West, Ian M. 2016. Kimmeridge and the Kimmeridge Clay: Bibliography and References: Geology of the Wessex Coast (Jurassic Coast - Dorset and East Devon World Heritage Site). Internet site: www.southampton.ac.uk/~imw/kimref.htm. By Ian West, Romsey, Version: 3rd December 2016.
Kimmeridge and Kimmeridge Clay - Geological Bibliography and References

Ian West,

Romsey, Hampshire
and Visiting Scientist at the:
Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences
Southampton University,

Webpage hosted by courtesy of iSolutions, Southampton University
Aerial photographs by courtesy of The Channel Coastal Observatory , National Oceanography Centre, Southampton.

Home and List of Webpages |Kimmeridge Bay and Introduction to Kimmeridge Clay |Kimmeridge Clay Fossils |Kimmeridge - West of Kimmeridge Bay to Gad Cliff |Kimmeridge - East - Hen Cliff, Yellow Ledge and Cuddle |Kimmeridge - Blackstone, Oil Shale at Clavell's Hard |Kimmeridge - Burning Beach, Burning Cliffs and the Lyme Volcano |Kimmeridge - Rope Lake Head to Freshwater Steps |Kimmeridge - East, Chapman's Pool, Houns-tout & Egmont Bight |Kimmeridge Clay at Black Head, Osmington Mills |Kimmeridge Clay Boreholes at Swanworth Quarry
|Kimmeridge - Bibliography - Start |Kimmeridge - Bibliography Continued

See also: |Bibliography of South of England Petroleum Geology

Click here for the full LIST OF WEBPAGES

External link: Jurassic Coast - World Heritage Site |



Other Kimmeridge Field Guides

|Kimmeridge Bay and Introduction to Kimmeridge Clay
Kimmeridge Clay Fossils
Kimmeridge - West of Kimmeridge Bay to Gad Cliff
Kimmeridge - East - Hen Cliff, Yellow Ledge and Cuddle
Kimmeridge - Blackstone, Oil Shale at Clavell's Hard
Kimmeridge - Burning Beach, Burning Cliffs and the Lyme Volcano
Kimmeridge - Rope Lake Head to Freshwater Steps
Kimmeridge - Egmont Bight to Chapman's Pool
Kimmeridge Clay at Black Head, Osmington Mills Pool
Kimmeridge - Bibliography - Start
Kimmeridge - Bibliography Continued

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Go to another Mesozoic Bibliography?

Purbeck Formation - Bibliography
Isle of Portland and Portland Group - Bibliography
Kimmeridge and Kimmeridge Clay - Bibliography
Osmington Mills and Corallian - Bibliography
Lias and Lyme Regis - Bibliography


External Websites, relevant to the Kimmeridge Clay

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General Kimmeridge Clay References

(Click here for divided bibliography with sections on specific topics )
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Abineri , K.W. 1989. Photomicrographs of cellulose peels from the Mesozoic rocks of Dorset. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 100, 161-174.
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Aguirre-Urreta , M.B., Buatois, L.A., Chernoglasov, G.C.B. and Medina, F.A. 1990. First Polychelidae (Crustacea, Palynura) from the Jurassic of Antarctica. Anarctic Science, vol. 2, no. 2, 157-162. Available on line as a pdf file:
First Polychelidae (Crustacea, Palynura) from the Jurassic of Antarctica.
Abstract:
A new fossil genus of decapod Crustacea, belonging to the family Polychelidae is described from James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula. The specimen was obtained from a block of reworked Jurassic tuffaceous black shale belonging to the Ameghino (= Nordenskjold) Formation in the Lower Cretaceous Kotick Point Formation. This is the first report of fossil Polychelidae in the southern hemisphere.
[Relevant to the Kimmeridge Clay of Dorset in that fossil Polychelidae also occur in coccolith limestones, associated with oil shale, in the Upper Kimmeridge Clay of Dorset. See Ensom (1986) and the webpage on Kimmeridge, Dorset, Rope Lake Head (see section on the White Stone Band).]

Ahmadi, Z.M. and Coe, A.L. 1998. Methods for simulating natural gamma ray and density wireline logs from measurements on outcrop exposures and samples: examples from the Upper Jurassic, England. Geological Society, London, Special Publication: Core-log Integration. (editors: P. K. Harvey and M. A. Lovell) 136, pp. 65-80.
Abstract:
Methods for simulating natural gamma ray and density wireline logs from measurements on outcrop exposures and rock samples have been implemented. The signals have comparable amplitudes and resolution to wireline log signals, although the absolute values do not match precisely. The field gamma ray logs were measured on the outcrops at intervals of 30–45 cm using hand-held gamma ray spectrometers. The field density logs were produced by measuring the volume and grain density of selected rock samples, followed by interpolation and filtering of the data. Both techniques are illustrated for the Upper Jurassic of the Wessex Basin, Southern England, with field data from the exposures on the Dorset coast and wireline log data from 11 boreholes between 0.5 km and 170 km away. The Upper Jurassic comprises a range of rock types, giving a wide range of values on which to test the techniques: wireline gamma ray and density values of these strata cover the ranges 15–140 API and 1.8–2.9 g cm-3, respectively. Thus these techniques should be widely applicable for the purpose of correlating outcrops with borehole data.
[re Kimmeridge Clay cliff section - logging, Angela Coe etc.]


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Aigner , T. 1980. Biofabrics and stratinomy of the Lower Kimmeridge Clay ( Upper Jurassic, Dorset, England). Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie, Abhandlungen, 159, 324-338.
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Allen , J.R.L. and Fulford, M.G. 2004. Early Roman mosaic material in southern Britain, with particular reference to Silchester (Calleva Atrebatum): a regional geological perspective. By J.R.L. Allen and M.G. Fulford, with a palaeontological note by N.J. Morris. Britannia. [71% of tesserae from Insula IX, Silchester is Kimmeridge Clay dolomite, usually with the typical minute lenticles of kerogen in a matrix of microsparite dolomite. Similar dolomite is present at Fishbourne, near Chichester, in some cases with fish bones and scales. Burnt mudrock with the ammonite Pectinatites is also present there so there no question about the use of Kimmeridge Clay material at this site. Kimmeridge Clay ferroan dolomite is also present at Eccles Villa (Kent), Angmering Villa, West Sussex, sites at London, Caerleon (Gwent) (with fish bones and scales again), and Norden (Corfe Castle, Dorset). Various dolomite tesserae samples tested showed dolomite percentages ranging from 77% to 92%.]
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Alsharhan, A.S. and Nairn, A.E.M. 1994. Geology and hydrocarbon habitat in the Arabian Basin: the Mesozoic of the State of Qatar. Geologie en Mijnbouw, vol. 72, pp. 265-294.
Abstract:
The State of Qatar is situated in the southwestern Arabian Gulf and covers an area of about 12,000 sq. km. The land portion is formed by a large, broad arch, which is part of the regional, NE-SW trending Qatar-South Fars Arch, separating two Infracambrian salt basins. The Dukhan Field on the west coast of the Qatar Peninsula, with its reservoirs in Upper Jurassic limestones, was the first oil field discovered. Since this discovery in 1940, a series of other discoveries have been made and Qatar became a member of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1973.
Hydrocarbon accumulations are widely dispersed throughout the stratigraphic column with production from Middle Jurassic to Middle Cretaceous strata. The most prolific reservoirs are in shelf carbonate sequences and minor accumulations occur in Albian clastic sediments.
Seals, mainly anhydrite and shale, occur as formations of regional extent as well as intraformationally with smaller areal distributions. There are several stratigraphic intervals which contain source rocks or potential source rocks. Upper Oxfordian - middle Kimmeridgian source rocks were formed in an extensive, starved basin during a period of sea-level rise. They contain organic matter of sapropelic, liptodetrinitic and algal origin and have a total organic content of 1 to 6%.
Both depositional environment and tectonic evolution through geologic time have influenced sedimentary facies and stratigraphic features, which controlled reservoir, source and seal characteristics and subsequent hydrocarbon generation, migration and entrapment.
[Kimmeridgian source rocks in the Arabian Gulf]


