of fragmental fossill shells of various genera and species to show us from whence, the whole mass was originally transported This accumulation forms a sort of natural breakwater, two miles in length, one hundred yards in breadth, and many feet in thickness, extending between the mainland at Milford and a point beyond midchannel, where Hurst Castle was erected three centuries ago. Where the castle stands, this bank of flints becomes expanded so as to cover a circular space of fully twenty acres. Now all this enormous accumulation of flints, together with another one probably much larger on the island side of the main channel, and lying under the sea, in front of Alum Bay and the Needles, are formed of drift and broken fossils from the Barton beds ; the fossils themselves plainly pointing to the formation whence the whole mass was derived. It would add too much to the length of my paper, to account for this vast lodgment of drift around the mouth of the Solent; neither is this needful as respects the objects of my remarks: only I would have my readers to understand that it depends upon the flow of tide through the channel of the Solent. And when it is remembered that the annual supply of drift along the Barton cliffs is comparatively small, it will then be seen that it must have required a period reaching far back in time to gather together the vast accumulations referred to above, and consequently they may be regarded in themselves as visible and lasting memorials of the very great antiquity of the separation of the Isle of Wight from the mainland.    
Nay, I will venture to hazard an opinion, even though I stand without geological authorities to support me, that will place the date of the formation of the Solent Sea still further back in the dimness of the past; an opinion to which both the peculiarities of the channel itself above referred to, and the geological formation of the surrounding country,-bear very strong testimony. Whoever as a geologist examines the vertical strata of the chalk at the Needles, nay, and throughout the whole length of the Isle of Wight, and the strata of the same rock in exactly the same unusual, position on the bold white cliff on the Dorsetshire coast some twenty miles westward of the Needles, will not doubt but that the two promontories were once united, forming a rocky. neck of land from Dorset to the Needles. This chain of chalk might, or might not, be so cleft in twain as to, allow the rivers of Dorset and Wilts. to find a passage through them to the main ocean. My opinion, however, is that they had no such outlet, but that, at that far distant period, the entire drainage of more than two counties; embracing the rivers that join the sea at Poole and Christchurch, flowed through what is now called Christchurch Bay, down the Solent, and joined the sea at Spithead.    
According to this theory, the Solent was at that time an estuary somewhat like the Southampton Water, having but one opening to the British Channel; but of so much more importance than the latter as it was fed by a vastIy greater flow of fresh water; and it further supposes that the bed of the Solent was scooped out originally by a river, which from the extent of its drainage one may guess to have been little inferior to, the Thames or the Humber. And this opinion acquires countenance from the circumstance that it accounts, in a most satisfactory way, for the equality of depth and breadth in the Solent Sea. Of course, according to this view, this sea would lose its original condition as an estuary at the time when the British Channel had so far made a breach through the chain of rocks connecting the Isle of Wight with Dorsetshire as to give an opening into itself for the Dorsetshire rivers, somewhere opposite to the town of Christchurch. From that time forth the Solent would become what it is at present; losing its character as an estuary, and assuming that of a long narrow sea. And at the same period, of course, the Isle of Wight would part with its peninsular character, and be severed from the mainland, but at a point far apart from that at which the severance is usually supposed to have taken place. The distant period at which such changes took place it would be hopeless to guess at, amid the dimness of the data on which calculations could be founded. It could not be less, however, than many thousands of years, seeing that since that time, the British Channel has not only made a broad breach of twenty miles through a chain of slowly yielding rocks, but has also pushed its way gradually across the broad extent of the Poole and Christchurch Bays.    
In conclusion, I would observe, that if your correspondent at Lymington simply put his question about the separation of the Isle of Wight as an archaeological inquiry, I fear he will consider my answer to it as somewhat dreamy. But I am confident, if he and others who may honour me with a careful perusal of my observations, are tolerably acquainted with the geology of the neighbourhood, and have had their minds disciplined for realizing the operations of nature on a large scale and through lengthened periods of time, they will perceive in this paper opinions indicative of more than novelty, having, as I believe, very important geological facts to uphold them.

Yours, etc.,
W. Fox.
Brixton, Isle of Wight, Nov 8, 1862.

--------------------------

[Note - The Barton Clay fossils at Hurst Castle Spit, referred to by Fox, are mostly worn pieces or worn complete shells of large gastropods particularly Clavilithes macrospira and Sycostoma pyrus. Professor Robert Nicholls and I have a significant collection of them. Most of them were found at the recurved end of Hurst Castle Spit, just south-east of the Castle. A smaller number were found on the main gravel spit. Some pieces of the Shell Bed or Stone Band, composed of siderite and mollusc shells were also found. We collected the specimens in the 1970s and few are likely to be found now. As the Reverend Fox pointed out they are unambiguous evidence of extensive erosion of the Barton cliffs and transport of the more resistant shell material to Hurst Castle Spit. Because of sea defences this movement does not take place now and and has not done so for many years. Ian West, 2004]

[Regarding the Reverend Fox see:
The History of Isle of Wight Palaeontology. This website comments that the most famous dinosaur hunter in the history of the Isle of Wight is the Reverend William Fox (1813-1881), who although was not a professional scientist, he was curate at St. Helens church in Brighstone village (then known as Brixton) during the mid-19th century, from 1862 until presumably his death 19 years later. Please refer to the excellent dinowight website for more information. See the reference below regarding his tea parties!]
[Perhaps you would like to follow the Ictis story further. To read a modern review of Fox's theory - see: Tomalin, D. 2000. Geomorphological evolution of the Solent seaway and the severance of the Isle of Wight: a review.]




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Fulford, M., Champion. T. and Long, A. 1997. England's coastal heritage; a survey for English Heritage and the RCHME. EH/RCHME, London. 268 pp. [reference from Tomalin (2000)]

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Geikie, I. 1881. Prehistoric Europe: a geological sketch. Edward Stanford. London. [reference from Tomalin (2000)]
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Gibbard, P.L. 1988. The history of the great northwest European rivers during the past three million years. Philosophic Transactions of the Royal Society, London, B 318, 559-602. By P.L. Gibbard, Subdepartment of Quaternary Research, Botany School, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EA, UK. Abstract: This paper is based on a review of the histories of the Rivers Elbe, Saale, Weser, Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Thames, Somme and Seine. Two further rivers no longer in existence, the Baltic and the Channel rivers, are also included. The histories of these rivers illustrate how the inteplay of tectonics and climate have influenced the northwest European drainage system through the late Cainozoic...The foundations of the modern drainage system were laid down in the Miocene when earth movements associated with the Alpine orogenesis and the opening of the North Atlantic were at their height. In general, these early rivers occupied shallow valleys and transported only chemically resistant minerals and lithologies...The Pleistocene was marked by the appearance of cold climates. These climates resulted in fluvial dissection of the landscape, which stripped first regolith, then fresh material derived by periglacial processes. This material accumulated in the river valleys as gravel and sand deposits, which make up the overwhelming bulk of Pleistocene fluvial sediments. The rivers generally adopted braided courses during the cold stages. The deeply incised modern valley system has developed largely as a result of rapid climatic changes over the past 2.4 Ma or so... Throughout this period the river system has undergone repeated adjustments in response to continental glaciation. These responses are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the Anglian-Elsterian glaciation that blocked the southern North Sea to produce a vast ice-dammed lake, the overspill from which initiated the Dover Straits...By contrast, interglacial sedimentation comprises predominantly fine, often fossiliferous sediments with rivers normally adopting single thread channels, while estuarine sediments were deposited in areas invaded by high eustatic sea levels. The impact of sea-level change on the length of the rivers and their courses is considered. End of Abstract. [This paper includes maps showing the Solent and the Channel rivers, although they are not detailed. See particularly p. 587-591 on "Channel River system and the Straits of Dover". Note that "the Channel River, for example, was approximately 800 km in length, 3.3 times longer than the present River Thames." The paper has a good and extensive reference list. It is a key publication.]

Gibbard, P.L. 1995. The formation of the Strait of Dover. pp. 15-26 in: Preece, R.C. (editor), 1995. Island Britain: A Quaternary Perspective. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, No. 96.
Abstract: The Strait of Dover (Pas-de-Calais) is a narrow sea passage that links the North Sea and the English Channel [La Manche] between Britain and France. Much evidence exists that the Dover strait did not exist during most of the Pleistocene. Instead a Chalk barrier was present, formed by the Weald-Artois anticline. Advance of the continental ice-sheet across the North Sea in the Middle Pleistocene Elsterian/Anglian Stage apparently dammed the southern part of the basin and water discharging into was prevented from reaching the Atlantic to the north. The resulting lake apparently drained by spilling over the barrier and initiated the gap. This scenario is supported by sediments at Wissant, France. This theory contrasts with one, proposed by the French geologists, that favours a structural origin.
Overflow from the lake has been interpreted as having been catastrophic. This was invoked to explain the origin of the complex anastomosing system of valleys or channels that occurs on the floor of the Channel cut into bedrock, predominantly of Mesozoic age. These valleys are interlinked to form a drowned drainage system and can also be linked to present rivers that enter the channel on both the British and French sides. However, it is highly probable that the drowned valley system is multigenetic, resulting from repeated fluvial and marine erosion and deposition rather than representing a single, short-lived event. The valley system probably originated in the late Early to early Middle Pleistocene as a consequence of uplift of the Weald-Artois region.
Once the Dover Strait was formed the rivers Thames and Scheldt were deflected through the gap and into the Channekl River system during periods of low relative sea-level. Subsequently these rivers were probably joined by the Maas and the Rhine, diverted by glaciation in the Drenthee Sub-stage (Saalian/Wolstonian Stage). The narrows seem to have been progressively enlarged by marine tidal scour and coastal erosion during high sea-level events.


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Gilkes, R. 1968a. Clay mineral provinces in the Tertiary sediments of the Hampshire Basin. Clay Minerals, 7, 351-361. By Professor Robert Gilkes [Bob Gilkes].

Gilkes, R. 1968b. Clay mineralogy of selected specimens from the Transmission Tunnel excavations. Appendix to Curry, Hodson and West: The Eocene succession in the Fawley Transmission Tunnel. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 79, 203-206.

Gilkes, R. 1978. On the clay mineralogy of Upper Eocene and Oligocene sediments in the Hampshire Basin. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 89, 43-56.
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Godwin, H. and Godwin, M.E. 1940. Submerged peat at Southampton: Data for the Sudy of Post-Glacial History. The New Phytologist, vol. 39, pp. 303-307, Cambridge, at the University Press. [On the section at Southampton Western Docks].

Godwin, G. and Switzur, V.R. 1966. Cambridge University natural radiocarbon measurements V111. Radiocarbon, 8, 390-400.

Godwin, G., Suggate, R.P. and Willis, E.G. 1958. Radiocarbon dating of the eustatic rise in ocean level. Nature, London, 181, 1518-1519.
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Godwin Austen, R.A.C. 1857. On the Tertiary deposits of the Sussex coast. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 13, 40-47.
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Gosport Borough Council. 1965. Outfall at Browndown Point. For Southampton Main Drainage Board. Logs of five offshore boreholes. This shows that the deep buried channel is at about 21m. and close inshore.
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Goss, C. 1972. The diatoms. Appendix to Hodson and West: The Holocene deposits of Fawley, Hampshire and the development of Southampton Water. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 83, 439-444.
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Green, C.P. and Keen, D.H. 1987. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironments of the Stone Point deposits: the 1975 investigation. Pp. 17-20 in: Barber, K.E. 1987, Wessex and the Isle of Wight, Field Guide. Quaternary Research Association. Prepared to accompany the Annual Field Meeting held at Southampton and Cowes, 21-25 April, 1987. 180 pp. No abstract available, so extract of introduction given below: The Pleistocene deposits at Stone (SZ 457984) were first described by Reid (1893) and subsequently by Palmer & Cooke (1923), West & Sparks (1960) and Brown et al (1975). Figures 1 and 2 indicate the arrangenent of the deposits investigated by Brown et al (1975). On the foreshore, organic clays including several beds of Phragmites peat occupy depressions in the surface of an underlying Lcwer Gravel. In the cliff, the relationship of these deposits to an overlying Upper Gravel can be traced. .. The full extent of the organic deposits and the Upper Gravel is unknown, but they are not present at Lepe Coastguard House, 0.61 km west of Stone, or at Cadland, 2.01 km north-east of Stone. At both these places a low terrace gravel of the River Solent rests directly at Tertiary bedrock, and has a base at approximately the same level as the base of the Upper Gravel at Stone. The Lower Gravel at Stone, and the organic deposits appear therefore to occupy a depression cut in the Tertiaries to below present sea level. .. Stratigraphy .. This is the lowest member of the Pleistocene succession at Stone. In composition (Table 1) it resembles terrace gravels of the former River Solent. A maximum thickness of 2.6 m of gravel was seen in excavations beneath the modern beach without reaching a base. In some places the upper part of the Lower Gravel, a bleached horizon and iron pan resembling parts of a podzolic soil were seen... [continues with: Fig. 1 - an important plan from the 1975 paper of Brown et al showing the details of the beach with pit numbers and locations of bulk samples; Fig. 2 Sections through the Pleistocene deposits, also from Brown et al. The original short paper is very useful and it should be consulted.]

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Hack, B. 1999. More stone tools from Rainbow Bar. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 54, 161-171. [Rainbow Bar is off Hillhead, near Lee-on-the-Solent. See also Draper (1951). ]

Hack, B. 2000. Rainbow Bar: some observations and thoughts. Lithics, 21, 36-44. [Rainbow Bar is off Hillhead, near Lee-on-the-Solent. See also Draper (1951). ]
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Haigh, I. 2008. [Ph.D. Thesis in preparation 2008 - subject determining rising sea level rates around Britain from tidal gauge data] by Ivan Haigh. CCPEM, School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, Southampton University. [Supervisors Professors Robert Nicholls and Neil Wells]


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Haigh, I., Nicholls, R. and Wells, N. 2009. Mean sea level trends around the English Channel over the 20th century and their wider context. Continental Shelf Research, vol. 29, (17), pp. 2083-2098. By Dr. Ivan Haigh, Professor Robert Nicholls and Professor Neil Wells.
Abstract:
This paper provides estimates of rates of change in mean sea level around the English Channel, based on an extensive new hourly sea level data set for the south coast of the UK, derived from data archaeology. Mean sea level trends are found to vary by between 0.8 and 2.3 mm/yr around the Channel. The rates of mean sea level change are calculated by removing the coherent part of the sea level variability from the time series of annual mean sea level before fitting linear trends. The improvement in accuracy gained by using this approach is assessed by comparing trends with those calculated using the more traditional method, in which linear trends are fitted directly to the original records. Removal of the coherent part of the sea level variability allows more precise trends to be calculated from records spanning 30 years. With the traditional approach 50 years is required to obtain the same level of accuracy. Rates of vertical land movement are approximated by subtracting the mean sea level trends from the most recent regional estimate of change in sea level due to oceanographic processes only. These estimated rates are compared to measurements from geological data and advanced geodetic techniques. There is good agreement around most of the UK. However, the rates estimated from the sea level records imply that the geological data suggest too much submergence along the western and central parts of the UK south coast. Lastly, the paper evaluates whether the high rates of mean sea level rise of the last decade are unusual compared to trends observed at other periods in the historical record and finds that they are not.
[Extract - Conclusions.
"This paper has described a data archaeology exercise that has been undertaken to extend the hourly sea-level records along the UK south coast. These new records have been analysed with existing data from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level to provide up to date and accurate estimates of rates of mean sea level change along both the French and English coastlines of the English Channel. Relative mean sea level trends vary between 0.8 and 2.3 mm/yr around the Channel. These trends have been estimated using a new approach recently suggested by Woodworth et al. (2009), in which the coherent part of the sea level variability around the English Channel and UK is defined as a single index, which is then subtracted from the sea level records prior to fitting trends. This approach allows more accurate rates of change in mean sea level to be calculated from shorter records, but still restricts meaningful assessments of mean sea level changes to records spanning 20 years or more. The mean sea level trends have been subtracted from regional estimates of sea level rise from oceanographic process only, in order to approximate rates of vertical land movement. These rates are in generally agreement with those measured using advanced geodetic techniques (Bingley et al., 2007) and geological data (Shennan and Horton, 2002), around most of the UK. However, the rates estimated from the sea level records imply that the geological data suggest too much subsidence along the western and central parts of the UK south coast. The recent high rates of change observed in mean sea level in the English Channel are not unusual compared to those that have occurred at other times in the 20th century."]

Haigh, I, Nicholls, R. and Wells, N. 2011. Rising sea levels in the English Channel 1900 - 2100. Maritime Engineering, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 164, Issue MA2, pp. 81-92. Paper 2010-34. June 2011. By Dr. Ivan Haigh, Professor Robert Nicholls and Dr. Neil Wells. Ivan Haigh is at the University of Western Australia; Robert Nichols and Neil Wells are at Southampton University, England.
Available online, go to:
Rising sea levels in the English Channel.
There is great concern about rising sea levels in the coming century, particularly in terms of extreme sea levels and the increased likelihood of coastal flooding. This is especially true for the south-east coast of England where rising sea levels interact with a growing population and economy. This paper examines how extreme sea levels (excludingwaves) have changed through the twentieth century at 16 sites around the English Channel. Extreme sea levels were found to have increased at all 16 sites, but at rates not statistically different from the observed rise in mean sea level. Potential future changes in extreme high sea levels throughout the twenty-first century are estimated for nine UK south coast sites using the 2009 projections from the UK Climate Impacts Programme. For the low, medium and high emissions scenarios (12, 40 and 81 cm total ocean rise, respectively), the exceedence frequency of extreme high sea levels along the south coast would on average increase over the twenty-first century by a factor of 10, 100 and about 1800, respectively. Finally these changes are considered in relation to a large recent surge event in March 2008, which caused significant flooding in the central Channel.
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Halcrow, Sir William and Partners, 1980. Poole and Christchurch Bays Research Project, Phase One Report, 2 Volumes. Report to the Department of the Environment.

Halcrow Group. 1998. Western Solent and Southampton Water Shoreline Management Plan. Halcrow Group Ltd., Burderop Park, Swindon, Wiltshire, UK.

Halcrow Group. 1999. Poole and Christchurch Bays Shoreline Management Plan. Halcrow Group Ltd., Burderop Park, Swindon, Wiltshire.

Halcrow Group. 2000. Cowes to Gurnard, Coastal Slope Stability, Ground Behaviour Assessment. Halcrow Group Limited, August, 2000. Report for Isle of Wight Council, Newport. 41 pp. plus references, tables and figures. £40. Prepared by R. Moore, E.M. Lee, and D. Brunsden.

Halcrow Group. 2003. Poole and Christchurch Bays Strategy Studies: Discussion Paper on Hengistbury Head. Halcrow Group Ltd., Burderop Park, Swindon, Wiltshire.
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Hamilton, D., Hommeril, P., Larsonneur, C. and Smith, A.J. 1975. Geological bibliography for the English Channel (Part 2.). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A.279, 289-295.
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Hampshire County Council. 1984. Hampshire's Countryside Heritage: 7 The Coast. 47 page paperback introductory guide book with illustrations. There may be later editions.

Hampshire County Council , 1992 (and later editions?). Hampshire Minerals and Waste: Local Plan. Hampshire County Council, September 1992. County Planning Officer - Robert Savage. ISBN 1-87359-551-4.

Hampshire River Authority. 1970. First Periodic Survey. H.R.A. Winchester.

Hampshire County Council. D-Day at Lepe. Hampshire County Council website - Hantsweb.
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Hawkins, A. B. 1984. Depositional characteristics of estuarine alluvium; some engineering implications. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, London, 17, 219-234.
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Haynes, F.N. and Coulson, M.G. 1982. The decline of Spartina in Langstone Harbour, Hampshire. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 38, 5-18.
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Heyworth, A. and Kidson, C. 1982. Sea-level changes in southwest England and Wales. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 93, 91-111.
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Hinton, D.A. and Insole, A.N. 1988. Hampshire and the Isle of Wight: Ordnance Survey Historical Guides. George Phillip, Ordnance Survey. 159pp. ISBN 0-540-01137-1. Hardcover. [This guide is useful for the topographical history of the coast of the Solent and the Isle of Wight and inland areas such as the New Forest. Maps from the first series of the nineteenth century Ordnance Survey, covering the whole of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight are compared with modern Ordnance Survey Landranger series of maps. There is explanatory text and old photographs. The value of this in terms of geology and geomorphology is that it shows the coast has changed with development, silting-up or erosion. The Solent shores (e.g. map 47 - Lymington) are very different with many salterns and salt works. The extent of erosion at Barton and Hordle cliff (map 46 - Milton) can be seen. There are photographs of Ventnor in 1890 and old Blackgang Road, Niton in about 1895.]
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Hodgson, J.M. 1964. The low level Pleistocene marine sands and gravels of the west Sussex coastal plain. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 75, 547-561.
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Hodson, F. 1975. Surface geology of the site of medieval Southampton. Pp. 53-54, plus a geological map of central Southampton, in: Platt, C. and Coleman-Smith, R. 1975. Excavations in Medieval Southampton. Leicester University Press. By the late Professor Frank Hodson, formerly Head of the Geology Department at Southampton University.
    Nature of the Surface Deposits The superficial deposits in and around the walled town comprise: Recent Alluvium, Pleistocene Brickearth, Valley Gravel, and Plateau Gravel. These rest on 'solid' Eocene strata belonging to the Bracklesham Beds, consisting of sandy clays and clayey sands often with the mineral glauconite, green when fresh but usually, at the surface, oxidized by weathering so as to assume various tints of grey to brown. Within the area of the walled town the Bracklesham Beds are to be referred to the Lutetian Stage of the Eocene.
    The Pleistocene gravels directly overlie the 'solid' Eocene strata and are composed mainly of brown-stained subangular flint pebbles in a brown sandy matrix. The subangular flints have been derived by erosion directly from the Chalk but are associated with subordinate, usually dark-grey to black, rounded pebbles with a characteristic 'beach hammered' surface. The latter were incorporated into Eocene pebble beds prior to their assimilation as a constituent of the Pleistocene gravels. The gravels are laid down on 'terraces', that is to say they rest on relatively flat surfaces cut into the solid strata, each bench representing a particular interval in which the river, which deposited the pebbles, was graded to a particular sea-level. The base of the gravels is thus a surface with a horizontal, transverse, flat profile and a gentle down-river sloping profile.
    The terraced effect is less perfect on the surface of the gravels since differential erosion destroys surfaces formerly flat, and down-slope movement of surface materials often leads to the obliterating of the step-like profile and the production of a surface sheet of gravel over the region. Yet, notwithstanding this, terraces are detectable by analysis of the surface topography and are usually named from their surface elevation.
    Lithologically the Plateau and Valley Gravels are similar, the distinction being somewhat arbitrary and artificial. Both gravels are terraced and the Valley Gravels merely occupy a terrace now at the level of the flood plain of the major rivers. In fact there are still lower terraces now buried below sea level. At Fawley, a few miles to the south-west down Southampton Water, these buried river terraces with their characteristic flood-plain gravels lie at - 30 ft (-9.14m.) and -60 ft (- 18.29m.) below sea-level and thus testify to a rise in sea level of that amount since the end of Pleistocene times.
   Brickearths are uncemented, structureless, fine-grained superficial deposits usually considered to be of aeolian origin. At least so per cent of the particles of which brickearths are composed have effective size diameters between 0.05 and 0.07mm. These deposits have been mapped in a number of places around Southampton Water and some unmapped patches are also known. They have attracted little study as yet, but examples from the eastern side of Southampton Water near Chilling seem typical and consist of quartz together with clay minerals, kaolinite and montmorillonite in the approximate proportions I: 2: 1. The deposits shown on the Geological Survey map, east of the medieval walled town, do not today seem exposed anywhere for study and, as mentioned below, it is now conjectured that the area occupied by them is less than that shown on the Survey map. The distribution of the brickearths seems to have determined the location of the orchards east of the medieval town, shown on Crawford's (1949) map.
   The alluvial deposits consist of muds representing sedimentation under estuarine and fluvial regimes in which beds of peat and occasional calcareous tubas are interbedded. These deposits of Holocene age formed after the Flandrian transgress rise of sea-level had breached the Chalk ridge between the Isles of Wight and Purbeck and invaded the valley of the 'Solent River'. In various places they have yielded artefacts of Mesolithic, Neolithic and Roman ages, whilst the peats at Fawley have been dated by radiocarbon techniques. .. [continues][Note that Chapel Spit and the marsh are mapped, partly on the basis of borehole data.]

Hodson, F. and Shelford, P.H. 1964. Geology, In: A Survey of Southampton and its Region. (F.J. Monkhouse, ed.) pp.15-36. British Association for the Advancement of Science, Southampton. By the late Professor Frank Hodson and the late Mr. Peter Shelford, both the Geology Department, Southampton University.
   Introduction: In the Southampton district and the Isle of Wight, the geologist is fortunate in having a wide range of Mesozoic and Tertiary formations accessible for detailed study along extensive coastlines which vary considerably in detail from year to year. In spite of piecemeal efforts to ward away the inevitable, coastal erosion remains a serious problem (see p. 49), with the result that coastal exposures are changing almost annually, and sections of beds ranging from the Lower Cretaceous Wealden Marls up to the highest British Oligocene strata (the Hamstead Beds) are revealed for study with varying degrees of completeness.
   Considerable literature has accumulated on the geology of this area. One might signalise for particular mention the pioneer works of Futon and the recent authoritative paper by Casey on the Lower Greensand, the work of Rowe and Brydone on Chalk faunal zones, and the meticulous papers of Fisher, Wrigley, St. John-Burton and Curry on various parts of the Tertiary beds, whose work, together with Miss M. E. Chandler's detailed palaeobotanical studies, has greatly supplemented the genius of Forbes in bringing to light the stratigraphical secrets and palaeontological treasures of the 'fluvio-marine' formations.
   The limits of the area considered in this account are shown on the accompanying geological sketch map (Fig. 3). The district is represented on the Geological Survey maps listed under the Bibliographical Note (see p. 35)... [continues].

Hodson, F. and West, I.M. 1970. Calcareous nannoplankton from an Upper Bracklesham horizon at Fawley, Hampshire. Revue de Micropaleontologie, 13, 165-187. [Electron-microscopic studies of coccoliths and discoasters in the Selsey Formation of the Bracklesham Group. By Professor Frank Hodson and Ian West.]

