West, Ian M. 2016. Bibliography of Geology of the Chesil Beach, Dorset. Internet site: http://www.southampton.ac.uk/~imw/chesbib.htm. Version: 21st November 2016.
Bibliography of geology of the Chesil Beach - by Ian West

Ian West,
Romsey, Hampshire

and Visiting Scientist at:
Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences ,
Southampton University
Website hosted by courtesy of iSolutions, Southampton University
Website archived at the British Library
|Home and Contents |Chesil Beach - Introduction |Chesil - Storms, Floods |Chesil - Magnetite |Chesil - Pebbles |Chesil Beach - Bibliography |Fleet Lagoon |Portland - General |Portland Bill |Portland Harbour |Portland Bill |Portland - dinosaur footprints |Portland - Mutton Cove to Wallsend |Portland Harbour |Withies Wall, Portland |Portland Group Fossils |Portland Bibliography |Bridport West Bay -East - Field Guide | |Bridport West Bay - West - Field Guide |Burton Bradstock Field Guide | |Fleet Lagoon Field Guide |

Related Field Guides - Portland and Chesil Beach or Chesil Bank

Portland Field Guide - Geological Introduction
Portland Bill
Portland Harbour
Portland Bibliography
Portland Dinosaurs
Portland - Mutton Cove and West Cliffs
Portland Fossils
Withies Croft Quarry Wall, Portland
Chesil Beach - Introduction
Chesil - Storms, Floods
Chesil - Pebbles - General
Chesil - Magnetite, Lodestone pebbles
Chesil Beach - Geological Bibliography
Fleet Lagoon
Bridport - East Cliff (and W end of Chesil)

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Chesil Beach or Chesil Bank - Bibliography and References

Adlam, W.J. 1961. The origin and source of the features of Chesil Beach, Dorset. Southern Geographer, 2, 1-8.
Allison, R.J. (Ed.). 1999. Dorset Revisited: Position Papers and Research Statements. West Dorset Research Group (British Geomorphological Research Group), 108pp.
Admiralty Charts, 1844. Weymouth and Portland Roads, with sections of the Chesil Beach. Surveyed by Commander W. Sheringham. Ref. L4021.

Admiralty Charts, 1855. Bill of Portland to Abbotsbury. Surveyed by Lt. H.L. Cox, J.C.B. Usborne and J.E. Davis. Ref. D1821 & D8052.
Anonymous . 30.04.1868. Dorset County Chronicle, v. 14, No. 40, p.7. [ Description of the sudden arrival on the Dorset coast of unusual huge waves in calm weather on the 23rd April, 1868. Burton Bradstock, near the western end of the Chesil Beach was inundated by a rush of water from the sea. The Bridport Road became impassable. Bridport also suffered flooding, although the sea had been calm. Lyme Regis - weather calm but sea rises above the Cobb, 20 to 30 feet waves rolling ashore with a deafening roar. Also at Budleigh. These notes are based on the Thomas and Ensom, 1989, Bibliography of Dorset Geology; the original article was not seen. Could this have been a tsunami or were they waves from a distant storm?]

Anonymous. 1976. Comments on proposed Sewage Long Sea Outfall at Weymouth. October 1976. [from Archive List of the Fleet Study Group. No further information given].

Anonymous. 27.11.1981. (Chesil Beach coast protection, photo and text). Dorset Evening Echo.

Anonymous. 22.04.1982. Sea defence consultants change mind on Portland Stone. Dorset Evening Echo.

Anonymous. 18.02.1983. Test hole plan at Chesil Beach. (boreholes?) Western Gazette.

Anonymous. 29.04.1983. Portland sea defences progress. Western Gazette.

Anonymous. 08.08.1983. Chesil Beach Probe under way. Dorset Evening Echo.

Anonymous. 1993. Note re grant to Fleet Study Group for exploratory boreholes. Geologists' Association, Circular , 901:7.
Arkell , W.J. 1947 (reprinted 1953). The Geology of the Country around Weymouth, Swanage, Corfe and Lulworth. Memoir of the Geological Survey, 386 pp. [Good discussion of the Chesil Beach, prior to the later work of Carr etc.]

Arkell, W.J. 1949. Erratics in Dorset shingle beaches. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 70, 125.

Arkell, W.J. 1956. The effects of storms on Chesil Beach in November, 1954. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, (for 1954, published in 1956) vol. 76, 141-145. [by W.J. Arkell, D.Sc., F.R.S.. Starts: When collecting material for the Geological Survey memoir on the Weymouth district in 1935-8, I experienced great difficulty in finding authentic records of the effects of violent storms on Chesil Beach. Old accounts, often quoted, suggest that on rare occasions parts of the beach have been washed away. ..]

[text location: Chesil Bibliography - end of Arkell ]
Atkinson , E.H.T. 1927. some Abbotsbury records. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, 48, 70-85. [Discussion of seepage through the beach and overtopping, the former believed to be more important.]
Attwooll , M. 1998. Discover Dorset: Shipwrecks. The Dovecote Press, Stanbridge, Wimborne, Dorset, 79 pp. ISBN 1-874336-59-8.

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Baden-Powell , D.F.W. 1930. On the geological evolution of Chesil Bank. Geological Magazine, 67, 499-513.
Barber , C. 2001. Walk the East Devon Coast: Lyme Regis, Seaton, Beer, Branscombe, Sidmouth, Budleigh Salterton, Sandy Bay, Exmouth, Lympstone. Obelisk Publications, 32 pages with many photographs. Booklet £2.50p. By Chips Barber. [Discusses the Hooken Cliff landslide, near Beer Head, in 1790.]

Barber , C. 2001. The Story of Dawlish Warren. Obelisk Publications. 32 pp., paperback, with many old monochrome photographs and much detailed and informative text. By Chips Barber, author of many other publications on Dawlish, Exeter, Dartmoor etc. First published in 2001 by Obelisk Publcations, 2 Church Street, Pinhoe, Exeter, Devon. ISBN - 1 903585 07 4. Price only £2.50p. Usually available at the Nature Reserve Visitor Centre, Dawlish Warren. [Very interesting account of the history of Dawlish Warren, with much information on the since destroyed bungalow territory of the Outer Warren, or Exmouth Warren.]
Barnes , J. and Legg, R. 1976. Portland Souvenir Magazine. Published by the Portland Branch of the Royal Naval Association, 2 Clarence Road, Portland, 24pp. John Barnes was the Executive Editor; Rodney Legg wrote the text. Portland Souvenir Magazine: new edition featuring the island's past for both visitors and residents - large map of historic Portland, features on wreckers, smugglers, convicts, submarine tragedies, wartime heroism, epitaphs. With many old photographs. This is the same as the reference to Legg, 1976.
Bastos , A. and Collins, M. 2002. Seabed Mobility and Sediment Transport Pathways Along the Dorset Inner Continental Shelf (Southern UK). Report to SCOPAC, School of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, Southampton Oceanography Centre. Vol. 1, 93pp; Atlas, 21 plates.

Bastos , A., Kenyon, N. and Collins, M. 2000. Symmetrical sand transport and deposition patterns associated with headlands: preliminary results. A poster at the Southampton Oceanography Centre (authors are at SOC). Abstract: Bathymetric, hydrodynamic and side scan sonar are being used to investigate the sediment processes associated with a headland - Isle of Portland (Pingree, 1978). However, first results show a fairly symmetrical distribution of bedforms, being apparently associated with net bedload transport patterns. Instead of residual circulation the transient nature of the flow during the tidal cycle (transient edies) should be controlling the bedload transport patterns and, as a consequence, the formation of the sedimentary deposits is related to the gradient in bottom stress. Some of the asymmetry of the morphology of the deposits is due to the greater influence of waves on the west side of the headland. This will lead to hypotheses that will have general application to coastal zone sediment transport. (data also provided to Dorset County Council)

Bastos , A., Kenyon, N. and Collins, M. 2002. Sedimentary processes, bedforms and facies, associated with a coastal headland: Portland Bill, Southern UK. Marine Geology, 3178, 1-24 (in press). Abstract: This investigation presents new findings on the sedimentary processes and deposits associated with a coastal headland, in a mixed tidal-wave setting, using data compilation (bathymetric and sediment distribution maps), collected field data (side-scan sonar and sea-bed sampling) and sand transport modelling. Sand transport pathways are described: (a) on the basis of coupled-system seabed morphology/sand distribution; and (b) from bed shear stress and (medium-grained) sand transport rate simulations. The presence of a sequence of sedimentary deposits, associated with a complex suite of bedforms and sedimentary facies within an overall framework of limited sediment supply, represents a gradient in shear stress and sand transport towards the headland. These sequences are observed on both sides of Portland Bill, tending towards a symmetrical distribution. The sedimentary facies distribution is combined with sand transport rates and maximum bed shear stress distribution, to suggest a conceptual model for sand dispersal and deposit formation around headlands. Sand dispersal can be explained in terms of a headland-associated eddy/bedload convergent zone concept. Maximum bed shear stress is observed at the tip of the headland and is associated with bedrock exposed on the seabed. The sequence of sedimentary deposits away from the headland is: sandbanks (Shambles and Porland Banks); sand/gravel flats; sand shoals (Adamant and West Shoals); and rippled sand sheets. The banks lie in an area of very high bed shear stress (u* = 0.08 metres per second); this is greater than that for other tidal sandbanks, not associated with headlands. Bank formation is the result of the strong convergent (transport) component, enhanced by the development of transient headland eddies. The sandbanks are to some extent also morphologically controlled, i.e. the Portland Bank is affected by the deep bathymetry to the west side of Portland Bill. The principal characteristics of headland-associated eddy/bedload convergent zones is the development of bed shear stress convergent zones, on both sides of the headland. Two conceptually distinct regions of sedimentary processes, associated with the coastal headlands are recognised: (a) an inner zone, with increasing gradients in sand transport and bed shear stress towards the headland; and (b) an outer zone, in which sand transport is away from the headland, associated with a decrease in the shear stress. These zones merge into a bed shear stress (sand bedload transport) convergent zone, which enhances the formation of sandbanks around headlands. Thus, headland-associated sedimentary deposits are a complex system, compared with the occurrence of isolated sandbanks described elsewhere. The identification of a sequence of deposits related to and extending much further from the headland than previously supposed, demonstrates that the 'tidal stirring concept' of headland-associated sandbanks may explain the formation of headland-associated sandbanks; however, it ignores the presence of a suite of sedimentary deposits around such headlands. The conceptual model proposed here provides a sedimentological perspective on the formation and occurrence of headland-associated deposits, including sandbanks... The authors (Alex C. Bastos, Neil H. Kenyon and Michael Collins) are at the School of Ocean and Earth Science, and the Challenger Division, University of Southampon, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Empress Dock, Southampton, SO14 3 ZH.
Bell , M. and Walker, M.J.C. 1992. Late Quaternary Environmental Change: Physical and Human Perspectives. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, Essex, England. 273 pp. ISBN 0-582-04514-2.
Berch , V.N. 1926. A Detailed Historical Account of All the Floods that Occurred in St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg. [Details of the 1824 storm surge in St. Petersburg. This reference was apparently used by Alexandr Pushkin when writing the Bronze Horseman. It has not been seen by the present author.]
Bird , E.C.F. 1972. The physiography of the Fleet. Proceedings of Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, for 1971, published 1972, volume 93, 119-124.

Bird , E.C.F. 1990 (for 1989). The beaches of Lyme Bay. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society for 1989, published June 1990, 111, 91-97. By the late Eric Bird, then at Department of Geography, University of Melbourne, Australia. Abstract: The beaches of Lyme Bay consist largely of flint and chert shingle, with some sand, derived from eroding cliffs and sea floor sources. They include Chesil Beach, which shows lateral grading from small pebbles in the west to large pebbles in the east. Several other beaches on the north coast of Lyme Bay also show lateral grading, low beaches of poorly sorted sand and shingle to the west becoming higher and often wider, coarser and better sorted to the east. Lateral grading is attributed to an alternation of eastward beach drifting by strong south-westerly wave action with westward movement of finer material by gentler southeasterly wave action. Whereas Chesil Beach is a relict shingle formation, the other beaches are still receiving small quantities of sand and shingle. Cliff erosion and slumping are more rapid behind low beach sectors than where a high, wide accumulation of coarse shingle protects the shore. It is suggested that artificial beach nourishment should be used as a method of coastal protection on the shores of Lyme Bay. [end of abstract]["The Shambles Shoal, east of Portland Bill, is a possible source of gravelly material suitable for use in the nourishment of beaches on the shores of Lyme Bay.]

Bird, E.C.F. 1996. Lateral grading of beach sediments: a commentary. Journal of Coastal Research, vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 774-785.

[text location:Chesil Bibliography - end of Bird references]
Bissat, J. 1990. Chesil Peril? Western Gazette (newspaper), 22, February, 1990.


Black , W.J. 1879. Remarks on the Chesil Bank. Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, 15, 43-50.
Bond , W.R.G. 1951. Theories as to the origin of the Chesil Beach. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 73, 163-170.
Boult, E. 2003. Christian's Fleet: A Dorset Shipping Tragedy. Tempus Publishing Ltd., The Mill, Brinscombe Port, Stroud, Gloucester, GL5 2QG. 160 pp. ISBN 0 7524 2783 0. Price £15. 99p. In November 1795 the greatest fleet to leave Britain's shores set sail for the West Indies. On board the hundreds of ships were tens of thousands of men off to fight the French. Commanded by Admiral Christian, the fleet sailed into the worst storm for a century. Most of the ships made it to safety - although some were blown backwards from one end of the English Channel to the other. Some ships were not so lucky. Six ships met their fate, blown against the steeply-banked shingle of Chesil Beach. On a beach well known for its tragedies, this one was unsurpassed. The transports carried hundreds of men and only a handful escaped to tell the tale. Many of the dead were so disfigured by the pounding waves and by being hurled onto the pebble beach that they were unrecognisable. For weeks after, the seas cast up dead bodies and untold pieces of wreckage. It was even said that the wreckers and salvagers of Chesil and Portland spent much of that night rescuing cargo and abandoned the survivors to their fate. Christian's Fleet is the story of the fateful night of 18/19 November 1795, of the tragedy that unfolded and of its aftermath. Using firsthand reports from Admiral Christian, the survivor Mrs Burns and William Shrapnell, one of the soldiers who helped recover the bodies and rescue survivors, the book is the definitive account of the sinking of Christian's ships and the aftermath of the tragic loss of so many lives. [A hurricane hit the English Channel and wrecked ships on the Chesil Beach. It was a very bad storm but did not have as much effect on the bank or the Fleet Lagoon as the 1824 storm.]
Brampton , A.H. 1996. Portland Harbour Study. In: Papers and Proceedings, SCOPAC Seminar on the Development of Shoreline Management Plans: Experiences and Initiatives, SCOPAC, 13-22.
Brannon , P. 1860. The Illustrated Historical and Picturesque Guide to Swanage and the Isle of Purbeck with a Clear Digest of the Geology and a Minute Description of the Coast from Bournemouth Bay to White Nore. Published by R. Sydenham, London, Longman and Company. 106pp. By Philip Brannon, Archt. C.E. etc., 12 Portland Terrace, Southampton, 2nd Edition. Local publisher was Mr. Richard Sydenham of Poole.
Dr. Malcolm J. Bray. Department of Geography, University of Portsmouth, Buckingham Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth, PO1 3HE. The leading specialist on the Chesil Beach, with many good publications on the subjective, including new quantitative data.

Bray , M.J. 1986. A Geomorphological Investigation of the South West Dorset Coast. Volume 1: Patterns of Sediment Supply. Report to Dorset County Council, 144pp. [Sediment supply to the west Dorset beaches and in the past a source of nourishment to the Chesil Beach.]

Bray, M.J. 1986. A Geomorphological Investigation of the South West Dorset coast. Volume 1: Patterns of Sediment Transport. Report to Dorset County Council, 798pp. [Sediment in the past was transported to the Chesil Beach from the West Dorset beaches.]

Bray, M.J. 1990. A Geomorphological Investigation of the South West Dorset Coast. Volume 2: Patterns of Sediment Supply. Report to Dorset County Council, 144pp. [Sediment supply to the west Dorset beaches and in the past a source of nourishment to the Chesil Beach.]

Bray, M.J. 1992a. Coastal sediment supply and transport [re West Dorset]. In: Allison, R.J. (Ed.) 1992. The Coastal Landforms of West Dorset. The Geologists' Association, 134 pp., paperback, pp. 94-105. [Supply and transport of material that in the past went to the Chesil Beach.]

Bray, M.J. 1992b. Chesil Beach. In: Allison, R.J. (Ed.) 1992. The Coastal Landforms of West Dorset. The Geologists' Association, 134 pp., paperback, pp. 106-118. [This is a good and very useful paper; there is no abstract, but the following is an example extract of the text. See the original.] Example extract: "Reappraisal of Chesil Beach in the light of new information confIrms its relict status, although this is probably a much more recent phenomenon than previously supposed. Transport from the eroding coast to the west could have supplied 14 to 18 million cubic metres of shingle over the last 4,000 to 5,000 years until the link was broken at West Bay harbour mouth in 1866. The beach must therefore be recognised as the major sink for coarse, durable products of coast erosion in west Dorset and east Devon over this period. These materials have been mixed with much larger quantities of gravel combed from the floor of Lyme Bay during the Holocene transgression and may have continued to nourish the beach as landward recession slowed 4,000 to 5,000 years ago.
It can be postulated that the survival and possible enlargement of the beach during the rapidly rising sea-level of the Holocene transgression can be attributed to continued shingle supply and a facility for landward recession. With current predictions of increased rates of sea-level rise and the potential for climatic change, Chesil Beach is entering a critical period in its evolution. Natural response mechanisms may be ineffective because the beach is now a finite resource and further landward recession is not possible at some locations due to adjacent cliffs and coast protection I sea defence requirements. Appropriate management responses may be necessary to carefully balance scientifIc interest against coastal protection."

Bray, M.J. 1996. Beach Budget Analysis and Shingle Transport Dynamics, West Dorset. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Department of Geography, London School of Economics, University of London, 641 pp.

Bray, M.J., 1997. Episodic shingle supply and the modified development of Chesil Beach, England. Journal of Coastal Research, vol. 13, No.4, pp. 1035-1049.

Bray, M.J. 2007. Formation of the Chesil Beach: a review. University of Portsmouth. 6 pp. (a typscript)
An account is provided of the discussion and debate associated with the developing scientific understanding of the origin and development of the beach. It lists some of the earlier theories before going on to consider further insights and refinements achieved in recent decades allowing a sequence of evolution to be formulated. It is thought that the precursor of the present beach developed in Lyme Bay as a linear transgressive barrier under the control of rising sea-levels of the mid to late Holocene. Critically this beach then became nourished and reinforced by gravels delivered from eroding cliffs within central Lyme Bay that drifted eastwards. [This is a very good and clear, well-organised and brief review! Recommended.]