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Anderson , F.W. 1932. Phasal deposition in the Middle Purbeck Beds of Dorset. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science for 1931, 379-380. [Early report of cyclicity in the Purbecks as shown by ostracod faunas. This is the start of F.W. Anderson's work. Extract: "Three phases may be recognised in the lower half of the Middle Purbeck. The beginning of each phase is marked by fresh-water deposits, grey marls and shell limestones containing Paludina, Unio, Cyrena and fresh-water Ostracods. Throughout the phase there was a gradual shallowing of the water and increase in salinity; towards the end deposition decreased and cherty limestones (shell breccias) are the typical deposit. Limneaa, Planorbis and Corbula are characteristic of this brackish water stage..."][Not on the Kimmeridge, but on the Purbeck. It has a relevance in terms of cyclostratigraphy.]
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Anonymous, 1827. The Burning Cliff, Dorset. Pp. 381-383 in The Mirror of Literature, Amusement and Instruction, Saturday, June 9, 1827. No. 257, Price 2d. This was reproduced by this journal from "The Topographer", No. XXII, and that article, in turn, comes from the "Gentleman's Magazine". Extract: "Public curiosity having been strongly excited by the extraordinary phenomenon of the appearance of a volcanic eruption on Holworth Cliff, we copy the following scientific observations and interesting particulars, in illustration of this singular operation of nature, from the Gentleman's Magazine of this month. Holworth Cliff forms the southern boundary of a farm called South Holworth, (anciently written Oleworth, Holeworth, and Holwerde,) the property of J. J. Lambert, Esq. of Dorchester; it is situate about two miles eastward of Osmington, and forms a very prominent object from Weymouth Bay.
This cliff is composed of a blue slaty lime-stone [Kimmeridge Clay], somewhat similar to the Charmouth Cliff, [Lower Lias Shales] but exhibiting a more advanced state of decomposition, yet bearing a much stronger and closer affinity to the Kimeridge coal [the Kimmeridge Blackstone , an oil-shale], and indeed may be fairly considered as the connecting link between them. This stone, which is used as an article of fuel by the neighbouring poor, is inflammable, and of a strong bituminous and sulphureous nature; it burns free, and produces a very brilliant light, but emits at first, and until the gaseous particles are all evaporated, a very oftensive smell; it afterwards continues to burn for a long time pleasantly, and notwithstanding the disagreeable effluvia arising from its first, igniting, it does not appear that any injurious effect has ever attended by the use of it [actually the ash is carcinogenic]. It does not burn entirely to ashes, but leaves a substance like burnt slate [reddish], which is, after a time, reduced to powder, on being subjected to the action of Lhe atmosphere. It is worthy of remark, that blocks of this stone which have been exposed to, and washed by, the salt water, burn better than what is recently taken from the cliff." [continues]
For the full article see the Burning Cliff webpage.

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W.J. Arkell The late Dr William Joscelyn Arkell of Oxford University, famous expert on and author of many publications on the Jurassic System. From a painting commissioned by Shell Oil Co. for an International Symposium on the Jurassic System. The photograph was kindly provided by the late Professor Michael House, the well-known Dorset Jurassic author (see his guide to the Dorset Coast ) and once a research student of Dr Arkell.

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Arkell, W.J. 1933 (reprinted 1970). The Jurassic System in Great Britain. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 681 pp. A classic work by Dr. William Joscelyn Arkell.

Arkell, W.J. 1935a. On the Lower Kimmeridgian ammonite genera, Pictonia, Rasenia, Aulacostephanus and Ataxioceras. Geological Magazine, 72, 246-257.

Arkell, W.J. 1935b. The Portland Beds of the Dorset mainland. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 46, 301-347.

Arkell, W.J. 1947 (reprinted 1953). The Geology of the Country around Weymouth, Swanage, Corfe and Lulworth. (Explanation of Sheets 341, 342, 343, with small portions of Sheets 327, 328, 329) With contributions by C.W. Wright and H.J. Osborne White. Memoir of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, H.M.S.O., London, 386 pp. (This is the standard geological memoir on the area, now out-of-date but with essential basic information. It is still, year 2000, in print.)

Arkell, W.J. 1956. Jurassic Geology of the World. xv + 806 pp. 46 pls. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Arkell, W.J. and Callomon, J.H. 1963. Lower Kimmeridgian ammonites from the Drift of Lincolnshire. Palaeontology, 6, 219-245.

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Astin , T.R. 1986. Septarian crack formation in carbonate concretions from shales and mudstones. Clay Minerals, 21, 617-632. By the Rev. Dr Tim Astin.

Astin, T.R. and Scotchman, I.C. 1988. The diagenetic history of some septarian concretions from the Kimmeridge Clay, England. Sedimentology, 35, 349-368. Abstract: The concretions were buried in the Late Jurassic to about 130 m, and in the Late Cretaceous to about 550 m, with uplift between. Oxygen isotopes show that the concretion grew throughout the first burial, with septarian veins forming from about 30 m depth onwards. Later septarian veins formed between about 200 and 500 m during the second burial. Synchronous formation of septarian fractures and fibrous calcite matrix shows that the Kimmeridge Clay became overpressured during the later stages of both burials.
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Austen , J.H. 1856. The Kimmeridge coal money. Purbeck Papers, read at Creech Grange, November 20th 1856. By John H. Austen. With plates and figures. The paper has been reproduced in Legg (1984, pp. 10-17). Example extract: In the first place however, I propose discribing these relics, in their different varieties. In form they are circular, with bevelled and moulded edges, measuring in diameter from three inches and a half to cne inch, and in thickness, from nearly one inch to three eighths of an inch. These measurements apply to the flat varieties only. It is evident, from the accuracy with which the circle is universally preserved, and from the regularity and sharpness of the mouldings, that they were turned in a lathe. They have on one side, two or three, and occasionally, four round holes, or one square hole, for the purpose of fixing them to the chuck, and on the other side a small hole made by the front centre of the lathe. In some instances they are perforated with a single square hole, showing that the piece may be fixed on a square arbor. In most specimens the greatest circumference is found nearest the side by which it was attached to the chuck, so that the bevil on the outside is longer than that on the inside; in some few however, the greatest circumference is in the centre of the thickness of the piece, and the bevels equal. I have never yet met with a specimen in which the largest bevel, and consequently the greatest work, was,on the side next the chuck. Fragments of the shale are frequently found under the same circumstances as the "Coal Money," which show the marks of cutting tools, as if prepared for the lathe. At Encombe I have found such pieces measuring from four to five inches in diameter, by an inch in thickness. Upon a piece which Mr. Miles obtained from the cliff at Worbarrow, were "traced with mathematical exactness, circles and various angles: the centres of the circles were evident, as if the point of the compass had indented the material." I have frequently found pieces of rings, or rather armlets, armillae, apparently about two inches and a quarter in diameter: they are of the same material, and the inner curve will be found to agree with the circumference of the most frequent sized pieces of "Coal Money." Mr. Sydendam mentions an instance of a "perfect ring being dug up in the formation of a drain, the inner diameter of which was an inch and a quarter, and the thickness three eighths of an inch, making a total diameter of two inches. I have occasionally found flat circular pieces of shale rudely cut by some sharp instrument into an irregular form of four or five inches, with central perforations varying from half an inch to one, and two inches, in diameter. Another specimen which I have, is the half of an amulet of three inches and a half in diameter, having a central hole of five eighths of an inch, the sides of which as well as the circumference of the specimen, are smoothly rounded. The armlets do not appear to have been turned direct out of the coal whilst in its rough state: the piece was first cut and fashioned into a circular form, the holes for the chuck chiseled or drilled out, and then in this state, applied to the lathe. The difference in the varieties of the" Coal Money" arises from two causes; first, the different kinds of chucks of the lathe used, and secondly the number of rings cut off one piece; the usual form supplying only one, whilst from that of a conical, two or more have been taken." [continues]
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Baird , R.A. 1986. Maturation and source rock evaluation of Kimmeridge Clay, Norwegian North Sea. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 70, 1-11.
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Barrett, P.M., Benson, R.B.J. and Upchurch, P. 2010. Dinosaurs of Dorset: Part II, the sauropod dinosaurs (Sauriischia, Sauropoda) with additional comments on the theropods. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, vol. 131, (for 2010), pp. 113-126. By Paul M. Barrett, Roger B.J. Benson and Paul Upchurch.
Summary: Dorset has yielded a sparse, but regionally important, collection of sauropod dinosaurs. Most important among these is a specimen from the lower Kimmeridge Clay (Duriatitan humerocristatus gen nov., comb. nov.) which records the presence of a basal titanosauriform in the Late Jurassic of the UK. Material from the Purbeck Limestone Group is also important as it includes possible hatchlings and eggshell.
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Barker , D. 1966. Ostracods from the Portland Beds of Dorset. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology, 11, 447-457, pls. 1-6.
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Bather , F.A. 1911. Notes on crinoid plates from the Penshurst Boring. In: Summary of Progress for 1910, Memoirs of the Geological Survey, p. 78. This is a record of the occurrence of pyritised plates of the crinoid Saccocoma in the Kimmeridge Clay of the Penshurst Borehole in Kent.
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Bellamy , J. 1977. Subsurface expansion megapolygons in Upper Jurassic dolostone (Kimmeridge, U.K.), Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 47, 973-978. By Dr. Jon Bellamy.
Abstract:
Megapolygons with thrusted margins occur within the lowermost dolostone of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic), at the type locality in southern England. Unlike similar features previously described, these structures did not develop at, or near, the sediment surface but at a considerable depth of burial. They formed at a time when the adjacent shales were already compacted but prior to tectonic jointing and faulting. Features distinguishing them from similar near-surface structures include sigmoidal thrust planes, complete lack of penecontemporaneous erosion, absence of internal sediments and association with localized deformation of surrounding, compacted sediments. Diagenetic growth of dolomite is proposed as the mechanism that gave rise to expansion.