Hodson, F. and West, I.M. 1972. The Holocene deposits of Fawley, Hampshire and the development of Southampton Water. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 83, 421-444. Abstract: Holocene estuarine deposits up to 21 m. in thickness, which were encountered in boreholes and excavations at Fawley, partly fill the southwestern side of the drowned valley of Southampton Water. Saltmarsh clays with peat lie above and below tidal-flat clays of Atlantic age. The mollusc, foraminifera and ostracod faunas and the coccolith and diatom floras of these Holocene deposits are discusssed. Gravels of Calshot Spit are interbedded with these sediments to a depth which suggests the existence of the spit in Atlantic times or earlier. The spit has deflected the deep channel eastwards and has protected the south-western borders of the estuary from erosion... In the northern part of Southampton Water, late Holocene estuarine beds transgress northward over Holocene freshwater sediments. Much of the thick estuarine sequence at Fawley corresponds in age to a thin freshwater succession in the north.
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Holland, A.J. and de Rothschild. 1982. Our Exbury: Life in an English Village in the 1920's and early '30's. By A. J. Holland and Edmund de Rothschild. 78 pp. booklet. Published by Paul Cave Publications Ltd., 74 Bedford Place, Southampton. Printed by Brown & Sons (Ringwood) Ltd., Crowe Arch Lane, Ringwood, Hampshire.
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Holliday, L.M. and Liss, P.S. 1976. The behaviour of dissolved iron, manganese and zinc in the Beaulieu Estuary, South England. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 4, 349-353.
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Holmes, J. A., Atkinson, T., Darbyshire, D.P.F., Horne, D.J., Joordens, J. Roberts, M.B., Sinka, K.J., and Whitaker, J.E. 2009. Middle Pleistocene climate and hydrological environment at the Boxgrove hominid site (West Sussex, UK) from ostracod records. By Jonathan A. Holmes, Tim Atkinson, D.P. Fiona Darbyshire, David J. Horne, Jose Joordens, Mark B. Roberts, Katharine J. Sinka and John E. Whittaker. Quaternary Science Reviews, Elsevier Ltd.
Available online 9 April 2009. Go to Science Direct. A PDF file of 1167kb can be purchased. Corresponding author - Jonathon A. Holmes, Environmental Change Research Centre, Department of Geography, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Abstract: The sediments of the Slindon Formation at the junction of the Chalk South Downs and the West Sussex Coastal Plain, as revealed and studied at Boxgrove, contain evidence for early Middle Pleistocene environments in southern England around half a million years ago. The archaeological importance of the deposits is attested to by the recovery of stone and organic tools, butchered fauna and fossil hominin remains. We combine palaeoecological and geochemical analyses of ostracods from the coastal plain deposits to reconstruct the climate and environment at one period of the hominin occupation. The stratigraphy of our study area is indicative of a terrestrial environment surrounding a small lake or pond. Ostracod assemblages from the sediments indicate that the ponds were shallow but permanent, and fed by groundwater and springwater. However, the species alone cannot confirm that these ponds were completely fresh. Application of Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) techniques shows that summer temperatures were similar to present-day values and winter temperatures were probably colder, whereas mean annual air temperature was similar to present or perhaps slightly cooler. Trace-element and strontium-isotope analyses of ostracods from the sediments support the conclusion that the ponds were fed largely by fresh groundwater derived from the chalk, although there may have been a minor seawater input. The carbon-isotope ratios of the ostracod shells are consistent with a groundwater source, although they also indicate that the dissolved inorganic carbon most likely did not reach equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide, suggesting that the ponds had short residence time. The combination of palaeotemperature estimates with oxygen-isotope values from ostracod shells allowed us to reconstruct the oxygen-isotope ratio of the Pond water, which was close to the value of early Middle Pleistocene precipitation at this site. Values were similar to present day, suggesting that there may have been a change in seasonality or precipitation source, since the mean air temperatures might have been lower.

Holmes, N.A. and Bishop, G.M. 1980. Survey of the littoral zone of the coast of Great Britain. no.5: Report on the sediment shores of Dorset, Hampshire and the Isle of Wight.
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Hooke, J. 1998. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation. The Geological Society of London, Burlington House, London. 270 pp. ISBN 1-897799-96-9. Edited by Janet Hooke, Department of Geography, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK. [From publisher's blurb: "Tremendous changes in attitude, policy and practice in relation to coastal defences have taken place in Britain over the last 10 years but considerable conflicts between the interests of coastal protection and those of conservation remain. This book examines the needs of both and then explores methods and strategies which may be used to achieve a compromise or produce sustainable decisions. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation has contributions from engineers and conservationists and is principally written by practitioners within the field. The intended audience are professionals, such as engineers and planners involved in coastal and shoreline management, and conservationists in both national and local agencies".

Hooke, J. M. and Riley, R.C. 1991. Historical changes on the Hampshire coast 1870-1965. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society , 47, pp. 203-224. By Dr. Janet Hooke and Dr. Ray Riley of the Department of Geography, Portsmouth University (originally Portsmouth Polytechnic).
Abstract:
The changes which occurred on the Hampshire coastline in the period 1870 to 1965 are identified from a comparison of large-scale Ordnance Survey maps. The types of change arre classified into six categories - erosion, accretion, lateral movement of spits, reclamation, loss of land, and narrowing or widening of the intertidal zone. In addition to cliff and beach erosion, narrowing of the intertidal area emerges as a major change which has taken place on many parts of the Hampshire coast. Changes in the most dynamic sections of the coast are analysed for trends and patterns of variation and some rates of erosion are presented, derived from measurements on 1/2500 scale maps.
[Development of Needs Ore Point and Warren Shore Spit at the mouth of the Beaulieu River near Lepe Beach. See also Tubbs (1999) for a diagram based on this work.] [A main conclusion:
see p. 223: "A major type of change which has affected much of the Hampshire coast is the narrowing of the intertidal zone by movement landwards of the Low Water Mark. This has occurred both on shallow-gradient, salt marsh coasts such in the in the Keyhaven - Pennington area, and on steeper, beach-lined coasts such as Lee-on-Solent. The changes have occurred at different times in different places and are therefore difficult to ascribe to a single cause such as a rise in sea-level. It is though that dredging, construction of sea defences, growth and decline of salt marsh plants and sea level rise could all have been contributary factors. The scale of change is enormous in places, the intertidal zone now being only a fifth of the width 100 years ago."


Also, an earlier draft version:
Hooke, J. and Riley, R. 1987. Historical Changes on the Hampshire Coast 1870-1965. Portsmouth Polytechnic (now Portsmouth University), Department of Geography, 59 pp. typescript. (In the Cope Collection of the Hartley Library, Southampton University). By Dr. Janet Hooke and Dr. Ray Riley, July, 1987. With 20 figures and 23 papers given in the references.
Extract from the Introduction:
"In this report, which is part of an overall review of the Hampshire, coast, the aim is to identify the major changes which have taken place on the coastline in the period 1870 - 1965. The types of change are classified and each section of coast is categorised according to these types. Both natural and human changes are included. Where changes are significant the amounts and rates of change are examined and the variations through the period 1870 - 1965 are distinguished. Trends and fluctuations are identified where possible, though no attempt is made to explain the causes of all the changes or to predict future changes.
An historical perspective is considered essential for an understanding of the present coastline and particularly as a background to proposed developments, the implementation of coastal defences or conservation policy. The coast is a naturally dynamic zone as well as being subject to severe development pressures; it should not be assumed that it is stable or has remained the same for the last hundred years.
The area covered by this report is that of the present Hampshire coast (Figure 1), though in terms of coastal processes and changes the coastal units should be seen as extending to Hengistbury Head in the west and Selsey Bill in the east.
The coast of Hampshire varies considerably in character, form and process, ranging from rapidly eroding cliffs to sheltered harbours and extensive salt marshes. Much of the coast is within the relatively sheltered Solent and not subject to the most powerful waves and marine forces. In large part the coast is densely settled and has been subject to development for many centuries, especially around the harbours and river estuaries. Land reclamation from the sea has long been an important if piecemeal activity.
The broad categories of major change in the period 1870 - 1965 are identified in Figure 10. Onshore changes are those above the high tide level and include various types which will be discussed below, but erosion and reclamation are the most important. Offshore changes as indicated by movement of the Low Water Mark (LMW) are also investigated in this report and emerge as an extremely important type of change affecting a high proportion of the Hampshire Coast. Indeed one of the principal findings of this report is the landward movement of the LWM resulting in a narrowing of the intertidal zone.
Methods of investigation are discussed in Section 2 and types of changes in Section 3. The remainder of this report describes changes along the coast from west to east." [Methods of Investigation - follow]
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Hooker, J.J., Collinson, M.E., Vanbergen, P.F., Singer, R.L., Deleeuw, J.W. and Jones, T.P. 1995. Reconstruction of land and fresh-water palaeoenvironments near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, southern England. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 152, 449-468. Abstract: Mammalian assemblages in the Bembridge Limestone Formation of late Eocene age, Headon Hill, Isle of Wight, England, indicate habitats ranging from open woodland to closed forest. Distinctive 'lower' and 'upper' mammalian faunas reflect different faunal provinces, probably in response to climatic fluctuations that foreshadowed the terminal Eocene event. In order to improve our understanding of these patterns, we have examined a variety of other palaeoenvironmental indicators from this section. These include paylnological organic matter (POM), plant macrofossils, non-mammalian faunas, organic geochemistry and stable isotopes. The evidence shows that the depositional setting was a tranquil, shallow, freshwater lake, with a brief lagoonal interval However, evidence for habitats surrounding the lake is contradictory, emphasizing the necessity for multidisciplinary approaches to palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The mammal faunas give unequivocal evidence for woodland or forest, yet, apart from some of the land snails, there is no other indication of the presence of trees. Furthermore, according to the mammalian evidence the lake was bordered by distinctive vegetation at different times, with closed forest/woodland during marl deposition and open woodland during black mud deposition, but there are no parallel fluctuations in other biotic elements.

Hooker, J.J. and Insole, A.N. 1980. The distribution of mammals in the English Palaeogene. Tertiary Research, 3 (1), 31-45. Abstract: An examination of the literature on British Palaeogene mammal faunas shows that they have received scant attention since the beginning of the century. The last two decades have seen a revival of interest and several techniques and acid digestion has considerably improved our knowledge of the mammal faunas in both the London and Hampshire Basins. Although investigations are still in progress, this seems an opportune time to present the data so far obtained. The pre-Barton Sand data have been compiled by J.J. Hooker and post-Barton Sand data by A.N. Insole.

Hooker, J.J., Insole, A.N., Moody, R.T.J., Walker, C.A. and Ward, D.J. 1980. The distribution of cartilaginous fish, turtles, birds and mammals in the British Palaeogene. Tertiary Research, 3 (1), 1-2. Leiden.

Peat with trunks of oak and pine and overlain by estuarine mud, at the Electric Light Works excavation, Southampton, 1903
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Hooley, R.W. 1905. Excavations on the site of the Electric Light Works, Southampton, May 1903. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 5, 47-52. Extract: " The making of any considerable opening in the earth marks an occasion of great importance. It presents an opportunity to read the hidden manuscript of the book of Nature. Such an opportunity occurred at the excavations at Southampton Docks in 1887 and 1888, examined and reported upon with much care and ability, by Messrs. T. W. Shore and J. W. Elwes, in the Field Club Proceedings for 1889 (pp. 43 to 50). The facts then ascertained were that a deposit of many feet of peat, enclosing trees of oak, pine, beech and birch, with their roots still in the old vegetable soil, was overlaid by 20 feet of estuarine mud ; that the age when this forest was growing was Neolithic; that the land stood 40 to 50 feet higher than it does at the present time; and that the red-deer, the horse, the ox (Bos primigenius), the pig and the hare lived and roamed in the forest. Doubtless could we open a few sections across the mud of Southampton Water and its upper tidal reaches we should solve, or come near to solving, several interesting problems. We should be able to trace the extent of the forest, its open spaces, and learn more of its fauna and flora. We should find where the ancestors (so to speak) of the Test and the Itchen ran through its glades and thickets, and be able to compare their relative dimensions, and the contours of this part of their valleys with those now obtaining. We might possibly discover how far off from Southampton in Neolithic days were the tidal waters, which eventually, on the sinking of the land, made their influence felt to Eling on the Test, and Woodmill on the Itchen, overspreading the forest, marsh, peat, and low lying land bordering their channels. But the making of such sections as we have suggested is impracticable. We are, therefore, left to collect the required evidence piece by piece. In the spring of 1903, a section showing estuarine mud, peat, gravel, and Bracklesham sand, was opened when excavations were being made for the foundations of the Electric Light Works at Southampton West [southeast of Southampton railway station, close to present site of "Toys-r-us"]. I greatly regret that it was only towards the end of the operations that I visited the spot. A vigilant investigation day by day, would doubtless have been very fruitful. Fig. 1 gives the section exposed. The lowest bed seen was a greensand, containing a very small percentage of clay, of Bracklesham age. It consisted of quartz sand with abundant green and black glauconitic grains. This bed I take to be Bed (a) of Messrs. Shore and Elwes, here with less clay. Its surface shelved gently towards the N.E. No fossils were discernable. In the top, small root fibres from the peat above were seen. On this bed was lying a seampf sub-angular flint gravel, 2 or 3 inches only in thickness, but persistent. Over this a bed of peat, varying from 2 to 3 feet thick of cheesy consistency at the base, but gradually becoming loose and fibrous towards the highest layer, as is the nature of such deposits. In this peat, roots and trunks of oak and pine occurred. No shell marl or tufa were noticeable, either in pockets or laminated between, under or above peat. In fig. 2, [reproduced above] is shown a workman who has his foot on a large tree trunk sticking out of the peat, whilst nearer the foreground on the same horizon another trunk can be perceived. These trees are at the base of the peat. I was not fortunate enough to be present when the roots were uncovered, so as to note whether they extended into the bed below, but from fig. 3, which is a photograph of a pine tree with roots attached, it appears certainly to have been the case. An oak tree was sent to Messrs. Tagart, Morgan, and Coles, Ltd., timber merchants, of Cross House Wharf, who, with much courtesy, supplied me with samples of the wood, and particulars concerning it. When the tree arrived at their yard the bark was intact, but there were no roots attached. It was about 16 inches in diameter at the butt, and about 14 feet long, and not tapering much, and they remark it was" what we should call stunted growth." Diligent search for bones, flint chips, and implements, met with no success. The peat was covered by 9 feet of estuarine mud. At its base, and in pockets it was very sandy, and in the sand, and in the sand estuarine shells were abundant..." [continues]

Hooley, R.W. 1922. The history of the drainage of the Hampshire Basin, and the Relationship of Prehistoric Man to that History. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, Vol. 9, pt. 2, 151-172. [A good paper for the year in terms of Miocene and Pliocene drainage reconstruction maps for the Hampshire Basin.]
[Example extract: p. 171] The breach [Isle of Wight to the mainland] was of vital importance to the drainage of the Hampshire Basin, for the rivers were truncated and had much shorter courses to the sea; the Solent became a strait and Southampton Water an estuary. The destruction of the Western end of the Isle of Wight and of the cliffs bordering Christchurch Bay has since been enormous, the soft Tertiary strata yielding readily to erosion by the sea. This date for the conversion of the Wight isthmus into an island is strongly supported by the concatenation of the geological events recorded in the preceding pages, and Mr. H. J. Osborne White states that" the character of the flora and fauna. . . . seem to imply the existence of a land connection within the Recent Period" between the Isle of Wight and the mainland.
The period had now arrived when the sheltered coastal plains were being carpeted with wide sheets of mud. The rush of water on the ebb of the second tide-for double tides began when the Wight became an island-must have been great in so confined a space, and the mud and silt, the finer detritus deposited in the deepest hollows of the Solent Sea since its inception in Pliocene days, were dispersed and re-deposited in the quieter waters covering the coastal plains. Marl, alluvium and peat gradually covered the lower reaches of the river-valleys, and the work of the rivers was almost done, their base-level of erosion being nearly reached.
It is impossible to enter here into a detailed history of each river of the Hampshire Basin. The writer has simply given, as far as possible, a connected and chronological general history of the drainage from the much mutilated geological records, and has shown that there are strong grounds for believing :
. That the Solent River had no existence until the Recent Period, but that a trunk river, following approximately the same trend, existed in Miocene days, and that its valley was several hundred feet higher than the present contours of the Solent Valley.
. That the Rivers Frome, Trent, Stour, Avon, Test, Itchen, Meon, Eastern Yar, Medina, Western Yar, and the minor streams are the truncated tributaries of a comparatively modem river flowing in the same direction and taking nearly the same course as the Miocene River.
. That a submergence in the Pliocene Period permitted a great influx of the sea, by which the tributaries of the Miocene River were dissevered from the trunk stream.
. That this sea was gradually contracted throughout the Pleistocene Period by recurrent elevation of the area during three glaciations - the Mindel, Riss and Wurm - each succeeded by a warm phase, producing on three occasions conditions similar to those under which the Coombe Rock was deposited.
. That the detritus was not, like the material composing that Rock, subaerially laid down, but was swept by flood-waters into the Solent Sea, where the gravel was spread out in sheets along its shallow borders. [continues]
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Hopson, P.M. 2000. Geology of the Fareham and Portsmouth District, A brief explanation of the geological map Sheet 316 Fareham and part of Sheet 331 Portsmouth. British Geological Survey. This is the short account of the map and much cheaper than the full Sheet Description, also listed here.

Hopson, P.M. (with contribution by Woods, M.A.) 1999. Geology of the Fareham and Portsmouth District. Sheet description for the British Geological Survey 1:50,000 Series Sheet 316 and mainland portion of Sheet 331 (England and Wales). Keyworth, Nottingham, British Geological Survey. 45pp. including colour illustrations. In 2010, this cost 35 pounds sterling. This is the larger and more detailed account. It is obtainable from the BGS Bookshop online.
The summary is given under British Geological Survey, - Hopson, above, in this bibliography.
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Houghton, S.D. 1986. Coccolith Assemblages in Recent Marine and Estuarine Sediments from the Continental Shelf of Northwest Europe. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Southampton University, 465pp. By Simon David Houghton. Abstract: The abundance and species-composition of coccolith assemblages have been described from shelf sediments of northwest Europe. The quantitative abundance of selected coccolith species and total cocccolith numbers have been determined as the number of coccoliths per gram of fine-grained silt (2 to 20 um). Eighteen coccolith species occur in the shelf sediments. The assemblages are dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, which frequently forms more than 90% of the total flora. Coccolithus pelagicus, Syracosphaera pulchra and Gephyrocapsa caribbeanica are the next most abundant species, although they usually form less than 57% of the assemblages. Highest numbers of coccoliths (10 to the 9 per gram) occur in sediments from the Celtic Sea and the northern North Sea. 108 coccoliths per gram occur in the Irish Sea, western English Channel and central North Sea area. Coccoliths are either scarce (10 to the 6 per gram) or absent from the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea sediments. The degree of vertical mixing which largely determines the availability of light energy and nutrients for phytoplankton growth is thought to be the most important control on coccolith distribution. Sediments deposited from stratified waters beneath a pronounced thermocline contain high numbers of coccoliths. Sediments deposited from tidally mixed waters contain a sparse nannoflora, limited to six or fewer species. Similar controls on coccolith distribution are also likely to have occurred in the past. The abundance and mode of preservation of coccoliths may therefore provide information on the degree of turbulence in ancient shelf environments. Detailed studies on sediments from the Solent Estuarine System show that both Recent and reworked (mainly Cretaceous) coccoliths decrease in abundance with decreasing marine influence in the estuaries. The reworked Cretaceous forms are thought to be supplied from the erosion of Chalk cliffs on the Isle of Wight. Coccoliths are particularly abundant (108 per gram) in estuarine sediments from southern Ireland and Cornwall. These estuaries are therefore acting as 'sinks' for marine-derived silt. This work demonstrates the use of coccoliths as indicators of sediment transport directions across the shelf and into adjacent estuaries and coastal embayments.
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Hudson, M. 2001. Patterns in Time and Space on Solent Saltmarshes: a Combined Palaeoecological and Experimental Approach. 252 pp. 30cm. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Centre for Environmental Science, University of Southampton, 2001. By Dr. Malcolm Hudson. One reference copy in the Hartley Library, Southampton University, Highfield, stack SU, Theses 2001.
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Hughes, J.C. 1922. The Geological Story of the Isle of Wight. Edward Stanford, Ltd., London. With Illustrations of Fossils by Maud Neal. 115 pages. [A popular account with some photographs, maps, cross-sections and illustrations of fossils.]
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Human, M. 1961. Preliminary Survey of Warren Farm Spit [Needs Ore Spit or Needs Oar Spit] at the Mouth of the Beaulieu River, Hampshire. Wessex Geographer, vol. 2, pp. 22-30.

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Insole, A.N. and Daley, B. 1985. A revision of the lithostratigraphic nomenclature of the Late Eocene and Early Oligocene strata of the Hampshire Basin, southern England. Tertiary Research, 7, 67-100.

Insole, A., Daley, B. and Gale, A. 1998. The Isle of Wight. Geologists' Association Guide No. 60. 132pp. By Allan Insole, Brian Daley and Andy Gale. ISBN 0-900717-54-8. The Geologists' Association, London. Printed by Dinkyprint. [Key publication for the Isle of Wight. Clear, well-explained field guide in paperback form, easy to carry in the field. With references and with notes on access]

Southampton Geothermal Well, Completion Report

Marchwood No.1 and Southampton No.1 borehole logs
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Institute of Geological Sciences and Department of Energy. 1980. Marchwood No. 1 Composite Log, Scale 1:500. Compiled by the Deep Geology Unit, Institute of Geological Science [Large concertina-folded borehole log.].

Institute of Geological Sciences. 1983. Southampton No. 1 (Western Esplanade) Geothermal Well: Geological Well Completion Report. Institute of Geological Sciences, Environmental and Deep Geology Division. By Thomas, L.P. and Holliday, D.W., with contributions by Kirby, G.A., Kubala, M., Lamb, R., Bird, M.J. and Freshney, E.C. Deep Geology Report No. 82/3. Extract: Southampton No 1 (Western Esplanade) was drilled as a geothermal development well, on behalf of the Department of Energy in association with Southampton City Council, following the successful testing of Marchwood No 1 Borehole and studies of the geothermal potential of the Wessex Basin area by the Institute of Geological Sciences. The site was selected near Southampton city centre, with the aim of providing space heating for the proposed Western Esplanade development area. The nearby Marchwood No 1 Borehole is situated 1.8 km to the south-west, and the south-east part of NERC 81-1 seismic line is adjacent to the site (Figure 1.2). Southampton No 1 is situated in an area of negative gravity anomaly as indicated on the regional Bouguer anomaly map (Figure 1.4). The primary objective was to drill to the known aquifer, the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone, and to carry out hydrogeological and geothermal tests. The whole of the Sherwood Sandstone was cored for geological and hydro-geological analysis. Samples additional to those required by IGS for stratigraphical purposes, were collected for thermal conductivity determinations and for organic geochemical studies on the Jurassic part of the sequence.

Institute of Geological Sciences and Department of Energy. 1983. Southampton No. 1 Composite Log, Scale 1:500 [Large concertina-folded borehole log.].

Institute of Geological Sciences. 1983. - Allen, D.J., Barker,J. A., and Downing, R. A. 1983. The production test and resource assessment of the Southampton (Western Esplanade) Geothermal Well. Reports of the Institute of Geological Science, Investigation of the Geothermal Potential of the UK.

Institute of Geological Sciences and Southern Water Authority. 1979. Hydrogeological Map of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. Scale 1:100,000.

Institute of Geological Sciences and Southern Water Authority. 1979. Hydrogeological Map of the Chalk and the Associated Minor Aquifers of Wessex. Scale 1:100,000.

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James, H. 1847. On a section exposed by the excavation at the new steam basin in Portsmouth Dockyard. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 3, 249-251.
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James, J. 1986. Hurst Castle: An Illustrated History. By Jude James. The Dovecote Press, Stanbridge, Wimborne, Dorset. 134 pp with numerous maps, diagrams and photographs. [Very thorough and very informative on a variety of topics].
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Jarzembowski, E.A. 1980. Fossil insects from the Bembridge Marls, Palaeogene of the Isle of Wight, southern England. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology, vol. 33, (4), pp. 237-293.
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Johnson, J.P. 1901. The Pleistocene fauna of West Wittering. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 17, 261-264.
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Jowitt, R.L.P. and Jowitt, D. M. 1978. The Solent and its Surroundings. Terence Dalton Ltd., Lavenham, Suffolk. 142 pp. By R.L.P and Dorothy M. Jowitt. Photographs by Robert E. Jowitt.

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Ke, X. and Collins, M.B. 1993. Saltmarsh Protection and Stablisation West Solent. Report No. SUDO/93/6/C, Southampton University Department of Oceanography, Southampton.

Ke, X. and Collins, M. 2002. Saltmarshes in the West Solent (southern England): their morphodynamics and evolution. In, Healy, T., Wang, Y. and Healy, J-A. (eds.) Muddy Coasts of the World: Processes, Deposits and Function. Elsevier Science, B.V., 411-440. http://eprints.southampton.ac.uk/12611/


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Keen, D.H. 1980. The environment of deposition of the South Hampshire Plateau Gravels. Proceedings of Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 36, 15-24. [Short extract follows:
    Introduction: The Plateau Gravels of the New Forest and Bournemouth form a conspicuous feature of the superficial geology of southern England. Considerable discussion has continued about the origin of these gravels since their first comprehensive description in the mid-nineteenth century (Codrington 1870).
   Three depositional environments have been postulated for the gravels: a fluvial environment (White 1917); a marine environment (Codrington 1870; Everard 1954); and a glacio-fluvial environment (Kellaway, Redding, Shepard-Thorn, Destombes 1975). Additionally, Palmerand Cooke (1923) and 1. F. N. Green (1946) suggested that both fluvial and marine action were responsible for the deposition of the gravels and the cutting of the benches on which they rest.
   Closely associated with the gravels are areas of fine-grained deposits-the brickearth largely neglected by previous authors, although White (1917) describes this loam as a fluvial silt. Swanson (1970) and Fisher (1971, 1975) also agree on a non-aeolian origin for this deposit.
   Fossiliferous Pleistocene deposits are known only from one site in the area. This is Stone Point (SZ 458984) where West and Sparks (1960) and Brown, Gilbertson, Green and Keen (1975) describe peats and silt with brackish mollusca and a pollen spectrum of Ipswichian zone lIb age.
The Gravels: The gravels of South Hampshire are arranged as a series of terraces. Below 40 m O.D. these terraces are only moderately dissected. Above this height the gravel spreads are separated into eroded remnants. The general arrangement of the terraces can be seen in Everard (1954, Fig. 1) and Green (1946, PI. 5). No general agreement on the heights of the major terrace stages can be found between these two authors, but below 40 m three well-marked height ranges seem to occur: between 40 and 25 m, between 22 and 14 m and below 10 m. These groupings are taken in this account to represent high, middle and low terraces (Fig. 1).
(Brickearth compositions given, in addition to gravel data. Brickearths considered fluvial. Brickearth at Barton has clay content. Sarsens mapped.)..

Keen, D.H. 1995. Raised beaches and sea-levels in the English Channels in the Middle and Late Pleistocene: problems of interpretation and implications for the isolation of the British Isles. pp. 63 - 74 in: Preece, R.C. (ed.) Island Britain: a Quaternary Perspective, Geological Society Special Publication, No. 96, pp. 63-74.
Abstract: This paper discusses the problems of interpretation of the evidence for pre-Holocene high sea-level events and their age in the Strait of Dover and adjacent areas. This review suggests that there is evidence for the isolation of Britain from the continent in Oxygen Isotope Stages 7 and 5. The evidence for isolation in Stage 9 is less certain, and in Stage 11 is rather poor. In Stage 5, at least, isolation may have lasted as long as 60,000 years.

Keen, M.C. 1975. Some aspects of the Pleistocene succession in areas adjoining the English Channel. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London.

Keen, M.C. 1977. Ostracod assemblages and the depositional environments of the Headon, Osborne and Bembridge (Upper Eocene) of the Hampshire Basin. Palaeontology, 20, 405-445.

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Kell, E. 1866. An account of a Roman building at Gurnard Bay in the Isle of Wight, and its relation to the ancient British tin trade in the Island. Journal of the British ArchaeologicaI Association, 22: 351-368. [reference from Tomalin (2000)]
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Kellaway, G.A. 1971. Glaciation and the stones of Stonehenge. Nature, London, 232, 30-35.