Bray, M., Carter, D. and Hooke, J. 2004. South Coast Sediment Transport Study. Report to SCOPAC. Five volumes, 1200 pages and a CD-Rom. See the section on Lyme Regis to Portland Bill. Also available on the SCOPAC website .

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Bristow , H.W. and Whitaker, W. 1869. On the formation of the Chesil Bank, Dorset. Geological Magazine, 6, 433-440. Discussion p. 325. Letter in answer to Col. Greenwood, p. 574.



British Geological Survey (BGS). (Compiler Wood, M.A.) 2011. Geology of South Dorset and South-East Devon and its World Heritage Coast.

The cover of the 2011 South Dorset Memoir of the British Geological Survey

An example page from the British Geological Survey, South Dorset Memoir, 2011

Special Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheets 328 Dorchester, 342 West Fleet and Weymouth and 342/343 Swanage and parts of sheets 326/340 Sidmouth, 327 Bridport, 329 Bournemouth and 330 Newton Abbott. Compile by M.A. Woods. By Barton, C.M., Woods, M.A., Bristow, C.R., Newell, A.J., Westhead, R.K., Evans, D.J., Kirby G.A., and Warrington, G. Contributors: Biostratigraphy - J.B. Riding; Stratigraphy - E.C. Freshney; Economic Geology - D.E. Highley and G.K. Lott; Engineering Geology - A. Forster and A. Gibson. British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, 2011. 161 pp. This is the new version of the Geological Survey Memoir for the Dorset Coast etc. and replaces Arkell (1947) and the earlier memoir by Strahan (1898). It covers a wider area than these old memoirs, though, and includes all of "Jurassic Coast", UNESCO World Heritage Coast. It is a key reference work. Available from BGS Online Bookshop at 24 pounds stirling (in Jan. 2012).


British Geological Survey . Geological Map, Sheet 5ON 04NW - Portland, scale 1:250,000. Originally published from the Institute of Geological Sciences, Natural Environment Research Council. [This shows the geology of the sea-floor off the Chesil Beach.]

British Geological Survey . 2000. Geological Map, England and Wales, West Fleet and Weymouth, Sheet 341 and part of 342, scale 1:50,000, Solid and Drift edition. New edition 2000. [This shows the geology of the sea-floor off the Chesil Beach on a fairly large scale. Older editions of the maps on the one inch to one mile exist but do not show the sea-floor geology]
Bruce , P. 1989. Inshore along the Dorset Coast. First Edition, Boldre Marine, Lymington. 115p + charts. Paperback. By Peter Bruce. There was a second edition in 1996. [Useful for local names and coastal detail for the eastern Dorset coast. It has information on the Isle of Portland and tidal stream data for the area. Chapter 9, p. 82 et seq., is on Portland Harbour and the Fleet.]

Bruce , P. 2001. Inshore along the Dorset Coast. Third Edition, Boldre Marine, Lymington. 134pp. Paperback. ISBN 1-871680-26-3 By Peter Bruce. Price was £14.95. From the back cover blurb: This is a book for seafarers and landsmen who have reason to visit the exceptionally beautiful and interesting east Dorset coast. It covers the area from Christchurch Bay to Portland Bill and gives in detail all the nautical lore, delights, tidal streams and history that most people would ever want to know. Every bay, every landing place and every feature has been surveyed in detail and researched to provide expert local knowledge. Furthermore the text is richly illustrated by superb aerial and sea level colour photographs which add considerably to the value of this unique book for those who venture on the water in any kind of craft, or for those who are curious about marine aspects of the coastline. [This book is very useful for local names and coastal detail for the eastern Dorset coast. This edition has very good colour photographs, many of them aerial photographs. Chapter 9, p. 102 et seq, is on Portland Harbour. Chapter 10 p.102 et seq., is on the Fleet Lagoon.]
Brunsden, D. 1999. Chesil Beach - Two Ideas, in: Allison, R.J. (Ed.) Dorset Revisited: Position Papers and Research Statements. West Dorset Coastal Research Group (British Geomorphological Research Group), pp. 19-22.

Brunsden , D., Coombe, K., Goudie, A.S. and Parker, A.G. 1996. The structural geomorphology of the Isle of Portland, southern England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, 107, 209-230. [This is a key paper.]
Abstract: The Isle of Portland, southern England, is composed of gently folded Upper Jurassic Beds ranging from the Kimmeridge Clay through the Portland Group to the Lower Purbeck Group which are gently folded to form part of the northern end of the Shambles Syncline. The essential arrangement of the beds is for hard, jointed well-bedded and permeable Purbeck and Portland limestones to overlie the Kimmeridge Clay members. The jointing along NW-SE, NE-SW, N-S and E-W master and conjugate sets closely parallels the axis of the syncline and the NNE-SSW fault pattern of the Purbeck Anticline and is a major regional landform control at all scales from the occurrence and form of individual rock falls to the shape of the island itself. Portland has a large number of landslips, which have been mapped from colour air photography. Their spatial pattern is spectacularly related to the geological conditions of the island and varies in size and type in a systematic manner as the thickness of clay and orientation of the dip changes with respect to coastline orientation. The slips, which occur predominantly in the winter months after heavy rainfall, are of frequent occurrence and pose major hazards to engineering structures. The landslide pattern and the overall morphology of the island is used to suggesta tentative model of landscape evolution which emphasizes the process of lateral spreading, loading, clay extrusion and erosional unloading. End of authors' abstract. [Not primarily on the Chesil Beach but a key paper regarding the geomorphology of the Isle of Portland.]

Brunsden , D. and Chandler, J.H., 1996. Development of an Episodic Landform Change Model Based Upon the Black Ven Mudslide 1946-1995, in: Advances in Hillslope Processes, Anderson, M.G. and Brooks, S.M. (Eds), J. Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp 869-896, ISBN 0 471 96774 2. [Source region for Chesil Beach chert etc. See also other Brunsden publications re Black Ven etc.]

Brunsden , D. and Goudie, A. 1981. Classic Coastal Landforms of Dorset. Geographical Association, Landform Guides, No. 1, 39 pp.
Buckland , W.A. and De la Beche, H.T. 1836. On the geology of the neighbourhood of Weymouth and the adjacent parts of the coast of Dorsetshire. Transactions of the Geological Society of London, series 2, vol.4, pp. 1-46.
Burnett , D. 1982. Dorset Before the Camera, 1539-1855. Drawing, prints and watercolours. The Dovecote Press, Stanbridge, Wimborne, Dorset. ISBN 0 9503518 7 3. By David Burnet.[This is a collection of 134 monochrome illustrations. Many of geological or geomorphological interest. E.g. Fig. 24 shows Lyme Regis from the Cobb in the 1840s, figs 33-36 some Portland and Purbeck quarry images, fig. 54 Portland Castle in early 19th Century, Fig 72 and 73 the ship the Unity being driven ashore at Lyme Regis during the hurricane and storm surge of November 1824, fig 79 Lyme Regis in a picture published in 1819, fig. 80 Lyme Regis, fig. 87 the west end of Weymouth Esplanade in 1821 before the hurricane, fig. 88 Swanage in the 1850s, fig. 91 Weston on Portland in 1802, fig. 100 Poole Quay shown as an oblique aerial view in 1833, fig. 102 map of Poole Harbour in 1585, fig. 103 Poole and the Harbour from Constitution Hill in 1823, fig. 108 and 109 Weymouth in about 1790 before the hurricane, fig 110 the Marine Hotel Weymouth at the southern end of the sand spit during a storm in 1802, fig. 115 West Bay Bridport in 1825, fig. 116 and 117 West Bay in early 19 century, fig. 119 Seatown in 1723 with ships proceeding up the estuary, fig. 120 Lyme Regis and the Cobb in 1539 as a oblique aerial view, fig. 121 Lyme Regis in 1723 as an oblique aerial view, fig. 122 Gun Cliff Lyme Regis in 1832, fig. 123 Lyme Regis in the 1840s, fig. 128 and 129 the horse and rope ferry at Smallmouth Wyke Regis with Chesil Beach.]
Burton Bradstock Online (burtonbradstockonline). Webpage:
Historical List of Shipwrecks at Chesil Beach & from Bridport to Lyme Regis.
Extract included by kind permission of David Burnett (Dovecote Press) and provided by Weymouth Library from a book on Dorset Shipwrecks by David Burnett (now out of print). Current book is "Shipwrecks" in the 'Discover Dorset Series' by Maureen Attwooll (Dovecote Press).

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Camden , W. 1586. Britannia. 1st English Edition. 1610 (originally in latin). Not seen but referred to by Carr and Blackley, 1974.
Carr A.P. - key publications on the Chesil Beach by Alan P. Carr, the main authority on this topic

Carr, A.P. 1969. Size grading along a pebble beach; Chesil Beach, England. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 39, 297-311. Abstract: The paper discusses aspects of the grading of a pebble beach, Chesil Beach, Dorset, England. Because of the prevailing conditions, grading is especially well developed along this beach. The principles included apply elsewhere. The initial samples were taken in July, 1965, from the surface along 23 lines of section extending over a distance of 26 km. The number of sites per section varied between 3 and 11 and included the main Beach Crest, and High and Low Water Mark. The same section lines were used for monthly sampling at High and Low Water Mark on alternate series of Spring Tides until July, 1966. Samples were also obtained from a number of boreholes through either the beach ridge or the back slope of the beach, and from the Raised Beach nearby. Generally 500 pebbles were analyzed. The initial samples were measured for long diameter, short diameter, and weight, but both monthly and borehole samples were examined for long diameter alone. The data were computed for mean, standard deviation, and standard error. The results show that Low Water samples are frequently bimodal; that certain landward samples are of a different population to the adjacent Beach Crest and seaward face, and that a higher proportion of coarser material is found near, but not necessarily on, the present Beach Crest. The profile along the beach suggests a marked inflection of pebble size both along the Beach Crest and at High Water towards the eastern end, and greater variability toward the west. Monthly variations at High Water Mark suggest rapid lateral transport from time to time. The tendency towards bimodal distributions at Low Water, and the presence of different size ranges there compared with the rest of the adjacent beach, reflects both current beach processes and mode of origin. Boreholes sited on the Beach Crest indicate fine material at and below present-day Low Water Mark. There is a suggestion of grading below the present-day beach level The Raised Beach samples fall within the range of the present-day beach. The significance of these results is discussed.

Carr, A.P. 1971. Experiments on longshore transport and sorting of pebbles: Chesil Beach, England. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 41, 1084-1104.

Carr, A.P. 1978. The long Chesil shingle. Geographical Magazine, vol. 50, No. 10, pp. 677-680.

Carr, A.P. 1980. Chesil Beach and the adjacent area: outline of existing data and suggestions for further research. Institute of Oceanographic Sciences Report to Dorset County Council and Wessex Water Authority, 21 pp.

Carr, A.P. 1981a. Chesil Beach: aspects of its structure, stability and the processes acting upon it. Pp. 9-14 in: Ladle M. (ed.) The Fleet and Chesil Beach. A Scientific Account Compiled by the Fleet Study Group: Structure and Biology of a Unique Coastal Feature. 74pp. ISBN No. 0 85216 288X. Printed by Dorset County Council. August, 1981. [14 papers about the Fleet and Chesil Beach deriving from a one day seminar held at the Dorset County Museum. Reproduced typescript with diagrams. Preface by A.T. Swindall, County Planning Officer, County Hall, Dorchester, Dorset. Editor: M. Ladle, The River Laboratory, East Stoke, Wareham, Dorset.]

Carr, A.P. 1981b. Chesil Beach: aspects of its structure, stability and the processes acting upon it. Pp. 9-14. In: Ladie, M. (Editor) 1981. The Fleet and Chesil Beach: Structure and Biology of a Unique Coastal Features. 74 pp. ISBN 0 85216 288X. A scientific account compiled by the Fleet Study Group. Double-spaced typescript, A4 paperback with monochrome diagrams on sale at low cost at the Chesil Beach Centre, and available for reference in the Tophill Library, Easton, Portland.

Carr, A.P. 1981c. The Chesil Beach - paper read by Dr A.P. Carr at the Royal Geographical Society on Monday, 2nd November, 1981. Extract from synopsis:
Chesil Beach has probably always been overtopped from time to time with resulting slow, local, recession of the crest and flooding inland notably at Chiswell, Portland. However, flooding appears to have been more frequent in recent years. Whether this reflects more awareness, greater economic importance of the Portland-Weymouth road link, or the effects of land reclamation at Chiswell, Portland, has been the subject of dispute. Flooding can occur both by seepage through the beach and overtopping, and either as a result of locally generated storm waves or, atypically, long-period swell.
Evidence shows that over the period 1955-1978 little change occurred in detailed form of the beach crest but marked vertical changes (up to 2.7m) took place during the 1978-79 winter, principally on 13 February 1979. This reflects the contrast between the storm waves and the long period swell. The February event resulted in modifications of the same order as the net changes which occurred between 1852 and 1968/9 and suggest that the 1852-1968/9 changes could have been brought about almost entirely by the extreme long-period swell event of 1904.
Measures to ameliorate flooding and protect the beach crest and coastline have been proposed at both ends of the beach, Chiswell and West Bay, Bridport. While most of these are acceptable and inevitable in a geomorphic context the large-scale deployment of gabions along the crest near Chiswell and the concept of the introduction of atypical grades and geological types of beach material must be viewed with concern. The conflicting interests between community and national (even international) scales and short-term engineering solution v long-term scientific and educational interests needs extended examination.

[text location:Chesil Bibliography - Carr references ]

Carr, A.P. 1983a. Chesil Beach: environmental economic and social pressures. Geographical Journal, 149, 53-62.

Carr, A.P. 1983b. Scientific conservation as a minority interest: the example of Chesil Beach. Earth Science Conservation, No. 20, February 1983, 2-10.

Carr, A.P. 1987. Chesil Beach. Pp. 96-98 in: Barber, K.E. 1987. Wessex and the Isle of Wight: Field Guide. Quaternary Research Association. Cambridge. 180 pp. Prepared to accompany the Annual Field Meeting held at Southampton and Cowes, 21-25 April, 1987.

Carr, A.P. and Blackley, M.W.L. 1969. Geological composition of the pebbles of Chesil Beach, Dorset. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 90 (for 1968), 133-140.

Carr, A.P. and Blackley, M.W.L. 1973. Investigations bearing on the age and development of Chesil Beach, Dorset and the associated area. [paper regarding the - 26m channel] Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, No. 58, March 1973, pp. 99-111. Revised MS received 2nd May, 1972. By the late A.P. Carr, formerly Principal Scientific Officer, the Nature Conservancy, and M.W.L Blackley, at that date, Experimental Officer, the Nature Conservancy. Available online from JSTOR.
Recent site investigations and research on Chesil Beach, Dorset, have provided new data which help to shed light on the origin of both the Beach and the lagoonal Fleet which is situated to landward. A channel of the order of minus 26 metres is indicated between the Isle of Portland and the mainland [note: the discovery of this channel is important regarding the geological history of the area]. Under much of the Fleet there is a break of slope of about minus 15 m OD. This is associated with pebbles, cobbles and boulders and takes the form of storm beach with planation surface to seaward. Overlying this surface are various deposits dating from Pollen Zone VI onward. In the light of these data the surface must, as in the case of those at Orford, Suffolk, be entirely Pre-Flandrian. A tentative chronology is given. [end of abstract].

[The following extract is the start of the paper:]
The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects of the evolution of the Chesil Beach in relation to the Fleet and the Portland Raised Beach. The paper describes certain facets of recent work carried out in the area by the former Physiographical Section of the Nature Conservancy and incorporates new data from elsewhere.
Chesil Beach is one of the three major shingle structures on the coast of Great Britain and the only one without a cuspate form of development. The beach extends at least 18km from Chesilton in the east, where it terminates against the cliffs of the so-called Isle of Portland, to an arbitary limit in the west. (For location of most places referred to in the text, see Figure 1a.) At both ends the shingle structure is joined to the mainland but over the remaining 13 km it is backed by the shallow tideless Fleet. The latter varies in width from under 100 m to some 900 m, and in depth from less - 0.3 m to nearly - 3 m O.D. (Ordnance Datum, Newlyn, is approximately mean sea level at this site.)
Opposite the Fleet, Chesil Beach is between 150 and 200 m wide but is narrower both adjacent to the cliffs to the west and at the extreme eastern end. The crest is broken intermittently at the western end but extends continuously from just east of Section 12 in Figure 1a to Chesilton. While minor irregularities of the order of 0.5m, and occasionally more, occur throughout this distance, the broad picture is of a progressively increasing ridge height from east to west, the maximum of 14.7 m OD being found near Chesilton. Pebble size above low water mark also increases in the same direction. Pebble composition is overwhelmingly of flint and chert (A.P. Carr and M.W. Blackley, 1969). Offshore the beach drops at a gradient broadly similar to that of the seaward face above low-water. [continues..]

Carr, A.P. and Blackley, M.W.L. 1974. Ideas on the origin and development of Chesil Beach, Dorset. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society (for 1973), 95, 9-17.

Carr, A.P. and Gleason, R. 1972. Chesil Beach, Dorset and the cartographic evidence of Sir John Coode. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 93, 125-131. (Volume for 1971).

Carr, A. P., Gleason, R. and King, A. C. 1970. Significance of pebble size and shape in sorting by waves. Sedimentary Geology, 4, 89-101.