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Bellamy, J.R.W. 1980. Carbonates within Bituminous Shales of the British Jurassic - Their Petrography and Diagenesis. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Southampton. 276pp. By Jon Richard Winter Bellamy. Supervisor: Dr Ian West. With much XRD data, various graphs and monochrome photographs from the field and from thin-sections. Abstract in full: Bituminous shales containing enigmatic carbonate lithologies, such as calcite nodules, beef lenses and dolomite beds, form a significant portion of the southern England Jurassic succession. The highly kerogenous Kimmeridge Clay is the thickest such shale. Samples of its carbonates collected from Dorset and elsewhere in the UK were studied using thin and ultra-thin sections, XRD, SEM and AA. The bituminous Oxford Clay and Lias were also sampled...Primary calcite was largely supplied by calcareous plankton and molluscs. During early diagenesis, as a result of bacterial activity, magnesian calcite precipitated within a metre or so of the sediment surface as nodules and scattered minute crystals, forming in abundance during periods of reduced sedimentation. Calcium and magnesium ions were supplied by diffusion from the sediment surface. Ferrous iron, scarce in the calcite, was scavenged from pore water to form pyrite. Processes occurring within basinal sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin, California, where pore waters display high Mg/Ca ratios and alkalinities, are suggested as a model for the early diagenesis in the Jurassic bituminous shales. ..During deeper burial diagenesis other carbonate lithologies evolved. Each of these possess characteristic crystal fabrics that developed in response to overburden pressure as the carbonates formed or were altered. These fabrics can be evaluated using a simple XRD technique. Ferroan and non-ferroan elongate-calcite ('beef') formed at depths of up to hundreds of metres by a process of vertically displacive crystal growth. Both the long axes and c-axies of its crystals tend to be orientated perpendicular to bedding. Ferroan dolomite with the same fabric formed in a similar fashion, minor laterally displacive crystal growth giving rise to distinctive, large-scale polygonal thrust patterns in some beds. Both derived their carbonate largely from the breakdown of organic matter. Other dolomite formed by replacing magnesian calcite and as a cavity-filling cement. Magnesium in this carbonate could have been derived from the diagenetic alteration of unstable magnesian calcite and dolomite, algal organic matter and clays...The diagenetic history of the carbonates within the Jurassic bituminous shales provides a model applicable to other marine bituminous shales.


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Benson, R.B.J., Evans, M., Smith, A.S, Sassoon, J., Moore-Faye, S., Ketchum, H.F. and Forrest, R. 2013. A Giant Pliosaurid Skull from the Late Jurassic of England. By: Roger B. J. Benson, Mark Evans, Adam S. Smith, Judyth Sassoon, Scott Moore-Faye, Hilary F. Ketchum and Richard Forrest.
Available online:
A Giant Pliosaurid Skull from the Late Jurassic of England.
Abstract
Pliosaurids were a long-lived and cosmopolitan group of marine predators that spanned 110 million years and occupied the upper tiers of marine ecosystems from the Middle Jurassic until the early Late Cretaceous. A well-preserved giant pliosaurid skull from the Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation of Dorset, United Kingdom, represents a new species, Pliosaurus kevani. This specimen is described in detail, and the taxonomy and systematics of Late Jurassic pliosaurids is revised. We name two additional new species, Pliosaurus carpenteri and Pliosaurus westburyensis, based on previously described relatively complete, well-preserved remains. Most or all Late Jurassic pliosaurids represent a globally distributed monophyletic group (the genus Pliosaurus, excluding ‘Pliosaurus’ andrewsi). Despite its high species diversity, and geographically widespread, temporally extensive occurrence, Pliosaurus shows relatively less morphological and ecological variation than is seen in earlier, multi-genus pliosaurid assemblages such as that of the Middle Jurassic Oxford Clay Formation. It also shows less ecological variation than the pliosaurid-like Cretaceous clade Polycotylidae. Species of Pliosaurus had robust skulls, large body sizes (with skull lengths of 1.7–2.1 metres), and trihedral or subtrihedral teeth suggesting macropredaceous habits. Our data support a trend of decreasing length of the mandibular symphysis through Late Jurassic time, as previously suggested. This may be correlated with increasing adaptation to feeding on large prey. Maximum body size of pliosaurids increased from their first appearance in the Early Jurassic until the Early Cretaceous (skull lengths up to 2360 mm). However, some reduction occurred before their final extinction in the early Late Cretaceous (skull lengths up to 1750 mm).


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Berlin , S. and Brosse, E. 1992. Petrographical and geochemical study of a Kimmeridgian organic sequence. Revue de L'Institut Francais du Petrole, 47, 711-725.
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Byorklykke , K., Dypvik, H. and Finstad, K. G. 1975. The Kimmeridgian shale, its composition and radioactivity. In: Jurassic Northern North Sea Symposium, Norwegian Petroleum Society, Stavanger.
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Blake , J.F. 1875. On the Kimmeridge Clay of England. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 31, 196-237. By the Rev. J.F. Blake. M.A., F.G.S. (read January 13, 1875). [See particularly p. 198-199 "Section on the Coast at Kimmeridge, between Chapman's Pool and Hen Cliff. This lists from top downward 43 units. There is a summary of the fauna, in old terminology. Towards the end there is long faunal list and there are figures of 16 species of molluscs. Note that the paper considers the Kimmeridge Clay over a wide area of England and is not as detailed on the Kimmeridge coast section, as might be expected. There is some detail on the "Kimmeridge Passage-Beds" of the Weymouth area, including Ringstead Bay and Osmington Mills.]

Blake, J.F. 1880. On the Portland rocks of England. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 36, 189-236.

Boussafir , M., Gelin, F., Lallier-Verges, E., S. Derenne, S., Bertrand, P. and Largeau, C. 1995. Electron microscopy and pyrolysis of kerogens from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, UK: Source organisms, preservation processes, and origin of microcycles. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 59, Issue 18, September 1995, pp. 3731-3741.
Abstract:
Recent studies revealed short-term cyclic variations (microcycles) in total organic carbon (TOC) and the hydrogen index (HI) in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, an organic-rich deposit considered to be a lateral equivalent of the main source rocks of the North Sea. In addition, three different types of organic matter that all appear to be amorphous when observed by light microscopy (AOM) were recognized. Together, these AOM types account for over 80% of total kerogen and their relative abundances show large variations along each microcycle. In the present work, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were carried out on samples (whole kerogens, kerogen subfractions only comprising a single type of AOM, selected rock fragments) corresponding to typical points within a microcycle and obtained via high resolution sampling. The nature and the relative abundances of the products generated by Curie-point Py-GC-MS and off-line pyrolyses of isolated kerogens were also determined for two selected samples corresponding to the beginning and the top of the microcycle. Combination of such ultrastructural observations, including some semiquantitative studies, and the analysis of pyrolysis products allowed (1) determination of the ultrastructural features of the three AOM types thus providing what we believe to be the first example of correlations between light microscopy (palynofacies, in situ maceral analysis) and TEM observations on “amorphous” fossil materials; (2) identification of the source organisms and elucidation of the mode of formation of the different AOM types in the Kimmeridge Clay; (3) explanation of the variations in their relative abundances taking place along a microcycle and establishment of tight correlations with TOC and HI changes; and (4) explanation of the origin of the microcyclic variations in kerogen quantity (TOC) and quality (III) occurring in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation. Interrelationships between primary productivity, sulphate reduction intensity, and lipid "vulcanization" likely played a major role in the control of such variations.
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Brannon , P. 1860. The Illustrated Historical and Picturesque Guide to Swanage and the Isle of Purbeck with a Clear Digest of the Geology and a Minute Description of the Coast from Bournemouth Bay to White Nore. Published by R. Sydenham, London, Longman and Company. 106pp. By Philip Brannon, Archt. C.E. etc., 12 Portland Terrace, Southampton, 2nd Edition. Local publisher was Mr. Richard Sydenham of Poole.
See p. 75 and 76 for information on the historic alum, salt and glass works of Kimmeridge. In the early 17th century Sir William Clavell constructed a cobb or stone pier like that of Lyme Regis from the point of Hen Cliff, Kimmeridge. This was to partially enclose Kimmeridge Bay for the shipping of minerals. "It is described as one hundred and fify feet long, sixty broad, and fifty high, but unfortunately Sir William was not only impoverished by this expenditure, but in involved in ruinous losses by vexatious litigants on the alum patent rights and so compelled to desist from his enlighted efforts. In 1745 a violent storm threw the pier into ruins, which neglect and subsequent wash have now almost obliterated, and even in 1748, ruined buildings and heaps of ashes were the only remains of the work". [The "cobb" was very short compared to the Cobb at Lyme Regis.It is suprising that the cobb was apparently 50 feet high, but does this mean the height from the bottom of Kimmeridge Bay, under the water? Even if this is the case the height would appear to have been much greater than that of the Lyme Regis Cobb.]
See also the section on: Mineral Oil, Paraffin, and Gas (p. 37-38), produced from Kimmeridge oil shale.


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Brereton, N.R., Gallois, R.W. and Whitaker, A. 2001. Enhanced lithological description of a Jurassic mudrock sequence using geophysical wireline logs. Petroleum Geoscience, vol. 7, pp. 315-320.
Available online at:
Enhanced lithological description of a Jurassic mudrock sequence using geophysical wireline logs.
Abstract:
Methods to combine individual wireline logs such as resistivity, sonic, bulk density, neutron porosity and natural gamma have been developed to enhance lithological interpretation, particularly of mudrock sequences. Multiple log data presentation to generate a synthetic, pseudo-lithology log is achieved by combining downhole geophysical log records using a colour cube. Well-documented lithological descriptions of borehole cores from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Jurassic) of Britain are compared with the newly processed combination geophysical log data. The colour cube logs confirm existing lithological descriptions and, importantly, enable considerable refinement of general lithological descriptions of 'undifferentiated' mudstone.