Kellaway, G.A., Redding, J.H., Shephard-Thorn, E.R. and Destombes, J.P. 1975. The Quaternary history of the English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A.279, 189-218. Abstract: Several lines of evidence for former glaciation of the English Channel are considered. These include the following major geomorphical features: (1) extensive areas of flat featureless sea bed bounded by cliffs with residual steep-sided rock masses rising about 60-150 m above them, (2) terrace forms bounded by breaks in slope or low cliffs, (3) palaeovalley systems related to the present land drainage, (4) enclosed deeps (fosses); all except (3) may be attributed to a glacial origin. The distribution of erratics on the Channel floor and in the modern and raised beaches of its coasts are attributed to widespread Saalian glaciation. This glaciation was responsible for the deposition of morainic material at Selsey and the damming-up of glacial Lake Solent. The so-called' 100 foot raised beach' of west Sussex is now re-interpreted as a fluvioglacial deposit laid down at the northern margin of the English Channel ice. It is thought that at the height of the Saalian glaciation mean sea-level fell to between 90 and 180 m below O.D. and that for a time the ice was grounded near the western margin of the continental shelf. Possible reconstructions of the limits and main movements of the Weichselian and Saalian ice sheets covering the British Isles and English Channel are included. [Interesting but controversial theory. Well-referenced and with very useful observations.]


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Kemp, A.D. and Kemp, D.J. 1982. Stratigraphy of the Bracklesham Group in recent exposures near Gosport (Hants). Tertiary Research, 3 (4), 35-44.


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Kemp, David John. (Late specialist on the Bracklesham Group and fossil fish remains, including sharks' teeth, from these and other Eocene strata. He was the author of many papers and has an excellent collection of local fossils on display at Gosport Museum.)

Kemp, D.J. 1975. Report of field meeting to Lee on the Solent, Hants. Tertiary Times, vol. 2 (4) 173-174.

Kemp, D.J. 1976. Account of excavations into the Campanile Bed (Eocene, Selsey Formation) at Stubbington, Hants. Tertiary Research, 1, 41-45. [This is at Lee-on-the-Solent, near the southeastern end of Southampton Water. The Group is Bracklesham.] An extract follows:
Introduction: The Campanile Bed is situated at the base of the Upper Bracklesham Beds (Selsey Formation). It consists of lenticular accumulations of molluscs, often abraded and encrusted with corals or oyster spat. Rounded flint pebbles are usually associated with, and underlie, the shell drifts, which in turn rest on laminated clays. This horizon was originally described from Selsey by Dixon(1850: 26) as the Cerithium bed, but renamed the Campanile Bed by Wrigley (1940: 109).It is exposed in the cliffs of Whitecliff Bay (I.O.W.), intermittently on the foreshore at Selsey and was encountered beneath Southampton Water in the Fawley Transmission Tunnel excavations (Curry, Hodson and West, 1968: 184). Fisher (1862: 77-78) records its presence at Stubbington. He wrote "I was myself the fortunate finder, in March, 1856, of the very rich deposit of fossils....." "... in the old cliff, at Hill Head, at the point where the word "fossils" is engraved in the map of the Geological Survey, there is a bed of large septaria in sand, resting upon laminated clay. Here I found in 1856, a lenticular mass of fossil shells with Cerithium gianteum, washed together, partly concreted into septaria and partly free". The word "fossils" on the Geological Survey Map extends for approximately 600 metres along the nearby Crofton Cliff, which overlooks the drained saltmarsh now Salterns Park. In a footnote (ibid: 78) he notes the presence of similar fossils probably washed out onto the shingle bank opposite Stubbington Lane-end. Indurated and rolled specimens of jCampanile, Turritella, Glycymeris and Venericor can still be found on Knights Bank at SU 551014, suggesting a fairly local origin. It was with this in mind that a trial exacavation was made to attempt to relocate the Campanile Bed. The site was chosen east of the Boat compound in rough ground at the base of Crofton Cliff (SU 54720186). The cliff here is about 4.2 metres high, equal to the average thickness of the Plateau Gravel found in the area. The first excavation was made on the T.R.G. trip of 15 February 1976. Leached Bracklesham Beds were located below 40 cms. of topsoil and Plateau Gravel. Molluscan casts were encountered at 93 cms. and typical "Campanile Bed preservation" molluscs at 113 cms. This hole was excavated to a depth of 150 cms. Five further excavations were made over the months between February and June 1976, after which the area was landscapped preventing further work. The final and largest hole was dug on June 11th using a J.C.B. excavator, hired by Gosport Museum. The hole reached a total depth of 420 cms. before water seepage finally defeated all attempts at hand-bailing. A composite section and faunal list is given below...
[A section of eight stratal units, with some faunal notes is given below. Thereafter come three pages of faunal lists. The units are correlated with the stratal units of the Fawley Transmission Tunnel (Curry, Hodson and West, 1968), specifically in relation to Beds A, B, C, and D. See also the paper by: Wrigley, A.G. 1940. The English Eocene Campanile, Proceedings of the Malacological Society, London, vol. 24, part 3, pp. 97-112.

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Kemp, D.J. 1977. A Brief Illustrated Account of the English Eocene Shark and Ray Fossils. Published by the Gosport Museum, Gosport, Hampshire, November 1977. Six pages with tables, and with 11 plates of fish fossil remains. Original price 75 pence.

Kemp, D.J. (David John Kemp). 1982. Fossil Sharks, Rays and Chimaeroids of the English Tertiary Period: A Complete Illustrated Guide. Gosport Museum, 1-47, 10 figs, 3 tables, 16 plates. First edition was 1977. This is the second edition of 1982. Printed by Gosport Borough Council. Original Price - 1 pound, 50 pence.

Kemp, D.J. 1984. Temporary excavations near West End, Southampton (Hampshire). Tertiary Research, 6 (4), 157-163.

Kemp, D.J. 1985. The Selsey Division (Bracklesham Group) at Lee on the Solent, Gosport (Hants). Tertiary Research, 7 (2), 35-44, Leiden.

Kemp, D.J. 2001. New exposures in the Earnley Formation, Bracklesham Group (Paleogene) near Botley, Hampshire. Unpublished report for Eastleigh Borough Council's Countryside Services. 2pp. By D.J. Kemp, Hampshire County Museum's Services, Gosport Museum, Walpole Road, Gosport, Hampshire. PO12 1NS. (A copy of this report was kindly provided by Richard Sharp of Eastleigh Borough Council's Countryside Services).
Introduction:
In the Hampshire Basin, no natural exposures of the Earnley and Wittering Formation, Bracklesham Group, Paleogene, are known apart from coastal sections at Bracklesham Bay (West Sussex), and in the sea cliff at Whitecliff Bay, Isle of Wight. In Hampshire all of the stratigraphic and palaeontological data on this age has been obtained from temporary excavations, wells records and geological borehole logs.
The Site and Geological Setting.
This site situated south of Botley, Hampshire, was first noticed by Chris Farris and Nick Webb of Eastleigh Borough Council's countryside services, in June 2000. The unweathered exposures described here can be seen in the lower part of a thickly wooded tributary of the river Hamble known as Pudbrook Lake, extending west northwestwards from SU513127 to SU509128. Locally the river gravels and silts contain evidence of eroded geological material. This gravel forms strands, ridges and banks, which both cover and surround the outcropping geology. Deeply eroded sumps are present particularly on bends or where tree root outcrop from the bank. This tributary is subject to periodic flooding by seasonally high spring tides when backing-up of the river water occurs. In the riverbank, Quaternary channels of gravel, clay and carbonaceous material frequently interrupted exposures of the underlying Earnley and Wittering Formation. Where visible, the uppermost part of the Wittering Formation provided a reliable fixed datum line. Measurements made at SU511127 indicated some local flexing in what otherwise appears to be an almost horizontal Paleogene structure.
[continues with Stratigraphy, Earnley Formation ("Callista Bed"), Wittering Formation, Conclusions, Acknowledgements and References. Two pages in total, dated 20.06.2002, by D.J. Kemp, D.Phil, Keeper of Geology, Gosport Museum.]

Kemp, D. (David), Kemp, L. (Liz), and Ward, D. (David). 1990. An Illustrated Guide to the British Middle Eocene Vertebrates. Published by David Ward, London, October 1990. 59pp. [On sale at Portsmouth City Museums, and very good value for the original price of four pounds. It contains illustrations of sharks' teeth, remains of bony fish and of reptiles. Recommended!] Introduction: - by David J. Kemp living near the richly fossiliferous Middle Eocene outcrops at Lee-on-the-Solent in Southern England, like most young collectors in the early 1960's, I was eager to find a means of idenfying the vertebrate fossils I found. No such book existed at that time so I resolved that eventually would I do something about it; hence this book. The scope of the book has been limited to the Middle Eocene Bracklesham Group and Elmore Member of the Barton Clay Formation of the Gosport area. To include the Barton Beds of Christchurch Bay, a logical extension, would have delayed the project considerably, with little additional benefit. The task has taken several years and involved compiling information from specialist journals and monographs as well as researching the collections of the Natural History Museum, London and a number of provincial museums.
    The material illustrated is principally from the Gosport, Lee-on-the-Solent and Bracklesham areas, both from foreshore outcrops and temporary exposures created during construction projects. It has been mainly collected by myself and is now housed in the National Collection, Gosport Museum Collection or various private collections. The illustrations are the result of many hours of work by my wife, Liz, with whom I am proud to share authorship. Chris King helped me with the stratigraphy, whilst Alison Longbottom, Cyril Walker, Colin Harrison and Jerry Hooker, all of the Natural History Museum, London, assisted with some of the identifications. The many early drafts of the manuscript were typed by Paquita Wood and David Ward. David Ward's enthusiasm proved invaluable in the final stages of the book; sufficient for his inclusion as an author. DJK - June 1990 ..[continues with many illustrations, particularly of sharks' teeth.]

Kemp, D.J., King, A., King C. and Quayle, J. 1979. Stratigraphy and biota of the Elmore Formation (Huntingbridge Division, Bracklesham Group), Lee on the Solent, Hants. Tertiary Research, 3 (4), 171-183, Leiden. Abstract: The exposures of the Huntingbridge division (Bracklesham Group) on the foreshore at Elmore, Lee-on-the- Solent, (Hants) have been investigated by surface mapping, collection of macrofossils, and investigation of microfossils in samples from three auger boreholes. The sequence comprises 9.05m of sandy clays with thinner beds of silty sand and silty clays, overlain by Pleistocene and Recent deposits. Fossil horizons recognised include the 'Coral bed', and a representative of the 'Rimela canalis bed', here recorded for the first time in mainland Hampshire. An extensive fauna of vertebrate and crustacean remains is listed. A correlation with other localities is established, and the term "Elmore Formation" is proposed for the fine-grained facies of the Huntingbridge division.

Kemp, J.T. 1890. The tufaceous deposits of the Test and Itchen. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 1, 83-89.
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Kidson, C. and Bowen, D.Q. 1976. Some comments on the history of the English Channel. Quaternary Newsletter, Quaternary Research Association, No. 18, 8-10.
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King , A.D. and Kemp, D.J. 1982. Stratigraphy of the Bracklesham Group in recent exposures near Gosport (Hants). Tertiary Research, 3 (4) 171-187.

King, A.D. and King, C. 1977. The stratigraphy of the Earnley 'division' (Bracklesham Group) at Copythorne, Hampshire. Tertiary Research, 1, 115-118.

King, E. 1990. A Walk Through Lymington. A new revised edition of "A Walk Through Lymington" by Edward King, 1972, revised by David and Janet Irvine, 1990, and published by Ensign Publications for Kings of Lymington, 122 pp. ISBN - 1-85455-056-X.
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Kinnersly, P. 1974. Esso's giant oil tanks - a question of more haste less speed. New Civil Engineer, 81, 28-38.

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Lambert, J. 2005. Orbituaries: Botanist who challenged the received wisdom and proved the Norfolk Broads were man-made. Orbituary of Joyce Lambert by Martin George, The Guardian Newspaper, May 28, 2005, p. 27.
[Joyce Lambert had been investigating the Bure and Yare valley broads and fens in the 1950s. She found that what had been thought to be natural lakes had near-perpendicular walls and flat floors about 3 metres below the surface. She proved that they had originated as peat diggings, whose angular shape had been concealed by the overgrowth of vegetation once they had filled up with water. She reported her findings in the presidential address of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society and in the Geographical Journal. A later multidisciplinary investigation, backed by Cambridge University, including Joyce Lambert were published in a Royal Geographical Society Memoir, The Making of the Broads, 1960. The turbury excavations had been abandonned in the 14th Century partly because of a rise of sea-level.
She was appointed lecturer in Botany at Southampton University in 1950. Later she was an early member of the Board of Environmental Sciences. She studied the salt marshes bordering Southampton Water with special interest in the invasive Spartina. She was involved with New Forest vegetation. She died in May 2005.

Lambert, J.M. 1964. The Spartina story. Nature, London, 204, 1132-1138.

Lambert, J.M. and Manners, J.G. 1964. Botany: The Vegetation of the Region. Pp. 105-117 in: Monkhouse, F.J. 1964. A Survey of Southampton and Its Region. Prepared for the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held at Southampton from 26 August to 2 September, 1964, 349 pp.
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Laxton, J.L. 1987. Computer database of geological, borehole and geotechnical information for applied geological mapping of the Southampton area. Research Report of the British Geological Survey, No. ICSO/87/4. [See also Edwards for Geological Survey Memoirs.]

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Long, A.J. and Tooley, MJ. 1995. Holocene sea-level and crustal movements in Hampshire and Southeast England, United Kingdom. In: Holocene Cycles: Climate, Sea Levels and Sedimentation. Frinkl Jr. (Ed.). Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, 17, 299-210.


Long, A.J., Scaife, R.G. and Edwards, R.J. 2000. Stratigraphic architecture, relative sea-level, and models of estuary development in southern England: new data from Southampton Water. In: Pye K. and Allen, J.R.L. (editors). Coastal and Estuarine Environments: Sedimentology, Geomorphology and Geoarchaeology. Geological Society, London, Special Publications; 2000; v. 175; p. 253-279;
Abstract:
This paper presents the results of an investigation into the Holocene depositional history of Southampton Water, southern England. A three phase history of estuary development is proposed. Between c. 7500 and 5000 BP (8200 to 5700 cal. a BP), mean sea-level rose rapidly from c. –9m to –4 m OD. During this interval thin basal peats which developed in present outer estuary locations were inundated and the area of intertidal and subtidal environments within the estuary expanded. Relative sea-level (RSL) rise began to slow between 5000 and 3000 BP (5700 and 3200 cal. a BP) and a phase of saltmarsh and freshwater peat accumulation occurred. In this interval freshwater peat-forming communities extended outwards and seawards across former saltmarsh and mudflat environments and caused a reduction in the extent of the intertidal area within the estuary. During the late Holocene there was a switch to renewed minerogenic sedimentation as most of the freshwater coastal wetlands of Southampton Water were inundated. This tripartite model is broadly applicable to the Thames and the Severn estuaries, suggesting that regional processes have controlled their macroscale evolution. RSL change and variations in sediment supply emerge as key controls during the first two phases of estuary development. The late Holocene demise of the estuary wetlands probably reflects a propensity for increased sediment reworking and unfavourable conditions for the accumulation and preservation of organogenic deposits due to reduced rates of long-term RSL and watertable rise.
[Includes distribution of the mid-Holocene "Neolithic Peat" and new radiocarbon dates. Pollen analysis from Hythe Marshes etc. Much new pollen analysis data.]
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Loudon, T.V. and Mennim, K.C. 1987. Mapping techniques, using computer storage and presentation, for applied geological mapping of the Southampton area.Research Report of the British Geological Survey, No. ICSO/87/3. [See also Edwards for Geological Survey Memoirs.]
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Lucas, C.S. 1972. Report on Pleistocene deposits in Newtown nature reserve. Proceedings of the Isle Wight Natural History and Archaeological Society, 6, 401-404. [See also Munt and Burke (1986)]

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MacMillan, D.H. 1949. Tidal features of Southampton Water. Dock and Harbour Authority, 1-8.
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MAFF/Welsh Office. 1993. Strategy for Flood and Coastal Defence in England and Wales. MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, UK) publications.

MAFF. 1994.Coast Protection Survey of England. MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, UK) publications.
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Mannion, R. (Rob) 1982. To the Isle of Wight ... by Train; The Fanatics who Tried to Link the Island and Mainland with a Solent Rail Tunnel. Southern Evening Echo (Newspaper), Wednesday, February 10, 1982. Extract, from the start:
"Revived interest in the unfortunate "Channel Tunnel" railway scheme and proposals for a Solent road bridge has reminded enthusiasts of a much earlier long abandoned project . .. the Solent railway tunnel.
    Even before the first railway had opened on the Island, between Cowes and Newport in 1862, there had been much interest in linking up with mainland railways via a Solent Tunnel.
    Relatively speaking, railways came late to the Island, the London to Southampton line having opened in 1839/40. However, when they did arrive the impact they had on the landscape and islanders can be seen and felt today.
    To show how keen islanders were to have a direct railway link to the mainland, there ,exists a rare booklet by the late Fred Turton. This book was a privately financed publishing venture acting as a last-ditch attempt to attract attention to the project.
    "The History of the Solent Tunnel Scheme and Associated Railways published in 1942, is dedicated' to two men. Frank Aman, considered to be the "father" of the scheme, lived in what is now the Totland Bay Hotel. He, along with Sir Blundel Maple, who was connected with the "Great Central Railway" spent most of the latter parts of their lives campaigning for the tunnel.
    With the opening in 1889 of the most westerly and far flung line on the Island; the Freshwater, Yarmouth and Newport-Railway, , the tunnel became less an idea and more of a possibility.
    Although the railway crossed the least-populated part of the Island, it was very near to the mainland, and the main line to London via the Lymington branch line. .
    The "FYN" was impoverished and -would remain so right through to the sad end.
    For a while it was not able to afford rolling stock and fell out with the other companies on the Island.
    As was usual it was the passengers who suffered. They were "punished" for using the "FYN" by having to walk from one station to the other in Newport.
    All this despite the fact there was a perfectly good junction with the other railways. This state of affairs lasted almost up until the 1920's grouping. The only real hope for the line really lay in the project for the tunnel, complete with electrically hauled trains through to join with the Lymington line. This railway had opened through to the harbour in May of 1884, with trains running right up alongside the Island ferries.
    All the other possible sites for the tunnel, other than Yarmouth to Lymington had been mere speculation, mainly due to distance. Stokes Bay to Ryde, Lepe to Gurnard and HambIe to Cowes were all discarded.
    In retrospect the Lepe to Gurnard route was interesting, as it is now the site for the main under. water electricity, gas and freshwa ter services pipe and cable routes. The possibility of the tunnel attracted the attention of the mighty Sir Sam Fay of the "Great Central Railway". Sir Sam was the main promoter of the Channel Tunnel and his interest may have been more than just "practising for the real thing". Being a local man, and having started his railway "career 'on the Mid-Hants Railway at Itchen Abbas, he could be said to have more than a passing interest in the Solent area. It was Sir Sam, that bold New Forester, who was later to resurrect a dying line, the Midland and South Western Junction with its line to Andover from Cheltenham, who upset literally every company in Britain.
    What did he do? Simply enough, he had posters made up showing the "Great Central's" tentacles reaching everywhere, implying ownership rather than connections. Such a mad made many enimies ... and achieved much.
    A Bill was brought before Parliament for the promotion of the "South Western and Isle of Wight Junction Railway". Capital was to be around £3,000,000, of which half was subscribed by the outbreak of the "Great War". After this the promoters got an extension; The line would have been just over seven miles long, including the tunnel section and would have had running powers over the Lymington line to Brockenhurst, and over the FYN to Freshwater and Newport. Also included were powers to run to Ventnor West via Newport. Europe was heading into the "Great War" when things started to go drastically wrong for all involved in the project. Sir Blundel Maple died, and relations with the "Great Central" quickly broke down, never to be re-established.
    Of course the FYN and the Tunnel Promoters could not continue, but legend has it that test borings and shafts were dug on both sides of thA-Solent. Records confirm the existence of the tests, but despite over 20 years of research it has proved impossible to locate them.
    [continues for about an equal amount of text. ] [See also Turton.]
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Marsland, A. and Butler, M.E. 1967. Strength measurements on stiff fissured Barton Clay from Fawley (Hampshire). Proceedings of the Geotechnical Conference, Oslo, 1, 139-145.
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Martin, E.C. 1938. The Littlehampton and Portsdown Chalk inliers and their relation to the raised beaches of West Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 49, 198-212.
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Mathers, S.J. 1982. The Sand and Gravel Resources of the Country Around Lymington and Beaulieu, Hampshire: description of parts of 1:25,000 sheet SU 20,30 and 40 and SZ 29, 39 and 49. 58 pages, diagrams, tables etc. 0 11 887417 9. Mineral Assessment Reports No 122. Institute of Geological Science (British Geological Survey).
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May, V.J. 2007(?). Keyhaven Marsh, Hurst Castle. Extract from the Geological Conservation Review, Vol. 28, Coastal Geomorphology of Great Britain, Chapter 10, Saltmarshes. Available online at: Keyhaven Marsh, Hurst Castle, Geological Conservation Review - pdf file
Keyhaven Marsh, Hurst Castle, OS Grid Reference: SZ315905.
"Introduction: The Keyhaven saltmarshes (see Figure 10.1 for general location) are important for the range of geomorphological features they display, particularly the intricate pattern of saltmarsh creeks. The site is an important research area for examining the relationship between creek dynamics, tidal processes and sedimentation. The western part of the saltmarshes forms an integral part of the Hurst Castle Spit system (see GCR site report in Chapter 6), a classic site for the study of coastal geomorphology..." continues.
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McCue, J. 2000. Shoreline management plans - a science or an art. Pp. 85-93 in: Collins, M. and Ansell, K. 2000. Solent Science - A Review. Proceedings in Marine Science, 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 385pp including location and subject indexes. ISBN - 0-444-504-65-6, hard cover only. Paper by Jonathon McCue, Halcrow Group Ltd., Burderop Park, Swindon, Wiltshire. [Example extract:] "Introduction: Within certain scientific circles, Shoreline Management Plans (SMPs) are not commonly brought into serious discussion. It is perceived that they do not really deliver much in terms of new science findings and do not utilise what science has uncovered to its fullest potential. There is speculation as to how far science used in SMPs has advanced our understanding. There is also speculation as to whether new scientific information is being used effectively in SMPs, or that scientific understanding has been manipulated to merely prop up existing management practices. Overall, sceptics are of the view that SMPs successfully present an artistic view of 'old science', presenting information that has not been contested in recent years or, at the very best, is in need of update; in reality, this is not true. However, as expected, the level of 'new science' or the type of information contained within SMPs is ultimately dependent upon the budgets made available..."[continues].
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McHaffie, M.G.J. 1938. Southampton docks extension. Journal of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 9, 184-236.
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McInnes, R.A. 1998. Practical experience in reconciling conservation and coastal defence strategies on the Isle of Wight. Chapter 7, pp. 67-86, in: Hooke, J. 1998. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation. The Geological Society of London, Burlington House, London. 270 pp. ISBN 1-897799-96-9. Edited by Janet Hooke, Department of Geography, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.
Summary: The coastline of the Isle of Wight is of international importance with respect to its range of geological exposures. In addition, the geomorphological features arising from the complex geology, and the natural processes that have been acting upon the geology, have resulted in much of the coastline receiving specific designations and protection. It is the superb range of coastal scenery that has, to a considerable degree, resulted in the development of the Island's very successful tourist industry. Against this background the Isle of Wight has tried to address coastal defence Issues involving protection of life and property In vulnerable locations where there Is economic justification. By developing coastal policies through dialogue and In close consultation with the conservation organisations, it has been possible to achieve a balance between the requirements of coastal defence and earth science conservation. Practical examples are given where apparently conflicting demands have been reconciled satisfactorily. [See specifically 1: Gurnard Ledge to Saltmead Ledge SSSI; 2. Newtown Harbour SSSI; 3. Bouldnor and Hamstead Cliffs SSSI; Colwell Bay SSSI. ]
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Melville, R.V. and Freshney, E.C. 1982. British Regional Geology: The Hampshire Basin and Adjoining Areas. British Geological Survey (formerly the Institute of Geological Sciences), London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 146 pp. [Popular, low-cost, informative paper-back explaining the geology of the region. This is the latest of several editions, e.g. Chatwin, 1960]
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Mercone, D. 1995. A Chemical and Sedimentological Study on the Sediment at Calshot Deep. B.Sc. Dissertation, Department of Oceanography, Southampton University. 74 pp.
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Meteorological Office. 2014. Winter Storms, January - February 2014.
Winter Storms, January to February 2014.
[www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/interesting/2014-janwind]. Winter storms, January to February 2014.
The UK experienced a spell of extreme weather from late January to mid-February as a succession of major storms brought widespread impacts and damage to the UK.
Around 6 major storms hit through this period, separated by intervals of 2 to 3 days. The sequence of storms followed an earlier stormy period from Winter storms, December 2013 to January 2014. Taken individually, the first two storms were notable but not exceptional for the winter period. However, the later storms from early to mid-February were much more severe. Overall, the period from mid-December 2013 to mid-February 2014 saw at least 12 major winter storms, and, when considered overall, this was the stormiest period of weather the UK has experienced for at least 20 years.
Strong winds and huge waves made conditions extremely dangerous around exposed coastlines - particularly in the south and west, and caused widespread transport disruption. There were major flooding problems, with the Somerset Levels continuing to be inundated with floodwaters from the New Year period. Severe flooding also occurred along sections of the River Thames.
The photographs below provide some indication of weather impacts experienced from these storms. [Photos, include Porthleven, Somerset Levels, Dawlish Railway Line]
[The major storm events of the beginning of 2014 were responsible for serious damage to Hurst Spit, which was flattened and overwashed but not permanently broken through, to Milford sea front with loss of many beach huts, to the Chesil Beach and to many other places. Flooding and/or erosion took place on the West Solent coast at places such as Pitts Deep and Tanners Lane areas. The January 2014 storm was of great note.]