Carr, A.P. and Seward, D.R. 1991. Chesil Beach: changes in crest height 1969-1990. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society,for 1990, issued 1991,volume 112, 109-112. By Alan P. Carr and Dennis R. Seaward. Abstract: Comparisons of the changes in beach crest height along a 15.5 km length of Chesil Beach over a 21-year period indicate a variable. but almost universal lowering. On average this was 0.5 m with a maximum fall of almost 2.4 m opposite the Abbotsbury swannery. The implications of these changes are discussed. [end of abstract].
Example extract of text: Introduction and Methods: Anecdotal evidence suggested that the crest height of Chesil Beach had undergone substantial lowering through storm conditions during the 1989-90 winter. It was therefore decided to survey the crest from just E. of Castle Hill Cottages, Abbotsbury - that is the western end of Abbotsbury Beach - to the beginning of the Chiswell (Chesilton) sea wall, a distance of 17 km. This work was undertaken between mid-November and mid-December 1990, i.e. prior to the incidence of winter 1990-91 gales. (All places referred to in the text are shown in Figure 1). A total of approximately 830 height readings were taken, typically varying in number between 20 and 30 per 0.5 km, mainly depending upon the irregularities in the crestline. The survey was tied into Ordnance Survey benchmarks at each end of the traverse and to intermediate survey points established between 1965 and 1969. The opportunity was taken to establish additional height control along much of the length of the beach. Earlier surveys had been carried out by John Coode in 1852 (Carr and Gleason, 1972), and by one of the authors of this paper (APC) for the Nature Conservancy in 1969 and, again, for the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, NERC, in March 1979. The latter survey was limited to the beach southeast of the Portland Boundary stone and was intended to examine the cumulative effects of storm waves in December 1978 and the 'surge event' of February 1979 (Carr, 1983a). The 1990 field data was subsequently superimposed on a plot of the 1969 and 1979 surveys. Four approximately 2 km lengths are reproduced as Figure 2(a-d). They extend between about 2.4-4.5, 5.9-8.0, 11.4-13.5 and 14.9-17.0 km E. of Castle Hill Cottages, respectively.. [continues]

Carr, A.P., Seaward, D.R. and Sterling P.H. (editors) 2000. The Fleet Lagoon and Chesil Beach; Proceedings of the Third Symposium of the Fleet Study Group (revised edition).Published by Chesil Bank and the Fleet Nature Reserve in partnership with Dorset County Council at County Hall, Dorchester, Dorset, in 2000. 112 pp, papeback, ISBN 0952402204. Has been on sale at the Chesil Beach Centre.

1. The role of the Fleet Study Group - J. FitzPatrick - 7.
2. The Fleet, Dorset, in relation to other coastal lagoons - R.S.K. Barnes - 9.
3. The role of the Ilchester Estates - E.W.S. Green - 13.
4. The Fleet - an introduction to the physical environment - G.G. Poole - 15.
5. Chesil Beach: recent changes in a longer term context - A.P. Carr - 23.
6. Cored material from the Fleet: some initial inferences - E.D.K. Coombe - 31.
7. Fleet water temperatures - D.R. Seaward - 41.
8. The evolution of the Fleet during the last c. 5000 years, based on the evidence of the Foraminifera and Ostracoda - J.E. Whittaker - 45.
9. A preliminary report on diatom samples collected from the Fleet in Dorset - B. Hardey - 57.
10. Zostera and Ruppia in the Fleet - N.T.H. Holmes - 67.
11. Flowering plants of the shores of the Fleet - S.M. Eden - 75.
12. A preliminary survey of the Rotifera of the Fleet - A. Saunders-Davies - 77.
13. Invertebrate faunal studies in the Fleet - C. Pickering, M. Ladle & M. Sheader - 79.
14. Oysters: their variation in time and space - J. Winder - 83.
15. Pacific oyster spatfall monitoring in the Fleet Lagoon as part of the )NCC survey of non-native marine species - N.C. Eno - 85.
16. Opportunities, practice and problems of oyster culture in the Fleet - N. Copperthwaite - 89.
17. Monitoring oyster farming in the Fleet: benthic infauna - K.). Collins & V. Byfield - 93.
18. Factors affecting the numbers of waterfowl on the Fleet (1983-1993) - J.Fair - 101.
19. Management of the Fleet and Chesil Beach: a review of activities and issues - D.Elton - 105.
20. The Bridging of the Fleet at Smallmouth - J.C.Wagner & M.Wagner - 109.
21. The Dorset Coast - M.Turnbull - 111.

Some further information on the Carr paper:
Carr, A.P. 2000. Chesil Beach: recent changes in a longer-term context. Pp. 23-30 in Carr, A.P., Seaward, D.R. and Sterling P.H. (editors) 2000. The Fleet Lagoon and Chesil Beach; Proceedings of the Third Symposium of the Fleet Study Group (revised edition). Extract of the start: This paper briefly reviews evidence for the evolution of Chesil Beach on a geological timescale; thereafter it looks at significant descriptions by 16th to 18th century topographers, historians and cartographers and, finally, attempts to relate both these sets of data into the context of more recent change. Apart from the summary of the wave refraction data (Holmes, unpub.) and parts of both Table 1 and Figures 1 (site map) and 2, no new information is published here. For a general review of work on Chesil Beach and a comprehensive list of references up till that date, readers are recommended to go to Carr and Blackley (1974). More detailed information on the -specific aspects discussed here will be found in the various sources quoted especially Carr (1983a) and Carr and Seaward (1991, 1992).
Geological timescale : There seems little doubt that at earlier stages in geological history the hills to the landward side of the Fleet lagoon were exposed to marine action. Indeed, boreholes carried out for the CEGB indicate a cobble storm beach underlying the relatively recent (in a geological sense), unconsolidated, deposits of the Fleet. It is difficult to give a date to this (or these) event(s). (There may have been more than one because sea level is thought to have been at approximately its present relative height on several occasions during the Quaternary period.) An immediate problem is that if there were 'protoChesils' which finally became destroyed what happened to the bulk of the pebbles of which they were composed? It seems improbable that attrition rates of flints and cherts were sufficiently great to destroy the bulk of the constituents... [continues]
[text location:Chesil Bibliography - end of Carr references ]
Central Electricity Generating Board . 1968. Investigation of prospective nuclear power station sites: Portland Harbour and Tidmoor Point: part 1. Hydrographic Survey. [See also Hatwell and Dykes objection to a nuclear power station on the shores of the Fleet. They, however, referred to Herbury rather than Tidmoor Point. There was also a geological site investigation by the CEGB regarding the land behind the Fleet Lagoon.]
Chesil Beach Nature Reserve and Chesil Beach Visitor Centre . 2007. See website: Chesil Beach Nature Reserve and Chesil Beach Centre
There are a number of organisations concerned with helping to protect and understand the special environments of The Fleet and Chesil Beach. Use the links below to find out more about their activities [go to the Chesil Beach Nature Reserve website for links to these]. · The Fleet and Swannery Trust · Chesil Bank and The Fleet Nature Reserve · The Chesil Beach Visitors Centre · Fleet Study Group · The Fleet Observer · The Chesil Multimedia Project
Chesil Bank and Fleet Nature Reserve . 1991 onwards. Fleet News and Newsletter.

Chesil Bank and Fleet Nature Reserve. undated (but available in 2005). Chesil Bank and the Fleet Nature Reserve: Facts and Figures. Brochure 13 pp. The Royal Manor of Portland Chesil Beach Centre, Portland Beach Road, Portland, Dorset, DT4 9XE. tel. 01305-760579, fax. 01305-759692.
Chesil Area Society . 1988. Submission to the Dorset County Council. Regarding revision of the Dorset Structure Plan.
Clarke, N.J. 2000 (Sixth Reprint of 1982 publication). The Book of the Cobb, Lyme Regis. Nigel J. Clarke Publications, Unit 2, Russell House, Lym Close, Lyme Regis, Dorset, DT7 3DE. ISBN 0-907683 02 9. Booklet 22pp. [History of the Cobb harbour wall, Lyme Regis, including a record of damage by storms.]
Codrington , T. 1870. Some remarks on the formation of the Chesil Bank. Geological Magazine, 7, 23-25.
Committee on Scientific Memoranda . 1903. Twenty-third Report of the Committee [regarding Devon Science] - consisting of Mr. John S. Amery, Mr. Francis Brent, Dr, T. N. Brushfield, Mr. Robert Burnard, Mr, Alfred Chandler, Mr. E. A. S. Elliot, Mr. H. M. Evans, Mr. 0, E. Robinson, the Rev. William Harpley, Mr. J. Brooking-Rowe (Secretary), Mr. Alexander Somervail, and Mr. H. B. S. Woodhouse
- for the purpose of noting the discovery or occurrence of such facts in any department of scientific inquiry, and connected with Devon, as it may be desirable to place upon permanent record, but which may not be of sufficient importance in themselves to form the subject of separate papers.
Edited by J. Brooking-Rowe, Hon. Secretary. (Read at Sidmouth, Jn1y, 1003.) The notes contained in this Report relate to: I. Meteorology, II. Ornithology, III. Entomology, IV. Numismatics.
Page 81-131, Reports and Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature and Art , Volume 35 (vol.5 of Second Series). Sidmouth, July 1903 meeting. Plymouth, W. Brendon and Son, Printer. Volume has 831 pages. President Sir Edgar Vincent, K.C.M.G., M.P. [This article reports details of the 1824 Hurrricane and Storm Surge at Sidmouth, Devon and is relevant to the Chesil Beach in this respect. ]
Example extract: " A violent storm all night, quite a Hurricane! I never heard any-thing at all like it! The whole House shook, and our beds were rocked under us, as if they had felt the shock of an Earthquake! . . . (Nov. 24.) A most aweful scene presented itself to us this morning! Such a storm has not been Witnessed in the memory of man! . . . The sea poured in last night, and has very nearly destroyed the whole of the houses in front of it! The water came up as high as Harris'. The grocers, and people were taken out of their beds at night and conveyed in Boats to a place of Shelter: Everyone has lost something, and some poor people Every thing: never was there such a scene of devastation! All the Cottages under the Cliff were washed away: The Beach Walk is entirely destroyed, and covered with Shingle. Wallis' library is nearly knocked to pieces: and old Chit Rock, that gave its character to the Coast Scenery, is thrown down and nothing but its base remains. The rising of the sea was so sudden, that it almost appears to have been the effect of an earthquake! No language can describe the sad and desolate appearance which the Beach now presents, and the poor sufferers walking about, drenched in water, hardly knowing where to go or what to do, is enough to break one's heart...
I never was more frightened in my life than during the night. I almost expected the House to have fallen down. . . . It was impossible to sleep. . . . I can hardly attempt to describe my feelings. . . . The noise of the wind was like incessant Thunder, but there was something in it still more aweful and supernatural. It seemed to rage so perfectly without controul-so wild and free that nothing I ever heard before could be at all compared to it."
Coode , J. 1853. Description of the Chesil Bank, with remarks upon its origin, the causes which have contributed to its formation and upon the movement of shingle generally. Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 12, 530-546. [classic paper]
Coombe , E.D.K. 1982. Some Aspects of Coastal Landslips and Cliff-falls at Portland. Dissertation in the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the School of Geography, Oxford. This also exists, probably unchanged, in the form of an unpublished typescript for the Proceedings of Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, with 29 text-pages and 31 figures. The Dorset Proceedings version was not published because of its large size and dissertation format. By Mr. Ken Coombes of Exbourne, Wakeham, Portland, who at the time was a teacher of geography at Thornlow School, Weymouth. He received the Royal Geographical Society's annual award and Fellowship for this dissertation. [This is an extremely interesting account full of useful information on Portland and particularly on landslides. In particular it includes a map of joints on Portland. There is information on quarrying and history etc.]
Extract from the Introduction: As many geographers have pointed out, probably more has been written about the Dorset coast than about any other comparable stretch of British coastline and it includes the Island of Portland as part of its appeal, especially to the geomorphologist. Comparing the Dorset coast with/the Hampshire Basin to the East, and that of Devon to the west, one is faced with a coastline that is intermediate in character as well as in position. From the Permian at Paignton eastwards to Portland Bill, the whole of Lyme Bay has been eroded in generally soft Triassic and Jurassic deposits. It would seem that virtually all traces of an older coastline have been removed since the last significant sea level rise, leaving only the platform and raised beach at Portland Bill extant.
It is probably true that the Island of Portland's preservation is largely unexplained, more so, perhaps, as there is now firm evidence of a sea-floor continuation of Portland strata planed off during some previous marine epoch affecting an area eastwards to Purbeck, and westwards into Lyme Bay (Donovan and Stride, 1961). Thus ,one may infer that the island of Portland probably stood up as an island hill on some interglacial marine platform, and may be analagous to the chalk Highdown Hill standing above the Sussex coastal plain today.
Arkell (1947) p.342, maintains that... "Portland came into existence as a headland 4 miles long since the middle of the Palaeolithic period or thereabouts..."
As Steers (1954) p.260 suggests that post-glacial sea level changes were rapid enough for peat to be preserved on the Dogger Bank, it seems possible, ceteris paribus, that the relatively hard Portland Stone would preserve traces of an older cliff line, possibly of more than one age and of..one level, along the Dorset 6Dast. Because Portland is thus the. last vestige of the southern limb of the Weymouth anticline, it is unique not only as a relict landform, but also as an area for geomorphological study, especially of the effects of the Quaternary period. Portland has a relatively long coastline of some 15 kilometres under continuous wave attack encompassing an ever decreasing planimetric area currently of approximately 1160 hectares. Strahan (1898) p.114 quotes Dr. Fitton as maintaining... "Few places, probably in the world, exhibit with such clearness, and in so small a space, phenomena of more extraordinary interest and of greater importance to theory..."
It has long been noticed that the cliff falls and landsli at Portland are a prominent and noteworthy feature of the is land topography. Observers as early as Leland (1546) and Hutchins (1710), and as recent as Perkins (1977), have historically and variously regarded them as resulting from earthquake, Acts of God, etc., and more recently as rotational slips, or topples due to structural weaknesses in the lithology combined with wave attack.
The presence of the adjacent Chesil Beach is evidence of the massive 7,000 mile fetch from the southwest, and implies high wave energy expended on the island (Plate No. 1). The raised beach at Portland Bill with its axis at 90 degrees to Chesil also implies a dominant fetch at a former higher sea level and from a different direction. However important one regards marine erosion as a factor in the cliff falls, it is untrue to suggest that the sea has necessarily been a factor in all the slips on the island; but this adds greatly to the problems. Arkell (1947) (op.cit., p.353) notes: "The landslips round the cliffs of the northern half of Portland are to some extent intermediate between normal cliff slides and inland slips, for some are ancient and date from the original formation of the escarpment, before the sea approached. Others are very recent and are documented..."
It seems that little, if any, work has been published to date giving clear definitive description of the falls and slips, and apparently none with evidence to explain the complex nature of the falls, which from the writer's investigation cannot be placed into anyone simple category, but raise more problems than they answer. The vertical jointing running throughout the island has attracted much attention from geologists and others during the past 120 years. For example, Gray (1861) p.129, noted:
"Fissures which traverse the island from NE to SW, and extend from within a few feet of the surface down to the clay. It would seem also, from the fact of the fissures being independent of any particular bed, that they were produced subsequent to the deposition of the most recent formation developed on the island. The direction of the fissures is so constant, that quarrymen profess to ascertain, very nearly the hour of the day by the extent of the shadow cast in the opening.." ... [continues].

Coombe, E.D.K. 1998. Holocene Palaeoenvironments of the Fleet Lagoon. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Oxford.

[text location:Chesil Bibliography - end of Coombe references]
Cornish , V. 1898a. On the grading of the Chesil Beach shingle. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, 19, 113-121. By Vaughan Cornish.

Cornish, V. 1898b. On sea-beaches and sandbanks; 11. on the Chesil Beach, a local study in the grading of beach shingle. Geographical Journal, vol. 11, p. 628.

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Damon, Robert,

Robert Damon, 1814-1899, was a well-known Dorset geologist and collector of and dealer in fossils. He was born in Weymouth, with origins in a Flemish family. He ran a fossil shop at Augusta Place, the Esplanade, Weymouth. This shop is now a fish and chip shop (information kindly provided by his great, great grandaughter - Carole Burridge - nee Carole Damon, who lives in Bridport). Robert Damon was a Member of the Imperial Natural History Society of Moscow, and visited Russia in 1883, bringing back samples. His books are extremely interesting, with many diverse footnotes and sidelines. Robert Damon made a private collection of 400 Dorset fossils to illustrate his books. The Victoria Museum, Australia has ichthyosaurs from Damon, and many other museums contain fossils of his.

Damon , R. 1860. Handbook to the Geology of Weymouth and the Isle of Portland; with Notes on the Natural History of the Coast and Neighbourhood. By Robert Damon. Accompanied by a map of the district, geological sections, plates of fossils, coast views, and numerous other illustrations. London, Edward Stanton, 6 Charing Cross, 1860. This edition is available online in Google Book Search. The second edition, listed below is mostly the same but with some additions.

Damon , R. 1884. Geology of Weymouth, Portland, and Coast of Dorsetshire, from Swanage to Bridport-on-the-Sea: with Natural History and Archaeological Notes. New and Enlarged Edition (2nd Ed.), Weymouth, R.F. Damon, London, Edward Stanford. 250p. With a colour geological map of part of the Dorset coast, and including a log of the Purbeck strata of Durlston Bay, Swanage, by H. W. Bristow and Prof. E. Forbes (although note that it contains a small error). (A copy of Damon's second edition is in the possession of Ian West)
Preface to Second Edition
Since the issue of the First Edition increased attention has been given to the Geology of the coast of Dorsetshire, especially in the contributions of Messrs. Blake and Hudleston, and Professor Prestwich, which in part have been embodied in the present volume.
Elementary and explanatory notes are given for the use of those young in the study of the science.
A description of the geological formations of Swanage and Bridport, the two extremes of the district under consideration, is for more convenient reference placed towards the end.
The Geological Survey of this district was almost entirely made by Mr. Henry W. Bristow, Senior Director of the Geological Survey of Great Britain. To him I am greatly indepted for a final revision of the work. Mr. W. Topley, of the Survey, has also kindly given much assistance, as have also Messrs. G. Sharman and E. T. Newton with the lists of fossils. Mr. Etheridge has favoured me with the Bridport portion of his unpublished sections of the Oolitic rocks of England.
The works I have consulted are necessarily very numerous, and to their respective authors I acknowledge my great obligations.
To the above and other friends, who have kindly responded to my enquiries for information, my sincere thanks are rendered.
R. Damon
Weymouth, October 1884.