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Bresch, C. and Carpenter, J. 1009. Preliminary Analytical Results: Haynesville Shale in Northern Panola County, Texas. By Chris Bresch and James Carpenter, R. Lacy Services, Ltd., 222 E. Tyler St., Longview, Texas, 75601.
Available online at:
Preliminary Analytical Results: Haynesville Shale in Northern Panola County, Texas.
Extended Abstract:
As part of a preliminary evaluation program, Lacy Operations drilled three vertical Haynesville Shale wells positioned over a west-east expanse of 6.5 mi, 8 mi north of Carthage, Texas. The top of the Upper Jurassic Haynesville Shale lies at drilling depths ranging from 10,352 ft to 10,702 ft. The average thickness of the Haynesville Shale is 475 ft. The average Horner corrected temperature at the midpoint in the Haynesville Shale is 271 deg. F, corresponding to an average present-day geothermal gradient of 2.055 deg. F / 100 ft. Tmax values from whole cores range from 484 to 504, indicative of the dry gas window. The Haynesville Shale has TOC (total organic carbon) values between 2% and 4% with a 3% (wt) average (based on side wall core analyses), indicating an initially rich Type II kerogen source rock. Prior to maturation the Haynesville Shale would have had a significantly higher average TOC and high HI (hydrogen index) values. Favorable burial and thermal conditions caused most of the kerogen source potential to be converted to hydrocarbons and dead carbon (see Figure 1; notice low HI values). If one assumes a normal geothermal gradient (1.4-1.7 deg. F / 100 ft) at the time of maximum thermal exposure, then the Haynesville Shale experienced paleo-burial greater than ~18,000 ft—probably during the Cretaceous—with a corresponding paleo-temperature greater than ~360 deg. F. Of course there is great uncertainty, but the data suggest more than 7,500 ft of overburden has been removed.
Both rotary side wall cores and conventional 90 ft cores were cut for laboratory analyses. The conventional cores targeted the lower one third of the shale. Visual observations of cores show the Haynesville Shale to have consistency and color similar to charcoal, often with poker-chip partings. Visual healed calcite fractures have been observed in some of the SEM (scanning electron microscopy) photos taken of the cores. Maturation increases brittleness, can result in overpressuring, microfracturing and converts kerogen to dead carbon, reducing occlusion of porosity and increasing permeability. Dead carbon also contributes to reservoir capacity through gas adsorption. Uplift/removal of overburden may also lead to expansion-induced microfracturing. [continues]

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British Geological Survey (BGS). (Compiler Wood, M.A.) 2011. Geology of South Dorset and South-East Devon and its World Heritage Coast.

The cover of the 2011 South Dorset Memoir of the British Geological Survey

An example page from the British Geological Survey, South Dorset Memoir, 2011

Special Memoir for 1:50,000 geological sheets 328 Dorchester, 342 West Fleet and Weymouth and 342/343 Swanage and parts of sheets 326/340 Sidmouth, 327 Bridport, 329 Bournemouth and 330 Newton Abbott. Compiled by M.A. Woods. By Barton, C.M., Woods, M.A., Bristow, C.R., Newell, A.J., Westhead, R.K., Evans, D.J., Kirby G.A., and Warrington, G. Contributors: Biostratigraphy - J.B. Riding; Stratigraphy - E.C. Freshney; Economic Geology - D.E. Highley and G.K. Lott; Engineering Geology - A. Forster and A. Gibson. British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, 2011. 161 pp. This is the new version of the Geological Survey Memoir for the Dorset Coast etc. and replaces Arkell (1947) and the earlier memoir by Strahan (1898). It covers a wider area than these old memoirs, though, and includes all of "Jurassic Coast", UNESCO World Heritage Coast. It is a key reference work. Available from BGS Online Bookshop at 24 pounds stirling (in Jan. 2012).

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Brodie, P.B. 1853. Notice of the occurrence of an elytron of a coleopterous insect in the Kimmeridge Clay at Ringstead Bay, Dorset. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, vol. 9, 51-52.

Brodie, W.R. 1876. Notes on the Kimmeridge Clay of the Isle of Purbeck. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, vol. 4, 517-518.
Abstract - the complete article: "The Kimmeridge Clay commences below St. Alban's Head, where it is overlaid by Portland Oolite and Purbeck Limestone. Beds of a grey-coloured limestone containing marine shells, oysters, and ammonites, immediately underlie the Portland Beds. These may be the Upper Passage-beds or the uppermost beds of the Kimmeridge Clay shales. They continue from St. Alban's Head, through Chapman's Pool, and extend towards Encombe Park. They are lost sight of inland, but reappear on Gadcliff several miles to the estward.
At Chapman's Pool, in paper-shales, the following fossils have been obtained :- Jaws of small saurians, belemnites large and small, Coccoteuthis latipinnis, Owen, several species of squids, and marine shells.
Eastward of Encombe Park occur remains of fish and Crustacea in black pyritous shales, which give an offensive odour. At Encombe Point we find Pliosaurus grandis, spine of Hybodus, and other fish remains, cuttle fishes, and ammonites. In black oolitic shales [this reference to oolitic is strange!], at the same locality, in beds running out to sea, jaws of reptiles and fish differing from those found at other points, Saurian vertebrae, three species of Pterodactyle resembling those from the Dorsetshire Lias, zoophytes and fruits.
Three or four miles to the westward is Kimmeridge Bay, where the paper-shales and the black bituminous shales are again met with. Not very far from Gadcliff, at the termination of the outcrop of the Kimmeridge Clay, Coccoteuthis latipinnis, figured and described by Professor Owen, was first discovered by the author, who also claims to have first found remains of cuttle fish in the Oolites of that part of England. At this place there have been found a jaw with teeth of a crocodilian reptile (in the thin shale beds), operculum associated with ammonites, reptilian bone described by Owen (Pal. Soc. Vol. for 1875), several species of ammonites, and fossil wood.
At Bucknowle, south-west of Corfe Castle, we find black earth with pottery, human bone, and flint implements, covering a thin seam of loam, which reposes on a deposit containing stones from a distance, flint implements, burnt wood, etc. The flints in the lowermost deposit are of the largest form, and differ much from those in the uppermost bed. Land, freshwater, and marine shells occur, along with remains of deer, ox, bear, lion, and fox. A limestone implement has also been found. Remains of elephant, deer, and ox have been found in gravel in Encombe Park. North of this locality a section shows the presence of the following beds :-
Middle Chalk, with flints.
Upper Greensand.
Gault, with fossils.
Lower Greensand, with fossils.
Wealden Beds.
Upper Purbeck or Middle Wealden.
Marble beds [i.e. Purbeck Marble], with freshwater turtles, Cypris, and Unio.
[end of article]
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Bristow , C.R. 1993. Recent work of the British Geological Survey in Dorset. Proceedings of Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society for 1992, 114, 207-214. Includes list of Geological Survey open file reports on many Dorset topics. Yeovil Sheet 312, Wincanton, 297, Shaftesbury 313, Ringwood 314, Sidmouth, 326, Bridport 327, Dorchester 328, Bournemouth, 329, Fleet and Weymouth 341 and 342 and Swanage 343. Much Corallian and Kimmeridge data. Also borehole lists for Dorset.
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Brodie , W.R. 1876. Notes on the Kimmeridge Clay of the Isle of Purbeck. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 4, 517-518.
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Brookfield , M.E. 1973a. The Palaeoenvironment of the Abbotsbury Ironstone (Upper Jurassic) of Dorset. Palaeontology, vol. 16, part 2, pp. 261-274. Abstract: The Abbotsbury Ironstone represents a rare sandy facies of the Lower Kimmeridgian in Britain. Palaeoecological studies show that it consists of of three facies deposited in an offshore beach or barrier bar environment. The main control on the fauna is thought to be the degree of water agitation.

Brookfield, M. E. 1973b. Palaeogeography of the Upper Oxfordian and Lower Kimmeridgian (Jurassic) in Britain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 14, 137-167. Abstract: A series of maps with descriptive notes illustrate the palaeogeographic changes in the British Isles during the Upper Oxfordian and Lower Kimmeridgian. The division between the stages marks no sharp faunal or sedimentological change, as hitherto assumed. The passage is a gradual change from shallow water carbonates, through delta-influenced conditions to open shelf environments, spanning the top three zones of the Oxfordian and lower three zones of the Kimmeridgian. The common stratigraphic sequences in all basins indicate a common overall control on sedimentation. The relative importance of sea-level changes, climate and tectonic movement cannot be separated and may be interconnected.

Brookfield, M.E. 1973c. The life and death of Torquirhynchia inconstans (Brachiopoda, Upper Jurassic) in England. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 13, 241-259. Abstract: Torquirhynchia inconstans, a rhynchonellid brachiopod, shows a curious asymmetric commissure. This is interpreted as an adaption to life in tidal environments. Types of preservation, growth line, and size frequency analysis indicate that the population analyzed consists of dominantly mature individuals, which by analogy with recent brachiopod populations is a primary feature of the original population, and not due to selective destruction, selective transport, or selective predation of smaller individuals. The possible functions of the asymmetry of Torquirhynchia inconstans are considered, and it is concluded that the brachiopod was adapted to life in tidal environments, a conclusion supported by sedimentological evidence. Asymmetric brachiopods are considered to have developed from colonies of partly asymmetric, variable brachiopods by selection of extreme variants.