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Meyer, C.J.A. 1871. On the Lower Tertiary deposits recently exposed at Portsmouth. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 27, 74-89.
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Mitchell, G.F., Penny, L.F., Shotton, F.W. and West, R.G. 1973. A Correlation of Quaternary Deposits in the British Isles. Geological Society, London, Special Report No. 4, 99pp.
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Momber, G. 2000. Drowned and deserted. A submerged prehistoric landscape in the Solent, England. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 29 (1), 86-99.
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Monkhouse, F.J. (Editor) 1964. A Survey of Southampton and its Region. Southampton. 349pp. Prepared for the meeting of the British Association held from 26 August to 2 September 1964. Printed in Monotype Bembo on 11 and 12 point by The Camelot Press Limited, Southampton and published by Southampton University Press. [Extract from the start of the Introduction follows:]
    The pattern of this Survey, which falls into three parts, cannot be determined by a rigorous, sharply defined interpretation of the area to be covered. The first part is concerned with the region as a whole, and includes portions of Hampshire, Wiltshire and Dorset and the whole of the Isle of Wight. Even so, certain chapters must logically deal with this wider setting, notably those devoted to the Geomorphology and the Climatology, while others are concerned with the administrative County of Hampshire alone, such as the chapters on the Hydrology and the County Development Plan. Other chapters still, such as that dealing with the Botany, are interested in an 'inner region' in rather greater detail, shown on Fig. I.
    The second part of the Survey is concerned with the historical background to both the wider region and the town of Southampton, partly for the inherent interest of such a narrative, partly because 'nothing in the past is dead to those who would know how the present has come to be what it is'. A chapter discusses the concept of Wessex, one of those several areas of Britain 'which defy definition but which nevertheless have a strong regional characterisation'. Then follows a survey of the place-names of Hampshire, which afford a fascinating mirror of the growth of settlement within the county. A subsequent chapter examines the patterns of settlement in prehistoric and Roman times. Finally, the story is traced of the growth of the town of Southampton, from pre-Conquest days to the end of the nineteenth century.
    The third part of the Survey is concerned with the County Borough of Southampton itself, focusing interest on the town from the economic, social and administrative points of view. Substantial attention must be paid to the port, for how indeed can we separate our view of the town from that of the port? To this day the Mayor of Southampton bears the title of Admiral of the Port, and the Civic Regalia include a silver oar. So, starting with the Cretaceous geological period within the wider structural region, and ending with a judicious appraisal of the future of the County Borough of Southampton, this Survey seeks to portray systematically the diverse, yet intimately associated, facets of the character of the region and the town. [see Hodson and Shelford (1964) on the geology. See also Small (1964) on Geomorphology. Other sections are on Hydrography of the Solent, Hydrology and Water Supply, Botany, Zoology, Land-Use, Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation, The Hampshire Development Plan, The Concept of Wessex, The Place Names of Hampshire, Settlement in Prehistoric and Roman Times, The History of Southampton, The Social Pattern, Economic Activity (including the Fawley Refinery), The Port of Southampton, Communications (including Rights of Way), Aspects of the Civic Scene (including museums and education), The Ordnance Survey, The University, and The Planning of Southampton.]
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Morey, F. 1909. A Guide to the Natural History of the Isle of Wight. County Press, Newport, Isle of Wight, William Wesley, London, 560pp.
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Munt, M.C. and Burke, A. 1986. The Pleistocene geology and faunas at Newtown, Isle of Wight. Proceedings of the Isle of Wight Natural History and Archaeological Society, 8, 7-14. [An Ipswichian Interglacial deposit occurs at the Newtown Estuary with bones of bisons and other mammals. (Incidently, there is a collection of bones at Southampton Oceanography Centre. These were dredged up by oyster dredgers in the 1970s at the mouth of the estuary.)] [See also Lucas (1972)]
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Murley, C. and Murley, F. 1991 [reprinted 1992 and 1995]. Waterside: A Pictorial Past: Calshot, Fawley, Hythe and Marchwood. Ensign Publications. 96pp. By Clare and Fred Murley of Hythe, Hampshire. This is an excellent book on local history with many important illustrations and much useful local information. It is generally not geological but it is important in that it contains several historic photographs relevant to coastal changes in the area.
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Murray, J.W. and Wright, C.A. 1974. Palaeogene foraminiferida and palaeoecology, Hampshire and Paris Basins and the English Channel. Special Papers in Palaeontology, No. 14, pp.iv + 129. Palaeontological Association, London. [By Professor John Murray of Southampton University, and previously Exeter University, and C. A. Wright who wrote a Ph.D. thesis on this topic.]

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Nel, A. and Jarzembowski, E.A. 1999. Fossil damselflies and dragonflies (Insecta : Odonata) from the late Upper Eocene of southern England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 110, 193-201. Abstract: Fossil dragonflies (sensu late) from the Bembridge Marls are discussed and five additional species are described: Lestes aff. regina Theobald, 1937 (Zygoptera: Lestidae); two new coenagrionoids; a corduliid and an enigmatic form of uncertain affinity. The palaeoenvironmental implications are considered.
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N.E.R.C. 1980. The Solent Estuarine System: an Assessment of Present Knowledge . N.E.R.C. Publications Series C, No. 22 November 1980, ed. M. Burton, 100 p. pp. 62-63. NERC.
    Preface: This review of the Solent is the fifth in a series on major UK estuarine systems to be published by the Natural Environment Research Council. Its preparation is the result of an initiative by Dr J. D. Burton of the Oceanography Department, Southampton University, following several meetings of an ad hoc group of scientists with active interests in the region. I am pleased to acknowledge the valuable role played by Dr Burton in suggesting the composition of the review and acting as local editor....


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New Forest District Council. 2001. Set of Aerial Photographs of the Pitts Deep coastal area, West Solent, with annotations; for 1946, 1954, 1980 and 2001.
Go to:
New Forest District Council - Pitts Deep, Aerial Photographs, Historic Record.
An important comparison photograph shows the 1980 map with colours indicating shoreline positions in 1946, 1954, 1968 and 1980. These maps are Crown Copyright/MOD, Supplied from the National Monuments Record, English Heritage. These maps show very well the effective destruction of the saltmarshes in the Pitts Deep area. They are recommended but should be compared to later Channel Coastal Observatory and Google Earth maps to understand the continuing loss of salt marshes and erosion in this area. [Acknowledgements and thanks to Lucy Bennett for drawing my attention to these.]
[I have a complete set together with subsequent aerial photographs from the Channel Coastal Observatory and Google Earth. Thus the extent of salt-marsh loss and of coastal erosion for the Pitts Deep area from 1946 to the present is available. At Pitts Deep some rock armour and a small pier-like structure has given some protection and there has been some limited build-up of beach shingle. Immediately to the east of Pitts Deep there has been more loss of land. Down from Sowley Water there has been the build up the Sowley Spits (shingle spits on both sides of the very low ground here, and with an outlet channel. The progressive loss of saltmarsh is a major feature of the record of coastal changes shown by the areal photographs. There was further erosion and flooding in the early 2014 storms, which were very serious, but this topic is not very clear from the photographs which are at present available.]
[NB. This good work can be consulted but it is not easily used for copyright reasons. Text in front of photographs is as follows:
Copyright Statements, New Forest District Council. Data are reproduced with permission of the copyright owner New Forest District Council. You may not alter or make any additions to the material or sell it or misappropriate it. Material may only be downloaded or copied for personal use. Appropriate acknowledgment of the copyright owner is required and the status of the material should be identified if material is reproduced in any format. Users are also asked to ensure the material is reproduced accurately and not in a misleading context. Ordnance Survey mapping is provided by New Forest District Council under licence from the Ordnance Survey in order to fulfil its public function to publicise local public services. Contact Ordnance Survey for advice if you wish to licence Ordnance Survey mapping for your own use. Ministry of Defence data are reproduced with the permissi on of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. Environment Agency data are reproduced with permission of the copyright owner for your own private use or to give copies to others without restriction provided that you make no charge and attach a copy of this notice. Recipients should also comply with the notice. Whenever possible and appropriate any authorised copying shall acknowledge the Environment Agency's ownership of the data.]


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New Forest District Council. 2004. New Forest Coastal Management Plan, February 2004. C7, Zone 7: North West Solent Shore. Available on the internet at:
North West Solent Shore.
In this secluded part of the Solent shore, mudflats, saltmarshes and tidal creeks fringe a well-wooded, agricultural landscape. The zone is of outstanding scenic quality, and of considerable value for nature conservation. The majority of the area is in the ownership of a few large country estates. Other than at Lepe Country Park, public access is limited, and indeed much of its character and attractiveness is due to the resulting sense of isolation. .. [continues]
It includes this note of particular interest re erosion:
"C 7.6 - Parts of this low-lying shoreline are vulnerable to flooding, particularly the eastern side of the Lymington River estuary. Erosion of low cliffs and the marshes is evident, and landowners along the shore have undertaken a number of small coast protection schemes some with the advice and assistance of the District Council. A shingle bank has been constructed across Bull Run, an artificially created channel, to join Gull Island to Warren Farm Spit, in order to stem the rapid erosion of the bird sanctuary. More substantial works have been necessary at Lepe, where erosion threatens properties and the road near the shore; a major concrete structure protects the road. In front of Lepe House, timber coast protection works were built in 1991 by the landowner with a grant from the County Council, in return for a public right of way being established along the top of the new timber revetment. To the east, beyond Stone Point, the timber revetments are frequently undermined during storms, resulting in erosion of the soft, sandy cliffs. Similarly, the shingle beach north of Stansore Point is relatively unstable despite the timber groynes and revetments that have been constructed. The beach was breached extensively in 1991, resulting in damage to the cross Solent Isle of Wight gas mains. Parts of the heavily wooded foreshore, which forms part of Cadland Estate, have been lost over the last 50 years."
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Nicholls , R.J. 1985. The stability of shingle beaches in the eastern half of Christchurch Bay. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Southampton. By (now) Professor Robert Nicholls.

Nicholls, R.J. 1987. Evolution of the upper reaches of the Solent River and formation of Poole and Christchurch Bays. Pp. 99-114 in: Barber, K.E. 1987, Wessex and the Isle of Wight - Field Guide. Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge. Prepared to accompany the Annual Field Meeting held at Southampton and Cowes, 21-25 April, 1987. 180 pp. paperback. Edited and compiled by Professor Keith Barber, Department of Geography, Southampton University.

Nicholls, R.J. and Clarke, M.J. 1986. Flandrian peat deposits at Hurst Castle Spit, Proceedings of the Hants Field Club & Archaeological Society. 42: 15-21.

Nicholls, R.J. and Webber, N.B. 1987. The past, present and future evolution of Hurst Castle Spit. Progress in Oceanography, 18, 119-137. Abstract: Previous models of the evolution of Hurst Castle Spit over-emphasised longshore growth at the expense of other processes, particularly rise in sea-level. Initially, a Pleistocene valley system was submerged creating a tidal strait, the West Solent, between Christchurch Bay and the East Solent. this almost certainly caused a major hydrodynamic change, transforming much of Christchurch Bay and the West Solent from a low to a high energy environment. Hurst Castle Spit and the Shingles Bank then began to form due to a combination of easterly littoral drift, offshore gravel movement due to the high tidal energy, a rising sea-level, the transformation of Hurst Beach due to overwashing and the formation of recurves due to waves in the West Solent. The growth of the Shingles Bank due to offshore sediment movement from Hurst Castle Spit was of particular importance because of the influence of wave energy along Hurst Beach. Significant local supplies of shingle in the vicinity of Hurst Castle Spit, reworked from Quaternary deposits were also of importance. Thus, it is not a classic multi-recurved spit and the transgressive segment, Hurst Beach, has much in common with barrier coastlines... The same processes are are continuing to shape Hurst Castle Spit at present, with additional effects of human interference in the coastal sediment system. The construction of sea defences at Milford-on-Sea in the period 1936 to 1968 has modified the sediment budget and Hurst Castle Spit is experiencing a phase of rapid evolution: maximum recession rates have increased from 1.5 metres per annum (1867-1968) to 3.5 metres per annum (1968-1982). It is difficult to quantify the exact role of sea-level rise in the present evolution of Hurst Castle Spit... The future evolution of Hurst Castle Spit will depend largely on man. If there is no further interference, which is highly unlikely, the beach will continue to decline, resulting in a further increase in the rate of recession. Ultimately, a true tidal breach will probably form, marking a new phase in the evolution of Hurst Castle Spit and its environs. However, shingle renourishment on another coastal engineering solution will probably be undertaken. The future rate of sea-level rise will have important long-term influences on all these options.

Nicholls, R.J. and Webber, N.B. 1987b. Coastal erosion in the eastern half of Christchurch Bay. In: Culshaw, M.G., Bell, F.G., Cripps, J.C. and O'Hara, M. (eds), 1987. Planning and Engineering Geology. Geological Society, London, Engineering Geology Special Publication, No. 4, pp. 549-554.
Abstract: Christchurch Bay has a long history of shoreline recession and this has given rise to some major coastal engineering problems. An area of particular concern is Hurst Beach at its eastern end, where the maximum rate of recession has increased from 1.5 m per annum (1867 to 1968) to 3.5 metres per annum (1968 to 1982). Hurst Castle itself is now subject to wave attack on part of its frontage. The littoral sediment movement was assumed to be essentially continuous around Christchurch Bay, but, in fact, a littoral drift sub-cell boundary (i.e. a partial barrier to littoral drift) is present in the vicinity of Hordle Cliff. Therefore, the increased recession of Hurst Beach is a local problem. Milford-on-Sea is situated on a thick sequence of Pleistocene Gravels, whose erosion contributed substantially to the maintenance of Hurst Castle Spit as a major physiographic feature. However, a series of coast protection works were constructed to protect Milford-on-Sea between 1936 and 1968, removing this important source of sediment.
In the long term, without any further human interference, recession rates of up to 6 metres per annum will probably occur along Hurst Beach. A breach of Hurst Beach is a major concern, as it would create an island at Hurst Castle and expose the vulnerable, low-lying, northern coast of the West Solent, including the village of Keyhaven, to increased wave attack and tidal scour. Ecologically important saltmarshes would also be destroyed.
Shingle renourishment is the only environmentally acceptable engineering solution. Limited renourishment has already commenced. Any cost benefit decisions must consider the wider implications of a breach in Hurst Beach, including environmental and ecological considerations.
This case study demonstrates the importance of a detailed understanding of both the littoral and offshore sediment movement for the planning of coast protection.

Nicholls, W.T. 1866. Remarks on some "Sarsens", or erratic blocks of stone found in the gravel, in the neighbourhood of Southampton, Hampshire. Geological Magazine, 3, 296-298. Sarsen stones at Bevois Valley gravel pit, Southampton and elsewhere in the region.
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Norman, M.W. 1887. A Popular Guide to the Geology of the Isle of Wight; with a note on its relation to that of the Isle of Purbeck. Compiled and arranged from existing works, with notes and observations by Mark William Norman. Illustrated by a map, sections, and figures of some of the fossils. Ventnor: Published for the Author at Knight's Library, 147 and 149, High Street, Ventnor. Six shillings net. Printed by G. Henry Brittain, steam printer, 152, High Street Ventnor. 240pp.
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North Sea Sun Oil Company Ltd . 1983. Proposals for drilling an exploratory borehole at Bottom Copse, in the vicinity of Medina Wharf, Cowes, Isle of Wight. North Sea Sun Oil Company Ltd., John R. Lawrence Partners Ltd. 1983. [Southampton University, Hartley Library H.F.C.q TN 874.G7 / 55008499]
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Nowell, D.A.G. 1995. Faults in the Purbeck-Isle of Wight Monocline. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 106: 145-150.

Nowell, D.A.G. 2000. Discussion on late Quaternary evolution of the upper reaches of the Solent River, Southern England, based upon marine geophysical evidence. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 157: 505-507.

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Oakley, K.P. 1943. A note on the postglacial submergence of the Solent margin. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, New Series, 9, 56-59.
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Office of Climate Change, Department of the UK Government.
Online at:
Office of Climate Change.
The Office of Climate Change (OCC) was set up in September 2006 and works across Government to support analytical work on climate change and the development of climate change policy and strategy. Many government departments are involved in tackling climate change, or in helping the UK and other countries adapt to its possible future impacts. The OCC is a shared resource for all departments.
The OCC's role is to:
Run policy focused projects on difficult cross-cutting issues
Programme manage (at a high level) the UK's climate change commitments
Consolidate analysis and co-ordinate between departments
Act as an advocate for climate change issues within government
Since the creation of the Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) in October 2008 the role of the OCC has evolved. The OCC has become part of DECC, and will lead the development of the department's overall strategy. However, because of the complexity of the climate change and energy challenge it will continue to retain a distinctive role and cross-cutting way of working, with other departments having a role in the Office's funding and governance. [continues]
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Odin, G.S., Curry, D. and Hunziker, J.C. 1978. Radiometric dates from NW European glauconites and the Palaeogene timescale. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 135, 481-497.
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Ordnance Survey, 1981. The old series Ordnance Survey maps of England and Wales. Vol. III: Southcentral England (Hampshire and the Isle of Wight and parts of Berkshire, Dorset, Somerset, Surrey, Sussex and Wiltshire). 1981. [Southampton University, Cope Collection, Cope q 90.5181017 / 82008365]
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Owen, R. and Bell, T. 1849-1858. Monograph of the Fossil Reptilia of the London Clay and of the Bracklesham and other Tertiary Beds. Palaeontographical Society Monograph.

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Palaeolithic Archaeology of the Sussex/Hampshire Coastal Corridor (PASHCC) . 2004 - in progress. A research project funded by the Aggregates Levy Sustainable Fund. Aims of the Project: Geological Mapping, Dating of Palaeolithic Sites, Palaeolithic Settlement History, Protecting the Palaeolithic Heritage. A full report of the project has been lodged with Hampshire County Council and English Heritage. A museum exhibition in Southampton is planned in the near future. It is also hoped to carry out further work in the western Solent basin. Project team: Martin Bates, Department of Archaeology, University of Lampeter; Francis Wenban-Smith, Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton; Rebecca Briant, Department of Geography, Kings College, London, Gilbert Marshall, Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton (notes from a brochure available at Lepe). A very informative public meeting, exhibition and demonstration was given at Lepe Beach Country Park with the participation of Hampshire County Council on Saturday 6 November, 2004. Posters were on display showing excavation and core-sampling of the Pleistocene gravels and interglacial deposit. The Upper Gravel was shown dated at 65 ka (thousand years) old and the Lower Gravel at 205 ka. The interglacial deposit at Lepe (Stone Point) is between these. For more information see the reports and forthcoming publications of PASHCC (which may be under the names of one or more of the project team members listed above).
Website at:
PASHCC - Palaeolithic Archaeology of the Sussex/Hampshire Coastal Corridor
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Pallot, J.M. 1961. Plant Microfossils from the Oligocene of the Isle of Wight. Unpublished thesis, University of London, London, 206 pp.
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Palmer , L.S., Cooke, J.H. 1923. The Pleistocene deposits of the Portsmouth district and their relation to man. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 34, 253-282.
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Pannell , J.P.M. 1967. Old Southampton Shores. David and Charles, Newton Abbot.
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Paphitis , D. 1997. Residual Circulation and Associated Sediment Dynamics: Eastern Approaches to the Solent. BSc Dissertation, Department of Oceanography, University of Southampton. 106 pp.
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Pitts , M. and Roberts, M. 19??. Fairweather Eden. [Popular-type book on the Boxgrove, Sussex, ancient habitation site on the raised beach, about 500,000 years old]. Century publisher, ISBN 0-7126-7686-4. [Boxgrove is beyond the Solent area and further the east and is not considered in detail in this bibliography. It is relevant, however, because the Boxgrove-Slindon raised beach of Hoxnian age extends westward to Portsdown Hill, where it was exposed in the cutting made for the M27 motorway. Portsdown Hill overlooks the Solent.]
Here is a review of the book from British Archaeology, No. 28, October 1997, page 12. It by Nick Ashton of the British Museum; the views are his not necessarily mine. It is entitled "The Popular Version of Boxgrove's story".
"On 'Friday 13 November 1993' we are informed, an archaeologist called Roger Pederson discovered a human limb-bone that 6 months later was to make Boxgrove almost a household name. Although the authors - one the project director, the other an ex-archaeologist, writer and restaurateur - open with this undoubtedly significant discovery, they quite rightly devote the major part of the book to the unparalleled 500,OOO-year old landscape of undisturbed flint and bone that had already stunned the archaeological community over the previous ten years.
The book is furnished with detail, not just of flint scatters and butchery remains, but also of such topics as the evolution of rhinos and rodents, and the genesis and destruction of ice sheets, all interlaced with the history of Palaeolithic research. These are mostly dealt with well, although explanations are at times patronising or obscure. The authors conclude, controversially, that the Boxgrove people were hunters rather than scavengers, had developed language and had an ability to plan ahead beyond breakfast.
The themes are interspersed and developed throughout the book, but too often in irritatingly short chapters that leap on, seemingly without connection, to the next. The main plot, which does keep the reader's attention, is the story of the project, portrayed as a voyage of discovery. Any story needs characters, and of these there are many - Mark Roberts, portrayed as the undervalued, underpaid, precocious student who single-mindedly drove the project from rural obscurity to international fame, surviving, we are told, shadowy subplots to relieve him of the reins. Or Simon Parfitt, the introverted, obsessive, and destined-to-become-brilliant mammal specialist, who first pieced together the limb bone. Both are complemented by a far from dull supporting cast.
If you think this seems a little over the top, you would be right, the voyage occasionally becoming a ripping yam. This is reinforced by the style of writing - mainly informative, sometimes poetic, and at worst melodramatic. Although it generally makes for an enjoyable read, it leaves one with some doubts as to where fact has occasionally merged with fiction. As for Friday the 13th, well, I think you will find it was a Saturday."


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Pontee, N.I. 2004. Saltmarsh loss and maintenance dredging in estuaries [re Lymington and Yarmouth estuaries]. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Maritime Engineering, 157, June 2004, Issue MA2, pp. 71-82, paper 13629. By Nigel I. Pontee, Senior Scientist, Halcrow Group Ltd, Swindon, UK.
Abstract: The removal of sediment from estuaries by maintenance dredging has the potential to be detrimental to habitats such as saltmarshes. This paper examines the case for environmental reparation with respect to maintenance dredging activities in two estuaries within the western Solent in England. These two examples [Lymington, Hampshire, and Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, estuaries] suggest that the detrimental impacts of maintenance dredging and requirement for beneficial use schemes may have been overstated in some areas of the UK. The examples also demonstrate that beneficial use schemes themselves can potentially have deleterious impacts on estuary systems and therefore should not be viewed as a universal panacea for estuary management.
Example of text from Introduction:
"Most parts of the UK coastline are experiencing a rise in relative sea level of several millimetres per year. The natural consequence of this rise is the readjustment of the coast by the erosion, transport and deposition of sediment. According to Bird and May the majority of the UK coastline is eroding. On the south coast of England, research has shown that over 60 percent of the shoreline is undergoing a landward retreat of the low water mark." .. continues
[The history of development of the Yar Estuary, Isle of Wight, from 1610 to post 1970 is given in a table on page 76]
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Portsmouth Polytechnic . 1976. Langstone Harbour Study: the Effects of Sewage Effluent on the Ecology of the Harbour. Portsmouth. 356pp. Portsmouth Polytechnic is now Portsmouth University. This report is probably non-geological but may have useful background information. See also Dunn.
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Preece, R.C., Scourse, J.D., Houghton, S.D., Knudsen, K.L. and Penny, D.N. 1990. The Pleistocene sea-level and neotectonic history of the eastern Solent, southern England. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B328, pp. 425-477.
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Prestwich, J. 1846. On the Tertiary or Supracretaceous formations of the Isle of Wight etc. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, vol. 2, 255-259. By Joseph Prestwich, with a plate. [contains a classic description of the Alum Bay cliff section.]

Prestwich, J. 1857. On the correlation of the Eocene Tertiaries of England, France and Belgium. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 13, pp. 105, 115, 118-126, 131.

Prestwich, J. 1854. On the structure of the strata between the London Clay and the Chalk in the London and Hampshire Tertiary Systems. Part II. The Woolwich and Reading Series. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 10, 75-170. [By Joseph Prestwich]

Prestwich, J. 1872. On the presence of a raised beach at Portsdown Hill near Portsmouth and on the occurrence of a flint implement at a high level at Downton. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 28, 3841.

Prestwich, J. 1883. Notes relating to some of the Drift phenomena of Hampshire: 1. Boulders, Hayling Island; 2. Chert debris in the Hampshire gravel; 3. Elephant Bed, Freshwater Gate. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 52nd Meeting at Southampton in August, 1882. Transactions of Section C, pp. 529-530. By Professor Joseph Prestwich, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S.    
"In this paper the author draws attention to a few points which have either escaped notice or on which he would put a different construction. 1. The remarkable boulders of crystalline and other old rocks of Pagham were noticed long ago by Mr. Dixon and Mr. Godwin-Austen; and Mr. Codrington has more recently described similar boulders in the gravel of Portsea Island. Those of Hayling Island have not yet been noticed; nevertheless they are very numerous. The author describes two of granite and three of sandstone of large size on the shore near the railway station, and states that he counted thirty smaller ones in a mile to the westward of the station. The greater number, however, of those ou the shore facing South Hayling village seem to have been collected to form rockwork in the Grotto grounds and in the grounds of Westfield House. Amongst them are boulders of granite, syenite, porphyry, slate, and sandstone. They are found scattered in lesser numbers all over the island, embedded in the flint gravel and loam which overlies London clay. Mr. Godwin-Austen considered that the Sussex boulders might be derived from an old coast now submerged in the area of the British Channel, but the author sees reason to believe that they are more probably derived from the coast of Devon and Cornwall. A large fragment of siIicified Portland wood has been described by the Rev. O. Fisher from Pagham, and the author saw in Hayling Island a piece above two feet in length of well-characterised Portland wood. The granites and other rocks, though not yet determined, seem to resemble West of England rocks, and he saw none of the characteristic granite of Cherbourg amongst the boulders. Further, the author found at Stubbington Cliff and Hill Head nnmerous quartzite pebbles similar to those of the Budleigh conglomerate. He concludes therefore that the boulders were carried here by ice at the time the old Raised beach of Brighton, Portland, and the Devon coast, and that their absence in the intermediate area is due to the destruction of the beach and the wear back of the of the old coast line, except at a few spots where, with remnants of the beach, the boulders have been preserved..."[continues]

Prestwich, J. 1892. The raised beaches and "head" or pebble drift of the south of England. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 48, 263-343.

Prestwich, J. 1892. The Solent River. Geological Magazine, 35, 349-351.
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Price, D. and Townend, I. 2000. Hydrodynamic, sediment process and morphological modelling. Pp. 55-70 in Collins, M. and Ansell, K. 2000. Solent Science - A Review. Proceedings in Marine Science, 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 385pp including location and subject indexes. ISBN - 0-444-504-65-6, hard cover only. Paper by , Darren Price and lan Townend, of ABP (Associated British Ports) Research and Consultancy Limited, Pathfinder House, Maritime Way, Southampton. S0143AE, U.K. "Introduction: Modelling of coastal processes has made significant progress over recent years, with far greater linkages between the various models, which simulate the different processes involved. It remains the case, however, that the value of the output they provide is dependent upon the quality of the data used for their set-up, calibration, and validation. Despite this limitation, there is often extreme pressure to undertake the minimum amount of fieldwork, in order to keep costs down (in the same way that site investigation is always the 'poor relation' in construction projects). Equally, it is all too easy to dismiss models as being incomplete, making simplifying assumptions or not representing all the processes present in the 'real world' . Whilst these are very real limitations, it should also be recognised that many models are now very sophisticated, and can represent complex physical, chemical and biological processes. Such models enable the trained user to advance their understanding of a particular regime quite significantly; likewise, they often help to identify processes which are not obvious, or even counter-intuitive.
Within the Solent, models have a long history of utilisation, from the early physical models established at Southampton University to present-day numerical modelling studies undertaken by the many agencies who have interests in a wide variety of applications (see below). This paper will focus upon those applications that relate to physical processes and, in particular, tides, waves, sediment transport and morphological change. Within this field of interest, there exists a host of different spatial and temporal scales. Tidal modelling necessarily ranges from the English Channel to exchanges within tidal creeks. Sediment exchanges can be considered over the basin as a whole, but must also address how sediment feeds the upper intertidal and saltmarshes around the Solent Process time-scales of relevance vary from those of short period wind-waves (a few seconds) to geological time (1000's of years)..." [continues] [Tidal curves, wave heights, current velocities etc within the Solent.]
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Purdy, I. 1869. Laurie's chart of the Isle of Wight: with the adjacent coast including Selsea, Portsmouth, Southampton, Lymington etc. Drawn from the survey by Capt. Sheringham by Isaac Purdy. [Southampton University, Cope Collection, Cope 43.11 / 52114438]

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Quaresma, V. da S. 2008. The influence of shell transport on the morphology and erosion of a salt marsh : Hythe, Southampton Water. Id. 3275349. Author: Valeria da Silva Quaresma. Electronic Thesis or Dissertation. Date of contribution 8th May 2008.
The present research has concentrated on the investigation of an intertidal area (Hythe intertidal flats) located in Southampton Water, Hampshire, UK. The Hythe salt marshes are suffering significant erosion (1 to 3 m yr-1) and a major characteristic of its intertidal zone is the widespread presence of chenier deposits. These deposits are composed largely of cockle shells (Cerastoderma edule] and are found on the salt marshes. The process of abrasion acting on the seabed is occurring along the seaward edge of the salt marshes, where a well-defined cliff (approximately 1.5 m high) is observed.Based on this background and on the significant input of cockle shells to the intertidal area of Hythe, this study has investigated the potential influence of shell movement on the erosion of intertidal (cohesive) beds and the resultant morphology. These processes are investigated by combining in situ measurements and laboratory experiments. The main objective of the investigation is to determine the contribution of shells moving as bedload to the erosion rates and morphological evolution of Hythe salt marshes.Field investigations involved a two-years monitoring of morphological changes over the mudflat/salt marsh, hydrodynamic measurements (currents and waves), and shell tracer experiments. Laboratory experiments were concentrated mainly on the influence of biological factors on sediment stabilisation and the effect of shell transport as an erosion mechanism of cohesive beds.Overall, the results showed that shell movement across Hythe intertidal flats can influence the geomorphology and erosion at the site. The main mechanism of cliff erosion is the combination of wave attack and the abrasive effects of shells. No seasonal pattern in bed level changes was observed. Hence, bed erosion/stability appeared not to be controlled by biological fluctuations throughout the year, which indicates that the prevailing hydrodynamic processes are the main factors controlling bed behaviour of the Hythe intertidal flats. Results from in situ measurements combined with laboratory experiments showed that shells (and potentially other debris, such as sand), moving as bedload, decrease the threshold and increase the erosion rate of cohesive beds. Hence, shell-induced erosion can become an important parameter on the morphological evolution of a coastal area.