Damon , R. 1884. - specifically regarding the Chesil Beach Geology of Weymouth, Portland, and Coast of Dorsetshire, from Swanage to Bridport-on-the-Sea: with Natural History and Archaeological Notes. New and Enlarged Edition (2nd Ed.), Weymouth, R.F. Damon, London, Edward Stanford. 250p. [There is an interesting section on the Chesil Beach from page 167 to 178.] It includes the following quotation from Leland and more:
"A little above Abbates-Byri is the head or point of the Chisil, lying North Weste, that from thens streach up to 7 miles, as a maine narow banke by a right line on to South Est and ther buttith on Portland, scant a quarter of a mile above the new castell in Portland. The nature of this bank of Chisel is such, that as often as the wind bloweth strene at South Est so often the sea betith it, and losith the bank, and breakith through it. So that if it might continually blow there, this bank should soon be beaten away and se fully enter and devide Portland, making it an isle, as surely in tymes past it hath beene, as far as I can be any conjecture gather..."
Davies , G.M. 1935. The Dorset Coast. Adam and Charles Black, London (2nd Edition, 1956)
Davison M., Currie, I. and Ogley, B. 1993. The Hampshire and Isle of Wight Weather Book. Froglets Publications and Frosted Earth, Froglets Publications Ltd., Brasted Chart, Westerham, Kent, TN16 1LY. Paperback, 168pp. By Mark Davison, Ian Currie and Bob Ogley. With numerous monochrome photographs, many of them old and of historic interest.
"Everybody is fascinated by the ever-changing moods of the weather and the patterns of the sky. Our climate is a perpetual talking point, particularly in the days of great floods and freezes, tempests and tornadoes, droughts, hailstones and heatwaves. In recent years, Hampshire and the Isle of Wight have experienced all these variations. The sheer intensity of rain has turned quiet rivers into raging torrents, a clash of air masses has led to a spectacular snowstorm, global warming has been blamed for the longest drought in history, tidal waves, 20 feet high, have pounded the coast, a jet aeroplane has aquaplaned onto a motorway and opposing air streams have twice brought hurricane-force winds to change the face of the landscape. There has been more - much more - and in this unique pictorial record of the weather in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, we have the evidence."
de Alegria-Arzaburulow, A.R. and Masselinak, G. (Amaia Ruiz de Alegria-Arzaburulow, and Gerhard Masselinka). 2010. Storm response and beach rotation on a gravel beach, Slapton Sands, U.K. Marine Geology, Volume 278, Issues 1-4, 15 December 2010, Pp 77-99. Available online.
Continuous Argus video data and fortnightly measurements of subaerial morphology were obtained over a 3-year period from a steep macrotidal gravel beach on the southwest coast of the U.K. Concurrent wave and water-level data were also collected, enabling the correlation of the observed morphological changes to the hydrodynamic forcing. Wave conditions are generally low (Hs approximately equal to 0.5–1 m), but the beach is affected by frequent storm wave activity (c. 15 storms per year with Hs approximately equal to 2–4 m) with waves either approaching from the south (swell waves) or from the east (wind waves). An assessment of the three-dimensional morphological response of the beach to the two typical storm types was carried out by analysing the impact of 27 storms that occurred from April 2007 to April 2009. Southerly storms cause accretion of the supratidal zone and erosion of the intertidal zone, and a significant loss in overall beach volume. Easterly storms, on the other hand, induce supratidal erosion and intertidal accretion, and a significant gain in overall beach volume. During the intervening calm periods a small supratidal berm is constructed and a modest gain in overall beach volume occurs. Wave modelling indicated that opposing longshore energy fluxes occur for the different storm types with a northerly energy flux during southerly storms and a southerly flux during easterly storms. Weekly shorelines derived from the Argus images revealed that the northern end of the beach widened by c. 30 m and the middle beach receded by c. 40 m over a relatively brief period (a few months). The occurrence of this beach rotation event is attributed to a higher frequency of southerly storms and/or a lower frequency of easterly storms over this period. Thus, the development and stability of the beach on annual time scales depend on the relative contributions of the two storm types, and their sequencing. Longshore sediment transport (LST) rates derived from the data on beach morphological change were compared with several littoral drift formulae previously applied to gravel beaches. The CERC equation, with a proportionality factor k between littoral drift rate // and longshore wave energy flux P/ of k = 0.054, yielded the best results.
[Although this paper is not on the Chesil Beach it deals with the large shingle beach of Slapton Sands in Devon. This is in the same south coast region and has some similarities to the Chesil Beach, including the occurrence of a lagoon behind the beach. Thus the conclusions may have relevance to the Chesil Beach]
De Bruxelles , S. 2000. TV shows blamed for theft of Devon pebbles. The Times, London. Tuesday, February 15th, 2000. By Simon de Bruxelles. (short article, page number not recorded). A painter and decorator, Robert Pearcey was convicted of taking pebbles from a beach. The mayor of Budleigh Salterton said "I blame Charlie Dimmock and Alan Titmarsh from Groundforce. Children has always taken home the odd pebble from the beach but since we've had fancy gardens it has become a problem because they are disappearing in large numbers. Its got worse because of the number of gardening programmes that suggest making paths or ponds or seaside features out of pebbles." Pearcey, 41, was seen carrying buckets of pebbles from a beach. East Devon Council introducted bylaws three years ago under the 1949 Coastal Protection Act to stop people taking large pebbles from the beach. Pearcy denied taking a bucket of pebbles from the beach and said that he and his wife were carrying crabs that he had just landed. He was found guilty, conditionally discharged for 12 months and ordered to pay £250 costs. The mayor said "East Devon District Council brought this case because they wanted to make an example of somebody".
Defoe , D. 1705 [Probable date. Refers to 1703 storm which was obviously then recent and contains many letters dated 1704. Date not seen on the title page.] A Collection of the Most Remarkable Casualties Disasters which happen'd in the Late Dreadful Tempest both by Sea and Land on Friday the Twenty-fixth of November, Seventeen Hundred and Three. To which is added Several Suprising Deliverances. The Natural Causes and Original of Winds. Of the Opinion of the Ancients that this Island was More Subject to Storms than Other Parts of the World. With Several Other Curious Observations upon the Storm. The Whole Divided into Chapters under Proper Headings. 2nd Ed. George Sawbridge, London, 272 pp. [A storm which had a major effect on the mouth of the Beaulieu River and thus Lepe Beach.]
De La Beche, H.T. 1830. Notes on the formation of extensive conglomerate and gravel deposits. Philosophical Magazine, Series 2, 161-171.

De Luc, J.A. 1811. Chesil tour dating from 1804, Geological Travels, Volume 2, London.
Devoy , R. 1977 (or 79?) Flandrian sea-level changes and vegetational history of the lower Thames estuary. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, B285, 355-410.
Dobbie and Partners . 1980. Chesil sea defence scheme: synopsis of report. Report to Wessex Water Authority and Weymouth and Portland Borough Council, 15pp.
Dorset and East Devon World Heritage Coastline. The Great Gale of 1824. "Those who lived in Dorset's coastal towns and villages were well used to severe storms which threw up on their shores wrecked ships, spilled cargoes and drowned men. Nothing, though, prepared them for the terrifying night of 22nd/23rd November 1824 when a gale which had been blowing all day rose in the darkness of the early hours to become a hurricane of such destructive violence that it has gone down in the county's history as the 'Great Gale'". Continues.....)
Draper , L. and Bowness, T.M. 1983. Wave devastation behind Chesil Beach. Weather, 38, 346-352.
Dornbusch , U., Williams, R.B.G., Moses, C. and Robinson, D.A. 2002. Life expectancy of shingle beaches: measuring in situ abrasion. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 36, 2002. Abstract: In situ abrasion of shingle beach material is a neglected area of study in coastal geomorphology, with reduction in beach volumes normally attributed to longshore and offshore drift. Results from field abrasion experiments conducted on flint shingle beaches on the East Sussex coast, southern England, show that in situ reductions in volume of beach material may be more significant than has been thought. Two beaches composed almost entirely of flint shingle were seeded with hard quartzite from a Devon beach and less resistant limestone from a South Wales beach that are readily distinguishable from the flint. The seeding commenced in January 2001. The pebbles, similar in size and shape to the natural flint shingle, were left in the surf zone at two sites. Prior to exposure the pebbles were engraved with a code number and weighed. At regular intervals those that could be re-found were re-weighed and returned to the beach. Abrasion rates were calculated for each pebble as percentage weight loss per tide. By the end of October 2001, more than 700 measurements of abrasion rates had been made from a total of 431 pebbles. Average limestone abrasion rates (0.0266% loss of weight per tide) were three times greater than those of quartzite (0.0082% per tide). Measurable abrasion rates were recorded over just a few tidal cycles, not only in severe wave conditions but also in much calmer weather. The maximum abrasion rates recorded exceeded 1% per tide for limestone. [Not on the Chesil Beach, but relevant to abrasion there.]
Dorset and East Devon World Heritage Coastline. The Great Gale of 1824. The Great Gale of 1824. Dorset and East Devon World Heritage Coastline. "Those who lived in Dorset's coastal towns and villages were well used to severe storms which threw up on their shores wrecked ships, spilled cargoes and drowned men. Nothing, though, prepared them for the terrifying night of 22nd/23rd November 1824 when a gale which had been blowing all day rose in the darkness of the early hours to become a hurricane of such destructive violence that it has gone down in the county's history as the 'Great Gale'". Continues.....
Dorset County Council. 1980-1988. Various reports regarding the Ferrybridge replacement and other topics. Includes the Ferrybridge Hydrological Survey of 1987, with ma;ps and correspondence, the bathymetric survey of 1988, and Chesil Beach surveys of March 1987, February 1988 and July, 1988. Some should be listed under Dorset County Surveyor (Hutchinson, D.A.). See Archive List of the Fleet Study Group.
Donovan , D.T. and Stride, A.H. 1961. An acoustic survey of the sea floor south of Dorset and its geological interpretation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, 244, 299-330. [This provides the key geological map of the sea-floor offshore of Dorset. See also the British Geological Survey Sheet 5ON 04NW - Portland, scale 1:250,000.]
Durrance , E.M. and Laming, D.J.C. 1992 (reprinted 1993, 1995). The Geology of Devon. University of Exeter Press, Exeter, Devon. ISBN 0 85989 247 6. 346pp. [See pp 168-169 on the Budleigh Salterton Pebble Beds].
Dutch Heritage Website . "Storms at the Zuiderzee:.. The Fall [Autumn] of 1824 had been extremely wet... Storms in quick succession weakened coastal dikes and dunes. By mid October, the dikes of the Zuiderzee already had sustained much damage. A month later another heavy storm had pushed huge volumes of North Sea water into the Zuiderzee.. This November storm saw water levels surpass those of 1775 and 1776.."

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Edmonds, R., Bray, M., Brunsden, D., Hooke, J. and May, V. 2004. The evolution of Chesil Beach and Lyme Bay. Animation model on CD-ROM. Produced by Dorset County Council and SCOPAC.
Edmunds , F.H. and Schaffer, R.J. 1932. Portland Stone; its geology and properties as a building stone. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, 43, 225-240.
Elsner , J.B. and Kara, A.B. 1999. Hurricanes of the North Atlantic: Climate and Society. By James, B. Elsner and A. Birol Kara, of Florida State University. Publisher - Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford. 488pp. ISBN 0119-512508-8. With partial financial support from the Risk Prediction Initiative (RPI) of the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR). The book includes: Hurricane Characteristics, Hurricane Categories and Impacts, Hurricane Climatic Data, North Atlantic Hurricanes, Tropical Only Hurricanes, Baroclinically Enhanced Hurricanes, Major Hurricanes, U.S. Hurricanes, Hurricanes of Puerto Rico, Jamaica and Bermuda, Hurricane Cycles and Trends, Hurricane Return Periods, Hurricanes of the Early 1990s, History of Seasonal Hurricane Forecasting, Seasonal Forecast Models, Sub Basin Forecast Models, Prospect for Extended Range Outlooks, People at Risk, Property at Risk, Castrophe Insurance (including: Insured Losses, Components of Castrophe Insurance, A New Awareness, Diversification, Risk and Return, Coping Strategies), Integrated Assessment, References, Index. There are many maps of hurricane tracks, dissipation points etc. There is historic data from 1886-1996.
Example extract from Preface:
Often called the greatest stonn on Earth, the hurricane is an awe-inspiring feature of tropical weather. Accounting for a relatively small percentage of global tropical cyclone activity, hurricanes of the North Atlantic have a tremendous impact on the people and economies of nations in and around the Caribbean Sea. When measured in terms of past loss of life and property damage, hurricanes rank near the top of all natural hazards, rivaling major earthquakes. Hurricane Mitch is a grim reminder of their deadly potential. Despite significant reductions in the number of deaths from hurricanes, economic costs of hurricanes affecting the United States have increased. Hurricane Andrew caused approximately $30 billion dollars in damage to Florida and Louisiana, making it the costliest hurricane on record. As economic development continues on islands and shorelines, our vulnerability to hurricanes will rise at an increasing rate, regardless of changes to the climate.
This book examines North Atlantic hurricanes with respect to both "climate" and "society." Our purpose is a comprehensive reference for users of hurricane infonnation. Users include geographers, meteorologists, climate scientists, economists, and decision makers in government and industry, particularly those involved in urban planning, disaster relief, and insurance. The emphasis is on physical models to explain statistical relationships of hurricane activity with respect to weather and climate events. The better people are infonned, the better they can prepare. The book is suitable for use as a reference textbook for graduate and undergraduate courses in applied climate science, physical geography, economics, risk management, urban planning, and so on. It is our intent for the book to be used as an information source for those interested in additional research into North Atlantic hurricane activity.

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Fair, John and Moxam, Don. 1993. With photographs by Peyto Slater. Abbotsbury and the Swannery. The Dovecote Press Ltd., Stanbridge, Wimborne, Dorset, BH2 4JD. 87 pp. By John Fair and Don Moxam. ISBN 1874336075 casebound, ISBN 1874336083 paperback. Price £9.95p. for the paperback version.
"Abbotsbury's world famous Swannery was first mentioned six hundred years ago. It remains a fascinating and unique link with the way of life of the medieval monks who gave Abbotsbury its name. The illustrated story of the one of England's most beautiful villages. The Monastery and the Swannery. The Chesil Bank and the Fleet. The Duck Decoy and life in the reed and withy beds. The famous subtropical gardens."
"Gloriously illustrated by superb colour photographs" - this is true; the photographs by Peyto Slatter are of remarkably good quality!
Falkner , J.M. 1898. Moonfleet. By J. Meade Falkner. Fiction with some use of local history. A famous novel, an adventure story in the tradition of Treasure Island, based on the Dorset coast, particular the village of Fleet and the Fleet Lagoon, the "Fleet of the Mohunes". It makes reference to a storm overtopping the beach and to the church at Fleet which was wrecked in the 1824 hurricane.
Fisher, O. 1873. On the origin of the estuary of the Fleet in Dorsetshire. Geological Magazine, vol. 10, pp. 481, 573. By the Reverend Osmund Fisher of Cambridge University.

Fisher, O. 1874. On the origin of the estuary of the Fleet. Geological Magazine (letter) for 1874, p. 190.

Fisher, O. 1874. On the Chesil Bank. Geological Magazine (letter) for 1874, p. 143.
Fitzroy , R. 1853. Discussion of Coode, J. Description of Chesil Beach with remarks upon its origin, the causes which have contributed to its formation and upon the movement of shingle generally. Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 12, 520-557. [reference given in Bray, 1992]
Fleet Study Group 1997. Chesil Bank and the Fleet Nature Reserve: Archive List of the Fleet Study Group. 10 pp. Obtainable at the Chesil Beach Centre. A collection of over 200 papers and items is retained in the reference section of Weymouth College Library, Cranford Avenue, Weymouth, Dorset, DT4 7LQ, under the care of the Chief Librarian (tel 01305-761100). Material can be consulted in the library but no item may be removed. Photocopies, however, can be provided at cost.
Flood Hazard Research Centre , FRHC, Middlesex University, Middlesex, England. This centre studies floods in general and at various places, and is not specifically connected to the Chesil Beach. However, the Chesil Beach has been studied and the centre provides a very useful - Flood Hazard Research Centre Publication List. This is a large bibliography of FRHC publications on flood hazards of 78 pages that can be downloaded as pdf or html. It contains references relevant to the Chesil Beach flooding. See for example; Penning-Rowsell, E.C. and Parker, D.J. 1987. The indirect effect of floods and benefit of flood alleviation: evaluating the Chesil Sea Defence Scheme. Applied Geography, 7, 263-288. Butterworth and Company, Publishers. ISSN 0143-6228. In the Flood Hazard Research Centre FHRC, Publications List.
Frampton , S., McNaught, A., Hardwick, J. and Chaffey, J. 2000. Natural Hazards: Causes, Consequences and Management. Textbook by Steve Frampton, Alistair McNaught, John Hardwick, John Chaffey. 2 Edition, Hodder Arnold, London, paperback, ISBN: 034074944X. £12.99. Previous edition was 1996. [This has a chapter with maps and diagrams on the overtopping of the Chesil and flooding at Chiswell.]