Brookfield, M.E. 1973d. The Palaeoenvironments of the Upper Oxfordian - Lower Kimmeridgian Sediments in Dorset, England. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Reading University, 550 pp.

Brookfield, M.E. 1978. The lithostratigraphy of the upper Oxfordian and lower Kimmeridgian Beds of south Dorset, England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 89, 1-32.
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Brown , D.S. 1983. Discovery of a specimen of the plesiosaur Colymbosaurus trochanterius (Owen) on the Isle of Portland. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 105, 170.
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Bruce , P. 1989. Inshore along the Dorset Coast. First Edition, Boldre Marine, Lymington. 115p + charts. Paperback. By Peter Bruce. There was a second edition in 1996. [Useful for local names and coastal detail for the eastern Dorset coast.]

Bruce , P. 2001. Inshore along the Dorset Coast. Third Edition, Boldre Marine, Lymington. 134pp. Paperback. ISBN 1-871680-26-3 By Peter Bruce. Price was £14.95. From the back cover blurb: This is a book for seafarers and landsmen who have reason to visit the exceptionally beautiful and interesting east Dorset coast. It covers the area from Christchurch Bay to Portland Bill and gives in detail all the nautical lore, delights, tidal streams and history that most people would ever want to know. Every bay, every landing place and every feature has been surveyed in detail and researched to provide expert local knowledge. Furthermore the text is richly illustrated by superb aerial and sea level colour photographs which add considerably to the value of this unique book for those who venture on the water in any kind of craft, or for those who are curious about marine aspects of the coastline. [This book is very useful for local names and coastal detail for the eastern Dorset coast. This edition has very good colour photographs, many of them aerial photographs. ]
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Buchel , D. 1993? Etude prétrographique quantitative, à différentes échelles, de la pyrite dans des roches riches en matière organique: série supérieure des argiles kimméridgiennes du Dorset (Sud de l'Angleterre). Listed as Bückel, Damien and Steinberg, Michel but apparently a Doctoral Thesis (two names given; one might be the supervisor). Université de Paris 11, Inist Identifier : Th. doct. ; 93 PA11 2442 INIST shelf number : T 92849 Publisher : France.
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Buckland , W.A. and De la Beche, H.T. 1836. On the geology of the neighbourhood of Weymouth and the adjacent parts of the coast of Dorsetshire. Transactions of the Geological Society of London, series 2, vol.4, pp. 1-46.
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Buckman, S.S. 1922-26. Type Ammonites. (commenced as "Yorkshire Type Ammonites" but extended to Dorset forms etc.), London. See particularly: Buckman, S.S. 19922-6. Kimmeridge - Portland Chronology. In Type Ammonites, part 4, 226-45, part 6, 9-16, 24-40. Sydney Silverman Buckman, born in 1860 at Cirencester, Gloucestershire, later lived at Bradford Abbas, and wrote his first paper at the age of 18 on the Astartes of the Inferior Oolite. He worked on the ammonites of the whole British Jurassic System and greatly advanced ammonite zonal stratigraphy and ammonite palaeontology and taxonomy. Later in life he was prone to excessive subdivision of ammonite taxons. See Arkell (1933), Chapter 1, for discussion of Buckman's work.
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Burns, S. J. (1998) Can diagenetic precipitation of carbonate nodules affect pore-water oxygen isotope ratios? Journal of Sedimentary Research, 68, 100–103
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Calkin, J.B. 1955. "Kimmeridge Coal-Money": the Romano-British shale armlet industry. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 75, 45-71. By J. Bernard Calkin, M.A. F.S.A. Example extract: "Introduction: This paper is mainly concerned with the methods of production of lathe-turned shale armlets, in so far as these are revealed by a study of the debris on workshop sites in the Isle of Purbeck. In a letter to the Gentleman's Magazine of March 1768 , the distinguished Dorset antiquary, the Rev. John Hutchins, Rector of Wareham, described a narrow bed of bituminous shale, which occurred in the cliffs at Kimmeridge, known as Kimmeridge coal. This material was used locally, he says, as a fuel, for which purpose it could be purchased at 6d. a tun. He then went on to mention "a remarkable curiosity called coal-money". This consisted of round discs of shale from 1 to 3 inches in diameter and a quarter inch thick, and having 2 or 4 shallow holes on one side, which he thought might have been for 'fixing them in the turning-press'. These discs were to be found at the top of the cliffs and in the fields around Kimmeridge. Antiquarians affirmed that they were British antiquities, but whether amulets or money was not agreed. After pointing out that amulets were generally of a different form and of a different material, Hutchins concluded rather reluctantly that probably they were some ancient form of money. Intrigued by this description some half a century later, Mr. W. A. Miles, at that time also residing at Wareham, decided to make some personal investigations. In his paper on Kimmeridge Coal Money published in 1826 he tells how, upon receiving some specimens found at Worbarrow, he 'immediately took a chaise and repaired for a week to the Bay of Worthbarrow, in order to prosecute his researches'. There and also at Kimmeridge he found the coal-money associated with fragments of ancient pottery. Having correctly observed that the discs must have been made on a lathe and that certain worked flints on the Kimmeridge site were actually lathe tools, he proceeded to weave a grand romance about the existence of a Phoenician or Carthaginian colony at Kimmeridge, where pottery was manufactured from the local clay, and fired with the Kimmeridge coal. He then suggested that the traders prospered so well by bartering their wares among the natives that they decided to express their gratitude to the deity, in this instance Hercules, by offering him pieces of imitation money. So obsessed was Miles with this theory, that upon discovering at Tyneham a huge circular block of stone 2 ft. thick and 7 ft. in diameter, he suggested that it was an immense piece of coal-money, which had served as a Phoenician altar. [continues]
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Callomon , J.H. & Cope, J.C.W. 1971. The stratigraphy and ammonite succession of the Oxford and Kimmeridge clays in the Warlingham Borehole. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 36, 147-176.

Callomon, J.H. & Cope, J.C.W. 1995. The Jurassic geology of Dorset. In (Taylor, P.D.; ed.) Field Geology of the British Jurassic. Geological Society, London, 51-103.
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Canfield D. E., Lyons T. W., and Raiswell R. (1996) A model of iron deposition in euxinic Black Sea sediments. American Journal of Science, 296, 818–834.
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Cecil, D. 1985. Some Dorset Country Houses; A Personal Selection. The Dovecote Press, 135pp. By Lord David Cecil (Lord Edward Christian David Gascoyne-Cecil). This includes Smedmore, Kimmeridge, on pages 106-110 and has four illustrations of the house. On page 110, William Clavell is shown in the uniform of the Volunteer Dorset Rangers formed in 1794 when an invasion by the French seemed likely. Instructions about evacuating people and goods in Dorset in the event of a French invasion were issued over the name of William Clavell of Smedmore, Sheriff of Dorset in 1797.
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Chambers , M.H., Lawrence, D.S.L., Sellwood, B.W. and Parker, A. 2000. Annual layering in the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, UK, quantified using an ultra-high resolution SEM–EDX investigation, Sedimentary Geology, 137 (2000), pp. 9–23.
Abstract:
This paper reports the results of an ultra-high resolution investigation of the geochemistry of the Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF) using scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). Sub-millimetre banding is revealed in which each band (approximately 112 microns thick) comprises a couplet of coccolith-rich and coccolith-poor sediment. Major element analysis reveals that regularly-spaced peaks in the relative amount of calcium are associated with coccolith-rich bands. It is argued that each couplet represents an annual layer, the calcium peaks corresponding to an annual bloom of coccolithophorids. There is also a broad correlation between the calcium/aluminium ratio and the ratios of sodium/aluminium, phosphorus/aluminium and potassium/aluminium to calcium/aluminium ratios. We tentatively suggest that there may be a link here, sodium, phosphorous, and potassium today being key nutrients for coccolith productivity. Aluminium is taken as representing the background terrigenous (clay) fraction. If each banded couplet is indeed annual and if the thickness of such bands were to be representative of the KCF as a whole, then the post-compactional thickness is broadly in agreement with sedimentation rates of 100 microns per year calculated by Oschmann (1990). This study confirms the view that the KCF in southern England accumulated in a predominantly anoxic environment that favoured the preservation of organic material within the bottom sediment. Bundles of bands, clustering in groups of about 8–10 are tentatively related to short-term changes in insolation (possibly sun-spot cycles).
[sample from near Grey Ledge]
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Channel Coastal Observatory .
[Large-scale, vertical, aerial photographs of the Wessex Coast are available free for downloading to persons who register with this organisation. You may need some time to understand the system and download the appropriate pictures. You will need ER viewer software (available free on the internet) to see the pictures which are in ECW format, but they can afterwards be converted to other formats. They are excellent images and well-worth examining. Highly recommended website!]
"Welcome to the website of the South-East strategic regional coastal monitoring programme. The Channel Coastal Observatory is the data management and regional coordination centre for the Southeast Regional Coastal Monitoring Programme. The programme provides a consistent regional approach to coastal process monitoring, providing information for development of strategic shoreline management plans, coastal defence strategies and operational management of coastal protection and flood defence. The programme is managed on behalf of the Coastal Groups of the Southeast of England and is funded by DEFRA, in partnership with local Authorities of the southeast of England and the Environment Agency. The Channel Coastal Observatory is hosted by New Forest District Council, in partnership with the University of Southampton and the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton."
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Chatwin , C.P. and Pringle, J. 1922. the zones of the Kimmeridge and Portland rocks at Swindon. Summary of Progress of the Geological Survey, London, 162-168.
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Clausen , C. K. and Wignall, P. B. 1990. Lower Kimmeridgian bivalves of southern England. Mesozoic Research.
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Cochrane, C. 1970. Poole Bay and Purbeck 300BC - AD1660. Printed by the Friary Press, Longmans Ltd., Dorchester, 99pp. See Chapter 5, Industrial Contacts Widen, with regard to alum and copperas.
In the mid-1500s Canford Manor (including Parkstone, Alum Chine etc, of Bournemouth and Poole) became the property of Lord Mountjoy. He saw the prospects for alum and copperas and had a licence for 200 tons at Alum Chine. In the later part of 1500s John Clavell, owner of the Kimmeridge (Smedmore) estate, followed by his son Sir William Clavell, in association with Lord Mountjoy, tried to make a successful industry. However, they were thwarted by legalities over patent infringements. (see p. 76 etc.)
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Coe, A. L. 1992. Unconformities within the Upper Jurassic of the Wessex Basin, Southern England. D.Phil. thesis. Oxford University.