Quaresma, V. da S., Ferrari, F., Bastos, A.C. and Amos, C. 2007. Sedimentary Processes over an Intertidal Flat: A Field Investigation at Hythe Flats, Southampton Water (U.K.). Marine Geology, vol. 241, Issues 1-4, 25th June 2007, pp. 117-136. By Valeria da S. Quaresma, Alex C. Bastos and Carl L. Amos.
Abstract: The sedimentary processes acting over an intertidal flat (Hythe, UK) located in Southampton Water, Hampshire, UK are investigated on the basis of hydrodynamic, morphological and sediment transport field measurements. Bed level changes, patterns of suspended sediment transport and shell movement over the tidal flats were examined in order to identify sediment transport pathways and salt marsh-mudflat morphological changes. Overall, sediment transport patterns at Hythe can be described in terms of suspended sediment and bedload-shell transport. The hydrodynamic complexity of the tidal flow over the flats determines the patterns of suspended sediments transport. During the young flood phase, tidal currents present a SW orientation (shoreward). About one hour into the flood, a change occurs and the currents start flowing in a SE direction (estuary mouthward). This veering of the tidal current controls the hydrodynamic pattern over the mudflat inducing sediment transport towards the estuary mouth. Conversely, shell tracer experiment showed a net landward movement. Shells are transported over the mudflat, deposited at the base of the cliff, and eventually transported over the salt marsh where they form extensive chenier deposits. Shell transport rates can reach up to 0.7m/tide over the upper mudflat. Shell movement over the salt marsh (on cheniers) occurred only during storms (up to 3 m in a storm event). Shell-induced erosion can become an important parameter on morphological changes of a coastal area. Shell transport and deposition over the salt marsh surface can contribute to vegetation deterioration, as shell deposits migrate over the marsh surface. As a result, the seaward limit of the salt marsh showed deteriorated vegetation, which leads to scouring and consequent surface lowering. In terms of bed level changes, no seasonal pattern was observed. A relationship between mudflat bed erosion and cliff retreat is suggested. During periods of high cliff erosion there was a tendency for the mudflats to be stable and, conversely, mudflat bed erosion was greatest when cliff retreat rates were lowest. Hence, morphological characteristics of Hythe intertidal area appear to be controlled by a combination of prevailing hydrodynamic conditions and shell transport over the salt marsh.

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Rayner, J.F. 1929. A Supplement to Frederick Townend's Flora of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. Published by the author, Southampton. [Includes a detailed account of the Solent Spartina marshes, starting with a tour in 1907. See Tubbs (1999, p. 86) for quotation a from this.]
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Reid, C. 1892. The Pleistocene deposits of the Sussex coast and their equivalents in other districts. Quarterly Journal Geological Society, London , 48, 344-361. By Clement Reid.

Reid, C. 1893. A fossiliferous deposit at Stone on the Hampshire Coast. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 49, 344. By Clement Reid. [Key paper on Lepe Beach, recording the Interglacial deposit and the discovery of an elephant tusk]

Reid, C. 1903. The Geology of the Country Around Salisbury (Explanation of Sheet 298). Memoirs of the Geological Survey, England and Wales. By Clement Reid, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., with contributions by H.B. Woodward, F.R.S., F.J. Bennett, F.G.S. and A.J. Jukes-Browne, B.A., F.G.S.. 77pp. His Majesty's Stationary Office, London.

Reid, C. 1905. The island of Ictis. Archaeologia, 59, 218-288. By Clement Reid, Esq., F.R.S. [This considers the possibility that the Isle of Ictis was the Isle of Wight (Vectis) with an ancient land connection of Bembridge Limestone (see Reid's map). The first part of the text follows:]

"So much has already been published about the ancient trade with Britain for tin, and the accounts given by Diodorus Siculus and Caesar have so often been discussed, that it would appear as if no further evidence were obtainable. It has seemed also as if there were unfortunate contradictions between the classical authorities, which made their statements untrustworthy, or at any rate too vague and too little exact to be of value.    
Perhaps approaching the subject from a different side, I may be able to show that the ancient writers can be literally depended on, and that their descriptions are thoroughly in keeping with each other, and with what we now know to have been the physical condition of Britain at and before the date at which they wrote.    
The accounts given by ancient writers of the trade with Britain will be found excellently summarised by Professor W. Ridgeway in his "Greek Trade-Routes to Britain." It is unnecessary to go over this ground again, and I need only refer to the supposed discordance between the different writers, and between .them and what it was supposed that we knew of the physical geography of Britain 1,900 years and more ago.    
The difficulties that have always been felt in reconciling the records were practically these: Mictis, Ictis, and Vectis seem to refer to the same island near Britain; and Mictis and Ictis are distinctly recorded as shipping places for the tin, by. Timaeus (flor. 350-326 B.C.), and by Diodorus Siculus, perhaps following    
Posidonius (about 90 B.C.). Vectis is the name of the Isle of Wight in Roman times. But Pliny, quoting Timaeus, says" that the island of Mictis, in which the tin is produced, is distant inwards from Britain six days' voyage, and that the Britons sail to it in vessels made of wicker-work covered with 'hide'." Six days' coasting from the mouth of the Exe would amply suffice to bring boats to the Isle of Wight, for the prevailing summer wind is favourable. The Isle of Wight and . more easterly districts of the south of England were politically part of Gaul, perhaps even at that early date; the tin-producing" Britain" was' apparently outside the dominion of the Belgae, and must have been Devon and Cornwall. A coasting trade of this sort would go direct to the Isle of Wight side of the Solent, and therefore there is no mention of the causeway alluded to by Diodorus, writing at a later date. The account given by Diodorus Siculus is different, and here comes in the principal difficulty which I desire to deal with. I quote from Professor Ridgeway's translation:    
The inhabitants of that part of Britain which is called Belerion are very fond of strangers, and, from their intercourse with foreign merchants, are civilised in their manner of life. They prepare the tin, working very carefully the earth in which it is produced. The ground is rocky, but it contains earthy veins, the produce of which is ground down, sme1ted, and purified. They beat the metal into masses, shaped like astragali, and carry it to a certain island lying off Britain called Ictis. During the ebb of the tide the intervening space is left dry, and they carry over into this island the tin in abundance in their waggons. Now there is a peculiar phenomenon connected with the neighbouring islands, I mean those that lie between Europe and Britain; for at the flood-tide the intervening passage is overflowed, and they seem like islands; but a large space is left dry at the ebb, and then they seem to be like peninsulas. Here, then, the merchants buy the tin from the natives and carry it over to Gaul; and after travelling overland for about thirty days, they finally bring their loads on horses to the mouth of the Rhone.    
In this description the talk is of waggons, and apparently of an overland route, but nothing is said about the course taken before the Solent is reached. The author seems also to know nothing of the mining or metallurgy of tin. He speaks of beating the metal into masses (tin can only be cast), which suggests also - that the people from whom the information was obtained were the shippers, but not the producers of the tin. The account of the mines is very vague, and might apply either to shallow working on the decayed upper part of the lodes ("gossans") or to stream-works. There is no mention of the method of mining, nor of the washing which is so essential a part of the process in either case. Can it be that the inhabitants of Belerion neither desired nor chose to give information as to the country beyond, from they obtained the tin? It is curious that in this account there should be no hint as to the route taken to Ictis, except the causeway, which everybody must have known, including the foreign merchants.    
The generalisation about other islands can be disregarded. The author, I believe, was quite right as to the only one on the trade route he was describing, but there is nothing to show that he was acquainted with any others, though certain of the Scilly Islands also would answer to his description, as far as being alternately islands and peninsulas. At the date he wrote St. Michael's Mount must have been an isolated rock rising out of a swampy wood.    
An incidental remark by Caesar seems at first sight to add to the confusion, for he speaks of tin coming from the interior, which would scarcely be his description if he were referring to a coasting trade with Devon and Cornwall. He is right, I think, for he refers to the British part of the trade-route, perhaps implied but not described by Diodorus Siculus, who mentions only the causeway to Ictis and the route through Gaul. The British part also was an overland route, only reaching the coast at the Solent. Caesar was not speaking of the position of the mines, but of the metallic tin as brought to the port for shipping, and this tin came from inland. There is no evidence that the tin mines up to Caesar's time were in the hands of strangers, though the export trade apparently was so, and had been for a considerable period.    
In the foregoing comments on the ancient descriptions it is assumed that Mictis and Ictis were the same island as Vectis, for only thus can the perfect consistency of the accounts be brought out. It now remains to deal with the evidence yielded by geology and physical geography, which together show that at the date we are dealing with there was no other spot which could answer to the description, and that then, though not now, the Isle of Wight fully answered to the peculiar sketch given by Diodorus Siculus.    
It fell to my lot some years ago to revise the geological map of the northern part of the Isle of Wight for the Geological Survey, and later on I had to map the whole of the adjacent parts of the mainland. Though greatly interested in the changes which this coast has undergone, and is still undergoing, I did not immediately see the bearing of my work on the descriptions given by Caesar and by Diodorus Siculus of the tin trade in Britain and of the peninsula Ictis. But all the while I had in my hands the evidence that seemed to make it clear that when these authors wrote Vectis must have corresponded to the description given of Ictis.    
If the geological map is studied it will be seen that the strata in the part of the Isle of Wight immediately east of Yarmouth form a basin or syncline, at the bottom of which lies the Bembridge Limestone, a rock which can form extensive pavement-like ledges on the foreshore. This basin, however, is now incomplete, the Solent having cut away its western lip, leaving a ragged ledge of limestone at Hampstead and another outcrop near Yarmouth. It may be objected that there is no visible ledge of rock on the foreshore at Yarmouth, and this is the case at present. The limestone has, however, an extensive outcrop near Thorley Street; but it happens to strike the coast just where the River Yar has cut a deep channel to below sea-level, thus destroying the visible continuity of the ledge. But if we follow the line of strike across the Yar the limestone reappears in Black Rock, a rock now only visible at low tide. Black Rock, however, is, I believe, the last remnant of the old causeway, in use at the time when Diodorus wrote.

Reids, 1905, hypothetical maps of the Ictis Causeway and the Solent River, Solent Estuaries, southern England

[Questions for the reader: Do you with Reid's structural interpretation? Does the Pennington section provide evidence against the causeway theory. If a causeway model incorporated the Pennington section does this implies a very late, minus 4m regression? Was that likely? Consider, also, some other explanation of the Pennington section in relation to the hypothetical causeway? What about a Chesil-Beach tombolo analogue? See later papers. Discuss!]

It is obvious that the limestones of Black Rock and Hampstead Ledge are the same, and that the visible outcrops must once have swept round northward and southward near Yarmouth to close in the basin, for neither the limestone nor the overlying clays continue as far as the present coast-line of the mainland. On completing the geological map, as it would appear if the limestone still rose to the sea-level, we find, however, that the loop of rocky ledges must have reached the mainland coast of 2,000 years ago, though now it does not do so.

The way this conclusion was arrived at is as follows: From the known inclination of the strata the broken lip of the basin was completed and the approximate. position of the limestone at the sea-level was laid down on the geological map. This brought the loop of rock half-way across the Solent. Next, the rapidly-wasting coast-line was restored to its calculated position of 1,900 years ago, and it was found possible to reconstruct it with a fair approximation to the truth; at any rate the probable error is not of such a magnitude as seriously to affect our argument. The known rate of loss just outside the Solent on the mainland is approximately three feet per annum, which would give a strip something over a mile in breadth destroyed in 1,900 years. Accepting the loss for the last few centuries as giving a fair average, I have reconstructed the coast-line outside the Solent, for a date about the beginning of our era (see map, fig. 1).

The next step is more difficult. It is obvious that at the present day a shingle-spit, at the end of which lies Hurst Castle, greatly protects the shores of the Solent from the heavy swell driven in by the west wind, and that, though the less protected Isle of Wight shore is wasting rapidly, little or no change is now taking place on the mainland opposite; in fact under the lee of Hurst Castle mud flats are growing. The spit of shingle on which Hurst Castle stands has not, however, been long there. Like the similar accumulation of beach at Dungeness, it is of rapid and comparatively modern growth, having only begun to form after the subsidences of the land which carried the "submerged forests" beneath the sea-level. The last of these subsidences, since which the relative level of sea and land in the south of England appears to have remained unchanged, happened in late Neolithic times. I get a date for it of about 1500 B.C., or a few centuries earlier, from rough calculations as to loss of land, or rate of accumulation of mudflats and sand-dunes, in different parts of England. Before this beach of Hurst Castle had extended seaward, the rate of loss on the mainland just inside the Solent must have been nearly as rapid as that outside; after the beach grew, the loss ceased.

As long, however, as part of that ledge of limestone remained intact, its effect must have been to turn the strong tidal currents northward and make them impinge against the coast of the mainland, thus causing rapid waste. At the same time the tidal scour would prevent the accumulation of the Hurst Castle bar, which would not begin to accumulate till the ledges were cut away and the channel had shifted southward.

Notwithstanding all these apparent complications, which seem to render so uncertain the date of the isolation of the Isle of Wight, the dominant factor is a very simple one. The rate of destruction of the isthmus depends on the general rate of loss of the coast-line to the west, and this is a known quantity. The coastline for the beginning of our era has been restored, and except for a rocky causeway there was then no connection between the Isle of Wight and the mainland. Let us add another strip of land, representing the loss for six more centuries, and instead of a more rocky causeway we find a wide low isthmus, representing an old water-parting in the ancient Valley of the Solent, as I will now attempt to show.

The view above expressed is very different from that of other writers who have suggested that when Diodorus wrote the Isle of Wight as still joined to the mainland. They postulate a ford between Stone and Gurnard Bay. But this, for geological reasons, is, I think, quite impossible. Even if the water were sufficiently shoal, I am sure that nowhere except near Yarmouth would it be possible to take carts across. The bottom, from Hurst Castle to Spithead, except at the one causeway, would everywhere be soft clay or loose sand.

The objection will probably be made that long before the Roman period the Isle of Wight must have become an island, for between it and the mainland must have run the deep channel of the Solent, which is often, though I think wrongly, considered to be the outlet through which the old rivers draining into Southampton Water once discharged. This idea involves an entire misapprehension of the course. of the ancient River Solent, once one of the largest rivers of Britain. As it involves also the possibility of any such continuous rocky naturally paved causeway as I describe, it will be necessary to go back to a still earlier period, and trace step by step what is known of the history of this old river.

In the course of the Geological Survey of the Hampshire Basin, a fairly complete history of this river has been worked out; but as far back as 1862 it was pointed out by the Rev. Fox that the Solent was nothing but a continuation of the ancient valley of the Frome, which had been breached laterally by the sea between the Needles and the Isle of Purbeck. The same view was taken by Sir John Evans in 1874 and by Mr. Strahan and myself in 1889, after the completion of the new geological map of the Isle.

In later Memoirs of the Geological Survey, and in the geological article in the Victoria County History of Hampshire, I have given further details of this old river system, and fixed more exactly the date of the changes; but the only one of these Memoirs that need here be referred to is that containing a restoration of the whole river system, here copied. This map (fig. 2) may be taken as our starting point, as it shows the physical geography of this part of England about the date when man perhaps first appeared in Britain.

When the sea breached the wall of Chalk Downs which once stretched continuously from the Needles to the Purbeck Hills, it cut off the whole of the head-waters of the Solent, diverting them directly into the sea. The rest of the river continued to flow eastward, down the slope of the valley; but some of the tributaries nearest to the new gap would tend to take the shortest course to the sea, so that there would be two streams in the valley of the Solent, flowing in opposite directions from a low watershed or divide. Where would this divide be? At first sight it looks as if there would be a steady movement of the divide eastward as the gap widened; but, taking into account the nature of the rocks and their dips, I think that this would not be the case. The position of the divide would soon be fixed, and it would remain practically unaltered till it was finally broken through by the sea on either side.

In reconstructing the old valley, we must remember that when the breach was made into its side the river flowed at a higher level than the present Solent. We therefore need not expect to find a deep and very ancient channel on the valley to the east. The deepening of the present Solent seems to have taken place at a much later period, probably in the main when the land stood 50 feet higher than now and the lowest of the" submerged forests" (probably also Neolithic) was growing. The position of the divide being already fixed at that period, subaerial denudation would not much affect it, though it might, probably would, greatly deepen the valley on either side.

This brings us back to the question: What fixed the position of the divide? There is only one continuous rock-bed amid the strata which crop out along this valley between the Avon and the Solent, and this bed is the Bembridge Limestone. Though not a very hard rock, it is much harder than anything above and below. A short distance south-east of Yarmouth it forms an actual escarpment and bold feature for two or three miles. It was, I believe, the continuation of this escarpment across the valley that probably fixed the limit of the gradual "capture" of successive portions of the main valley by streams flowing westward instead of eastward. They cut back to this scarp, but no further, the dip slope of the limestone fixed the direction of the flow of the water.

The escarpment of the limestone must once have been further west than now; but only a short distance during the periods we are dealing with. The dips show that the basin must end fairly abruptly, and the limestone scarp must always have been east of the Avon Water, which has its outlet close to Hurst Castle. Thus for a long period the water-parting across the Solent Valley was formed by the escarpment of the Bembridge Limestone, and it lay between the Avon Water and the Lymington River.

It has already been pointed out that the River Yar cuts a deep and wide channel through the limestone at Yarmouth. As its waters turned eastward on entering~ the main valley, it must also have breached the north-eastern lip. of the basin in that direction, so that no continuous causeway would have connected Hampstead Ledge with the mainland. This brings us back to the point that at one spot only is it possible for a continuous land-connection to be found; on each side of it the main valley would be either occupied by sea or by streams of sufficient magnitude to be troublesome.

We thus see that from the western side of the Yar a natural stone causeway extended to the mainland opposite Pennington marshes (fig. l), but that this causeway at the time Diodorus wrote was already being lowered by the sea to such an extent. that it was only available at low tide. As soon as the sea once got round the northern edge of the rocky ledge, the tidal scour would be so great as rapidly to undermine it, and to widen and deepen the gap, rendering the causeway useless. When this took place the crossing would naturally be moved to a ferry further east and out of reach of the heavy swell let in through the new gap. For various reasons the neighbourhood of Stone Point seems to be the most probable locality for this later crossing.

The landing-place on the mainland from the causeway must have lain between the Avon Water and the Lym. Almost certainly it would have been near Woodside Farm, for there only does the firm gravel come right down to the water's edge. From this point the road for wheeled vehicles, or probably for pack-horses, is obvious; it must run across the firm open ground and avoid the oak forests and marshes. It must strike inland past Pennington, Durns Town, Burley, and cross the Avon at Ringwood. From this point there seem to be two routes across the downs, both meeting at Blandford. Beyond Blandford the road probably passes under Hod Hill, where it crosses the Stour, and so on probably by Cerne Abbas, Maiden Newton, Crewkerne, Chard, and the Black Down Hills to Dartmoor and Cornwall. This route I suggest as the "line of least resistance", which a trade route must be. Between the Isle of Wight and Maiden Newton it seems the obvious road; west or the latter place the country becomes more difficult, and I do not yet know it well enough to trace the road.

The question will perhaps be asked, why did the merchants take the trouble to carry the tin across to the Isle of Wight, when according to your own map there were abundant harbours on the mainland? These harbours, however, are all more or less exposed to the prevalent south-west wind, and are sheltered by no high land. Besides this, the harbours outside the Solent were probably always rendered dangerous by bars of sand and shingle. On the south side of the Solent, on the other hand, there existed an ideal series or landlocked sheltered harbours, extending from Yarmouth to Brading, and in most of these harbours rocky ledges must have formed natural staithes or "hards". very convenient for shipping. 'The mainland harbours would show at low tide mud-flats or sandbanks, not so convenient for wheeled vehicles.

Footnote by Reid: The coast line is that calculated for about the year 100 B.C. The present coast is marked by broken lines; but on the north side of the Solent wide mud-flats are found, and the high-water and low-water lines are now far apart. The coast was cut back and the limestone removed, but afterwards this loss of land was partly made good by the accumulation of mud.

[End of paper. - Follow the story further! Particularly see: Tomalin, D. 2000. Geomorphological evolution of the Solent seaway and the severance of the Isle of Wight: a review.]

Reid, C. 1913. Submerged Forests. Pp.viii + 129, University Press, Cambridge. By Clement Reid.

Reid, C. and Whitaker, W. 1902. The Geology of the Country around Southampton. Memoir Geological Survey of England and Wales, pp.iv + 30. By Clement Reid.
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Rendel Geotechnics. 1991. National Landslides Databank. Rendal Geotechnics, 58-72 John Bright Street, Birmingham, B1 1BN. Tel. 021-627-1777. Fax 021-627-1774. Computerised data banks for south-east and south-west England should retail at around £125 plus VAT (1991 figures). National Landslide Distribution Maps at 1:625,000 scale (north and south sheets) can be provided as dyelines at around £20 per sheet or overlay transparencies at around £40 per sheet. County Landslides Distribution maps at 1:250,OOO scale can be provided at around £75 per set including dyeline base map and two overlay transparencies for each county. PC-based landslide databank for Britain. Information on more than 9000 landslides. Descriptive data and bibliographic sources given.
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Reynolds, P.J. 1985. The Nature, Oriqin and Distribution of Quaternary Brickearth and Associated Soils in South Hampshire. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London. By K.S. Reynolds of the Rothhampstead Experimental Station, Harpenden.

Reynolds , P.J. 1987. Lepe Cliff: the evidence for a Pre-Devensian brickearth. pp. 21-22 in: Barber, K.E. 1987, Wessex and the Isle of Wight, Field Guide. Prepared to accompany the Annual Field Meeting held at Southampton and Cowes, 21-25 April, 1987. 180 pp.

Reynolds, P.J. and Fisher, G.C. 1985. Loessic soils near Hook, south-east Hampshire. Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 41, 51-62.
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Rishbeth, O.H.T. 1926. Bibliography of the Hampshire Basin. The Geography Teacher, No. 76, vol. 13, part 6, Autumn 1926, 489-496. Southampton University Hartley Library - Cope Collection.

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SCOPAC in Solent Forum Web Site - including Coastal Protection.

SCOPAC, 1993? Coastal Sediment Transport Study. Leaflet on this is available from the Conference Secretariat at the Isle of Wight County Council, contact Helen Gaches 0983-823287. University of Portsmouth.

SCOPAC. 1998 et seq. SCOPAC News. (issue no. 4, 1998 seen) Newsletter of the Standing Conference on Problems Associated with the Coastline. More information from Mr J. Pulsford, Secretary to the Conference, County Hall, Newport, Isle of Wight, PO30 1UD or telephone Barbara Herbert on 01983-823282.

SCOPAC. 1999. A Critique of the Past - A Strategy for the Future. Executive Summary. SCOPAC - Standing Conference on Problems Associated with the Coastline. January 1999. Report to Standing Conference on Problems Associated with the Coastline by Rivers and Coastal Research Group (RACER), University of Portsmouth. 4 page brochure. For further information on the availability of the Report, please contact: SCOPAC Secretariat, c/o Isle of Wight Council, County Hall, Newport, Isle of Wight, PO30 1UD, tel. 01983-823282.
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Sharifi, 1991. Heavy Metal Pollution and Its Effects on Recent Foraminiferids from Southampton Water, Southern England. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Geology Department (now SOES), Southampton University, UK. [includes information on rate of sedimentation in salt marshes. This researcher investigated an area of salt marsh near Fawley Power Station.]


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Shennan, I. and Horton, B. 2002. Holocene land and sea-level changes in Great Britain. Journal of Quaternary Science. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Vol. 17, Issue 5-6, pp. 511-526. July-September, 2002. By Ian Shennen and Ben Horton.
Abstract:
Analysis of more than 1200 radiocarbon dated samples that constrain relative sea-levels in Great Britain over the past 16 000 yr provides estimates of current land-level changes (negative of relative sea-level change). Maximum relative land uplift occurs in central and western Scotland, ca. 1.6 mm yr-1, and maximum subsidence is in southwest England, ca. 1.2 mm yr-1. Sediment consolidation, arising from autocompaction as the sediment accumulates and from land drainage, increases the subsidence in areas with thick sequences of Holocene sediments, with an average effect equivalent to at least an extra ca. 0.2 mm yr-1 land subsidence, but more in parts of southeast England, 0.5–1.1 mm yr-1. Modelled changes in tidal range during the mid- to late Holocene in eastern England suggest that the calculated rate of land subsidence is overestimated unless such changes are quantified. The effect is most significant for large coastal lowlands, the Fenland and Humber (ca. 0.5 and 0.6 mm yr-1), that were tidal embayments during the mid- to late Holocene.


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Shore, T.W. 1890. The clays of Hampshire and their economic uses. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, vol. 1, no. 4, 23-45. [Little specific information on the Solent but interesting notes on the clays of the area around it. Use of the Stamshaw Clay, a local name for the Reading Formation clay, for puddling operations in dock engineering at Portsmouth. Vivianite in Bracklesham clay at Netley shoal. Many records of old brick-pits in the area. The West Wellow Pipeclay used for tobacco pipes and pottery and shipped out at Eling. Hampshire fullers earth. Roman use of the London Clay for tile-making. Working of clays on the Isle of Wight etc.]

Shore, T.W. 1891. Springs and streams of Hampshire. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, vol. 2, pt. 1, 33-58. [There is little comment on the estuaries, but discussion of streams following into them.]