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George , K.J. and Thomas, D.K. 1976. Two notable storm surges of the south coast of England. The Hydrographic Journal, 2 (4), 13-16. By K.J. George, M.Sc., Ph.D. and D.K. Thomas, B.Sc., Plymouth Polytechnic.
Example extracts:
Introduction: Previous work on storm surges in the English Channel has been carried out by Law (1975). His examples of surges were necessarily limited to occasions when sea level disturbances were known or suspected (from weather records) to have occurred in the Channel. Moreover, he was concerned solely with surges generated within the Channel or entering it from the west, and did not consider those propagating into the Channel from the North Sea. In this paper we present case studies of two notable storm surges, one propagating from the west, and the other a North Sea surge penetrating the Channel from the east...[continues].
"The "Barbican" surge of 1974 February 11: High spring tides at the Barbican, Plymouth, are liable to wash over the quayside. .... On the morning of February 11 .. the sea level rose to 6.3m. The sea surged over the now unprotected Barbican and caused the worst flooding in living memory; the predicted height of high water at the time being only 5.5m. The meteorological conditions for this period are shown in Fig. 5. During February 10, the depression to the west of Ireland (Low H) continued its north-easterly movement and became slow-moving off the north-west of Scotland. A secondary depression to the north of the Azores ( Low J) deepened and rapidly moved to a position south of Ireland. This depression further intensified over southern England and was eventually absorbed by the primary low to the north of Scotland...
Between midnight and 1800 on February 11, the winds over south-west England backed from the S.W. to become prolonged southerly gales (force 8), before veering and dying out. These steady gales, together with the low pressure, were the cause of the storm surge during this period... The surge is of the single positive type, and is detectable at St. Mary's, Devonport and Portsmouth. The maximum surge height was 0.8m at Devonport...[continues]."
Gibbs , P. 1982. Observations of short term profile changes on Chesil Beach. Proceedings of the Dorset Nat History and Archaeological Society, 102 (for 1980), 77-82. By Philip Gibbs. Example extracts follow:
Abstract: Chesil Beach has a typical transverse profile of two main shingle ridges, a 'storm ridge' and a 'foreshore ridge'. These two ridges change in shape with the formation of a step profile in constructive wave conditions, and the steepening of slopes in destructive wave conditions. During storms the beach is never actually 'breached', rather overtopping and seepage via cans occurs. In exceptional storms the foreshore ridge may be removed and the height of the storm ridge may be lowered in places, allowing further overtopping to occur. Evidence suggests that the beach is in a state of dynamic equilibrium about an equilibrium profile.
Introduction: This paper describes research carried out on Chesil Beach at Chesilton, Dorset, between 1976 and 1978. The aims were to investigate short-term changes in the morphology of the beach using transverse profiles at a single locality, and to ascertain the effects of storms upon the beach. From data collected it was intended to determine whether Chesil Beach is in a state of dynamic equilibrium.
Observations of the effects of storms Between April, 1976 and February, 1979, four storms had a dramatic effect on the beach and the land backing on to it. Observations were recorded and photographs taken of the results of these storms.
On the 11th October, 1976, hurricane force winds were recorded in the area. Severe waves overtopped the beach and caused flooding in Chesilton. Flood water was over 1 m deep near the Naval oil tanks (SY 676745). Shingle was carried over the sea wall and deposited in Chesilton. There were no reports of any 'breaches' in the beach, thus flooding was due to overtopping and seepage. The seaward slope of the storm ridge was modified to 45° at Chesilton, and was at approximately the same angle for 3 km to the west, whereas previously it had been 22°. Areas of clay exposed on the beach at the base of the storm ridge were re-covered with pebbles over the next few days during constructive wave conditions... [continues]

[text location: Chesil Bibliography - end of Gibbs reference]
Gleason , R. and Hardcastle, P.J. 1973. The significance of wave parameters in the sorting of beach pebbles. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 1, 11-18.
Goudie , A. and Brunsden, D. 1997. Classic Landforms of the East Dorset Coast. Published by the Geographical Association in conjunction with the British Geomorphological Research Group. Sheffield. 48 pp. Series Editors - Rodney Castleden and Christopher Green. Low cost paperback , pocket size booklet. [Concise with excellent colour illustrations including good aerial photographs. Sections comprise: Introduction, the Portland Cliff, the Portland Raised Beach, the south Dorset coast, the Lulworth Coast, the east Purbeck coast, Studland Bay and the South Haven Peninsula, Poole Harbour, Glossary, Bibliography.]
Greensmith, T. 1994 (reprinted 1998). Southern Cyprus. Geologists' Association Guide No. 50. The Geologists' Association, London. 146 pp. [See p. 61-65 Section 12 Kourion District. "Summary. This itinerary illustrates the Miocene Pakhna Formation sedimentology, and that of various Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, including the western Akrotiri peninsula tombolo and the salt lake."] Extract:
The rocks forming the foundation of the [Korion (Curium) archaeological] site belong to the Pakhna Formation (Miocene) and comprise a succession of calcareous sandstones, limestones and marls dipping at about 5 degrees to the south. They are best inspected at Kourion Beach, at the foot of the site. But before you leave the historical site, and while you are at the Roman theatre, cast your eyes southeastwards along the low-lying coastline to the distant promontory of Cape Zevgari, 11 km away. The cape is at the western end of a ridge some 9.5km long and up to 60m high which forms the southern extremity of the Akrotiri peninsula. It is formed of calcrete-capped, shelly Plio-Pleistocene Nicosia and Athalassa Formation beds resting unconformably on mainly cross-bedded Pakhna Formation beds. The connecting link from Kourion is a gravel and sand barrier, technically known as a tombolo (an internationally known example is Chesil Beach in Dorset, England). It is breached at one point only, where the Kouris river discharges intermittently into the bay. On the eastern, Akrotiri Bay side of the peninsula there is a similar feature connecting Limassol via Lady's Mile Beach to Cape Gata. The tombolos have a complicated and lengthy history, probably extending back into Pleistocene times. They are commonly initiated as spits attached to headlands during pauses in sea-level rise or during rises in sea-level, but from then on elongate and self-perpetuate by a process almost akin to cannibalism. At some point in time they clearly connected with the offshore islands at Akrotiri. Eventually, there came into being a protected low-lying area to their rear suitable for a quieter style of sedimentation. At present this is represented by a body known as the Akrotiri Salt Lake. If you want to inspect the constituents of the tombolo at its northern end take the wide dirt track leading around the foot of the cliffs, towards an array of tavernas. Where the track first meets the gravel beach and turns through 90 degrees is as good a place as any (2) (895356). The average size of the pebbles is about 20cm and if you look carefully you will be able to identify chert, limestone, calcareous sandstone, schist, serpentinite, pyroxenite (sometimes pegmatitic), gabbro, dolerite and basalt fragments. Continue along the dirt track as far as the prominent cliffed headland. In doing so you travel across a relatively fiat zone between the beach and the cliffs. This area was once inundated by the sea, probably during the Pleistocene and late Holocene, but since then has silted-up behind the tombolo. The base of the cliffs represents the position of the shore-line during those earlier times. Fine windblown sand is now piled-up in places against the cliff bottom... [continues]
Greenwood , G. 1874a. Why are the largest stones found at the east end of the Chesil Bank? Geological Magazine, decade II, 1, 143. By Colonel G. Greenwood.

Greenwood, G. 1874b. Origin of the Fleet. Geological Magazine, decade II, 1, 143.

Greenwood, G. 1875. Origin of the Chesil Bank. Nature, London, 11, 386.
Groves , T.B. 1875. The Chesil Bank. Nature, London, 11, 506-507.

Groves, T.B. 1889. Erosion of the coast near Weymouth. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, vol. 10, p. 182.

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Halcrow . 2002. Futurecoast: research project to improve the understanding of coastal evolution over the next century for the open coastline of England and Wales. Report and CD-ROM produced by Halcrow-led consortiun for DEFRA.
Hardcastle , P. J. and King, A.C. 1972. Sea wave records from Chesil Beach, Dorset. Civil Engineering and Public Works Review, 67, 299-300.
Hardy , J.R. 1964. Sources of some beach shingles in England. 20th International Geographical Congress, London. [Duplicated manuscript referred to by Carr and Blackley, 1974 but not seen].

Hardy, W.M . 1907. Smuggling Days in Purbeck.

Hardy, W.M. 1910. Swanage:
Harrison , J.T. 1875. In discussion of Prestwich (1875).
Hart, B.S. 1991. A study of pebble shape from gravely shoreface deposits. Sedimentary Geology, 73, 185-189.
Hatwell , I. and Dykes, T. 1980? Reactor resistance. Dorset: the County Magazine, Issue 85 (undated, but post April 1979). [Brief objections from the East Dorset Ecology Party to a nuclear reactor at Winfrith or at Herbury on the Fleet Lagoon.] "The Central Electricity Generating Board has announced plans (Dorset, the County Magazine, issue 83) for the construction of a nuclear power station at one of five sites in the south west, the Dorset sites being Winfrith and Herbury... In Herbury, on the Fleet, the CEGB has chosen one of the most senseless sites imaginable on the British coastline. The reason for the coastal sites is the easy access to supplies of sea-water for cooling purposes, but this is one of the few locations in Britain where a shallow lagoon separates the main land mass from the sea. Chesil Bank and the Fleet place a natural barrier between the proposed nuclear reactor and its coolant.." [continues].
See also: Central Electricity Generating Board . 1968. Investigation of prospective nuclear power station sites: Portland Harbour and Tidmoor Point: part 1. Hydrographic Survey. [Note this refers to Tidmoor Point rather than Herbury. There was also a geological site investigation of the land behind the Fleet Lagoon by the CEGB involving shallow boreholes and the taking of samples. The details of this are not known although there was discussion about the samples at the Geology Department, Southampton University, at the time. I think that the Cornbrash and of somewhere near Wyke Regis was discussed.]
Hawkshaw , J.C. 1853. In discussion of Coode.
Heijne , I.S. and West, G.M. 1991. Chesil Sea Defence Scheme. Paper 2: design of interceptor drain. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Part 1, 90, 799-817.
Heyworth , A. and Kidson, C. 1982. Sea-level changes in southwest England and in Wales. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 93, 91-112.
High-Point Rendel. 1997. West Bay: Geomorphological Study: Review of Chesil Beach Investigation. Report H 953/1. Report to West Dorset District Council.

High-Point Rendel. 2000. West Bay: Geomorphological Study: Supplement, Report No. 886/R/1/01, 2000. Report to West Dorset District Council.
Hodson , F. and West, I.M. 1972. Holocene deposits of Fawley, Hampshire and the development of Southampton Water. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 83, 421-442. [not on the Chesil Beach but with data on Holocene sea-level changes in the region.]
Holiday, A. 2014. Storm damage and coastal protection: a case study of Chesil Cove. Geography Review Extras, 2014, Hodder Education, pp. 38-41 with 13 photographs and a map. By Alan Holiday, Dorset geologist.
"Last winter's storms repeatedly battered the Dorset coast. In this photo-essay Alan Holiday examines how the coastal sea-defences at Chesil held up. ... The constant pounding of storm waves, especially on 5 and 14/15 February 2014, moved shingle from Chesil Beach offshore.... Erosion was so severe that the shingle was completely removed in Chesil Cove and the Kimmeridge Clay bedrock was exposed. This is very unusual and last occurred in 1989..." [continues]

Holiday , A., Brokenshire, A., Christian, R. and Smith, D. 2009. West Bexington, West Dorset - Peat Blocks and Fossils. Newsletter of the Dorset Group of the Geologists' Association. Online at: West Bexington, West Dorset - Peat Blocks and Fossils. . Text by Alan Holiday and Adrian Brokenshire; photos by Alan Holiday, Robert Christian and Doreen Smith.
[This article provides some history of the occurrence of the blocks. It includes good photographs of the fauna and reports the discovery of:

Cerastoderma glaucum
Cerastoderma edule
Alora tenuis

Hydrobia ventrosa
Littorina rudis
Rissostomia membranacea
Pupilla muscorum
(land snail)

ostracods (indet)
seed (indet)

Red Deer - rear part of skull
Beaver - skull

Plant remains, resembling Eel-Grass]
Hook , B.J. and Kemble, J.R. Chesil Beach defence scheme. Paper 1: concept, design and construction. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 90, 783-789.
House, M.E. 1993 (and earlier edition in 1989). Geology of the Dorset Coast. Geologists Association Guide No. 22. 2nd edition, 164 pages plus plates. ISBN 0 7073 0485 7. Standard guide book to the Geology of the Dorset Coast for the 1990s. This is very concise and clear and with a good reference list. By the late Professor Michael House.
Huddleston , W.H. 1903. Chesil Beach. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Field Club, 24, 1-9.
Hutchins , J. 1774. History and Antiquities of the County of Dorset. 2 vols. 1st Edition.

Hutchins, J. 1803. History and Antiquities of the County of Dorset. 4 vols. 2nd Edition. Revised by R. Gough and J.B. Nichols. Vol. 3 (1803) refers to Chesil and quotes Smeaton.

Hutchins, J. 1861. The History and Antiquities of the County of Dorset. Ed. 3, By Shipp, W. and Hodson, J.W. London. Pp. 807 - 832. The Island and Liberty of Portland. Camden says it was formerly an island although now annexed to the continent. Holinshed and Leland of same opinion. Beale Point. The Mare is shown on an old map. Chesil pebbles - Portland pebbles. Chesil or Steepstone (step-stone) beach. German Keisel - flint or Ceorl - Saxon - Gravel.
Huthnance , J.M. 2000. Predicting storm surges and other sea level changes. Pp. 135-147 in: Dealing with Natural Disasters: Achievements and New Challenges in Science, Technology and Engineering. Royal Society, London, October, 1999.

Huthnance, J.M. 2003. Sea change. Geoscientist: the magazine of the Geological Society of London, vol. 13, No.6, pp. 4-7. Geologists are familiar with the sea's many ups and downs. John Huthnance discusses sea level changes on a range of timescales, and the limits of prediction.
Example text: "Within large uncertainties, these effects can account for the present observed rate of "global" sea-level rise - approximately l.5mm/y (or 0.1 to O.2m in the past 100 years, estimated from in situ gauges, corrected for land movements). The European figure (~lmm/y) is at the low end of global values. Sea-level trends (relative to land) at UK tide gauges range from -l.lmm/y (Lerwick) to 2.1mm/y (Sheerness). Typical standard errors at any one gauge are 0.1 to 0.8mm/y; less than O.2mm/y for long records (Fig. 1). The longest records suggest an acceleration of 0.3 to 0.9mm/year/century for NW Europe, apparently beginning in the 19th Century. Acceleration is less apparent in 20th Century records alone.
Sea level 100 years from now:
Ocean expansion from warming is expected to make the largest contribution (O.l-O4m) to sea-level rise in the next 100 years. Other contributions are O.lm from glaciers and a small rise from ablation of the Greenland ice cap offset by a small fall from increased snowfall over Antarctica. Various scenarios and models, including those of the UK Hadley Centre, provide estimates for total 1990-2100 sea-level rise ranging from 0.09m to 0.88m; the central estimate is OA8m.
Regional sea-level trends may vary, but models disagree about the geographical patterns; local estimates range between zero and twice the global average. Year-to-year mean sea-level variations common to sites around the UK are typically 30mm,. These exceed typical 15mm meteorologically forced (tide+surge model) variability, and may reflect changes in North Atlantic circulation."
[continues with "Land Movements"]
Hydraulics Research 1979-1991 (and later?)

Important work by Hydraulics Research, the reports of which are listed below, regarding the shingle beach (Chesil Beach - western end) of the east side of West Bay has been summarised by Bray (1992) . The very useful paper of Bray (1992) should be read to understand this work in context. It is in a publication, The Coastal Landforms of West Dorset, that is easily obtained from the Geologists Association, and this is recommended. The most significant aspect is the recognition of a change in 1982 from accretion to loss of beach material east of the harbour:

"The marked trend for accretion on the eastern side of the West Bay piers provides strong evidence of net eastward drift at this western extremity of Chesil Beach (Hydraulics Research, 1979 1985; Jolliffe, 1979). Map comparisons and field survey covering 1901-1984 showed accretion was not continuous but interspersed with brief periods of erosion such as between 1961 and 1964 (Hydraulics Research, 1985). Littoral drift between Cog den Beach (SY 504880) and West Bay (SY 462904) was further studied by means of a mathematical beach model employing a representative wave climate derived from hindcasting, based on Portland wave data covering the period from 1974 to 1984 (Hydraulics Research, 1985). This study marked the first attempt to determine a reliable long-term estimate of drift on Chesil Beach and indicated mean net eastward transport at 8,000 cubic metres per year, which was validated by the documented trend for accretion against the east pier at West Bay. The accuracy of the analysis must be questioned, because it ignored swell waves and waves under one metre. Additionally, the shingle transport equations employed were calibrated on other beaches and therefore in need of further testing. Recent qualitative observations of beach erosion immediately east of the east pier at West Bay indicated possible changes in drift regime. Analysis of beach profiles and air photographs covering the period 1977 to 1990 revealed that the previously widely recognised trends for accretion ceased about 1982, whereupon a convincing switch to erosion resulted in mean high water level retreat of 40m by March 1990 (Hydraulics Research, 1991a). To explaining this change, wave climate and littoral drift were analyzed with techniques similar to those employed for the 1985 study (Hydraulics Research, 1991a). Wave climate was hindcast using Portland wind data covering the periods 1974 to 1990. Results showed that the wave climate changed remarkably after 1982, with fewer southeast storm waves and increased prevalence of westerly waves. Littoral drift calculations from this data revealed highly variable gross transport, with net westward drift before 1982 and a switch to net eastward drift of up to 14,000 cubic metres per year thereafter (Hydraulics Research, 1991a). These studies suggest that net littoral drift is very delicately balanced on Chesil Beach, so that slight wave climate/storm frequency variations can cause major drift reversals, thus linkages with adjoining systems are a distinct possibility. Available data covers too short a time span either to assess long-term trends or predict future behaviour. Beach morphometry is not a reliable guide because it may react relatively slowly to changes in drift regime due to large beach volume, so trends may only be recognisable at each end of the beach and will not contribute much towards an overall understanding."

Hydraulics Research. 1979. West Bay, Bridport, Dorset: a sea defence and coast protection study. Hydraulics Research Report No. EX863, 12pp.

Hydraulics Research. 1985. West Bay Harbour. A numerical study of beach changes east of the harbour entrance. Hydraulics Research Report No. EX1301, 33pp.

Hydraulics Research. 1986. Portland Harbour: A Wave Refraction Study. Report EX1373.

Hydraulics Research. 1991a. West Bay Harbour: analysis of recent beach changes east of the harbour. Hydraulics Research Report No. EX2272, 16pp.

Hydraulics Research. 1991b. West Bay Bridport: a random wave physical model investigation. Hydraulics Research Report No. EX2187, 53pp.
HR Wallingford. 1993. Preston Beach Road Sea Defence. Hydraulic Model Studies: Final Report. Report EX2914. Report to Scott, Wilson, Kirkpatrick, 15pp.

HR Wallingford. 1996. Effect of the Deterioration of Breakwaters, Portland Harbour, 2 Volumes. Report to Weymouth and Portland Borough Council.

HR Wallingford. 1998. Durlston Head to Portland Bill Shoreline Management Plan. Report EX3824. Report to Mouchel Consulting Ltd, 10pp. and 4 Appendices.

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International Hurricane Research Centre . An Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Study of Eastern Broward County, Florida With Applications to Hurricane Storm Surge Hazard. By the Laboratory for Coastal Research, International Hurricane Research Centre.

"Storm Surge Models
A storm surge is the abnormal rise of water levels along a coastline caused by wind and pressure forces of an approaching hurricane or other intense storm. Storm surge heights can exceed 5 m with inundation in low relief areas extending several 10s of kilometers inland. The height of a storm surges at a given location depends on several factors including hurricane size, intensity and forward speed, the orientation of winds relative to the coast, coastline shape, and near shore bathymetry. Computer models estimate storm surge height based on numerical approximations to fluid equations of motion and continuity equations. Data provided to these models includes offshore bathymetry, onshore topography, and storm parameters such as storm size, wind speed, wind direction, and atmospheric pressure. Output from these models can then be used to determine the areas inundated by a storm surge. In the U. S., the most widely used storm surge model is the National Weather Service SLOSH (sea, lake, and overland surges form hurricanes) model (Jarvinen and Lawrence, 1985)... continues. [This is not on the Chesil Beach or Chesil Beach storms but it provides background information on storm surges resulting from hurricanes and is therefore relevant to the 1824 event at Chesil Beach.]