Coe , A.L., Hesselbo, S.P., Jenkyns, H.C., Morgans Bell, H. and Weedon, G.P. 1999 (or 2001). Kimmeridge Clay Formation composite graphic log for coastal exposures, near Kimmeridge, Dorset. Part of Supplementary Publication No. SUP 90490, British Library. Associated with paper by Morgans-Bell, Coe, Hesselbo, Jenkyns, Weedon, Marshall, Tyson and Williams (2001). By Angela L. Coe of the Open University and others.
This log is available on the internet at Integrated stratigraphy of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic) based on exposures and boreholes in south Dorset, UK. [This is an excellent log and very useful with bed numbers and much detail. It is very good and incorporates the previous work of Gallois and others; it is likely to be standard basis for further research on the cliff section. The Swanworth and Metherhill logs of Kimmeridge Clay boreholes are also available from this website. The log is very large for printing out.]

For the full log go to:
Rapid Global Geological Events. 2001. The Rapid Global Geological Events (RGGE) Project. A Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Special Topic.

[See also re preparation of the log: Ahmadi, Z.M. and Coe, A.L. 1998. Methods for simulating natural gamma ray and density wireline logs from measurements on outcrop exposures and samples: examples from the Upper Jurassic, England. Geological Society, London, Special Publication: Core-log Integration. (editors: P. K. Harvey and M. A. Lovell) 136, pp. 65-80.]
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Coker, J. 1732. A Survey of Dorsetshire Containing the Natural History and Antiquities of that County, with a Particular Description of All the Places of Note and Antient Seats, which give Light to many parts of English History, extracted from the Doomsday Book and other valuable records. And a Copious Geneological Account of Three Hundred of the Principal Families. With their Arms fully described and curiously Engraved on six Folio Copper Plates. To which is prefix'd a Map of the County.
Publish'd from an Original Manuscript, written by the Reverend Mr. Coker of Mapowder in the Said County. [Rector of Tinkleton, p. 76] London. Printed for J. Wilcox, at the Green-Dragon, in Little-Britain. 1732. London.
To the Right Honorable George Dodington, Esq; one of the Lords of the Treasury, this Survey of the County of Dorset is Humbly Dedicated.
(Map of Dorsetshire by John Wilcox follows)

p.46 etc.

"The next place that offereth itself is Smedmore, where Sir William Clavile, descended of antient Gentry (as you have allready hearde) built a little newe House and beautified it with pleasant Gardens. The place long sithence had Lordes of the same name, from whom by Dolfin it passed hereditarilie to the Claviles; neare adjoining to the Sea: And not far hence, the nowe Owner, beeing ingenious in diverse Faculties, put in tryall the making of Allom, which hee had noe sooner, by much Cost and Travell, brought to a reasonable Perfection, but the Farmers of the Allom Works seized to the Kings Use; and beeing not soe skillfull or fortunate as himselfe, were forced by Losses to leave it offe, and now it rests allmost ruined.

But in place of it Sir William Clavile, whom one disaster, dismayed not, has sitence sett up a Glasse House (which is come to Perfection and is likely to redounde to a great Benefit) and Salt House.

For Transportation of these Comodities, as also of White Salt (where it is made in great Abundance by boiling it out of the Sea Water) he hath at his own Charge, with Great Rocks and Stones piled together, built a little Key in imitation of that at Lime [the Cobb at Lyme Regis], for small Barkes to ride, invironed on the East Side with a Hill yeelding Myne [i.e. mineral or ore, presumably in this case - pyrite or pyritic shale, alum-shale] (as they call it) for the Allom Works [this description seems to suggest Hen Cliff, which is a hill],

(a handwritten note has been added here in old English writing style, with the old type of S:
"A very particular situation in a small flat surrounded with high hills towards the land side and open to the Sea. A relation of the Collingfords called it the close stool [i.e. night commode] of the Island." [this is presumably a reference to the odour of the burning oil shale at what is now the eastern marine and boat area of Kimmeridge Bay]")

and a kind of bluish Stones that Serve to burne [i.e. unweathered Kimmeridge oil shale or Blackstone] for maintaineing fire in the Glasse House; but in burneing yeelds such an offensive Savour [odour] and extraordinairie Blackness, that the People labouring about those Fires are more like Furies than Men."
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Cole , D.I. 1973. A burning cliff. Letter to the Times Newspaper, sent 29 November, 1973.
Sir. In view of the present energy crisis and the recent letters concerning the distillation of oil from oil shales, your readers might find interest and coincidence in the fact that a possible energy source in the form of a 3ft thick seam of oil shale, is at present undergoing spontaneous combustion. This oil shale outcrops on the coast of the Isle of Purbeck, Dorset. It has also been found at various localities in the Weymouth area. It is apparently burning as a result of the oxidation of pyrite, contained within the oil shale, which generates heat, although further studies are being made. As a result of this natural process, a 30ft cliff section above the oil shale has been baked in areas, and several small fumeroles are to be seen emerging from the cracks in the cliff. Temperatures near the oil shale were found to exceed 500 degrees C. The value of this oil shale should not be under estimated, since a company named the Kimmeridge Oil and Carbon Company obtained an average of 66 gallons of oil per ton of shale by distillation, in the early nineteenth century. Only three similar instances of "burning cliffs" in Dorset have been cited, occurring in 1751, 1755 and 1826 [but note also the Lyme Volcano of 1908], which at the time were compared closely to volcanic activity. Could, therefore, this present "burning cliff" coinciding as it does with the present oil. crisis, be a natural warning that the time has come to cease squandering the earth's resources of irreplaceable fuels and concentrate upon sources of energy such as nuclear and solar?
Yours faithfully, D. Cole, Department of Geology, The University, Southampton, November 29, 1973. (See also: Kent (1973?).