Shore, T.W. 1893. Hampshire mudlands and other alluvium. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 2, 181-200. Example extract (pp.187-188):    
"In the fourteenth century an encroachment of the sea or subsidence occurred on the south eastern part of the Hampshire coast. The Prior of Hayling presented a petition to the Crown concerning the inundated land there. An inquisition was ordered to be held in 18th Edward 110, 1324-5, to ascertain the truth of this, and a report was made that 206 acres of pasture and 80 acres of arable land were submerged, comprising nearly all the hamlet of Estoke and part of the hamlet of Northwood. These submerged acres, anciently called the Manwode, now lie beneath the mudland in Chichester Harbour, between Emsworth Channel on the east and the present limits of Hayling Island on the west. Between 1290 and 1341, when an inquisition was held at Winchester, the sea had also encroached on 50 acres of arable land at Alverstoke. At the time of the Domesday Survey Hugh de Port held a manor called Aplestede in Portsdown Hundred. This manor is supposed to have been situated on the west side of Portsmouth Harbour, as it was in the eleventh century, and that part of it appears to have been submerged in the middle ages and now lies beneath the mudland on the west side of the harbour.    
The growth of peat is closely connected with the deposit of alluvium. Peat is found in the marshes along the courses of the Hampshire rivers, and also beneath the mud of Southampton Water and other parts of the coast. As it must have grown above the water, its occurrence beneath the mud shows that these areas, while it grew, must have been at a higher level.    
During the progress of the [Eastern] dock excavation at Southampton it was met with at varying depths, some of the beds being 50-ft. below the level of the water at high tide. This shows that a considerable subsidence, apparently a gradual one, took place. What is now a tidal mudland must have been an alluvial marsh, like the marshes higher up the rivers, while the peat plants were growing, and after the land subsided, the tidal river in Southampton Water cut a wider and a deeper cbannel for itself, and the mud over the peat was deposited.    
The subsidence must have occurred since man settled in this neighbourhood. Our earliest predecessors in South Hampshire must have wandered over the marshes to the water meeting, to that remarkable spot, the site of the entrance to the Empress Dock [the area of the Eastern Docks and now Southampton Oceanography Centre], where the two rivers meet, and there in the marsh, unfortunately for themselves, but fortunately for our knowledge, they lost some of their tools in the peat bog.    
Some of the animals which lived in the neighbourhood at that time, the Bos primigenius, Bos longifrons, the wild boar, the small horse, the red deer, lost their lives by being mired in the same bog, and some of their bones are now exhibited in the Hartley Museum [of the Hartley Institute, precursor of Southampton University].    
The examination of any thick section of a peat bog shows that its surface is covered with living plants. A few inches below the surface a brown spongy mass, consisting of fibres of the dead plants, occurs. Below this is a compacted brown mass in which the vegetable tissue gradually disappears, and if the bed is very thick that at the bottom has commonly a black appearance, and shows no remains of vegetable structure. Peat was formerly dug in the north-east of Hampshire, on the commons of Cove, Farnborough, and Aldershot. That which was dug at Cove was in demand at the beginning of the present century for burning the coarse pottery which was made there, as well as for fuel. It was also dug rather extensively for fuel in the valley of the Itchen, in the New Forest, and in the valley of the Test, near Longstock 'and Stockbridge. The name of the peat pits still survives at Longstock, and the sign of an inn there still bears the significant name of" The Peat Spade." Peat was dug on an extensive moor south-east of Bishopstoke, where a large quantity of it was raised for fuel in the neighbourhood, until within the last 50 years. Peat was commonly burnt in many old Hampshire cottages within the last half century. .. "[continues]

Shore, T.W. 1905. The origin of Southampton Water; with some account of its early navigators. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 5, 1-25. By T.W. Shore, F.G.S., Hon. Organising Secretary. Example extract, regarding the Empress Dock (adjacent to which is the Southampton Oceanography Centre): "During the time when the Empress Dock was being constructed the peat found beneath the mud was carefully examined, and although the plant-remains in it were much decomposed, the bulrush, the common sedge, the bog myrtle, heaths, and the bracken fern were identified, all of which are at the present day growing in the New Forest. The peat also contained the trunks of trees lying as they fell, with roots passing down into the loam beneath. There were abundant remains of the beech and hazel, much oak, and some parts of the birch and pine, together with abundance of hazel nuts, and plenty of fir cones in a good state of preservation."

Shore, T.W. and Elwes, J.W. 1889. The new dock excavations at Southampton. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 1, 43-56. These excavations at the Empress Dock of Southampton Eastern Docks revealed estuarine mud above Neolithic peat and Pleistocene gravel. The Bracklesham succession showed the Earnley Formation and is similar in many respects to that in the Western Docks described by Anderson (1933) particularly with regard to the Sanguinolaria Bed. A short summary of the sequence from bottom to top was given by Anderson and it is convenient to reproduce this:    
"T. W. Shore reported on the Empress Dock Excavations, [adjacent to which is now the Southampton Oceanography Centre, SOC, of Southampton University and NERC] which exposed extensive sections of Bracklesham Beds lying underneath ancient river and estuarine deposits and well below sea level, as follows : (a) Dark clay, generally green-tinted, and more or less sandy, extending over the northern half of the excavations, apparently unfossiliferous. ( b) Similar green sandy clay, containing abundance of fossils, especially Sanguinolaria [Macrosolen ], occupying most of the remainder of the dock area. This bed and the successive ones were well exposed in the deepest drainage trenches. A rather bright green sandy clay with a small proportion of black grains (glauconitic), small nodules of ironstone, thin patches of lignite, and occasional pebbles ; fossils abounding in a high state of preservation, many of them having a reddish tinge. Sanguinolaria hollowaysii [now known as Macrosolen hollowaysii (J. Sowerby)] occurs in pairs in the position in which it lived, with Voluta spinosa, Pseudoliva ovalis, Cardita planicosta, Crassatella sowerbyii, Solen obliquus, Natica mutabilis, Voluta selseiensis, Mesalia multisuleata, a small Pectunculus, and many of the small species which occur in the sand above. The fossils are scattered rather thinly throughout, not forming beds. Towards the south side and highest part of the green sand appears Cytherea striatula, and the matrix presently loses its sandy character. (e) A bed of clay in which this species appears in myriads with Bifrontia landunensis (?) and a small Pisania. A few small shelly concretions occurred in this bed, some of which showed the shells on the surface finely preserved. (d) Above this clay lies a bed of small oysters (0. tenera) in a more sandy matrix, and on this a local patch of slightly clayey sand, of light puce grey tint, weathering a yellowish brown, with a considerable proportion of fine black grains, and abundance of small shells, Cytherea striatula, Mesalia fasciata, Crassatella sowerbyii (immature), Corbula euspidata, C. longirostris, Cardita elegans, Tellina (?), Pisania, Arca modiolifarmis, Arca laevigata, Lutetia parisiensis, Bifrontia landunensis, Tellina plagia, Pectunculus pulvinatus, Turbinolia."    
With regard to the Neolithic peat at the Empress Dock the evidence for Neolithic work in situ has been found. Stone implements with flint flakes were found lying together. See also (Shore, 1905). A bone bodkin for sewing skins has also been found there. A smooth stone hammer head of circular shape had a hole drilled through the middle by some type of early hand drill.

Shore, T.W. and Westlake, E. 1883. On the Southampton Artesian Well. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 52nd Meeting at Southampton in August, 1882. Transactions of Section C, pp. 547-549. Excavation July 1883 to February 1851. Diameter 13 feet at top, 7 feet at bottom. Augered further into the Chalk. Mouth of well at 140 feet on Southampton Common. Water stands at 40 feet down. Succession encounted, Tertiary and Chalk, is listed. [By T.W. Shore of the Hartley Institute and Ernest Westlake of Sandy Balls, Fordingbridge.]
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Small, R.J. 1964. Geomorphology, In: A Survey of Southampton and its Region. (F.J. Monkhouse, ed.), pp.37-50. British Association for the Advancement of Science, Southampton.
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Smith, A.J. 1985. A catastrophic origin for the palaeovalley system of the eastern English Channel. Marine Geology, 64, 65-75.

Smith, A.J. and Curry, D. 1975. The structure and geological evolution of the eastern English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, A 279, 3-20.

Smith, A.J., Hamilton, D., Williams, D.N. and Hommeril, P. 1972. Bibliographie Geologique de la Manche, Memoir Bur. Rechn. Geol. Min., No. 79, 303-323.
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Solent Forum. 1997. Strategic Guidance for the Solent. Solent Forum (Hampshire County Council), Winchester, 200pp. [For background information rather than geology.]
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Southern Water Authority. 1979. Pennington Outfall - Landward Section. Report of Site Investigation. Vol. 1., By W.G.H. Hodges for Sifeg Partnership. Ten pages of text, plus trial pit logs, site plan and borehole logs. Mostly records of gravel and alluvium. See Nicholls (1987) for more information and geological interpretation of Pennington boreholes, near Lymington and near Hurst Spit.

Southern Water Authority. 1979. Pennington Outfall Replacement - Plan and Longitudinal Section.
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South Hampshire Plan. 1971. Spithead Marine Boreholes. Eight boreholes by Wimpey Laboratories Ltd. Bracklesham, Barton strata, Pleistocene gravel and Holocene mud, peat, sand and gravel.
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Srisaenthong, D. 1982. Suspended Sediment Dynamics and Distribution in the Solent Using LANDSAT MSS Data. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Oceanography, Southampton University. 153 pp.
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Stagg, D.J. 1980. Archaeological and historical aspects of change in the Solent coastline. Page 19 only in: Burton, J.D. 1980. The Solent Estuarine System: an Assessment of Present Knowledge. N.E.R.C. Publications Series C, No. 22 November 1980, ed. J.D. Burton, 100 p. NERC.
    Extract: Following the initial drowning of the Solent valley in the Mesolithic period and the subsequent post-glacial rise in sea level which lasted into Neolithic times, a further rise of approximately 5m in sea level has occurred in the Southampton area (Oakley, 1943). Such a rise is of sufficient amplitude to have inundated a strip of coastal plain approximately 800m wide, with the resultant loss and destruction of archaeological material such that any conclusions must be based on evidence from marginal sites, chance finds and historical tradition.
    The earliest evidence for inundation is to be found in the distribution of Mesolithic settlements which, by the occurrence of tranchets on both sides of the submerged channel, were riverine sites based on the ancient Solent River (Rankine, 1956). Many early fishing settlements must have been abandoned to flooding although the only evidence for this has come from dredging activities. For example, in 1887 a quartzite macehead with hour-glass perforation, was found 6m below the mud during the construction of the Ocean Dock, while some flint flakes and a stiletto-like bone (Rankine, 1956), variously described as a needle (Shore and Elwes, 1889) or a dagger (Dawkins, 1900) were also discovered. However, these finds have since been lost, and it is not clear whether they were found in association. Furthermore, an unpatinated flint flake showing no secondary flaking was found in 1930 at a depth of 5.5m beneath the Southampton Corporation Baths (Godwin and Godwin, 1940). There is no evidence of further prehistoric settlement of the low-lying coastal areas, and the suggestion made by Sumner (1917) that the Solent Valley was dry and inhabited during the Bronze Age has been discounted. This theory was based entirely upon the misidentification of the Mesolithic macehead as belonging to the Bronze Age period (Dawkins, 1900).
    Traditionally there was a land connection between the Isle of Wight and the mainland as late as 90 B.C. Diodorus Siculus refers to the island of Ictis, which is assumed to be the Isle of Wight, where "during the ebb of the tide the intervening space is left dry, and they carry over into this island the tin in abundance in their waggons. Here, then, the merchants buy the tin from the natives and carry it over to Gaul." Reid (1905) who carried out part of the geological survey of the Isle of Wight, was of the opinion that such a causeway was an outcrop of Bembridge limestone between Yarmouth and Pennington. Irrespective of whether the early tradition regarding Cornish tin is correct, there certainly was a later link between the industry and the Solent. A petition of 1689 refers to the carrying by sea, almost time out of mind, of charcoal from the New Forest to Cornwall for the use of refiners of tin (Cal. S.P.Dom., 1689).
    The situation of two major Roman sites in the Solent, Clausentum on the River Itchen and the fort at Porchester, are such as to suggest that little or no change has occurred in the coastline at these points. On the other hand, a Roman building at Gurnard has been destroyed by cliff erosion since 1864 (Witherby, 1962). From Gurnard a supposed Roman road crossed the Island to the Roman fort at Carisbrooke, and on the mainland a suggested Roman road runs down to Lepe (William-Freeman, 1915). Doubts have been expressed as to the Roman dating of this feature, although it is referred to as the great road, "per magnum cheminum", as early as 1218 (New Forest Perambulation, 1218), and it is difficult to put forward any alternative suggestions as to its purpose.
    Very little is known of the early associations between the Isle of Wight and the mainland. As early as the 7th century, land on the Island was granted to Winchester (Finberg, 1964), and at the time of the Domesday Survey several detached hides were held by mainland manors (Finn, 1962). It may possibly be that the association originated in a Jutish expansion from the Island in search of grazing land in the New Forest.
    Although Shore (1893, 1905) refers to an inundation by the sea about A.D. 419, and to encroachments in south-east Hampshire in the 11 th century and at Hayling Island and Alverstoke in the 13/14th century, the continued existence of such features as the mediaeval salterns near Lymington suggest very little permanent loss of land in historic times. Even though the 16th century St Andrew's Castle has now been destroyed, its foundations are still visible on the Hamble foreshore. [References follow.]
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Steers, J.A. 1946. The Coastline of England and Wales, pp.xix + 644. University Press, Cambridge.

Steers, J.A. 1960. The Coast of England and Wales in Pictures. Cambridge University Press, 146pp.
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Stinton, F.C. 1975. Fish otoliths from the English Eocene. Palaeontographical Society Monograph: 1, 156 pp. [By the late Fred Stinton of Bournemouth]

Stinton, F.C. and Curry, D. 1979. Lithostratigraphical nomenclature of the English Palaeogene succession. Geological Magazine, 116, 66-67.
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Stranack, F., Coughlin, J. and Rothschild, E. de. 1975. Spartina in the Solent. In: Spartina in the Solent. (Rothschild Symposium). Milford on Sea. Solent Protection Society, 1973 Exbury).
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Swanson, E.H. 1970. Pleistocene geochronology in the New Forest, Hampshire. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology, Nos. 8 and 9, for 1968-69, 55-100

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Tait, A.H. and Kent, P.E. 1958. Deep boreholes at Portsdown and Henfield. Technical Publications of the British Petroleum Company Ltd., London, 41pp.
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Taylor, J.A., Murdock, A.P. and Pontee, N.I. 2004. A macroscale analysis of coastal steepening around the coast of England and Wales. The Geographical Journal, , Vol. 170, No. 3, September 2004, pp. 179 - 188. Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.
Abstract:
Coastal steepening potentially presents an array of management issues in the form of financial implications of sea defence degradation, increased risk posed to the hinterland as wave attenuation is reduced, 'coastal squeeze' and statutory requirements in the light of the Habitats Directive. The extent to which coastal steepening has occurred throughout England and Wales has been investigated through use of a GIS and dataset based on historical Ordnance Survey map information. Data were collected along 1084 selected profile lines, positioned so as to be geomorphologically representative of the coast. Features recorded from each map year included the positions of mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), the relative movements of which infer changing intertidal gradients. The results presented in this paper are on a subject and scale not previously published. It is revealed that 61 percent of the coastline studied has experienced a tendency towards steepening. Of the remainder, 33 percent has flattened, and 6 percent has experienced no rotational movement. This tendency towards steepening has been the dominant movement on each of the west, south, and east coasts.
[With specific reference to comparison between Barton-on-Sea and Milford re slope of the cross-shore gradient. See particularly fig. 6, p. 187, for a map showing Mean Low Water Mark retreat at Lymington (source Blain, 1974).]
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Terresearch Limited. 1972. River Itchen Bridge Boreholes. Twenty two borehole logs and site plan. Report No. S22/556, November1972. Bracklesham, Pleistocene gravel and Holocene mud, silt and peat etc.
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Terris, A.O. and Bullerwell, W. 1965. Investigations into the underground structure of southern England. Advancement of Science, Aug. 1965, 232-252.
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Tillotson, E. 1974. Earthquakes, explosions and the deep underground structure of the United Kingdom. Journal of Earth Science, 8, 353-364.
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Thomas, L.P. and Holliday, D.W. 1982. Southampton No. 1 (Western Esplanade) Geothermal Well: Geological Well Completion Report. Institute of Geological Sciences, Environmental and Deep Geology Division. By Thomas, L.P. and Holliday, D.W., with contributions by Kirby, G.A., Kubala, M., Lamb, R., Bird, M.J. and Freshney, E.C. Deep Geology Report No. 82/3. Extract: Southampton No 1 (Western Esplanade) was drilled as a geothermal development well, on behalf of the Department of Energy in association with Southampton City Council, following the successful testing of Marchwood No 1 Borehole and studies of the geothermal potential of the Wessex Basin area by the Institute of Geological Sciences. The site was selected near Southampton city centre, with the aim of providing space heating for the proposed Western Esplanade development area. The nearby Marchwood No 1 Borehole is situated 1.8 km to the south-west, and the south-east part of NERC 81-1 seismic line is adjacent to the site (Figure 1.2). Southampton No 1 is situated in an area of negative gravity anomaly as indicated on the regional Bouguer anomaly map (Figure 1.4). The primary objective was to drill to the known aquifer, the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone, and to carry out hydrogeological and geothermal tests. The whole of the Sherwood Sandstone was cored for geological and hydro-geological analysis. Samples additional to those required by IGS for stratigraphical purposes, were collected for thermal conductivity determinations and for organic geochemical studies on the Jurassic part of the sequence. [See also Institute of Geological Sciences for more on the Southampton geothermal well and nearby Marchwood Borehole.]



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Tomalin, D. 2000a. Geomorphological evolution of the Solent seaway and the severance of the Isle of Wight: a review. Pp. 9 - 19 in: Collins, M. and Ansell, K. 2000. Solent Science - A Review. Proceedings in Marine Science, 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 385pp including location and subject indexes. ISBN - 0-444-504-65-6, hard cover only. By David Tomalin, County Archaeologist, Isle of Wight Council, Newport, Isle of Wight. This is a particularly interesting paper considering both the legend of an ancient causeway to the Isle of Wight when known as Ictis, and stimulating ideas about possible drainage westward of the Lymington River and the Western Yar. The subsections are:
Early Questions concerning the Severance of the Isle of Wight.
Thomas Webster and the Wight-Purbeck Ridge.
William Fox and the Solent River Theory.
Clement Reid's Umbilical or Isthmus.
Marine Geophysical Prospecting.
The Loss of an Arm.
Present Knowledge, Outstanding Lacunae
Acknowledgements.
References.

No abstract is provided so the start of introduction is given here as an example of the text:
    "It was more than 400 years ago when the first historians and geographers began to enquire into the nature and origins of the Solent as an open east-west seaway and the date at which it had precipitated the severance of the land of Wight The first recorded questions are those of William Camden, whose first edition of Britannia (published in 1586) included the mischievous speculation that the Isle of Wight, with its Roman name of Vectis, might perhaps be equated with a prehistoric island, otherwise known as Ictis.
    A British island called Ictis had been cited in the 1st century BC, by the classical writer Diodorus Siculus; however, we should note that in describing Britain or "Prettanike," this classical historian commonly used the expressions "we are told" or "they say". The style of Diodorus indicates that he was relating the accounts of others and, unlike the earlier Greek explorer Pytheas, who had visited the Cornish coast in the 3rd century BC, it seems that he could offer no personal experience. His gatherings tell of an island close to the shore of southern Britain where the natives could cross at low tide whilst drawing wagons loaded with tin ore or ingots. These consignments were loaded into visiting ships bound for the Atlantic seaboard ofGaul (Rivet & Smith, 1979). Diodorus added that it was people dwelling near the promontory of Belerion (Land's End) who prepared this tin and transported it to the tied island of Ictis".. [continues]


Tomalin, D. 2000b. Wisdom of Hindsight: Palaeo-Environmental and Archaeological Evidence of Long-Term Processual Changes and Coastline Sustainability. Pp. 71 - 83 in: Collins, M. and Ansell, K. 2000. Solent Science - A Review. Proceedings in Marine Science, 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 385pp including location and subject indexes. ISBN - 0-444-504-65-6, hard cover only. By David Tomalin, County Archaeologist, Isle of Wight Council, Newport, Isle of Wight. [Example extract - start - follows:]
    "Changing Perceptions of the Palaeoenvironmental Record: Since the Steers Report on Britain's coastline was commissioned in 1945 (Steers, 1946), there have emerged two divergent perceptions of the palaeo-environmental resources contained within the coastal zone. The most innovative view was that offered by Professor Steers. During the 1940's, Steers had been prompt to recognise that archaeological and palaedenvironmental deposits in the coastal zone offered the key to the calibration and interpretation of changes in the shoreline. This 'interrogative approach' had been pioneered in the Cambridge and Lincolnshire fens, where a multi-disciplinary team of archaeologists and environmental scientists had successfully traced a history of Holocene coastal changes. Episodes of marine transgression and retreat were mirrored by strategic movements in the human population. In these studies, the new science of palynology was found to be a powerful tool and the Cambridge team were soon to apply these techniques to the submerged margins of the Solent (Oakley, 1943; Godwin& Godwin, 1945).
In 1964, Professor Steers called for an integrated approach to the study and management of the coastline, a process in which he proposed a key role for archaeological and palaeoenvironment scientists. By then, however, an approach which might be described as the 'portfolio principle' had muddied the water. For many years, the Ancient Monuments Act had focused the mind of Government on a schedule of those historic sites that might be deemed to be of national importance. This approach befitted the protection of standing historic monuments, but it was not so well-suited to the appraisal of prehistoric archaeological sites; at these, arrays of cultural material and associated environmental evidence often lay well-concealed below a blanket of soil or coastal sediment.
During the 1970s and 1980s, new attention was given to the development of 'environmental data-bases' and 'sites and monuments records' (SMRs). These records identified sites of all levels ofimportance, or potential; they fitted well within the structure oflocal authorities, when performing their roles as regulators of development and curators of the landscape (pPGl6, 1990). Because these authorities were statutorily charged with development control and the constraint of environmental impacts, it now became common to consider the identification of archaeological and other palaeo-environmental sites, essentially, as a conservation issue. Thought was soon focused less upon the scientific significance of these sites, more upon the status they should claim in the planning process..." [continues]
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Tremlett, W.E. 1965. The evolution of the Beaulieu drainage system in the southeast New Forest. Papers and Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club, 23, 48-59.
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Tsuzaki, T. 2010. (By Dr. Toru Tsuzaki). Spartina anglica population and environmental studies within the Solent salt marsh system. University of Southampton, School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, Doctoral Thesis. (Deals with Lymington, Hampshire, salt marshes etc.) Available online as a pdf file from eprints, Southampton University. 2225kb pdf file.
Description/Abstract
The thesis examines the possible causes of decline of Spartina anglica marshes along the south coast of Britain with emphasis on the Solent marshes. The study shows that although there may be some genotypic differences between S. anglica gathered from sites in Britain the disparities are not large enough to explain the significant differences in morphological vigour of S. anglica observed in the field. It concludes that the discrepancies observed in the field are the result of phenotypic differences resulting from environmental factors. The work shows that in the S. anglica marshes of the south coast, anaerobic soil conditions prevail with impeded drainage being the most likely cause of the dwarf growth forms and lack of re-colonisation of pans and mudflats observed in the field. The thesis concludes that the ultimate demise of the S. anglica marshes of the south coast of England is the result of frontal and creek erosion of the mature marsh and the failure of S. anglica to establish itself on the newly exposed sediments of the foreshore. When S. anglica establishes itself in a flood /ebb neutral zone of an estuary, it changes the bathymetry to that of ebb dominant morphology. As a result eroded sediment is swept away with the outgoing tide. Furthermore, S. anglica is then unable to recolonise the exposed foreshore sediments because of its low redox potential resulting from poor permeability which is the consequence of the of historic overburden pressure of a once colonising marsh
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Tubbs, C.R. 1975. The Medina Estuary: an Ecological Appraisal. A report to the Isle of Wight County Council. Nature Conservancy Council, Lyndhurst, Hampshire. 21pp. [Not geological but with background information.]

Tubbs, C.R. 1975. Langstone Harbour, Hampshire: a Review of its Ecology and Conservation Objectives. Nature Conservancy Council, Lyndhurst, Hampshire. 16pp. [Not geological but with background information.]

Tubbs, C.R. 1975. Portsmouth Harbour: Site of Special Scientific Interest. An Ecological Appraisal. Nature Conservancy Council, Lyndhurst, Hampshire. 17 pp. [Not geological but with background information.]

Tubbs, C.R. 1980. Processes and impacts in the Solent. In Burton, M. (ed.), The Solent Estuarine System: An Assessment of Present Knowledge, N.E.R.C. Publications Series C, No. 22, Nov. 1980, 100 p., pp.1-5. Because there is no abstract an example extract follows:
    Introduction: The modern conformation of the Solent is derived from the postglacial transgression of the sea into the Tertiary and Quaternary 'Solent River' system. It has been postulated that this system flowed eastwards along the modern bed of the Solent and its present day remnants are represented by the rivers Frome, Avon, Stour, Test, Itchen, Hamble, Meon, Medina, Eastern Yar and Western Yar. The postglacial transgression separated the Isle of Wight from the mainland and drowned the lower reaches of the tributary streams. Where these had flowed in confined valleys, the narrow estuaries of the Keyhaven, Lymington, Beaulieu, Test, Hamble, Yar and Medina and Wootton Creek were formed. Where the streams flowed in broad, unconfined valleys, the extensive complex intertidal basins of Portsmouth, Langstone, Chichester, Brading and Newtown Harbours resulted. The margins of Portsmouth, Langstone and Chichester Harbours were extended by subsequent wave attack to form cliffs up to four metres high although where historically recent reclamation has occurred, these are now replaced at the harbour margins by sea walls. The three harbours are essentially a single biological system comprising connected tidal basins that are drained at low water by systems of channels which unite in each case to form narrow, common exits to the Solent.
   The approximate areas of the main intertidal sediments in the Solent are given in Table 1. Those sediments accumulated in the estuaries and harbours mainly comprise fine silts and organic matter which may be up to eight metres deep in places on the upper shore. Their upward growth has been locally assisted by the formation of mixed saltmarsh and, more widely, by the rapid growth of Spartina marshes since the late nineteenth century. However, over the surface of some mudflats, angular flint gravel occurs and similar material outcrops along channel and creek beds and as beaches at high water mark. There are probably also extensive subsurface spreads beneath the superficial muds. More exposed beaches lacking the protection of a wide intertidal zone tend to be dominated by washed flint pebble, and the bed of the Solent in the littoral zone includes extensive deposits of similar material interspersed with clays and sands. The longshore drift tends to form shingle spits across estuary and harbour mouths as at Hurst, Calshot and Needs Ore Spits. At the harbour mouths, the strong currents resulting from the incursion and exit of large volumes of water deflect the spits into the harbours. In Chichester and Langstone Harbours these are of sand on the eastern side of the inlets and shingle on the west, whilst outside the harbour entrances there is a similar disposition of sand and shingle bars which are submerged at high sea. Hurst Spit is still migrating into the Solent and overwhelming the intertidal zone which it shelters, and the conformation of the others has changed significantly in historically recent times, probably at least partly in response to more general changes in the morphology of the intertidal area.
Mud is replaced by sands at more turbulent sites, the most extensive sandflats being off Ryde and Bembridge on the Isle of Wight shore, and around the mouths of Langstone and Chichester Harbours, where they include the extensive off-shore bank known as the East Winner. Significant ecological and geomorphological changes have occured in the Solent in recent times and the most important and dramatic of these are outlined below. Mixed saltmarsh accretion and erosion As long as there is a net gain in the silt budget of an intertidal system, the level of the sediments will tend to rise until the point is reached where colonisation by saltmarsh plants occurs. Subsequent development of the marsh is aided by the ability of the plants to trap silt and by colonisation by plant communities characteristic of different elevations in the tidal range. Most of the Solent saltmarshes evidently developed during a period when the physical character of the Solent was somewhat different from today and most can perhaps be regarded as relict features... [continues].

Tubbs, C.R. 1991. The Solent: A Changing Wildlife Heritage. The Hampshire and Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust, Romsey. 40 p. [Booklet with brief account of sediments, fauna, history. Good colour photographs.]