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) . 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Summary for Policymakers, 21pp. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This Summary for Policymakers was formally approved at the 10 Session of Working Group 1 of IPCC, Paris, February 2007. [Available online on the Internet.]
The Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report describes progress in understanding of the human and natural drivers of climate change, observed climate change, climate processes and attribution, and estimates of projected future climate change. It builds upon past IPCC assessments and incorporates new findings from the past six years of research. Scientific progress since the TAR is based upon large amounts of new and more comprehensive data, more sophisticated analyses of data, improvements in understanding of processes and their simulation in models, and more extensive exploration of uncertainty ranges...
Human And Natural Drivers Of Climate Change:
Changes in the atmospheric abundance of greenhouse gases and aerosols, in solar radiation and in land surface properties alter the energy balance of the climate system. These changes are expressed in terms of radiative forcing, which is used to compare how a range of human and natural factors drive warming or cooling influences on global climate. Since the Third Assessment Report (TAR), new observations and related modelling of greenhouse gases, solar activity, land surface properties and some aspects of aerosols have led to improvements in the quantitative estimates of radiative forcing...." [continues]

Future sea level rise estimates for the Wessex coast

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Joliffe , I. P. 1964. An experiment designed to compare the relative rates of movement of different sizes of beach pebbles. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 75, 67-86. [Most of the paper is not on the Chesil Beach, but see fig. 5, p. 81 re the Chesil Beach, and associated text. A map shows relationship of waves and winds to pebble size, but are I and II reversed?]

Joliffe, I.P. 1979. West Bay and the Chesil Bank, Dorset. Coastal regimen conditions, resource use and the possible environmental impact of mining activities on coastal erosion and flooding. Report to West Dorset District Council, Dorset County Council, 87 pp.

Joliffe, I.P. 1983. Coastal erosion and flood abatement; what are the options? Geographical Journal 149, 62-67.
Jones , M.E., Allison, R.J. and Gilligan, J. 1984. On the relationship between geology and coastal landform in central southern England. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 105 (for 1983), 107-118.

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Kellaway , G.A., Redding, J.H., Shephard-Thorn, E.R. and Destombes, J-P. 1975. The Quaternary history of the English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series A, 279, 189-218. In: Dunham, K., and Smith, A.J. 1975. A Discussion on the Geology of the English Channel. The Royal Society, 6 Carlton House Terrace, London, SW1Y 5AG. Abstract: "Several lines of evidence for former glaciation of the English Channel are considered. These include the following major geomorphological features: (1) extensive areas of flat featureless sea bed bounded by cliffs with residual steep-sided rock masses rising about 60-150m above them., (2) terrace forms bounded by breaks in slope or low cliffs, (3) palaeovalley systems attributed to present land drainage, (4) enclosed deeps (fosses); all except (3) may be attributed to a glacial origin. The distribution of erratics on the Channel floor and in modern and raised beaches of its coasts are attributed to widespread Saalian glaciation. This glaciation was responsible for the deposition of morainic material at Selsey and the damming-up of glacial Lake Solent. The so-called '100 foot raised beach' of west Sussex is now re-interpreted as a fluvioglacial deposit laid down at the northern margin of the English Channel ice. It is thought that at the height of the Saalian glaciation mean sea-level fell to between 90 and 100 m below O.D. and that for a time the ice was grounded near the western margin of the continental shelf. Possible reconstructions of the limits and main movements of the Weichselian and Saalian ice sheets covering the British Isles and English Channel are included. " See p. 196 on the Chesil Beach.
Kemp , J.P. undated. The Book of Weymouth and Portland. By John Kemp; drawings by McLean. ISBN 0 907683 32 0. Nigel J. Clarke Publications, 3 Russel House, Lyme Close, Lyme Regis, Dorset. 54pp. [Small paperback booklet. With the following pictures: p. 24 Smallmouth Ferry before 1839 with rope and horses; p. 50 of Portland Ferry House, 1800.]

Kemp, J.P. undated - 199?. The Book of the Chesil Beach. 22pp. Small paperback booklet with interesting general and historic information. Price £2.50 obtainable from the Chesil Beach Centre.
Kinahan, G.H. 1874. On the origin of the Lagoon, called the Fleet, Dorsetshire. Geological Magazine for 1874, p. 50. See also Letters, pp. 189, 239, 240.

Kinahan, G.H. 1877. On the Chesil Beach, Dorsetshire and Cahore Shingle beach, County Wexford. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 33, 29-41.

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Lamb, H. 1991; 2005. Historic Storms of the North Sea, British Isles and Northwest Europe. By Hubert Lamb of the University of East Anglia in collaboration with Knud Frydendahl of the Danish Meteorological Institute. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 204 pp. Paperback Re-issue - 2005. ISBN 0-521-61931-9 paperback. Publisher's blurb: This book presents a historical investigation of great storms that have affected the North Sea and neighbouring northern seas, the British Isles and the fringe of northwest Europe. All the wind storms with serious effects that could be identified within the last 500-600 years are recorded and a few earlier cases discussed. In every possible case observations of weather and other circumstances reported during the storm have been used to produce a modern meteorological analysis. For the earliest cases (in 1570, 1588, 1694-7) this has been done sketchily and in nearly every case from 1703 reasonably full meteorological analysis has been achieved. Such analysis facilitates wind strength estimates and aids diagnosis of origins. As a scientific study, this work takes advantage of the unequalled abundance in this region of reports and records going back so far in history. The book is designed not only to facilitate meteorological understanding, but also to look at trends and secular variations as well as impacts on human affairs - particularly damage to coasts, buildings, forests and other aspects of the landscape. [This is a very informative book with much meteorological information and weather maps for historic storms, but mostly those which affected the North Sea. There is mention here and there of storms in the English Channel but it is not so thorough on this area as on regions further to the northeast. The 1824 storm that so severely affected the Chesil Beach is not mentioned. It is a good source of background meteorological information.]
Ladle , M. (Editor) 1981. The Fleet and Chesil Beach: Structure and Biology of a Unique Coastal Features. 74 pp. ISBN 0 85216 288X. A scientific account compiled by the Fleet Study Group. Double-spaced typescript, A4 paperback with monochrome diagrams on sale at low cost at the Chesil Beach Centre, and available for reference in the Tophill Library, Easton, Portland. It contains papers from a one-day seminar at the Dorset County Museum. It contains a paper: Carr, A.P. 1981. Chesil Beach: aspects of its structure, stability and the processes acting upon it. Pp. 9-14. Other papers within this: Ladle, M. Introduction; Green, E.W.S., The Fleet and Chesil Beach; Whittaker, J.E., The hydrology of the Fleet; Robinson, I.S., Tides and Water Levels in the Fleet; Salinity Structure and Tidal Flushing of the Fleet; Burrows, E.M., The algae of the Fleet; Fitzpatrick, J.M., Terrestrial plant communities of the Chesil Beach and the shores of the Fleet; Whittaker, J.E., The distribution of Zostera and Ruppia in the Fleet; Ladle, M., Invertebrate fauna of the Fleet; Seaward, D.R., Notes on some invertebrates of the Fleet; Whittaker, J.E., The distribution of ostracoda in the Fleet; Ladle, M. The fishes of the Fleet; Fitzpatrick, J., Fair, J. & Moxom, D., Birds.
Lambert, J. et al. 1960. The Making of the Broads. Memoir of the Royal Geographical Society. [Not directly relating to the Chesil Beach, but deals with the rise of sea-level by the end of the 14th century which flooded the old peat workings and thus formed the Broads.
Law , C.R. 1975. Storm surges in the English Channel. The Hydrographic Journal, 2 (1), 30-34. This article is a resumee of a dissertation presented as part of the B.Sc. honours degree in Nautical Studies at Plymouth Polytechnic.
An extract of conclusions follows:
"(i) Storm surges do occur in the English Channel.
(ii) These surges are associated with the passage of an intense depression or a fast moving front in the Channel vicinity.
(iii) These surges are of various forms; they may propagate as free long waves at a speed similar to that of the astronomical tide or they may move at the speed of the generating system.
(iv) They may be internally or externally generated, the latter probably being the more substantial form.
(v) Amplitudes of 2 to 3 feet would appear to be readily attained.
(vi) Surges on the French coast do not appear to be significantly greater than those on the U.K. coast, although the lack of French data precluded a conclusion on this point.
(vii) Surges tend to propagate up Channel from West to East, reaching a maximum around mid-channel but rapidly dying out to the East, little surge activity being apparent at Dover.
(viii) An anomaly exists in the propagation of a surge from St. Mary's to Newlyn. This consistently gave a period of three hours in the samples analysed compared to 15 minutes for the astronomical tide.
(ix) Channel surges do not appear to favour any particular part of the tidal cycle, unlike those in the North Sea. Those analysed occurred at all states of the tide."
[This paper is not specifically on the Chesil Beach but is relevant to the 1824 storm surge that, with wave action, grossly affected the Chesil Beach. It shows that storm surges do occur in the English Channel.]
Legg , R. 1976. Portland Souvenir Magazine. Portland Branch of the Royal Naval Association. 24 pp. See Barnes and Legg, 1976 - the same.

Legg, R. 1999. Bridport and Lyme Regis: The Story of Dorset's Western Coast. Dorset Publishing Company. 192 pp. ISBN 0-948699-66-3. [With 37 monochome illustrations at the front and 61 at the back, many of them of old photographs, paintings and sketches. Local events, mostly regarding the coast are recorded in chronological order from the year 774 to 1998. Although references to sources are not given (and can be searched for elsewhere), this book contains much interesting information and informative old photographs. It is a paperback and at low cost - £7.95 p. reduced to £4.99 in April 2004. It should be found in the shops of Bridport and Lyme Regis. It is not a geological publication but has points of geological relevance and is recommended for general and topographical interest. The relevance of this book to the Chesil Beach is mainly in connection with storm events.]
Leland , J. 1710-1712. The Itinerary of John Leland the Antiquary - published from the original mss. by T. Hearne. Oxford, 9 vols.
Le Pard , G. 1999. The Great Storm of 1824, Proceedings of Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 121, 23-36. By Gordon Le Pard.
Lilley , G. 1892. Tourist's Guide to the Isle of Portland.
Lilly , C. 1715. A Report on the Fortifications and Artillery at Portland. (Not seen, but referred to in Carr and Gleason, 1972 :" B.M. King's Geo III Mss 45 f 57" ; Lily gave a beach height crest value of 9.1m)
Long , A.J, Waller, M.P. and Plater, A.J. 2006. Coastal resilience and late Holocene tidal inlet history: The evolution of Dungeness Foreland and the Romney Marsh depositional complex (U.K.). Sedimentology. Corrected proof available in full online from Science Direct.
Abstract: Dungeness Foreland is a large sand and gravel barrier located in the eastern English Channel that during the last 5000 years has demonstrated remarkable geomorphological resilience in accommodating changes in relative sea-level, storm magnitude and frequency, variations in sediment supply as well as significant changes in back-barrier sedimentation. In this paper we develop a new palaeogeographic model for this depositional complex using a large dataset of recently acquired litho-, bio- and chrono-stratigraphic data. Our analysis shows how, over the last 2000 years, three large tidal inlets have influenced the pattern of back-barrier inundation and sedimentation, and controlled the stability and evolution of the barrier by determining the location of cross-shore sediment and water exchange, thereby moderating sediment supply and its distribution. The sheer size of the foreland has contributed in part to its resilience, with an abundant supply of sediment always available for ready redistribution. A second reason for the landform's resilience is the repeated ability of the tidal inlets to narrow and then close, effectively healing successive breaches by back-barrier sedimentation and ebb- and/or flood-tidal delta development. Humans emerge as key agents of change, especially through the process of reclamation which from the Saxon period onwards has modified the back-barrier tidal prism and promoted repeated episodes of fine-grained sedimentation and channel/inlet infill and closure. Our palaeogeographic reconstructions show that large barriers such as Dungeness Foreland can survive repeated “catastrophic” breaches, especially where tidal inlets are able to assist the recovery process by raising the elevation of the back-barrier area by intertidal sedimentation. This research leads us to reflect on the concept of “coastal resilience” which, we conclude, means little without a clearly defined spatial and temporal framework. At a macro-scale, the structure as a whole entered a phase of recycling and rapid progradation in response to changing sediment budget and coastal dynamics about 2000 years ago. However, at smaller spatial and temporal scales, barrier inlet dynamics have been associated with the initiation, stabilisation and breakdown of individual beaches and complexes of beaches. We therefore envisage multiple scales of “resilience” operating simultaneously across the complex, responding to different forcing agents with particular magnitudes and frequencies.
[Not on the Chesil Beach, but a study of Dungeness that is useful for comparison, and a good source for references on related matters.]
Lyell, C. 1835. Principles of Geology, 4th edition, vol. 2. On page 45: "in the great storm of November 1824, this bank of shingle (the Hurst Castle Spit) was moved bodily forward for forty yards (roughly 40 metres) towards the northeast [i.e. landwards]; and certain piles which served to mark the boundaries of two manors were found, after the storm, on the opposite side of the bar."
Lyme Bay Coastal Forum 1993.Articles on Lyme Bay, including "What are the impact of changes in defence policy to Weymouth and ... Lyme Bay Focus.

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Mackenzie , R. 1995. Portland: A Topographical and Historical Gazetteer. Author and Editor Mr K.D. Mackenzie, typeset and printed in Times New Roman by K.D. Print, Wells. Paperback, pages unnumbered. Published 1993 by K.D. Print, revised August, 1995. Available on Portland for £2.40p.
Massey , A.C. and Taylor, G.K. 2007. Coastal evolution in south-west England, United Kingdom: An enhanced reconstruction using geophysical surveys. [Not on the subject of the Chesil Beach but useful for comparison. Re history of the barrier beach of Slapton Sands, Devon in relation to rising sea level during the Holocene]. By Anthony C. Massey and Graeme K. Taylor, University of Plymouth. Marine Geology, Accepted Manuscript.
The coastline of south Devon, south-west England, is believed to be subsiding faster than any area in the United Kingdom (UK). Current estimates are based however on very limited Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) and lithostratigraphic data. There is, therefore, an urgent need for more information to improve our understanding of coastal evolution in the region. Sediment coring from Slapton Sands and Blackpool Sands in south-east Devon provides material for interpreting land- and sea-level changes. Further stratigraphic mapping was carried out using 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) of the near-surface. This method of geophysical survey, ground-truthed with borehole data, has rarely been used for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction but provided useful results here. Models of Holocene coastline evolution, based on those from the Eastern USA, show that sea level in Start Bay was ~17 m below present RSL ca. 9000 cal. yr BP. A barrier-lagoon system was forced landward by seas rising at ~5 m/ka across substrates comprised of weathered slate and shale. Thick deposits of minerogenic fines (~10 m at Slapton Sands) were identified in cores and mapped using the ERT survey method. Barrier-lagoons became choked by sediment when RSL was ~5 m below present at ca. 4400 cal. yr BP and reached their current configuration during the late Holocene. ERT results show that the Slapton Sands modern-day barrier complex is a uniform ~9 m thick for a longshore distance of at least 1.5 km.
May , V. 2005 (?). Coastal Form Processes. Part of: Physical Changes to the Coast. Webpage: Coastal Form Processes . By Professor Vincent May of Bournemouth University. Part of Dorset Coast Digital Archive - Dorset Coast Digital Archive, operated by Bournemouth University, Bournemouth Borough Council, Dorset County Council and Dorset County Museum. [A very good website with specific data. Recommended.]

General Information
Detailed Information
Sea Level Rise
Coastal Erosion
Dunes and Estuaries

Example extract - Introduction:"The features of the Dorset coast between Highcliffe in the east and Lyme Regis in the west are the result of thousands of years of marine and sub-aerial processes acting upon a wide range of geological materials whilst climate, sea-level and the human use and modification of the coast have changed significantly. Coastal processes act on timescales that range from the few seconds of a wave breaking to the many millennia of sea-level change. Similarly, these processes also occur on spatial scales of a few millimetres to the scale of the English Channel and beyond. For example, a pebble falling from the cliffs at Budleigh Salterton in East Devon several thousand years ago and found today on Chesil beach has probably made a journey equivalent to the distance from Earth to the planet Neptune. During all of that time, the combined effects of waves, tides and currents have moved the pebble up, down and along the shore and buried within the beach as well."

May, V. 2008. Geomorphology of Dorset: a Review. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 129, 2008, 149-162. By Professor Vincent May, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, BH12 5BB. [This paper discusses a wide range of topics including the origin of the Chesil Beach, the entrance of Poole Harbour, sand dunes of Studland, the Axe estuary, offshore ledges at Worbarrow Bay, lack of a submerged channel off Lulworth Cove, conservation and RIGS sites etc. It includes various reference, some of which are not well known and some of which are unpublished Ph.D theses of Bournemouth University (e.g. Cook, 2007 - Studland peninsula; Drayson 2005 - Weymouth Bay acoustic).

May, V.J. and Hansom, J.D. 2003. Coastal Geomorphology of Great Britain. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee: Chesil Beach, pp. 254-266; cliffs pp. 151-158.
Medland J.C. 1995. Alum Bay and the Needles. [A tourist guide and history]. Coach House Publications Ltd., Freshwater, Isle of Wight, 96 pp., ISBN 1809 392 03, paperback. [Not on the Chesil Beach. Information on wrecks and storms, Isle of Wight. With good illustrations.].
Meteorological Office. 2014. Winter Storms, January - February 2014.
Winter Storms, January to February 2014.
[www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/interesting/2014-janwind]. Winter storms, January to February 2014.
The UK experienced a spell of extreme weather from late January to mid-February as a succession of major storms brought widespread impacts and damage to the UK.
Around 6 major storms hit through this period, separated by intervals of 2 to 3 days. The sequence of storms followed an earlier stormy period from Winter storms, December 2013 to January 2014. Taken individually, the first two storms were notable but not exceptional for the winter period. However, the later storms from early to mid-February were much more severe. Overall, the period from mid-December 2013 to mid-February 2014 saw at least 12 major winter storms, and, when considered overall, this was the stormiest period of weather the UK has experienced for at least 20 years.
Strong winds and huge waves made conditions extremely dangerous around exposed coastlines - particularly in the south and west, and caused widespread transport disruption. There were major flooding problems, with the Somerset Levels continuing to be inundated with floodwaters from the New Year period. Severe flooding also occurred along sections of the River Thames.
The photographs below provide some indication of weather impacts experienced from these storms. [Photos, include Porthleven, Somerset Levels, Dawlish Railway Line]
[The major storm events of the beginning of 2014 were responsible for serious damage to Hurst Spit, which was flattened and overwashed but not permanently broken through, to Milford sea front with loss of many beach huts, to the Chesil Beach and to many other places. Flooding and/or erosion took place on the West Solent coast at places such as Pitts Deep and Tanners Lane areas. The January 2014 storm was of great note.]