Cole, D.I. Observations on a burning cliff. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, for 1974, 96, 16-19. By Douglas I. Cole, at that time a postgraduate student at the Department of Geology, Southampton University. [A cliff fire in the oil-shale or Blackstone of the Kimmeridge Clay at Clavell's Hard, east of Kimmeridge Bay. It burnt from 1972 to 1974 and reddened an area of the cliff. Minerals formed at fumeroles of the fire include salammoniac, sulphur, gypsum, hemi-hydrate and anhydrite.] Extract, from the beginning:
INTRODUCTION
An example of natural combustion, that occurred in a bed of bituminous shale commonly referred to as the Blackstone (Strahan, 1898; Arkell, 1947), at Clavell's Hard, near Kimmeridge, is reported here. This process of natural combustion is apparently an exceptionally rare event in Dorset, with previous examples being reported at Charmouth in 1751 and 1755 (Damon, 1884), at Burning Cliff, Ringstead Bay in 1826, continuing for several years (Buckland and De la Beche, 1835), and at Lyme Regis in 1908 (Woodward, 1911). The example at Burning Cliff also occurred in the Blackstone, which is of Kimmeridgian age, wheras those at Charmouth and Lyme Regis occurred in bituminous shales of Liassic age. In all these previous examples, combustion was thought to have started spontaneously as a result of pyrite oxidation producing sufficien. heat for ignition of the bituminous shales (Buckland and De la Beche, 1835; Damon, 1884; Woodward, 1911).
The remains of former workings of the Blackstone can still be seen at Clavell's Hard. These workings were made on varim occasions from the early 17th Century until the late 19th Century, with the Blackstone being used either as a fuel or as a source of oil. Several types of oil were distilled, and total yields apparently varied between approximately 11 gallons and 66 gallons per ton of bituminous shale (Damon, 1884; Strahan, 1898, 1918). However, large-scale exploitation did not occur, presumably as a result of the limited thickness (0.9 metres) and high sulphur content of the Blackstone (Arkell, 1947)
DESCRIPTION
This description is largely based upon observations made on 22 November 1973, supplemented by further observations made between 13 December 1973 and 7 August 1974.
Clavell's Hard (SY920777) is situated on the coast approximately one mile south-east of Kimmeridge Bay, where a cliff section exposes approximately 21 metres of shales in the Hudlestoni and Wheatleyensis Zones of the Kimmeridgian succession (Cope, 1967; Cope in: Torrens, 1969), dipping 6° to the north-east. The area of cliff that has been affected by combustion of the Blackstone is located between the cliff-top and a terrace, situated about 7 metres above the cliff-base (Fig. 1.). This are of cliff includes the Blackstone, which forms the base of the terrace, a cements tone termed the Rope Lake Head Stone Band and a thin cementstone, in an otherwise shale-dominated sequence (Figs. 1 and 2, Cope in: Torrens, 1969).
The combustion of the Blackstone was apparently taking place at the base of the terrace, where it was obscured by scree deposits of shales (Fig. 1). As a result, isolated areas of shale in the cliff, overlying the Blackstone, were baked and now display a reddish-orange colour, and several fumaroles were present in joints and cracks located in both the shales and the two cementstones (Figs. 1 and 2). The effects of the combustion did not apparently extend for more than three metres inland, where fumaroles were located in fissures (Fig. 1), which resulted from landslipping and which were of maximum width 0.3 metres. The scree also showed evidence of baking. It is probable that baking was due to the upward conduction of heat from the Blackstone, since heat transfer by gases in the fumaroles was unimportant as indicated, by gas temperatures not exceeding 70°C. Certain parts of the cliff and scree, particularly in the vicinity of the Rope Lake Head Stone Band, displaye temperatures in excess of 500° C, with red heat noted at approximately 0.5 metres below the scree surface. The fumaroles appeared to be emitting several gases, of which sulphur dioxide and water vapour were prominent Associated with these gases were deposits of fine sulphur crystals and a black tarry oil, and encrustations of black tarry oil, salammoniaq (ammonium chloride), gypsum, hemi-hydrate (plaster of Paris) and anhydrite, which were located around the fumaroles. The inorganic minerals in these fumarole deposits were determined using X-ray diffraction analysis (Brown, 1961), and the results, together with those for several samples from both the cliff-section and scree, are shown in Table 1. The sample locations are given in Fig. 1. [continues with Table 1 showing the minerals detected in the baked shale, Blackstone, fumarole encrustation etc. There follows another page of small text, followed by Acknowledgements and References.]
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Cope, J.C.W. - Key Papers. Publications by John Cope, the international specialist on Kimmeridge clay ammonites, Kimmeridgian stratigraphy and correlation.

Cope, J.C.W. 1967. The palaeontology and stratigraphy of the lower part of the Kimmeridge Clay of Dorset. Bulletin of the British Museum Natural History (Geology), 15, 179, pls. 133.

Cope, J.C.W. 1968a. Propectinatites, a new Lower Kimmeridgian ammonite genus. Palaeontology, 11, 15-18, pl. 1.

Cope, J.C.W. 1968b. Epizoic oysters on Kimmeridgian ammonites. Palaeontology, 11, 19-20, pl. 2.

Cope, J.C.W. 1971. Upper Kimmeridge Clay at Kimmeridge. In: Dorset Natural History Reports 1970, Geology. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 92, 41.

Cope, J.C.W. 1974a. Upper Kimmeridgian ammonite faunas of the Wash area and a subzonal scheme for lower part of the Upper Kimmeridgian. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 47, 29-37. pls. 1-3.

Cope, J.C.W. 1974b. New information on the Kimmeridge Clay of Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 85, 211-221.

Cope, J.C.W. 1978. The ammonite faunas and stratigraphy of the upper part of the Kimmeridge Clay of Dorset. Palaeontology, 21, 469-533, pls. 45-56. Abstract: Re-examination of 122.4 m of the Upper Kimmeridge Clay (Jurassic), from the Freshwater Steps Stone Band up to the Portland Sand of the type section, east of Kimmeridge, Dorset, has been undertaken, and bed-by-bed ammonite collections made throughout this thickness. The ammonites include representatives of three genera belonging to two subfamilies: twenty species and two subspecies are described. The following taxa are new: Pectinatites (Pectinatites) dorsetensis, P. (P.) strahani, P. (P.) circumligatus; Pavlovia composita, P. composita waddingtoni, P. superba; genus Virgatopavlovia, V.fittoni, V. hounstoutensis. The pallasioides Zone fauna is identified for the first time in Dorset, below the rotunda Zone, and a new zone, the fittoni Zone, introduced for the beds formerly correlated with the pallasioides Zone. Correlations are suggested with other areas of Britain and with the Volgian succession of Russia.

Cope, J.C.W. 1995. Towards a unified Kimmeridgian stage. Petroleum Geoscience, 351-354.

Cope, J.C.W. 1996. The role of the Secondary Standard in stratigraphy. Geological Magazine, 133, 107-110.

Cope, J.C.W. 2012. Geology of the Dorset Coast. Geologists' Association Guide, No. 22. 232pp., with many colour photographs and diagrams. New edition by John C.W. Cope. (See also the earlier editions by House, M.R. 1989 and 1993.)

Cope, J.C.W. 2009. Correlation problems in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic, UK): lithostratigraphy versus biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy. Geological Magazine, March 2009, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 266-275. By John C. Cope, National Museum of Wales.
Abstract:
A scheme of grouped lithostratigraphical units (‘beds’) proposed for the English Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation has been claimed to be also chronostratigraphical, but some of the resulting time-correlations conflict with those of the standard chronozonation based on ammonite biostratigraphy. Review of some critical ammonite species reaffirms the validity of the ammonite zonal scheme and shows that mismatching of lithologies (facies-correlations) has led to incorrect time-correlations. Because the numbering scheme of ‘beds’ was based on correlations of attenuated successions, it is on too coarse a time-scale to identify many non-sequences, and its usefulness as a chronostratigraphical tool is questioned. Evidence suggests that at least some calcareous concretions in the Kimmeridge Clay formed at shallow depths, which is relevant to discussions of the succession in terms of basin analysis.

Cope, J.C.W., Duff, K.L., Parsons, C.F., Torrens, H.S,., Wimbledon, W.A. and Wright, J. K. 1980. A correlation of Jurassic rocks in the British Isles. Part Two: Middle and Upper Jurassic. Geological Society of London, Special Report, No. 15.


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Cosgrove , M.E. 1970. Iodine in the bituminous Kimmeridge shales of the Dorset Coast, England. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 34, 830-836. Abstract: Trace element, carbon dioxide and organic carbon analyses of a range of Kimmeridgian Shales show high correlation of the elements iodine and bromine with organic carbon. It is suggested that marine plant material incorporated with the sediment at the time of deposition is responsible for this association of elements. [Average value of iodine - 17ppm. Maximum 72 ppm. These must be amongst the most iodine-rich sedimentary rocks yet recorded.]
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Costamagna, L.G., Barca, S. and Lecca, L. 2007. The Bajocian–Kimmeridgian Jurassic sedimentary cycle of eastern Sardinia: Stratigraphic, depositional and sequence interpretation of the new ‘Baunei Group’. Le cycle sédimentaire Bajocien–Kimméridgien en Sardaigne orientale : interprétation stratigraphique, dépositionnelle et séquentielle du « groupe de Baunei », nouvellement créé. By Luca G. Costamagna, Sebastiano Barca and Luciano Lecca; Presented by Michel Durand-Delga. Comptes Rendus Geosciences, vol. 339, pp. 601-612. Accepted 9 July 2007. Available online.
Abstract:
In eastern Sardinia, the first Jurassic sedimentary cycle (Bajocian–Kimmeridgian) develops in response to the opening of the Alpine Tethys Ocean. Starting during the Bajocian (Middle Jurassic), over a horst-and-graben system initially drowning to the northeast, at first siliciclastic sediments take place, related to continental to transitional environments. In time, they are gradually followed by marine carbonate, assigned to inner to outer ramp deposits. Afterwards, the latter, in their turn, become shallow; they are newly covered with an inner ramp lithofacies. The Kimmeridgian–Tithonian unconformity ends the cycle. Therefore, this sedimentary cycle as a whole can be interpreted as a transgressive–regressive megasequence linked to tectono-eustatic factors. All the pertaining stratigraphic units have been included within the ‘Baunei Group’, newly described. A comparison with the neighbouring areas, with particular regards to the Jurassic series of the Corsica, has been made, attempting to improve the reconstruction of this part of the Tethyan Ocean Western margin.
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Cox, B.M. and Gallois, R.W. 1981 -

The Key Publication on the Kimmeridge Cliff Sections, Dorset, by Cox and Gallois, 1981

Generalised sequence of the Upper Kimmeridge Clay in Dorset after Cox and Gallois (1981)

Generalised sequence of the Lower Kimmeridge Clay in Dorset after Cox and Gallois (1981)

An example of part of the log of the Kimmeridge Clay at Brandy Bay, Kimmeridge, Dorset, by Cox and Gallois, 1981