Tubbs, C. R. 1999 (reprinted 2001). Ecology, Conservation and History of the Solent. Packard Publishing Ltd., Forum House, Stirling Road, Chichester, West Sussex. PO19 2EN. Available in hardback and paperback. 184pp, 61 colour plates. By the late Colin Tubbs.
[Example extract from the: The Solent; Introduction to the Area, Chapter 1, follows:]
"The Solent is the drowned valley of a river which once flowed east between what are now the Isle of Wight and the mainland of Hampshire and West Sussex on the Channel coast of England. It is probable that a rising sea level since the last Ice Age inundated the valley of this Solent River and the lower parts of its tributaries and their flood plains, leaving the numerous estuaries and harbours of today. The deposition of sediment in the shallow, sheltered waters has given rise to mud and sand flats, the higher parts of which have been colonized by saltmarsh vegetation.
The largest of the harbours, Portsmouth, Langstone and Chichester, lie on the north shore of the eastern mouth of the Solent, and are derived from the drowning of dense networks of small streams, followed by lateral erosion through wave attack at high water, a process continuing today. The three harbours are essentially a single biological system, comprising connected and extensive intertidal basins drained at low water by systems of channels and creeks which probably reflect the predrowning drainage pattern. NeWtown Harbour, on the north shore of the Isle of Wight in the West Solent, is of similar form. The harbours receive relatively small volumes of fresh water today and are more marine than estuarine in character. Most of the remaining inlets of the Solent are conventional drowned valleys, long and narrow and with streams and rivers of moderate volume flowing into them.

The sediments accumulated in the estuaries and harbours mainly comprise fine silts and organic matter. The muds in the harbours are among the softest I have encountered and are mostly only properly negotiable with mud pattens. Saltmarshes of medieval or possibly earlier date, occur locally, though they are now receding through erosion by wave attack at their terminal cliffs. These ancient saltmarshes were eclipsed in scale by the invasive Spartina anglica marshes which spread widely on mid-level mudflats from the 1870s onwards. These, too, are now in a degenerate phases and over large areas the platforms of mud accreted by the grass are now slumping and eroding. The extent of each of the main intertidal habitats is shown in Table 1.
Across the estuary and harbour mouths, shingle spits have been formed by the dominantly eastward littoral drift and there is a discontinuous beach of shingle, in places forming small headlands of successive shingle ridges, along the north shore of the main waterway. The most dramatic of the shingle features is Hurst Spit, which extends 2.5 km across the western entrance to the Solent. At the distal end, which is marked by a succession of lateral ridges, there stands perhaps the most distinctive landmark of the Solent, Hurst Castle, a Tudor fort transformed into a massive battery in the nineteenth century...." [continues]

[This book contains much useful information on Spartina development and die-back; see The Spartina Story, pp. 85-90. It discussed the rapid coastal retreat between Hurst Spit and Lymington, referring to 4 to 5 metres per annum (p. 94).]
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Turton - book - A Solent Tunnel?

Turton, F. 1953 (revised edition; first edition - 1942). A Solent Tunnel? The History of the Solent Tunnel Scheme and Railways Associated with it. By Fred Turton, G.F. Wilson and Co. Ltd, Southampton, 63 pp. An extract from p. 28 et seq follows:
"Chapter 4. Locality of Tunnel. Three main ideas were put forward as possible sites for a. Solent Tunnel: (1). Lymington-Yarmouth; (2) Fawley-Cowes; (3) Ryde - Stokes Bay.
1. Lymington - Yarmouth Route: There is no doubt that the obvious route is the Western one, as being the shortest, and owing to a thinly populated district, and flat country on both sides, very suitable for a tunnel to come to the surface. But it would serve the Western Wight first, and so Mr. Aman had a good many unpleasant hints hurled at him, to the effect that he wanted the Tunnel at his end, for business purposes, etc. They were right - he did; it would, naturally, have benefited him; but what the public would not see was that what benefited the West would also benefit the East and the whole Island. Mr. Aman said, "Very Well! If, you want a Tunnel at your end, or in the middle, or anywhere else on the Island, put the money up." This is exactly what the Isle of Wight didn't do. It's a strange fact that, while ,everybody grumbled at the short seasons and lack of residents, the one thing that would have solved the problem, the Isle of Wight people turned down. So Mr. Aman told them in future to hold their peace, and give up their" Dog-in-the-Manger" attitude.
    2. Fawley - Cowes Route: The distance between Cowes and the nearest point on the Mainland is about two miles. This idea did not come into prominence till the Southern Railway built their Fawley branch. This line leaves the Southampton-Bournemouth main line at Totton, and runs down the west side of Southampton Water, through Hythe to Fawley. It could be easily continued to form a tunnel to Cowes. This route will be dealt with in our last chapter, "A Peep into the Future."
3. Stokes Bay - Ryde Route: This was, for obvious reasons, too late, as pointed out before. We come now to the crisis in the history of the Tunnel, viz., the death of Sir Blundell Maple, the breaking off of relations between the Freshwater line and the Central Railway, and the possibility of the Freshwater, Yarmouth, and Newport Railway becoming the Gateway to the Island, if the Tunnel at the West materialised. Then the crash came, and, with it, went all hopes of a Tunnel: Sir Blundell Maple died; and in the year 1914, when we expected big Tunnel developments, Great Britain declared war on Germany."
[See also Mannion.]
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Tyhurst, M.F. and Hinton, M.T. 199? The evolution of Poole and Christchurch Bays: Another Look at the Flandrian Transgression. By M.F.Tyhurst and M.T.Hinton. Engineering Services Team, Christchurch Borough Council. Civic Offices, Bridge Street, Christchurch, BH23 1AZ, 16 pp. Abstract: The development of (Poole and Christchurch Bays) cannot be assessed by reference to sea level rise alone; tidal range may have been the single nwst important factor. Similarly, coastal erosion processes must also be taken into account in understanding the mechanisms of development.
[The first part of the text now follows: Introduction: There have been many contributions over the years to the vexed question of how Poole and Christchurch Bays were born of the ancient Solent River complex. All agree that the Flandrian Transgression was the primary mechanism, with the latest evidence suggesting that the whole process started pre-Flandrian times. The authors, members of an operational coastal engineering team became interested during the preparation of the Poole and Christchurch Bays Shoreline Management Plan, the principal author serving on the Steering Group. They have now approached the subject from a coastal processes point of view and with a particular local focus on Christchurch, their "home" base.
Earlier Work: Probably the most popularly reproduced early image of the proto-Solent was by Reid, 1902 (1), who was studying the geology around Ringwood, Hants. He envisaged the Solent River starting life as the modem Frome, flowing through what is now Poole and Christchurch Bays on its way to north of the Isle ofWight. Everard, 1954 (2) looked more closely at the Hampshire Basin and showed the chalk ridge now more usually called the Isle of Wight monocline as a major directing influence on the route of the proto-Solent. West, 1980 (3) recognised the possibility of a breach in the chalk bastion, allowing the southerly capture of the Frome and ultimately to the disintegration of the proto-Solent. Nicholls, 1987 (4) studied many of the early contributions and developed a more detailed model for this southerly capture. More recently, Velegrakis, 1999 (5) demonstrated that the capture was-pre-Flandrian. Figures 2 - 5 illustrate the first four of the above-mentioned.
Crenulate Bays: Any experienced coastal engineer would be familiar with the crenulate (or spiral) shape of Poole and Christchurch Bays, as shown in Figure 6. Bays of this type form when soft cliffs attempt to reach a stable shape when constrained between hard headlands. Figure 6 would also indicate to the engineer that Christchurch Bay is much less developed than its sister and therefore younger. Poole Bay is well advanced and even has "offspring" mini-crenulates at its western end. The shape of the Bays, further, indicate the principal direction of attack, in this case from the southwest. Theory suggests that without intervention, Poole Bay would reach an equilibrium state when its development behind Ballard Down gave sufficient shelter for erosion to cease. A similar scenario can be applied to Christchurch Bay, the danger of which is discussed later. [continues]

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UK Onshore Operators Group, 2006. OOG News and Press Releases. Re Hurst Castle Prospect.
"Offshore Licence P1153
P1153, located in the Wessex–Channel Basin also contains the Hurst Castle prospect which straddles the Hampshire coastline. The main reservoir objective is the Sherwood Sandstone with secondary potential in the Bridport Sandstone.
The offshore well 98/7-2 driilled by BP in 1987 is of particular significance regarding the prospectivity of this licence. 98/7-2 is situated approximately six kilometres from the southwest corner of Licence P1153 and encountered oil in the upper section of the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone. This well tested 1095 bopd of 43 degree API oil from the Sherwood Sandstone interval, the same reservoir as in the Wytch Farm field. This oil is lighter gravity than that at the Wytch Farm field which is 36 degree API.
The significance of this well is that it indicates that oil has migrated and is preserved east of the main hydrocarbon trap at Wytch Farm. This is believed to be the result of the basin configuration at the time of oil migration. Early formed structures of pre-Upper Cretaceous age such as that at Hurst Castle are potential traps for migrating oil."


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Umumay , S. 1982. The behaviour of dissolved phosphate during mixing in the Beaulieu Estuary and its relation to the that of iron and other elements. M.Phil Thesis, University of Southampton.
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van der Vorm, C. and Page, E. 2015. Sowley House and Their Ironworks, 29th May 2015. [an interesting lecture, available online]. Go to: Sowley House and the Ironworks. Example extract: "Thank you Catherina. I am now going to give you a brief summary of the ironworks at Sowley. For this thalk I have been spoilt by having so much excellent research already done on the subject, particularly by Jeremy Greenwood - a history of the ironworks at Sowley, 2005 and Alan Bartlett - The Ironworks at Sowley in the manor of Beaulieu 1600-1820, 1974 (unpublished). And of course I have to thank Susan Tomkins the Beaulieu Archivist. [it mentions Pitts Deep as the port for Sowley and its iron works in about 1755. Activy seems to have finished by about 1851. Large lagoon formed at Sowley by an enormous amount of shingle closing off the stream in about 2010.]
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van Vliet-Lanoe , B., Laurent, M., Bahain, J.L., Balescu, S., Falgueres, C., Field, M., Hallegouet, S. and Keen, D.H. 2000. Middle Pleistocene raised beach anomalies in the English Channel: regional and global stratigraphic implications. Journal of Geodynamics, 29, 15-41.
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Velegrakis, A.F. 1994. Aspects of the Morphology and Sedimentology of a Transgressional Embayment System: Poole and Christchurch Bays, Southern England. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Oceanography, Southampton University, 319pp.

Velegrakis, A.F. and Collins, M.B. 1992. Marine Aggregate Evaluation of Shingles Bank, Christchurch Bay. Southampton University Technical Report, SUDO/TEC/92/14C, 13pp.

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Velegrakis, A.F., Dix, J.K. and Collins, M.B. 1999. Late Quaternary evolution of the upper reaches of the Solent River, southern England, based on marine geophysical evidence. Journal of the Geological Society, London, vol. 156, pp. 73-87. [This is a key paper with a map showing the offshore buried channels in Poole Bay and Christchurch Bay.]
Abstract: Geological evidence suggests that during the Late Quaternary, a river system (the Solent River) drained a large part of central Southern England. Its upper reaches flowed in a west-east direction, flanked to the south by a Chalk ridge (the Purbeck-Isle of Wight Chalk Ridge). Today, only part of the upper reaches of the river's tributary channels remain, as the area was inundated during the Flandrian Transgression, forming. an embayment system (Poole and Christchurch Bays). In order to map the offshore buried channels of the upper reaches of the Solent River an extensive set of shallow-marine geophysical data was analysed and interpreted. The results of this investigation show that the Solent River system was disrupted irreversibly by southerly capture of its upstream section before the Flandrian Transgression. This disruption was the result of the fluvial breaching of the southern barrier of the system (the Purbeck-Isle of Wight Ridge) at three points, probably during Late Devensian time. Poole Bay was first to be submerged during the transgression. The estuaries which resulted from the drowning of the fluvial palaeovalleys of Poole Bay were infilled with transgressive facies sequences which have been preserved within the buried palaeovalleys. In contrast, Christchurch Bay was submerged at a later time, but because of the abrupt manner of its inundation, no transgressive facies have been preserved within its buried palaeovalleys. [end of abstract]
[Example extract from the introduction] The Isle of Wight, southern England, is separated from the mainland by a stretch of water known as the Solent (Fig. I). The Solent is located at the southern margin of the Hampshire Basin, an elongated asymmetrical downwarp of Tertiary deposits, the southern limb of which exhibits a near-vertical northern dip, whilst the beds on its northern limb slope gently southward (Melville and Freshney 1982). It has been widely proposeq that, during Pleistocene lowstands, the Solent formed a segment of a major axial stream (the 'Solent River'), which integrated all the consequent rivers of the basin (Fox 1862; Reid 1905; Everard 1954; West 1980). It has been suggested that this river constituted one of the principal northern tributaries of the English Channel River, a major river system established over northwestern Europe early in the Middle Pleistocene Epoch (Gibbard 1988). The Solent River flowed along a large W-E-trending valley incised into Tertiary arenaceous and argillaceous sediments and surrounded by high Chalk country (the Wiltshire and North Dorset Downs to the north and the South Dorset Downs and the Purbeck-Wight Chalk Ridge to the south). Much of the catchment area of the river was drowned during the last eustatic sea-level rise. Only parts of the tributary river systems are still intact; these form the modern drainage network of the area (Fig. 2).
Evidence for the existence of the Solent River system is distributed throughout the area. Onshore, extensive deposits of Pleistocene sands and gravels occur, forming terraces along the present river valleys (Keen 1980; Freshney et al. 1985; Allen and Gibbard 1993), and underlying the Flandrian deposits of some of the estuaries of the area (Nicholls 1987). Offshore, marine geophysical surveys have revealed systems of buried river valleys under the present seafloor, incised to a maximum depth of 46 m below OD to the east of the Isle of Wight (Hamblin et al. 1992). [continues for more than 14 pages, with maps and diagrams].

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Velegrakis, A.F., Dix, J.K. and Collins, M.B. 2000. Late Pleistocene - Holocene evolution of the upstream section of the Solent River, Southern England. Pp. 97-99 in: Collins, M. and Ansell, K. 2000. Solent Science - A Review. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 385pp. [Using shallow seismic and echo-sounder profiles, seven palaeovalleys have been recognised offshore in Poole and Christchurch Bays. In Poole Bay, Palaeovalleys I, II and III appear to cut southward through the Purbeck-Wight ridge. In contrast Palaeovalleys IV, V, VI and VII in Christchurch Bay do not appear to cut through the Ridge. Valley-filling sediment of significant thickness are found only within Palaeovalleys I and II (Incidently Palaeovalley I has recently been intersected by a civil engineering borehole on the Sandbanks Peninsula)]

Velegrakis, A. 2000. Geology, geomorphology and sediments of the Solent System. Pp. 21-43 in: Collins, M. and Ansell, K. 2000. Solent Science - A Review. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 385pp.
The Solent (Figure 1) forms the largest estuarine system of the southern coast of the UK. The constituent components of the system include the West and East Solent and their approaches, Southampton Water, Portsmouth, Langstone and Chichester Harbours and other smaller tributary river estuaries (e.g. Beaulieu, Lymington and Yar) found along the southern Hampshire and Isle of Wight coastlines. Parts of the coastline are characterised by coastal accumulation forms, such as barrier spits and islands (e.g. Hurst and Calshot Spits in the West Solent and Hayling Island in the East Solent), inter-tidal flats and saltmarshes (e.g. Lymington Flats). Erosional coastal environments (Le. coastal cliffs) are also present, particularly along the coastline of the Isle of Wight The offshore areas also show complex morphology (Figure 1), associated with several offshore banks and deeply-incised channels (e.g. Hurst Narrows).
    The Solent has attracted a great deal of human economic development, including extensive urban and industrial development, agriculture, shipping, fisheries, recreation, marine aggregate extraction and offshore oil exploration (Shell, 1987). At the same time, the area is associated with important conservation areas such as the National Nature Reserves (NNR), Sites of Scientific Interest (SSSI), Local Nature Reserves (LNR), as well as important archaeological sites. This diverse human activity both influences and is influenced by the physical characteristics and dynamics of the natural environment Therefore, frequent monitoring is necessary, in order to assess the human impact on the environment and its evolution and, equaIly important, to understand and predict the influence of such evolution on the regional economic development The understanding of the dynamic interrelationships between nature and economic development forms the 'backbone' of 'sustainable development' policies, which emerge as the main UK and European Union environmental strategy.
    The objective of this contribution is to review the present state of knowledge and identify gaps in information on some of the physical characteristics of the Solent Estuarine system and, particularly, its geology, geomorphology and sedimentology. In this sense, this contribution forms an update of the meticulous reviews of West (1980) and Dyer (1980)... [continues]

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Waddelove, A.C. and Waddelove, E. 1990. Archaeology and research into sea-level during the Roman Era: towards a methodology based on Highest Astronomical Tide. Britannia, Vol. 21, 1990 (1990), pp. 253-266. Available online from JStor.

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Walden, A.T. 1981. The Statistical Analysis of Extreme High Sea-levels Utilising Data from the Solent Area. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Southampton University.
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Wallace, H. 1996. The Vanished and Forgotten Estuary of the Lavant, and its Iron-Age and Roman Port off and under the Present Selsey East Beach. Sea Level and Shoreline Between Portsmouth and Pagham for the Past 2500 Years. Part 2, Chapter 2. Pages 2-2-2 to 2-2-31. Unpublished text with figures by Major Hume Wallace (ret.). "The fact that there was a depression in the otherwise shallow seabed off Selsey East Beach, used as a summer anchorage by several hundred fishing boats and pleasure craft, was brought to our attention by air photographs in 1968, as detailed in the previous chapter, which also gives the reasons for believing that this was the estuary of the River Lavant, before that river was diverted westward through Chichester into Chichester Harbour by the Romans... Here we set out the additional evidence that it was indeed a river valley, dating back at least two glaciations, revealed by our underwater investigations which were started as soon as we had seen the photos... These investigations were usually combined with those in the Mixon gorge, which we dived at slack water two hours before low, and then on our way back to our embarkation point at the north end of East Beach, we would drift dive NE with the tide up the anchorage. By these means we built up over several years the picture of this former estuary and its remarkable seasonal changes..." [continues]...About 100 yards offshore he found the remains of Beacon House and a hollow brick pillar. The son of the head gardener of the house told him "That will be the base of the gallows tree where they hanged me grandfather, for killing a preventative man with a cutlass in the last great battle between the Selsey men and the Preventatives"... The most exciting of the finds in this [Ipswichian Interglacial] deposit came in 1957, when the erosion of the raised beach, and the modern beach derived from it, exposed a rhinoceras skeleton in pit on the low tide line, only visible at the lowest Springs, so there was a great rush to examine it and excavate it while the opoportunity lasted. [The rhinoceras bones are in the Natural History Museum. E.M. Venables interpreted the remains as those of a deadfall pit which Wallace discusses as due to Neandethal hunting. Location of a mammoth find is also given.]
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Waller, M.P. and Long, A.J. 2003. Holocene coastal evolution and sea-level change on the southern coast of England: a review. Journal of Quaternary Science, 18, 351 - 359. Special Issue: The Quaternary History of the English Channel. Issue Edited by P.L. Gibbard, J.P. Lautridou. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. By Dr. Martyn P. Waller (Kingston) and Dr. Antony J. Long (Durham).
Abstract: Data collected recently from select areas within the eastern, central and western English Channel are used to reconstruct the Holocene evolution and sea-level history of the southern coast of England. Rapid sea-level rise in the early Holocene produced a ubiquitous vertical and lateral expansion in the marine influence. From ca. 6800 cal. (calendar) yr BP the rate of sea-level rise declined and a shift from minerogenic to organogenic sedimentation is also widely recorded. A further decline in the rate of sea-level rise occurred in the late Holocene, during which time the eastern and central English Channel experienced coastal inundation and a return to minerogenic sedimentation. Explanations for this apparent contradiction include the effects of this decline on the accumulation of minerotrophic peat and changes in sediment supply. Sea-level index points from the eastern Channel generally plot below those from the central and western Channel, indicating differential crustal movement, although sediment compaction and tidal range also may be responsible for apparent altitudinal variation between these areas. Despite an increase in the quantity and quality of the data available from this region over the past 20 yr these, and a number of other important issues, require further clarification.
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Ward, D.J. 1977. New species of chimaeroid fish from the Upper Bracklesham Beds of Lee on the Solent, (Hants). Tertiary Research , 1 (4), 101-104, Leiden.

Ward, D.J. 1983. Additions to the fish fauna of the English Palaeogene 4. A new batoid genus from the Bracklesham Group of Selsey, Sussex. Tertiary Research, 5 (2), 105-114.


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Ward, E.M. 1922. English Coastal Evolution. Methuen and Co. Ltd., London. 262p. [A fairly general book without much close detail, but with some good observations and overviews, and also with a few old coastal photographs]
Review in Nature, 1923.
Mr Ward has chosen a very interesting subject, and has treated it systematically and well. In his general introduction, he points out that the present features of the coasts are built up or carved out on a land that has been recently submerged. The features of this land are largely due subaerial erosion, but in places they are becoming modified by the deposits caught on sea-worn flats. In other places features are becoming again revealed by the removal of beach-detritus belonging to an earlier epoch. The glacial deposits that extended the land- area as the ice melted away form here and there protective barriers that have little stability against the battery of the waves. The pictures of coastal (?)planes of marine denudation are pleasing examples of the many excellent photographic illustrations [probably good for the year, but not good by modern standards].
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Watson, J.D. and D.M., Chartered Civil Engineers. 1971. South Hampshire Plan - Marine Survey, Proposed Tunnel Sites Plan. Drawing No. YG/O/G/6. With the possible routes for the large sewage outfall tunnel - A, B, C, and D. See also associated geophysical investigation by Hunting Geology and Geophysics Ltd., Gilkicker, Southsea and Horse Sand Fort areas.

Watson, J.D. and D.M., Chartered Civil Engineers. 1971. South Hampshire Plan, Report on Spithead Marine Boreholes. These are for the sewage outfall tunnel into the Solent. Lab. Ref. No. S/8770. With borehole records and plastic and liquid limits etc. (with some manuscript notes by Ian West). [See also West (1971), Report on the Geological Structure of the East Solent and Spithead South of Gosport and Portsmouth.]
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Webber, N.B. 1977. Slowhill Copse Sewage Treatment Works: Hydraulic Investigation for Proposed Sludge Vessel Berth and Effluent Outfall. Private Report to Southern Water Authority, Hampshire Drainage Division.

Webber, N.B. 1980. Hydrography and water circulation in the Solent. Pp. 25-35 in: Burton, J.D. 1980. The Solent Estuarine System: an Assessment of Present Knowledge. N.E.R.C. Publications Series C, No. 22 November 1980, ed. J.D. Burton, 100 p. NERC. [This publication is not geological but with useful background information on the estuaries.] Because there is no abstract an example extract follows:
    Introduction: The Solent, as It is more precisely defined, extends for a distance of 30km from Ryde-Gilkicker in the east to Hurst Castle in the west. For the purposes of this review, however, it is deemed to include the more open waters of Spithead which stretch a further 10km or so to the east and to which are connected through narrow entrances the large basin-like harbours of Portsmouth, Langstone and Chichester and the relatively small harbour of Brading on the Isle of Wight. Of the estuaries linked to the Solent, by far the largest and most important is Southampton Water with its tributary estuaries of the Hamble and Itchen. The others are the Beaulieu and Lymington Rivers on the mainland, and the Western Yar, Newtown River, River Medina, and Wootton Creek on the Isle of Wight.
    The width of the Solent is about 4km in the western portion and 5.5km to the east and increases to around 10km at the eastern end of Spithead. The narrowest parts are at Hurst Castle (1 km), Egypt Point-Stone Point (2.5 km) and Ryde-Gilkicker (5km). Southampton Water has a width at high water of about 2km. Water depths are favourable to navigation, the main channels having a depth of 20m or so in the more open waters with 60m in the narrow western entrance at Hurst Castle. These depths are indicative of the "drowned river" origins of the estuary system and the beneficial effect of two seaward entrances.
Physical conditions along the shoreline range from the coastal to the estuarine reflecting the varying degree of exposure to waves and tides. Along the Spithead portion there are large areas of sandy foreshore exposed at low tide at the Winner (off Hayling Island) and at Ryde Sand on the southern shore ofthe Isle of Wight. In the sheltered estuaries and harbours, considerable areas of intertidal mudflats, some of which have been colon ised by saltmarsh vegetation, are to be found.
This review outlines the present state of knowledge of the hydrographical features of the Solent including the configurations, tides, currents, hydraulic regime, the interaction of fresh and salt water and the wave climate.
Chart history: Hydrographic surveying has been practised with some authenticity since the latter part of the 18th century. The first such charts of the Solent area are those based on the surveys of Lieut. Murdoch Mackenzie conducted in 1783 to 1785 and subsequent surveys of note were carried out by Capt. Sheringham (1847), Capt. Parson (1879), Commander Cary (1929-30), and Commander Monk (1951). There are currently seven Admiralty charts, at scale 1/20,000 or larger, covering the area under consideration.
The approaches to the port of Southampton have been surveyed in meticulous detail over the past 100 years or more, initially by the Southampton Harbour Board and since 1966 by their successors the British Transport Docks Board. The first capital dredging was carried out in 1889 when the approach channel from Fawley to the Docks was deepened to 7.5m below present chart datum (Southampton Harbour Board, 1953). By 1909, further capital dredging had been undertaken to bring the minimum depth to 9m. Between 1931 and 1936, the capacity of the port was considerably enlarged.... [continues with several maps, diagrams, tidal information, locations of effluents, wave climate, salinity, and references.]