Mitchell , V. and Smith, K. 1989. Branch Lines Around Weymouth; from Abbotsbury, Easton and the Quay. Middleton Press, Easebourne Lane, Midhurst, West Sussex, GU29 9AZ. ISBN 0 906520 65 7. 96pp. Price was 8 pounds,95 pence. [This railway book contains several old maps and charts of Portland including parts of the Chesil Beach. These include the 1867 chart of the northern Portland, the Chesil Beach and Weymouth (showing the originally very narrow, Small Mouth), a 1903 map of the Mere and adjacent Chesil Beach, a 1929 large scale map of Ferrybridge showing Small Mouth as it originally was. It also has photographs of the Fleet Viaduct at Ferry Bridge etc. The maps and photographs of the Easton and Church Hope Railway are of interest regarding the east cliffs of Portland and their landslides. There is also much information on former quarries on the old maps.]
Morris, C. 2005. An investigation into Chesil Beach, Dorset, England and Eype Beach, Dorset, England with regard to providing quantitative evidence of the past arbitrary nature of the)Chesil Beach western limit. Undergraduate Project Report by Charlotte Morris, Oceanography with Physical Geography (joint honours) BSc. School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Southampton University.
Abstract: The aims of this report are a quantitative study into the aspects of size grading, shape classification and pebble type at two compartmentalised pebble beaches, Chesil Beach, Dorset, England and Eype Beach, Dorset, England, with the intention of providing evidence as to the past sediment transport paths of Chesil beach material, as there are many visual comparisons between the beach material of Eype and Chesil Beach which denote possible similarities in origin and evolution. The initial 22 pebble samples were taken in November 2004 from the Chesil Beach main crest to Seatown extending over a distance of 26 Km of which 11 samples sites were studied. A further pebble study comprised of 4 additional sample sites in April 2005. In the initial study 200 pebbles were analysed per sample site for long and intermediate axis length, classification and shape. The data were inputted into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and presented graphically and as tables. The results show lateral grading from coarser well-sorted cobbles in the eastward margins of both Chesil beach and Eype beach with a rapid decline in pebble size and sorting westward at each beach. Pebble and cobble types remain fairly uniform with a few beach sections displaying a small amount of Jurassic limestone addition. Further investigation into the Jurassic limestone addition at Eype beach has identified it as originating from the Forest Marble bed of West Cliff [or Watton Cliff]. The further pebble study of April 2005 analysed samples for long, intermediate, short axis length and pebble type at Chesilton, Abotsbury, Eype and an unrelated beach in Hampshire [Lepe Beach]. The data were inputted into a spreadsheet and the oblate-prolate index of Dobkins and Folk (1970) was calculated. The results show Eype and Chesilton cobbles to be similar in size, shape and type. All these cobbles are well-sorted. The Abotsbury pebbles show a change in pebble shape with westward movement and less sorted beach material. Results of the Eype locality in West Bay have been quantitatively correlated to results of the Chesil beach locality suggesting that Eype beach was in the past an active part of Chesil beach.
Morris, Steven 2007. Storm grows over Napoli's threat to World Heritage Coast. The Guardian Newspaper, Saturday, January 27, 2007, pp. 16-17. [re wrecked container ship, the MSC Napoli, causing major oil and container pollution off Branscombe, near Beer and Sidmouth, Devon. Bound for South Africa it suffered structural damage in the Atlantic Ocean in the storm of 18 January 2007. It was then heading for repair in Portland Harbour but, in danger of sinking, was beached about a mile south of Branscombe in January 2007.]
Example extracts: There were growing calls yesterday for an inquiry to establish why the stricken cargo ship the MSC Napoli was towed into one of Europe's most precious marine environments. Politicians and marine experts expressed concern that the decision to try to haul the vessel, loaded with oil and containers, some of which contained hazardous substances, into a port 140 miles from where it was holed. Questions are being tabled in the House of Commons, and the EU commissioner for transport, Jacques Barrot, is planning to send a teain to look into the incident. Environment experts were given little or no time to make the case against beaching the vessel off the coast of Devon before it was dragged on to the seabed last Saturday. Visiting the site of the drama yesterday, the shadow environment minister Greg Barker said the transport department would have to explain why the Napoli had been taken into Lyme Bay. He said he was very concerned about the long-term damage that could be caused to the Devon and Dorset coast, a world heritage site. "There remains a serious danger to the delicate maritime environment on the Jurassic Coast," he added. Adrian Sanders, Liberal Democrat MP for Torbay, said: "It was 50 miles off the Lizard [in Cornwall] in international waters. It must have been known there was a danger the vessel might have to be beached. There are other ports it could have reached before it got into trouble 90 miles away in Devon.... [continues]

[Sequence of Events]

Thursday January 18, 10.30am
Falmouth coastguard receives mayday call from MSC Napoli, foundering 45 miles south-east of the Lizard. Crew abandons ship and it is towed into Lyme Bay.

Saturday January 20, 11.25am
Large cracks on either side of Napoli have widened. Despite concerns by environment experts, the vessel is beached a mile off Branscombe beach in Devon at 2pm.

Sunday January 21, 12.03am
Gales sweep in and throw 103 containers into the sea, and on to the beach. Attempts to pull the vessel harder aground cause a 50-tonne oil leak creating a five mile slick.

Morris, Stuart. 1985 (new edition 2004). Portland, an Illustrated History. By Stuart Morris. Dovecote Press. ISBN 0 946159 34 3. The first full history of the 'Island' and the Royal Manor of Portland, illustrated with 150 photographs, drawings and maps. Less than 10 miles square, a solid block of limestone jutting our sharply into the Channel, Portland's virtual isolation until the 19th century delayed change and gave its inhabitants a highly individual character. For centuries quarrying and smuggling were its principal occupations. Stuart Morris, himself a Portlander, has gone back to original sources to help describe its long and eventful past. Price: £8.95.

Morris, Stuart. 19.. Portland. Discover Dorset. Dovecote Press. Paperback. ISBN 1 874336 49 0. Price: £4.95. By Stuart Morris. The Island and Royal Manor of Portland is unique in Great Britain, and even today retains an atmosphere and identity that are all its own. This is a portrait of the Island that both brings its past to life and adds to our enjoyment of Portland as it is today.

Morris, Stuart. 1989. Portland in Old Picture Postcards. European Library, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands, Third Edition. ISBN 90 288 2647 5 /CIP. (First edition was in 1983). By Stuart Morris. [76 monochrome photographs]

Morris, Stuart. 1990. Portland Camera. The Dovecote Press. Stanbridge, Wimborne, Dorset. ISBN 0-946159-79-3. By Stuart Morris. [This is a low-cost paperback book containing 160 very intereting, monochrome photographs with explanatory captions. Also a two page introduction. The 22 photographs in the sections on "Around the Coast" and the "Island of Stone" are of particular interest to geologists. The section on Chiswell has 21 photographs showing the southeastern end of the Chesil Beach, some in storm and flood conditions. The "Transport and Industry" section has a photograph of a 1907 landslide collapsing the line of the Easton and Church Hope Railway on the East Weares cliffs. There are several good-quality aerial photographs. It is an essential book for following the history of coastal and quarrying features of the Isle of Portland. The book can be obtained from the publisher and is likely to available on sale in the bookshop at Easton, Isle of Portland.]
Moxam , D. An Account of the Natural History of Ferrybridge. By Don Moxom, Warden of the Chesil Bank and the Fleet Nature Reserve. " Introduction: The Chesil Bank is one of the five largest shingle beaches in Britain, whilst the Fleet is the largest regular tidal lagoon in Britain. Growing within the Fleet are two species of eel-grass Zostera spp. and two species of Ruppia, and these support an invertebrate fauna that is now extinct in many parts of Europe. The eel-grass is food for the largest resident mute swan population in Britain. For these reasons and many more, the Fleet and Chesil Bank have been designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest of the highest grade, equivalent to a National Nature Reserve...[continues]
Murphy , F.J. 1999 (for 1998, issued 1999). Lyme Regis: Trade and Population 1575-1725. A Period of Decline?. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 120, 1-18.
Nowell , D. 2008. Coastal land is only leased from the sea. Letter and emails to the Editor, Guardian Newspaper, Monday, April 21, 2008, p. 33.
When it comes to coastal erosion (Waves of destruction, G2, April 17), unlike most other European countries we don't have a solidarity fund to compensate people for such natural disasters, and so the last owner is expected to pay when their house is demolished.
To stop a perverse game of beggar-my-neighbour where the unscrupulous try to sell to unsuspecting buyers, we should be leasing such coastal properties from the sea. Any land that is likely to disappear within a century would in effect become leasehold and the time left stated on the title deeds. In addition to a solidarity fund, limited compensation could be paid if such estimates proved to be wrong. The British Geological Survey, which already undertakes coastal surveys, could provide fairly reliable estimates revised every decade for places with cliffs like Happisburgh. This would be rather more problematic further south along the Norfolk coast since a major breach to this narrow barrier could happen any time this century.
Once breached, the northern Norfolk broads and several villages would be lost, and so a proper cost/benefit analysis is urgently required. Coastal defences would interfere with the movement of sediment down the east coast of England and have to be balanced against any likely impacts further down the coast.
David Nowell, Fellow, Geological Society

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Nature Conservancy Council (NCC). 1978. Geology and Physiographic Survey, Chesil Beach. Information Circular.
Neate , D.J.M. 1967. Underwater pebble grading of Chesil Bank. Proceedings of the Geologist's Association, 78, 419-426.

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Otter Valley Association 1984?. Historical Guide to the Lower Otter Valley. Published by the Otter Valley Association, Budleigh Salterton, East Devon, 96 pp. Printed by Optima Graphics, Topsham, Exeter, Devon, EX3 OEA. Available for £3.90 at the Tourist Information Office, Budleigh Salterton. [This does not discuss the Chesil Beach but historical information regarding Budleigh Salterton, including the 1824 hurricane and storm surge.]

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Pengelly , W. 1870. Modern and ancient beaches of Portland. Report of the Transactions of the Devon Association for the Advancement of Science, 4, 195-205.
Penning-Rowsell , E.C. and Parker, D.J. 1987. The indirect effect of floods and benefit of flood alleviation: evaluating the Chesil Sea Defence Scheme. Applied Geography, 7, 263-288. Butterworth and Company, Publishers. ISSN 0143-6228. In the Flood Hazard Research Centre, FRHC - Publications List.
Perkins , J.W. 1977. Geology Explained in Dorset. David and Charles, Newton Abbott, 224 pp. ISBN 0 7153 7319 6.
Prestwich , J. 1875a. Notes on the phenomena of the Quaternary Period in the Isle of Portland and around Weymouth. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 31, 29-54. Chesil Beach, etc. (by Joseph Prestwich, Esq., F.R.S., V.P.G.S., etc. Professor of Geology in the University of Oxford. Read June 10, 1874)

Prestwich, J. 1875b. On the origin of the Chesil Bank and on the relationship of the existing beaches to past geological changes independent of the present coastal action. Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers. 40, 61-114.

Prestwich, J. 1892. The raised beaches, and 'Head' or rubble-drift, of the south of England: their relation to the valley drifts and to the Glacial Period; and on a late post-Glacial submergence. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 48, 263-343.
Prior , E. S. 1919. the Bridport shingle. A discussion of pebbles. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, 40, 52-65.
Pushkin , A. 1833. The Bronze Horseman; A Petersburg Tale. By Alexandr Pushkin, [Translations are available in books published in the west and on the Internet. This poem gives a desription of events in the 1824 Storm Surge of St. Petersburg. Naturally there is no reference to the Chesil Beach but the storm occurred at much about the same date as the 1824 Great Gale or storm surge in Dorset. The title - The Bronze Horseman is a reference to an equestrian statue of Peter the Great, the founder of St. Petersburg. It was constructed from 1703 onward on unfortunately low ground around the Neva River and at the head of the Gulf of Finland. It has 270 large floods, so far. ]

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Reid , C. 1903. The Geology of the Country around Salisbury. Memoirs of the Geological Survey, England and Wales. His Majest's Stationery Office, London, 77pp. [Not on the Chesil Beach, but discussing the Star Coral which occurs on it. See p.13.]

Reid, Lt.-Col. 1838. Further observations on the moving of the shingle of Beach along the shore. Papers of the Corps of the Royal Engineers, vol. 2, p. 128.
Rennie , J. 1853. Discussion of Coode, J. Description of Chesil Beach with remarks upon its origin, the causes which have contributed to its formation and upon the movement of shingle generally. Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 12, 520-557. [reference given in Bray, 1992].
Richardson , N.M. 1902. An experiment on the movement of a load of brickbats deposited on the Chesil Beach. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, 23, 123-133.
Runyard , L. 1995. Diary of Henry Rolls (1803-1877). Diary of Henry Rolls, shoemaker, of East Lulworth (1803-1877), who kept a journal of the main happenings of village life in East Lulworth at that period. After Henry's death in 1877, his wife, and later, his daughter, continued to keep the journal up to date. This local history research by Len Runyard of Hordle, Lymington, Hampshire has been published on the internet at the following site:
Diary of Henry Rolls (1803-1877). It mentions local history and weather events at Lulworth Cove, Lulworth Castle, Arish Mell and Worbarrow Bay etc., including the effects of the Great Gale or hurricane of November 1824.

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Scopac . Standing Conference on Problems Associated with the Coastline. Website: Isle of Portland and Weymouth Bay (Portland Bill to Redcliff Point) . Example extract: "1. Introduction Weymouth Bay is one of only three open coast frontages in the SCOPAC region with an east-facing orientation. It cuts across a succession of Jurassic strata related to the disposition of the Weymouth anticline, the only surviving part of the southern limb being represented by the "Isle" of Portland extending southward to form the major headland of Portland Bill - see Photo 1 (Bird, 1995; Brunsden and Goudie, 1997). The Bay itself comprises the inundated and partly eroded remains of the Wey river valley occupied by a barrier beach of gravel and sand which was formed by the landward migration of sediments that were combed up during Holocene sea level rise...." [continues]

SCOPAC. West Bay to Portland Bill - Sediment Transport (map).

SCOPAC. 2004. Bray, M., Carter, D. and Hooke, J. 2004. South Coast Sediment Transport Study. Report to SCOPAC. Five volumes, 1200 pages and a CD-Rom. See the section on Lyme Regis to Portland Bill. Also available on the SCOPAC website .

Smeaton . - See Hutchins, 1803.
Smith, G. 1995. Hampshire and Dorset Shipwrecks. Countryside Books, Newbury, Berkshire. 127pp. ISBN 1 85306 336 3, paperback. £6.95p. Interesting information on Chesil and Portland shipwrecks etc. Example extract from p. 18: "The Royal Adelaide was an iron sailing vessel which had left London Docks in November 1872 .. It was also carrying 35 emigrants bound for a new life in Sydney, Australia... In several reports it was called a 'clipper' but this was a rather loose term often imprecisely used to describe a fast sailing ship. Its master, Captain I. Hunter, was a most experienced officer, who had frequently made the long journey to Australia. On this occasion he commanded a crew of 32 officers and men. On the night of 24th November the Royal Adelaide was seen to have passed the Portland lighthouse perhaps a little too close off its starboard bow for comfort and, despite the fact that the glass was dropping quite alarmingly, the captain proceeded down Channel with all possible speed. It was during the night the strong south-westerly wind quickly strengthened to gale force and then within hours developed in such severity that Captain Hunter felt it wiser for the safety of his ship and the passengers to turn back and seek shelter, maybe in Portland Roads, from the worst of the storm. Unfortunately the heavy and blinding rain squalls had blown the vessel off course and the captain found that his vessel had become dangerously 'embayed' in West Bay. During the afternoon of the 25th it became quite plain that the vessel could not weather the storm as it was being driven closer and closer to the western end of Chesil Beach - that long barrier of flint and stone that posed a threat to sailors for centuries...." continues. [obtain the book for the continuation of the account!].
Sparks , B.W. 1952. Stages in the physical evolution of the Weymouth lowland. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 19, 17-29.
Steers , J.A. 1946. The Coastline of England and Wales. 1st Edition. Cambridge University Press.
Strahan , A. 1898. The Geology of the Isle of Purbeck and Weymouth. Memoirs of the Geological Survey. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. 278 pages with a map. Extract, p. 203 et seq.:
" The Chesil Beach:
This great shingle-bank commences near Bridport, and extends a distance of 18 miles to the Isle of Portland, where it terminates abruptly against the cliffs south of Chiswell. For the first six miles of its course it keeps in contact with the coast, but then for eight miles maintains a beautifully even curve at a distance of 200 to 1,000 yards from the main land, enclosing between itself and the shore a shallow salt-water and brackish lagoon known as the Fleet. For the last two miles the beach strikes boldly out to sea to join itself on to Portland. It ranges in width from 170 yards at Abbotsbury to 200 yards at Portland, and in height from 22 feet 9 inches above high-water mark at Abbotsbury to 42 feet 9 inches at Chiswell. From Abbotsbury to Wyke it rises at the rate of 1 in 8,450 and from Wyke to Chiswell at the rate of 1 in 880. The shingle extends to a depth below Low-water Spring Tides of six fathoms at Abbotsbury, seven fathoms at Fleet, and eight fathoms at Portland, at which depth it gives way to sand. The stones of which the visible part of the beach consists increase in size from Abbotsbury to Portland, but those lying below Lowwater Mark diminish in size in the same direction. Borings have shown that the shingle rests on its landward side upon a floor of clay at a depth of three or four feet above Low-water Spring Tides. The clay is said to have been exposed on the seaward side after storms, but it was not met with in the borings. It seems, therefore, to form a shelf upon the edge of which the beach is built. It is usually spoken of as Kimmeridge Clay, but a short length only of the beach actually stands upon that formation. The main part of the beach above High-water Mark is composed of loose shingle, which is always being shifted according to the changes of the wind, but the shingle below this is held in a matrix of sand and grit which is almost, if not quite, watertight. The tide, therefore, gains access to the Fleet at its eastward end only, by the narrow opening known as Small Mouth, and the rise and fall at Abbotsbnry does not exceed a few inches and then only at Spring Tides, when a good deal of water leaks through the upper unconsolidated part of the bank. In exceptional storms, however, the sea seems to have gained access somewhat freely to the Fleet. Leland, writing in 1546, speaks of the south-eastern winds breaking through the bank, and Camden, in 1590, says the Chesil Beach" when the south wind rises, gives and commonly cleaves asunder." Whatever this expression may mean, it is recorded that on November the 23rd, 1824, the sea-water stood to a depth of 22 feet 8 inches on the alluvial meadows at the Decoy, near Abbotsbury, this result having been brought about not so much by the giving way as by the overtopping of the bank by waves at high tide. In this same year the sloop Ebenezer, of 100 tons, ran on the crest of a wave so high up the bank that she was subsequently launched into Portland Roads. This occurred about midway between Ferry Bridge and Chiswell.
The deeply indented inner shore-line of the Fleet contrasts strongly wIth the monotonously even curve of the Chesil Beach. It has clearly never been exposed to the action of such a surf as breaks upon the bank, but presents rather the features characteristic of subaerial denudation, with but slight modification. Thus the effect of surf and tide upon such beds as here crop out would be to cut them all back impartially, the mass of the strata being soft clays, and the rock-bands insignificant. So far from this having been the case, the difference in hardness has been emphasised, and the Cornbrash and Corallian, the hard bands in the Forest Marble and some others form bold headlands, while such cliffs as exist are proportional in size to the miniature surf that arises within the Fleet. It thus has come about that the lagoon widens or contracts according to the nature of the strata cropping out in its northern shore. At Wyke it is contracted by the Corallian hills to a width not exceeding 200 yards,in the Oxford Clay outcrop it widens out to a maximum of 1,000 yards; the Cornbrash of Fleet hems it in again to a width of 250 yards, but in the soft Fuller's Earth outcrop it expands to lOO yards. Further north these outcrops are traversed in reverse order, and the Fleet after widening out in the Oxford Clay finally terminates at the Corallian escarpment west of Abbotsbury.
But though the Fleet, properly so called, ends here, similar features on a smaller scale extend towards the western part of the Chesil Bank at Burton Bradstock. Thus, half a mile east of Abbotsbury Coastguarst Station there is a slight hollow between the beach and the hill-slopes. At and near the Station a little cliff of Fuller's Earth dominates the shingle, but 600 yards westwards a hollow recommences, which develops westwards into a low waterlogged flat upwards of 300 yards in width. The hollow is occupied by a grey alluvial clay, washed down from the adjacent slopes of Fuller's Earth, and doubtless was a small " fleet" until an artificial opening was cut in the Chesil Bank at the site of Swyre White House. One mile further west a similar hollow, partly silted up and partly still occup,ied by water, is known as Burton Mere. But at Cliff End, 15 mIles from Chiswell, this feature of a hollow inside the Shingle Bank comes to an end, and thence for three miles the shingle is piled against the foot of a cliff of Oolitic clays and limestones. Speculations as to the origin of the Chesil Bank have given rise to a voluminous literature. One of the first and the most exhaustive papers was that of Mr. (Sir John) Coode in 1853 to which we are indepted for the measurements quoted above." ... [continues for three and half more pages]

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Thomas , J. and Ensom, P. 1989. Bibliography and Index of Dorset Geology. Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society. 102 pp. [Valuable guide to Dorset geological literature including journal articles, newspaper reports and obscure publications. It includes many references to the Chesil Beach.] See also the internet version - Bibliography and Index of Dorset Geology.
Tomlinson, C. 1865. Two days on the Chesil Beach. Tomlinson's Cyclopaedia of the Useful Arts, etc. London. (Abstract in Proceedings of the Geologists' Association , vol. 1, No. 11, p. 414.
Treves , F. 1906. Highways and Byways in Dorset. London.
Trim , P. 1991. The Quarrying of Portland Stone. Isle of Portland Heritage Trust, 22 pp. including map. By Peter Trim, Isle of Portland Heritage Trust (obtainable at at the Chesil Beach Centre). [Not on the Chesil Beach but with useful background information on the history of Portland and particularly the quarrying of Portland Stone. With several old photographs. Reference to 1696 landslide on the eastern side of Portland.]

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Wallace, H. 1990. Sea Level and Shoreline: between Portsmouth and Pagham for the past 2500 years; with some thoughts on how the Sussex-Hampshire coastal plain may best survive the rising sea. Part 1. (January 1990, large-type draft). 61 pp. By the late Major Hume Wallace, a well-known diving expert [not on the Chesil Beach, but of relevance in dealing with coastal changes in Sussex.].
Waller , M.P. and Long, A.J. 2003. Holocene coastal evolution and sea-level change on the southern coast of England: a review. Journal of Quaternary Science, 18, 351 - 359. Special Issue: The Quaternary History of the English Channel. Issue Edited by P.L. Gibbard, J.P. Lautridou. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. By Dr. Martyn P. Waller (Kingston) and Dr. Antony J. Long (Durham).
Abstract: Data collected recently from select areas within the eastern, central and western English Channel are used to reconstruct the Holocene evolution and sea-level history of the southern coast of England. Rapid sea-level rise in the early Holocene produced a ubiquitous vertical and lateral expansion in the marine influence. From ca. 6800 cal. (calendar) yr BP the rate of sea-level rise declined and a shift from minerogenic to organogenic sedimentation is also widely recorded. A further decline in the rate of sea-level rise occurred in the late Holocene, during which time the eastern and central English Channel experienced coastal inundation and a return to minerogenic sedimentation. Explanations for this apparent contradiction include the effects of this decline on the accumulation of minerotrophic peat and changes in sediment supply. Sea-level index points from the eastern Channel generally plot below those from the central and western Channel, indicating differential crustal movement, although sediment compaction and tidal range also may be responsible for apparent altitudinal variation between these areas. Despite an increase in the quantity and quality of the data available from this region over the past 20 yr these, and a number of other important issues, require further clarification. [Relevant to the history of the Chesil Beach and Fleet Lagoon.]
Well, N.C. and Baldwin, D.J. 2002. Storms induced seiches in The English Channel. EGS XXVII General Assembly, Nice, 21-26 April 2002, abstract no. 5202
Investigation of an extreme storm surge event revealed the presence of an oscillation in sea level. This oscillation had a periods of 4-5 hours and had amplitudes of 0.1 - 0.2 m. The English Channel is well known for its quarter diurnal, sixth diurnal tides, and it was expected that these oscillations were simply the results of tide-surge interaction. However, model experiments showed that we were able to reproduce these oscillations solely from wind forcing. The forcing used was from the extreme event mentioned above. In this paper we describe the 4 hour oscillation, and in particular its spatial characteristics. It is shown that it is a transverse mode of the English Channel, with minimum amplitude in the central Channel and maximum amplitude in Baie de Seine and the Golfe de St Malo, and the Solent region.
Weymouth and Portland Borough Council . 2003. Weymouth and Portland Local District Plan Review (Revised Deposit May 2003). See particularly p.25 et seq. (available on the Internet) - Chapter 4, Natural Environment. Extract from the beginning of this section:
"4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 The quality of Weymouth & Portland's natural environment is a major component of the Borough's identity and prosperity. The countryside and coastline around the built up area is valued highly by local residents who regard the quality of the landscape, views of the Ridgeway and coast and easy accessibility to semi-natural environments from most parts of the Borough as the cornerstone of their quality of life. These same resources are the basis of the Borough's tourism industry and play a significant role in attracting other business investment.
4.1.2 The area's water supply, environmental quality, amenity and safety from flooding depend on the correct management of the hydrological regime and policies in this chapter ensure that new development does not damage this resource. Policies have also been included which aim to reduce the risks associated with unstable land.
4.1.3 The areas of countryside and coastal land outside the Development Boundary are considered unsuitable for general development except those types of development specified in policy 01. This chapter specifies further controls on development to protect the specific landscape, wildlife, geological and agricultural value of these areas...[continues].
[see p. 29 re Osprey Quay, the former Royal Naval base on Portland, behind the Chesil Beach. See also Chiswell Extreme Tidal Flood Risk Area referred to on p. 29 and particularly on p. 30. See p. 30 - Policy N8b - Chiswell Tidal Flood Risk Area, stating, for example, that bedrooms and public assembly rooms can only be developed if raised to first floor Level or above and are not subject to secondary wave impact.

Weymouth and Portland Borough Council. 2005. Weymouth and Portland Local Plan Review Inspectors Report. (Tues 06 September 2005 version). Objections to the Local Plan Review were considered at a Public Inquiry held at the Portland Heights Hotel from 2 March to 1 July 2004. The Inspector's Report records the findings of Mr Cunning ham, the independent Local Plan Inspector appointed by the Planning Inspectorate, who ran that inquiry. The Borough Council will consider the findings of this report by Committee on 6 June 2005. That Committee will also consider any necessary Proposed Modifications to the Plan, which will be published in June/July 200S for public consultation. The Proposed Modifications will set out changes proposed by the Borough Council before the Inquiry and will also set out which of the Inspector's recommendations, if any, are not accepted by the Local Planning Authority together with reasons for their rejection. The Borough Council has raised a number of queries with the Planning Inspectorate. The Planning Inspectorate will be considering these and may publish an addendum to the report in due course...[continues, all available on the Internet as PDF files. See also associated maps.]
See particularly page 112 et seq. - Chiswell Tidal Flood Risk Areas:
Main Issues:
Is Policy N8a that refers to the extreme tidal flood risk area at Chiswell, necessary?
Should criterion (iii) in Policy N8b be reworded to include areas remote from the area subject to 1 in 200 year flood risk?
Are the design standards for Chiswell acceptable?
Is the 1 in 5 or 1 in 10 year flood event too pessimistic in the light of coast and flood protection works that have been completed?
Is the term "Extreme Tidal Flood Risk Area" as applied to part of the Chiswell area overly pessimistic?
Should development in Chiswell be encouraged in order to enhance the old village character and to enable additional buildings to add protection from overtopping waves?
[continues on p. 113 with Inspectors Considerations and Recommendations]
Wheeler , W.H. 1902. The Sea Coast. London. See pp. 155-6 regarding the Preston Barrier Beach, overwhelmed in 1899.
Williams , N. 1992. A Study of Landslides at the West Weare Cliffs, Portland, Dorset. B.Sc. Honours, Environmental Science Undergraduate Research Project, University of Southampton, 1992. By Nicola Williams. Summary: This report presents the results of a final year undergraduate research project on the landslides on the West Weare Cliffs of Portland, undertaken in 1991/92. A detailed field study of the landslides, their mechanisms and other degradation processes is presented together with their relationships to the geological, geomorphological and biological composition of the area. The study is augmented by published data and information gained from current leading authorities on the area. An estimate of recent coastal retreat is given and discussed together with predictions of the area of potential future movement. Evidence is presented to date the landslides using historical records, old photographs and maps of the area. (Supervised by Dr Ian West).
Williams, S. and Hardwick, P. 1996. Portland: Island of Discovery, a Teachers Guide. Weymouth and Portland Borough Council, Planning Department, North Quay, Weymouth, Dorset, DT4 8TA. Compiled and written by Simon Williams and Philip Hardwick of Weymouth and Portland Borough Council. ISBN 19000762005. (The reader may wish to enquire from the council as to whether there is a later edition available, as some aspects may become out-of-date.) This very useful publication consists of a substantial number of sheets (possibly about 200 or more ), with many maps, diagrams and photographs in a hard cover ring-binder and could be purchased for the sum of £22.50p.

Geography Fieldwork Enquiry - Contents:

General Introduction
Geography in the national and school curriculum town and country planning system statistical information
Case Studies
Involving Decision Making Exercises and role play.
(1) Portland Naval Base and Portland Harbour Management Plan
(2) Chesil Beach and the Fleet - The Ferrybridge Management Plan
(3) Markham and Little Francis - New Housing and Environmental Constraints.
(4) Portland Stone and Quarries - Geology, history, quarrying, waste disposal and re-use of land.
(5) Portland Bill - Leisure and Recreational Potential
(6) Retail Surveys of Shopping Centres on Portland
(7) Tourism Development Strategy for Portland
(8) Weymouth Town Trails.
(9) Sea Defence Schemes at Chesil Beach, Portland and Preston, Weymouth.
(10) Proposed Relief Roads to serve Weymouth and Portland.

Useful Local information: Information about the local area to assist in planning a visit, sources of information, services and facilities which may be required whilst on a Field Study Visit.

Attractions: Details of local attractions which are appropriate for school visits and which in some cases produce material for group visits and the National Curriculum.

Accommodation: Hotels and Guest Houses willing and able to accommodate field study visits, with a summary of services and facilities and details of current prices (this will be out-of-date in the 1996 edition).

Geography Fieldwork Enquiry Preface:
This guide to Geographical Enquiries using Fieldwork on the Island and Royal Manor of Portland has been prepared by Weymouth and Portland Borough Council's Planning Department on behalf of the South Dorset Economic Partnership. The initiative is being promoted as part of the Single Regeneration Budget Programme for Portland and is aimed at attracting geography field study visits to the Portland, Weymouth and South Dorset area, with a view to visiting groups of students staying on the Island or in the locality, to the benefit of the local economy.
The area is subject to major economic restructuring as a result of the closure of defence establishments on Portland and this initiative itself is part of the strategy being implemented to diversify the local economy. The natural and environmental assets and other physical and geographical attributes of the area make it an ideal location for field study visits. Current planning and environmental issues in the area have been presented in this guide in a Case Study format suitable for use at different ability and curriculum levels, from Key Stage 3 to A Level. A wide range of information is also provided to help make the planning and implementation of field study visits to Portland easier for teachers and lecturers.
The ten Case Studies in this guide deal with a wide range of subject matter and involve survey/fieldwork, decision making and role play exercises. They are based principally on the Island of Portland but where appropriate, focus on examples in Weymouth, notably relating to housing pressures, town trails and a comparative Sea Defence Case Study.

A key aim of the Project is to encourage visiting groups to stay, preferably on Portland, but if not in Weymouth and a schedule accommodation providers willing and able to accommodate field study groups is included within the guide. Some of the establishments may be prepared to offer free or reduced prices or similar offers for teachers involved in familiarisation visits to the area.

If you require any further information about this initiative, please contact: Simon Williams or Philip Hardwick in the Borough Council's Planning Department on 01305 206333 or 206214.

The Department is indebted to the assistance provided by Dorset County Council Geography Adviser and the following local geography teachers, particularly in working up the Case Study projects and who may be contacted if visiting teachers would like a local opinion on some of the projects which are included in this Guide:

Mike Hillary, Dorset County Council's Geography Education Adviser, Tel No. 01305 224698 Keith Bartlett, Royal Manor School Portland, Tel No. 01305 820262 Fax No. 01305 860417 Rhys Davy, Budmouth Technology College, Weymouth, Tel. 01305783057 Fax No. 01305 766389 Kelvin Huff, All Saints School, Wyke Regis, Weymouth, Tel. 01305 783391 Fax No. 01305 785291

Also acknowledged is the contribution by Colin Ellis and Eric Ricketts in respect of Case Study 8 and by Adrian Powell for the caricature sketches. Photographs are acknowledged in the text where appropriate.

Weymouth and Portland Borough Council Planning Department,
North quay
Dorset DT4 8TA
Tel 01305 206333, fax 01305 766773

Wilson, E . 1870. Notes on the Fleet and Chesil Bank. Geological Magazine, 7, 140-141.

Wilson , V. , Welch, F.B.A., Robbie, J.A. and Green, G.W. 1958. Geology of the Country around Bridport and Yeovil (Explanation of Sheets 327 and 312). With contributions on: The Purbeck Beds by F.W. Anderson, Palaeontology by R.V. Melville, and Groundwater by S. Buchan. London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 239 pp. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain. [See pp. 200-201 on the Chesil Beach.]
Woodward , H.B. 1885. Rate of erosion of the sea coasts of England and Wales: Axmouth to Eype. British Association for the Advancement of Science, Report No. 3, 423-425. [Deals with the coast west of the Chesil Beach.]

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Young , J.A. 1989. The Story of Southbourne. Bournemouth Local Studies Publications, The Professional Education Centre, 40 Lowther Road, Bournemouth, BH8 8NR. No. 695. 50pp.

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Zong , Y. and Tooley, M.J. 2003. A Historical Record of Coastal Floods in Britain: Frequencies and Associated Storm Tracks. Natural Hazards, 29, No. 1, May 2003, pp. 13-36. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Abstract: This paper examines flood frequencies in three coastal sectors of Britain and analyses the associated storm tracks and their principal pathways. The results indicate that the east coast of Britain has suffered most floods over the last 200 years. The frequencies of flood incidents in the south and southwest coast of Britain have increased, particularly during the 20th century, whereas on the west coast flood frequencies have declined. Three distinctive pathways of storm track are identified, related to flood incidents in each coastal sector. A southern pathway in a corridor along the 55° N parallel is associated with flood incidents recorded on the south and southwest coast, whilst storms that are associated with floods on the west coast concentrate along the 60° N parallel. The relationship between the frequencies of floods and climatic variations needs to be explored further. However, the development of coastal settlements has certainly increased vulnerability, and hence the risk of flood disasters.

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Chesil Beach and Portland Field Guides ---
Chesil Beach -Introduction Page
Chesil Beach - Magnetite Pebbles (lodestone) from a Shipwreck
Chesil - Storms, Floods
Fleet Lagoon
Isle of Portland - General
Isle of Portland - Portland Bill
Isle of Portland - Portland Harbour
Isle of Portland - Withies Croft Quarry
Isle of Portland - Bibliography
West Bay, Bridport, east side

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|Home and Contents |Chesil - Storms, Floods |Chesil - Magnetite |Chesil - Pebbles |Fleet Lagoon |Portland - General |Portland Bill |Portland Harbour |Portland Bibliography |Portland - dinosaur footprints |Portland - Mutton Cove to Wallsend |Withies Wall, Portland |Portland Group Fossils |

Copyright © 2014 Ian West, Catherine West, Tonya Loades and Joanna Bentley. All rights reserved. This is a purely academic website and images and text may not be copied for publication or for use on other webpages or for any commercial activity. A reasonable number of images and some text may be used for non-commercial academic purposes, including field trip handouts, lectures, student projects, dissertations etc, providing source is acknowledged.

Disclaimer: Geological fieldwork involves some level of risk, which can be reduced by knowledge, experience and appropriate safety precautions. Persons undertaking field work should assess the risk, as far as possible, in accordance with weather, conditions on the day and the type of persons involved. In providing field guides on the Internet no person is advised here to undertake geological field work in any way that might involve them in unreasonable risk from cliffs, ledges, rocks, sea or other causes. Not all places need be visited and the descriptions and photographs here can be used as an alternative to visiting. Individuals and leaders should take appropriate safety precautions, and in bad conditions be prepared to cancell part or all of the field trip if necessary. Permission should be sought for entry into private land and no damage should take place. Attention should be paid to weather warnings, local warnings and danger signs. No liability for death, injury, damage to, or loss of property in connection with a field trip is accepted by providing these websites of geological information. Discussion of geological and geomorphological features, coast erosion, coastal retreat, storm surges etc are given here for academic and educational purposes only. They are not intended for assessment of risk to property or to life. No liability is accepted. This website shold not used beyond its academic purposes.

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Dr Ian West, author of these webpages

Webpage - written and produced by:

Ian West, M.Sc. Ph.D. F.G.S.


at his private address, Romsey, Hampshire, kindly supported by Southampton University, and web-hosted by courtesy of iSolutions of Southampton University. The website is an unfunded, private activity, and does not necessarily represent the views of Southampton University. Field trips shown in photographs do not necessarily have any connection with Southampton University and may have been private or have been run by various organisations.