Webber, N.B. and Shaw, T.L. 1960. A Model Investigation into the Possibility of a New Approach Channel to Southampton Water. Dock and Harbour Authority, 41, 127-129.
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Wenban-Smith, F.F. and Horsfield, R.T. 2001. Palaeolithic Archaeology of the Solent River, Proceedings of the Lithic Studies Society day meeting held at the Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton on Saturday 15th January, 2000. Lithic Studies Society Occasional Paper No. 7 (2001). Published by the Lithic Studies Society, c/o British Museum (Quaternary Section), Franks House, 38-46 Orsman Road, London, N1 5QJ. ISBN 0-9513246-3-2, ISSN 0950-9208. 111 pp., paperback.
[Extract from the Introduction by Wenban-Smith, explaining the background:] The papers in this volume originated as a series of presentations for the Lithic Studies Society day meeting Palaeolithic Archaeology of the Solent River held on 15 January 2000, and hosted by the Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins (CAHO) in the Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton. The germ of the meeting came from a small investigation into the collections of Palaeolithic material from terraces in the Highfield area of Southampton (Chapter 6). This investigation highlighted the distinctive nature of at least some material from the Solent region, and suggested it was high time more attention was focused upon studying the prolific evidence from this relatively neglected region, which, along with East Anglia and the Thames Valley, is one of the three main areas in Britain where surviving Palaeolithic evidence is concentrated (cf. Roe 1981: 132-3).
Contents: 1. Introduction - F.F. Wenban-Smith; 2. The Geology of the Solent River System - J.K. Dix; 3. The Pleistocene evolution and Palaeolithic occupation of the Solent River - D.R. Bridgland; 4. The meeting of the waters: raised beaches and river gravels of the Sussex Coastal PlainIHampshire Basin - M.R. Bates; 5. Some Earlier Palaeolithic find-spots of interest in the Solent region - D.A. Roe; 6. As represented by the Solent River: handaxes from Highfield, Southampton - F.F. Wenban-Smith; 7. Priory Bay, Isle ofWight: a review of current knowledge - R.D. Loader; 8. The Broom pits: a review of research and a pilot study of two Acheulian biface assemblages - G.D. Marshall; 9. The Lower Palaeolithic of the Solent: 'site' formation and interpretive frameworks - R.T. Hosfield; 10. Prospecting the Palaeolithic: strategies for the archaeological investigation of Middle Pleistocene deposits in Southern England- K. Wilkinson. .. Start of Introduction by F.F. Wenban-Smith: " The papers in this volume originated as a series of presentations for the Lithic Studies Society day meeting Palaeolithic Archaeology of the Solent River held on 15 January 2000, and hosted by the Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins (CAHO) in the Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton. The germ of the meeting came from a small investigation into the collections of Palaeolithic material from terraces in the Highfield area of Southampton (Chapter 6). This investigation highlighted the distinctive nature of at least some material from the Solent region, and suggested it was high time more attention was focused upon studying the prolific evidence from this relatively neglected region, which, along with East Anglia and the Thames Valley, is one of the three main areas in Britain where surviving Palaeolithic evidence is concentrated (cf. Roe 1981: 132-3)." .. The first geological paper is: Dix, J.K. 2001.The Geology of the Solent River System. Pp. 7-14 in: Wenban-Smith, F.F. and Horsfield, R.T. 2001. Palaeolithic Archaeology of the Solent River. Abstract: The geology of the Hampshire Basin is dominated by Cretaceous Chalk and the, unconformably, overlying muds, sands and gravels of the early Tertiary deposits. Relatively gentle deformation of these sequences has resulted in the creation of the natural basin identified today and within which is contained the catchment of the Solent River system. This river system developed throughout the Pleistocene and as such is believed to have dominated the landscape for this entire period. There has been significant modification of the river system by every interglacial highstand, most recently with the Holocene transgression which has flooded the lower reaches of the Devensian version and as such has caused considerable re-working of the currently submerged deposits. Associated with this river system is a sporadic but well documented assemblage of Lower and Middle Palaeolithic artefacts. The existence and distribution of these assemblages is intimately linked to the underlying geology and the basin's more recent history. A synthesis of the Caenozoic and Pleistocene history is therefore presented as a backdrop to more detailed discussions presented within the rest of this volume. A short discussion of the key future research issues related to our understanding of the Solent River system will be presented.[end of abstract].
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Wentworth-Shields , F.E. 1913. The construction of the 'White Star' [now 'Ocean'] Dock and adjoining quays at Southampton. Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 195, 42-68.

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West, G.H. 1885. Coast erosion report. Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, p. 427.

West, I.M. (undated). Map of the Base of the Pleistocene Buried Valley under Southampton Water, based on approximately 1,400 boreholes. Department of Geology, Southampton University. Available on the old 6 inch scale and on a reduced scale. Unpublished.

West, I.M. 1971. Report on the Geological Structure of the East Solent and Spithead South of Gosport and Portsmouth. Unpublished Report, Department of Geology, University of Southampton.
Extract: Terms of Reference: This preliminary investigation of the geology has the following objectives. (1) To establish the geological structure of the region and in particular on the lines of sections A, B, C and D of the accompanying chart (Fig. 1). (2) To indicate the position and describe the lithological units that will be encountered in these sections, with emphasis on the Tertiary Beds. (3) To indicate the most suitable positions for boreholes to reveal the maximum amount of geological and other information.
Introduction: The Solent was formed as a valley during the Pleistocene Period by an ancient system at a time when sea-level was more than 300 ft. lower than at present. A late Pleistocene transgression of the sea produced the Interglacial deposits of Stone Point and Selsey and was followed by regression. Later the Holocene rise in sea-level submerged the lower part of the river valley and produced the modern Solent and Spithead. The Quaternary deposits consist mainly of gravels of both Pleistocene and Holocene age. The gravels laid down by the Pleistocene river Solent and its tributaries form a series at terraces the bases of which descend to more than 100 ft. below O.D. In most cases these gravels are thin and usually of approximately 15 ft. or less in thickness. They have matrices of brown sand. In some parts of the Solent Holocene sand and gravels occur. These deposits have probably been produced by longshore drifting, sometimes when sea level was lower. These marine gravels lie above the Pleistocene river gravels and may be distinguished from them by their content of marine molluscs and the grey, rather than brown, matrix. Beneath the Pleistocene deposits are Tertiary sands and clays with some thin limestone beds. On the lines of section investigated, the Bracklesham Beds are the major Tertiary strata. They are exposed at the surface at Whitecliff Bay, Bracklesham Bay, Alum Bay, Lee-on-the Solent, and in parts of the New Forest. Southampton Docks were excavated in these beds and they were encountered in an electricity transmission tunnel between Fawley Power Station and Chilling on the east bank of Southampton water. Thus, the stratigraphy of the Bracklesham Beds is well-known. The Bracklesham Beds show relatively rapid vertical variation in lithology (Fig. 5) and have been sub-divided in detail. The sequences involve frequent repetitions of clay and sand so that beds can only be recognised by their content of macro and micro-fossils. The fossiliferous horizons are well-defined, easily correlated, and can be used to predict the sequence of strata above and below any such recognised horion. The sections (Figs. 2, 3 and 4) have been prepared from information on the position of these fossiliferous beds. From this data, various borehole logs, and from outcrop positions, strike lines have been constructed (Fig. f) and the approximate positions of the strata at each locality have been established. Information for this preliminary study is derived from memoirs of the Geological Survey ot Great Britain, published papers on tbe Tertiary Beds (e.g. Fisher, 1862, and Curry ,Hodson and West, 1968) and borehole records filed in the Department of Geology, Southampton University. Geophysical data by Huntings Limited has provided additional information the base of the Pleistocene gravels.
The Quaternary Deposits: On the accompanying horizontal sections the positions of the Pleistocene gravels have been established from scattered boreholes in the area and by interpretation of the sea floor topography. Boreholes in the Southampton water and Solent area have shown that where the sea-floor is horizontal for appreciable distances it is usually underlain by nearly horizontal, terraces of gravel of about 10 ft. or 15 ft. thickness. Thicknesses greater than 20 ft. are rare. The gravel is deposited in terraces of fairly constant depth. Where there is a step from one terrace to the next the gravel thins and is sometimes absent For a short distance. In the region under investigation, Holocene gravels are mainly developed on the borders of the deep channel as in the Horse Sand Fort area. Both Horse Sand ,and Nomans Fort are probably located on old spit-deposits built out from the margins of the original deep channel of the Solent. The total thickness of gravel at Horse Sand Fort is 70 ft., the lower 15 ft., probably being Pleistocene river gravel.. [continues - p.5][See also Watson (1971) .

West, I.M. 1974. Microscopic investigation of sediment samples from the Bury Swinging Ground and associated areas. Unpublished report for British Transport Docks Board, 4pp. [Near Tanner Brook outfall, Southampton Docks. Content of quartz sand, shell debris, plant fragments, derived glauconite, pyrite, coccoliths, diatoms. Sediment is derived from erosion of saltmarshes and estuarine mud in the adjacent region.]

Publication - The Solent Estuarine System

West, I.M. 1980. Geology of the Solent Estuarine System. In: The Solent Estuarine System: an Assessment of Present Knowledge, N.E.R.C. Publication Series C., No. 22 , November 1980. pp 6-18. Ed. J.D. Burton. [A concise review of knowledge of the geology of the estuaries up to 1980 with reference list, including discussion of the Eocene strata, the Pleistocene gravels and interglacial deposits, and the Flandrian Transgression of the submerged and partly buried valley system. See also: Curry, Hodson and West, (1968); Hodson and West (1972).] [First part of the text (page 6) follows:]

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Geology of the Solent Estuarine System.
By I.M. West

Introduction
The estuaries of the Solent, Southampton Water and of Portsmouth, Langstone and Chichester Harbours lie at the centre of the Hampshire Basin. They are the latest of a series of shallow-water bodies that have existed here since the relatively deep Chalk sea-floor was uplifted about 65 million years ago. In the Palaeogene Period, (Eocene and Oligocene) a wide variety of sediments accumulated in shallow seas, estuaries, lakes and lagoons and these frequently contain abundant plant and animal remains. These deposits now exist beneath and around the modern estuaries. After their deposition there was a long phase of folding, uplift and erosion during the Neogene (Miocene and Pliocene). Relatively recently, during glacial phases of the Pleistocene, the valleys of the local rivers were excavated to well below the present sea-level before being finally flooded during the Flandrian Transgression which thus created the modern estuaries. It is the Eocene, Oligocene, Pleistocene and Holocene (Flandrian) sediments of the region that are discussed in this account.
The geology of this estuarine area has been described In numerous publications and the more important ones are mentioned below. A useful general introduction is "The Hampshire Basin and Adjoining Areas" booklet (Chatwin, 1960), since revised by Melville, (in press). More detailed background information on the ancient sediments exposed at the margins of the estuaries can be found in various Memoirs of the Geological Survey (now the NERC Institute of Geological Sciences), notably those by Bristow (1862), Bristow et al. (1889), Reid and Whitaker (1902), Whitaker (1910), White (1915 1921), Edmunds (1928) and Buchan et al. (1942). The early publications on the Solent region have been listed by Whitaker (1873) and more recent literature, mainly concerning Southampton, has been reviewed by Hodson and Shelford (1964). Reference to previous papers on the Palaeogene strata will be found in Curry et al. (1968, 1977), Edwards (1971), Keen (1977), Murray and Wright (1974) and Stinton (1975). It is not possible in this short account to refer to many of the numerous palaeontological publications relating to this area but key papers above provide references to a substantial number.
The Quaternary deposits of the Solent region have been discussed recently by Brown et al. (1975), Dyer (1971, 1972, 1975, Section 4) and Hodson and West (1972). In addition to the wealth of published data, Civil Engineering investigations can contribute much to our knowledge of the region (Barton, 1978). Records of more than 1,400 shallow boreholes in and around Southampton Water are catalogued at the Department of Geology, Southampton University. The NERC Institute of Geological Sciences has extensive records for borehole activities around the estuaries and Portsmouth Polytechnic holds similar records for the Portsmouth area. The geology of the adjacent regions of the English Channel has been comprehensively reviewed by Dingwall (1971) and in the symposium arranged by Dunham and Smith (1975) and bibliographies have been provided by Smith et al. (1972) and Hamilton et al. (1975). The "Wight" 1 :250,000 solid geology map of the NERC Institute of Geological Sciences shows the outcrops on the seafloor around this area. A Bouguer gravity anomaly map and an aeromagnetic map of the "Wight" area have also been published. Geological maps of the land area around the estuaries are sheets number 315, 316, 317, 330 and 331 (map 315, Southampton, is currently being revised). Additional information, mostly confidential and predominantly concerning the strata at depth, is in the possession of oil and gas companies.

Structure
Although not always above sea-level, the outcrop of the Chalk forms a border to the Hampshire Basin except in the southeast (Fig. 1; Dingwall, 1971). Within the major monocline which trends east-west through the Isle of Wight, it dips very steeply to the north, while around the northern margins of the basin the southerly dips are quite gentle. The axial part of the basin lies under the West Solent, where the upper surface of the Chalk descends to a depth of about 518m (Dyer et al., 1969) with Southampton Water, the East Solent and Spithead to the north of the axis and approximately parallel to the regional strike. Portsmouth, Langstone and Chichester Harbours are close to the northeastern margin of the Basin (Fig. 1) and partly overlie the Portsdown Anticline, the axis of which is almost parallel to this margin. Other, smaller folds of generally northwest-southeast trend are the Bouldnor and Thorness Bay Synclines and the Porchfield Anticline beneath the West Solent (White, 1921), a minor anticline under the East Solent between Osborne and St Helens (White, 1921) and small undulations at Portsmouth (James, 1847) and near Fawley. Obvious faults under the estuaries are relatively few, although small faults exist at Colwell Bay and Horestone Point (White, 1921). The valleys of the western Yar and the Medina may, however, lie on unexposed faults (Bristow, 1862), which extend northward beneath the Solent. Concealed faults in Jurassic strata may give rise to oil traps. Occasional earthquakes (Cook, 1749-50 referred to by Bristow et al., 1889; Fisher, 1862; Tillotson, 1974) suggest that some minor movement still occurs in the region.

Pre-Pleistocene strata

(a) Introduction
The Palaeogene sequence beneath the estuarine system consists only of strata belonging to the Palaeocene, Eocene and Oligocene Series. These are shown in Table 1, together with approximate thicknesses, which vary to some extent over the area, often increasing in a southeasterly direction. Surface examination of these strata is possible in the famous cliff exposures on the Isle of Wight (Curry, et al., 1972). The Bembridge and Hamstead Beds are exposed for example at Bouldnor Cliff near Yarmouth. Alum Bay provides a section from the Chalk to the Headon Beds but the Bracklesham Group is of unusual fades there and can best be seen at Whitecliff Bay.
    Before considering the details of the Palaeogene strata attention must be drawn to some recent proposals for new lithostratigraphical nomenclature for the Eocene by Stinton (1975), Cooper (1976), Curry et al. (1977) and Curry et al. (1978). Unfortunately, in spite of a defence (Stinton and Curry, 1979) much of the new scheme seems not to conform to current British or International codes of stratigraphical nomenclature (Daley et al., 1979) and could lead to some confusion. Very useful, however, is the splitting of the thick Bracklesham Beds into lithological units (see King and King, 1977) and these subdivisions, regarded. here as members, are used in the account which follows (Table 1). Because of the controversy and the likelihood that the lithostratigraphy will be resolved in the near future (Daley et al., 1979), apart from these Bracklesham members the traditional names are generally used here; the term "Beds" being replaced, however, by "Formation" (Table 1). In any case these names are more widely understood at present. The scheme shown is similar to that which is under consideration by the NERC Institute of Geological Sciences for the new Southampton map, except that the Huntingbridge Member might be included within the Barton Clay Formation (pers. comm. E. Freshney, 1979).
A further problem to be noted is that the position of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary is difficult to determine in this area because so many of the strata are non-marine. Although various positions above the Barton Beds have been suggested (Curry, 1966; Murray and Wright, 1974; Costa and Downie, 1976; Odin et al., 1978) evidence from nannoplankton shows that it lies somewhere between the Middle Headon and the Upper Hamstead marine strata (Curry et al., 1978) and the transgression at the base of the Bembridge Marls is provisionally taken as the boundary.

(b) Succession.

The Upper Chalk is the oldest unit that outcrops under the estuaries. In addition to the southern side of Alum Bay it underlies an extensive area of Portsmouth, Langstone and Chichester Harbours (Brydone, 1912; White, 1915; Martin, 1938). Lying on an eroded surface of the Chalk is the Reading Formation usually regarded as Palaeocene (e.g. Curry et al., 1978), but classified as basal Eocene by Odin et al. (1978). It consists predominantly of red-mottled plastic clays, often with a flint pebble bed at the base and is exposed at Alum Bay. It also occurs under Portsmouth and other eastern harbours where the clays have been used locally for brickmaking (Prestwich, 1854).
    Used on a larger scale in the past for the manufacture of bricks is the London Clay Formation. This marine sediment formed about 50 million years ago (Odin et al., 1978) and consists of brown clays, mainly of montmorillonite [smectite] and illite (Gilkes, 1968a) with calcareous nodules and pebble beds at certain horizons.
    The best exposure is at Alum Bay, although there it is unusually sandy, particularly in the upper part of the sequence (Burnett and Fookes, 1974). Shark teeth have been found and the remains of marine molluscs are common (Curry et al., 1972). Much useful stratigraphical information and rich faunal remains were obtained during excavation of the London Clay in Portsmouth dockyard (Meyer, 1871; Evans, 1873; White, 1915). The clay also underlies much of both Langstone and Chichester harbours (King in Bone and James, 1975).
Sand and pebble beds above the London Clay, which in the Isle of Wight vary from 23 to 42m in thickness, have traditionally been termed the "Bagshot Beds", referred to here as the Bagshot Formation. Microplankton show that this corresponds in age to part of the London Clay of the London Basin (Curry et al., 1978). These permeable strata have yielded water supplied in the Fawley and Gosport regions and elsewhere (Whitaker, 1910).
The Bracklesham Formation underlies extensive areas of Southampton Water, the Solent and the Spithead (Fig. 2) and the lithological subdivisions together with faunal contents have been listed by Fisher (1862) and Curry, et al. (1977). Microplankton zones have been described by Eaton (1971, 1976). These beds consist of clayey sands and sandy clays with much vertical variation in character. They contain such interesting features as seams of brown coal occasionally with amber, and sometimes associations of the zeolite clinoptilolite and clay mineral montmorillonite [smectite] perhaps resulting from a fall of volcanic ash (Gilkes, 1968a). [continues].

--------------------------- West, I.M. 2000. Erratics of the Hampshire-Sussex Coast. - www.southampton.ac.uk/~imw/erratic.htm. - Erratics, including sarsen stones and granodiorite like that of the Channel Islands, are found associated with Ipswichian (late Pleistocene interglacial) deposits on the low-level coastal plain. They are usually attributed to deposition from stranded floating ice.

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West, R.G. 1967. The Quaternary of the British Isles. In: The Quaternary, Vol. 2 (K. Randama, ed.), 187. Wiley, New York.

West, R.G. 1972. Relative land and sea level changes in southeastern England during the Pleistocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A272, 87-97.

West, R.G. and Sparks, B.W. 1960. Coastal interglacial deposits of the English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B., Biological Sciences, No. 701, Vol. 243, pp. 95-133, 27th October, 1960, with an Appendix on the Mammalia by A.T. Sutcliffe. Published by the Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London W1. Communicated by H. Godwin, F.R.S. Addresses of authors: R.G. West - Subdepartment of Quaternary Research, University of Cambridge; B.W. Sparks, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge. Abstract: Fossiliferous Late-Pleistocene deposits on the foreshore of the English Channel at Selsey (Sussex), Stone (Hampshire), and near Arromanches (Calvados), have been investigated. At each site analyses of pollen, macroscopic plant remains and Mollusca have been made and from these vegetational, faunal, environmental and climatic conditions have been reconstructed. ... At Selsey, it is shown that the deposits, which lie in a channel cut in Eocene rocks, are of Ipswichian (Eemian or Last) Interglacial age. Pollen analysis of the sediments of the channel filling show that they formed during zones b, c, d, e and f of this interglacial, which show the succcession from open parkland vegetation to birch-, to pine, to oak-dominated forests. Analysis of the macroscopic plant remains and of the molluscs suggests a rapid climatic amelioration at the beginning of the interglacial, so that by the beginning of zone f there are indications of summer warmth exceeding that of the present day in the area. In the upper part of the channel filling, estuarine deposits overlie freshwater deposits. It is shown that the marine transgression causing the change was taking place in zone f and was probably responsible later for the raised beach deposits which overlie the channel deposits and form the cliff at Selsey Bill. ... At Stone pollen analysis shows that brackish water deposits, below present high tide level were formed in zone f of the Ipswichian Interglacial. At that time Quercus, Pinus, and Acer were the chief trees forming the forest in that region. The macroscopic plant remains and the Mollusca indicate that the deposit was formed under saltmarsh conditions. As at Selsey, the raised beach gravel found overlying the interglacial deposit is related to the same marine transgression that produced the brackish water conditions... Near Arromanches, at St Come de Fresne and Asnelles-Belle-Plage, two deposits showing a change from marine to freshwater sediments were investigated. The analysis of pollen and the Mollusca showed the prevalence of pine forest and its replacement by open steppe-like conditions as the marine regression occurred. After the regression, limon covered the freshwater deposits. The fossiliferous deposits are tentatively correlated with zone i of the Eemian Interglacial... The relative land and sea-level changes indicated by the deposits are considered. It is concluded that in the English Channel, during the Ipswichian (Eemian) Interglacial, sea-level rose above its present height in zone f and fell below it during zone i. The Selsey-Brighton raised beach and the Normannien II raised beach are correlated with the same marine transgression. It is pointed out that if the Selsey-Brighton raised beach is to be correlated with the Monastirian II level of 7-8m, then this level should be correlated with the Ipswichian (Eemian) Interglacial. [end of abstract.]

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Westaway, R., Bridgland, D., White, M. 2006. The Quaternary uplift history of central southern England: evidence from the terraces of the Solent River system and nearby raised beaches. Quaternary Science Reviews, vol. 25, September 2006, pp. 2212-2250. Available Online. By Rob Westaway (Open University), David Bridgland (Durham University) and Mark White (Durham University).
Abstract
We have used fluvial (Solent River system) and marine terraces to reconstruct the uplift history of central southern England. In the case of the former, we make the assumption that fluvial incision has been a direct response to surface uplift, with its precise timing controlled by climatic forcing of fluvial activity, such that height of terrace gravel above modern river is a consequence of uplift since deposition. In the case of the marine sequence, we take the height of interglacial raised beaches above a calculated contemporaneous sea-level as a measure of uplift, the calculation involving an adjustment from modern sea-level using the deep oceanic oxygen isotope signal as an indication of global ice volume at the time of deposition.
This exercise requires some degree of dating constraint, which is problematic for both environments. The Solent terraces have yielded little biostratigraphical evidence, whereas the south coast raised beaches have either been poorly exposed in recent years or their ages have been controversial because of disputes between biostratigraphy and geochronological data. We have supplemented the evidence available from these sources by using key aspects of the archaeological record as dating constraints, in particular the first appearances of Levallois technique (a marker for MIS 9-8) and of bout coupé handaxes (MIS 3). The first of these has been particularly useful in modelling of the Middle Pleistocene parts of the river terrace staircases of the Solent system.
In undertaking this reappraisal, we have noted several inconsistencies and disagreements between past correlation schemes for the terraces of the Solent and its various tributaries. We find that versions involving shallower downstream gradients in the main Solent River are most likely to be correct and that revisions on this basis solve a number of problems in interpretation encountered previously. Our results show that most of this region has uplifted by ?70 m since the late Early Pleistocene and by ?150 m since the Middle Pliocene, there being a high degree of consistency between uplift histories inferred for river terraces and marine terraces. Uplift rates increase gradually westward, such that along the River Frome at the western end of the Hampshire Basin ?80 m of uplift since the late Early Pleistocene is indicated. This variation is interpreted as a consequence of a regional-scale variation in crustal properties. About 80 m of uplift is also indicated on this timescale by raised beaches in the Portsdown area and adjacent terraces of the River Test and Solent in the vicinity of the Portsdown anticline to the north of Southampton. We interpret this as a consequence of ?10 m of vertical slip in the past million years on the blind reverse fault beneath this anticline. This dataset thus provides the first clear indication of measurable Quaternary structural development in crustal basement in the onshore UK.
The Solent has formed more than a single terrace per 100 ka Milankovitch cycle, leading us to attribute terraces to isotopic substages, potentially improving upon the resolution available from sequences in which terraces formed once per cycle. Athough the first appearence of Levallois technique was initially considered to date from the MIS 9-8 transition, based on evidence from the Thames, we found that there was a better modelling fit if this was taken as having occurred slightly earlier, in MIS 9b, perhaps in association with the post-MIS 9e or 9c marine regression, which could have permitted immigration into a previously insular Britain of people versed in Levallois technology.

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Whitaker, W. 1873. List of works on the Geology, Mineralogy and Palaeontology of the Hampshire Basin. Journal of Proceedings of the Winchester and Hampshire Scientific Literary Society for 1875, 108-127.

Whitaker, W. 1910. The Water Supply of Hampshire (including the Isle of Wight) with Records of Sinkings and Borings. Memoir of the Geological Survey of England and Wales, pp.v + 252. By William Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S., with contributions by Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc., LL.D., W. Matthews, M.Inst.C.E., and J.C. Thresh, M.D., D.Sc., D.P.H. Published by order of the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, London, 1910, Price Five Shillings. [With valuable records of old boreholes, wells and springs in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, including Southampton and much of the New Forest. The book includes discussion of the geology and rainfall of the area etc. It is a useful old source of reference.]
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White , H.J.O. 1915. The Geology of the Country near Lymington and Portsmouth. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of England and Wales, pp.v + 78. By H.J. Osborne White, F.G.S. Explanation of Sheets 330 and 331 (Mainland). This is an old publication related to the Lymington geological map. The map and meoir are not updated, and do not deal with the Isle of Wight (for which see the latest Isle of Wight memoir). Terminology is old. Gravel terraces are not subdivided. The topography shown in historic terms.
Extract: Chapter 1, Introduction. p.1.
Location and Area: - [extracts]
.. [area covered] .. a discontinuous strip of the adjacent mainland .. extending from Milton in Hampshire to East Wittering in Sussex.
The western part of this tract, forming what may be termed the Lymington district (sheet 330), has an area of roughly 90 square miles, in the county of Hants. It includes the southern part of the New Forest, with Lymington as the only town, and the villages of Hordle, Brockenhurst, Beaulieu and Fawley. The mouth of Southampton Water, lying just within the limits of the same map-sheet, on the east, constitutes the natural division between this district and that of Portsmouth (Sheet 331). ..... [continues]

White, H.J.O. 1921. A Short Account of the Geology of the Isle of Wight. Memoir Geological Survey of England and Wales, pp.v + 219 (reprinted in 1968 and later).
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Wilkins, E.P. 1861. A Concise Exposition of the Geology, Antiquities, and Topography, of the Isle of Wight. The geological treatise, illustrations, and antiquarian notes by Ernest P. Wilkins; the topography and relief representation by John Brion and Sons.
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Wintle, A.G. 1981. Thermoluminescence dating of Late Devensian loesses in southern England. Nature, London, 289, 479-480.
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Wooldridge, S.W. and Linton, D.L. 1955. Structure, Surface and Drainage in southeast England. pp.viii + 176. Philip, London (reprinted in 1964).
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Wrigley, A.G. 1940. The English Eocene Campanile. Proceedings of the Malacological Society, London, vol. 24, part 3, pp. 97-112.
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Wright, D. 1998. Hurst Spit: the local authority perspective. Pp. 256-266 in: Bray, M. and Hooke, J. 1998b. Geomorphology and management sites in Poole and Christchurch Bay. (with contributions by other authors) Pp.233-266 in: Hooke, J. 1998. Coastal Defence and Earth Science Conservation. The Geological Society of London, Burlington House, London. 270 pp. ISBN 1-897799-96-9. [This provides a very good account of erosion,sea-defence works and related investigations and is recommended. Quantities of material used and costs are given.]

Wright, P. 1982. Aspects of the coastal dynamics of Poole and Christchurch Bays. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Southampton, 201pp.

Wright, W. and Leonard, R.D. 1959. An investigation of a proposed dredging scheme in Southampton Water by means of a hydraulic model. Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 14, 1-22.
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Wrigley, A. 1925-1953. Series of papers on English Eocene and Oligocene Gastropoda. In: Proceedings of the Malacological Society, London.

Wrigley, A. 1927. Notes on English Eocene Mollusca with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Malacological Society, London, 17, pts. 5 and 6, 216-249.

Wrigley, A. 1934. A Lutetian fauna at Southampton Docks. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 45, 1-16. [Key paper on the Bracklesham Fauna from the King George V Graving Dock, at Millbrook, Southampton.]

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Ian West, M.Sc. Ph.D. F.G.S.

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at his private address, Romsey, Hampshire, kindly supported by Southampton University,and web-hosted by courtesy of iSolutions of Southampton University. The website does not necessarily represent the views of Southampton University. The website is written privately from home in Romsey, unfunded and with no staff other than the author, but generously and freely published by Southampton University. Field trips shown in photographs do not necessarily have any connection with Southampton University and may have been private or have been run by various organisations.