Cox , B.M. and Gallois, R.W. 1981. Stratigraphy of the Kimmeridge Clay of the Dorset type area and its correlation with some other Kimmeridgian sequences. Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences, No. 80/4, 144.
The Kimmeridge Clay of the type area crops out in cliff sections at Kimmeridge, Osmington Mills, Ringstead Bay and Wyke Regis in south Dorset. At Kimmeridge, the sections, although continuous, expose only the upper part of the formation. At Osmington Mills and Ringstead Bay, a section through the lower part of the Kimmeridge Clay and through a part of the remainder of the formation can be determined, although only in isolated exposures which are separated from one another by landslips and complicated by tectonic structures. At Wyke Regis, only the basal beds are exposed. Descriptions and graphic sections are given for the exposed sequences.
Comparison of the Dorset succession with those elsewhere in England has shown that the lithological and faunal sequences are similar throughout the country. A number of distinctive thin marker-bands have been recognised in Dorset, and these are correlated with similar bands recorded from the Warlingham Borehole, Surrey, and from boreholes in East Anglia.
The ammonite faunas are discussed and the zonal scheme in current use is reviewed. It is suggested that the abundance of Gravesia has been underestimated in the past and that consideration should be given to the introduction of a new zone of Gravesia spp. The base of such a zone would mark the Lower-Upper Kimmeridgian boundary. It would also form an important link with Tithonian and Volgian sequences elsewhere in Europe.
Relationships among the Kimmeridgian, Portlandian, Tithonian and Volgian stages are discussed. It is recommended that the most of the Kimmeridge Clay of the type area should be included in the Kimmeridgian Stage, and that the use of the term Kimmeridgian sensu gallico (which places only the Lower Kimmeridge Clay in the Kimmeridgian Stage) should be abandoned. [end of abstract]
[This is an important publication for details of Kimmeridge Clay stratigraphy at Kimmeridge and elsewhere. It is a key work essential for field studies of the Kimmeridge cliffs and cliffs of Kimmeridge Clay elsewhere. It may be obtainable from the British Geological Survey.]

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Crossley, D.W., 1987. Sir William Clavell's Glasshouse at Kimmeridge, Dorset; Excavations from 1980-1981. Archaeological Journal, 144, 340-382. Quarto, 42 pp, 14 figs.

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Curtis, C. D. and Coleman M. L. 1986. Controls on the precipitation of early diagenetic calcite, dolomite and siderite concettions in complex depositional sequences. In: Roles of Organic Matter in Sediment Diagenesis (ed. D. L. Gautier), pp. 23–33. Special Publication 38, Society of Econonic Paleontologists and Mineralogists.

Curtis C. D., Coleman M. L., and Love L. G. 1986. Pore water evolution during sediment burial from isotopic and mineral chemistry of calcite, dolomite and siderite concretions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 50, 2321–2334
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Damon , R.F., 1884. Geology of Weymouth, Portland and the Coast of Dorsetshire from Swanage to Bridport-on- the-Sea: with Natural History and Archaeological Notes. 2nd ed., R.F.Damon, Weymouth, 250 pp.
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Dance , S.P. 1992 (reprinted 1995). Shells: The visual guide to over 500 species of seashell from around the world. Dorling Kindersley Ltd., London. ISBN 0-86318-811-7. 256pp.
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de Bruxelles , S. 1994. Plumber Makes His Jurassic Mark: a self-taught amateur has transformed the study of fossils. The Times, 8 February, 1999, p. 8. [an article about the fossil collector - Steve Etches].
One man's obsession with fossil collecting has opened a window on the lost world of Britain's Jurassic past. Steve Etches, a plumber who left school without a qualification to his name, has single-handedly repopulated Britain's ancient seas with giant carnivorous reptiles, strange fish and swanns of swimming molluscs. Until recently geologists had little idea of the variety of creatures in the seas around and over Britain in the Jurassic era 150 million years ago. Mr Etches has changed that by studying the Kimmeridge Clay, long neglected because it was believed to contain few fossils of interest. Deposited across northern Europe in the Jurassic era. it was considered of importance mainly because of its oil.
Mr Etches, 49, first took an interest in fossils in his late twenties and decided to concentrate on the Kimmeridge Clay rather than the easy pickings at well-known sites such as Lyme Regis. Named after the Dorset village where he now lives the clay is exposed in the cliffs and beaches of the area.
The tropical Jurassic sea was deep and perfectly calm at the bottom and a steady rain of sediment quickly buried the dead creatures that sank there. Some fossils are remarkably well preserved - even the soft parts normally lost. such as the ink sacs of squid and a ray's wings. By developing his own techniques and using compressed air tools, Mr Etches was able to recover them from their shale shell.
The fossils include the two-metre jawbone of a pliosaur, the largest carnivorous reptile known to have lived, entire lobsters, sharks, turtles and shoals of beautifully preserved fish and fossil ammonites. The bones reveal a world in which the largest got larger and everthing else got eaten. Almost every bone shows signs of having been someone's dinner.
Mr Etches, who moved to Kimmeridge to be closer to the deposits, said: "I was going around to museums telling them that what they thought were scratches were tooth marks. Until I came along, this record of predation went almost unnoticed. Now everyone can see it."
Although he is consulted by palaeontologists from around the world, for five days a week he installs central heating systems. One day he hopes to open his collection to the public and work on his scientific papers but he has to earn a living. He says his wife, Sue, and three children have no interest in fossils and think he is mad. Too often they have had to help to carry some promising looking boulder back to his workshop.
Mr Etches has two regrets: "That I didn't begin collecting fossils earlier and that I can't afford to devote all my time to them. That is what I really have a gift for."
[end of article, which also contains a large photograph of Steve Etches with an ammonite]
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Deconinck , J-F., Chamley, H., Debrabant, P. and Colebaux, J-P. 1983. Le Boulonnais au Jurassique superieur: donnees de la mineralogie des argiles et de la geochemie. Annales de la Societe Geologie Nord, 102, 145-152.
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Delair , J.B. 1958. The Mesozoic reptiles of Dorset: Part One. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, for 1957 79, 47-72.

Delair, J.B. 1959. The Mesozoic reptiles of Dorset: Part Two. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, for 1958 80, 52-90.

Delair, J.B. 1960. The Mesozoic reptiles of Dorset: Part Three, Conclusion. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, for 1959 79, 59-85.

Delair, J.B. 1966. New records of dinosaurs and other fossil reptiles from Dorset. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 87, 57-66.

Delair, J.B. 1975. Catalogues of British fossil vertebrate collections. GCC Newsletter, 1 (4), 184-186.

Delair, J.B. 1982. The fossil vertebrata in the Department of Geology at Southampton University. Geological Curator, 3, (4), 209-226.

Delair, J.B. 1986. Some little known Jurassic ichthyosaurs from Dorset. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 107, 127-134.

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Donovan , D.T. and Stride, A.M. 1961. An acoustic survey of the sea floor south of Dorset and its geological interpretation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B, Biological Sciences, Vol. 244, No. 712, pp. 299-330, 23rd November, 1961.
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Dorset Geologists' Association Group . 2003. Coast and Country: Geology Walks in and Around Dorset (including excursions within the World Heritage Site). Compiled by members of the Dorset Geologists' Association Group to celebrate 10 years of their existence 1993-2003. Published by the Dorset Geologists' Association Group 2003, ISBN 0-9544354-0-0, 208pp. Following an introduction by the late Professor Michael House, there are 28 field excursions given by different authors. Some individual excursion guides in this book may be referred to separately in these bibliographies.

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Downie , C. 1957. Microplankton from the Kimmeridge Clay. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, for 1956, vol. 112, pp. 413-434.
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Draper, J. 2002 (Proceedings for 2001). Quarrying the Lias at Lyme Regis. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, vol. 123, pp. 15-22. By Jo Draper. With an old map, an old advertisement and eight old photographs of Lyme Regis.
[This paper is on the working of the Lias at Lyme Regis for cement, but there seem to have been parallels on a limited scale at Kimmeridge. The paper does not discuss Kimmeridge but is useful for understanding coastal quarrying for cement in Victorian times. Note that Cattle Ledge and Grey Ledge at Kimmeridge are cementstones in the sense of containing both carbonate and clay. However they are dolomites and the magnesium content may have made them less suitable for cement manufacture than the Blue Lias, which is not magnesium-rich. A high Mg content may delay the setting of the cement.]
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Dunn , C.E. 1974. Identification of sedimentary cycles through Fourier analysis of geochemical data. [on Kimmeridge Clay bituminous sediments of Kimmeridge, Dorset]Chemical Geology, 13, 217-232. By Colin E. Dunn, at the time at: Department of Mineral Resources, Saskatchewan Government, Regina, Sark, Canada. Based on a doctoral thesis at Kingston Polytechnic (now university), supervised by Dr. R.C.L. Wilson.
Abstract:
Trace elements are sensitive to slight shifts in the chemical equilibrium of a body of water, and as a result they can be expected to reflect cyclical events in the earth's history. Geochemical data [trace elements, total organic matter and CO
2 ] from a section of Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) bituminous sediments [Upper Kimmeridge Clay, wheatleyensis - hudlestoni, around the Blackstone or main Kimmeridge oil shale], in [Dorset coast] Great Britain, 20m. thick, have been examined by single Fourier series analysis, thereby permitting an objective assessment of sedimentary cycles. Subjectivity only enters into the final interpretative stage.
Assumptions made as to the rate of deposition of these sediments have indicated several superimposed periodicities with respective durations of (?)200,000, 100,000, 40,000 [the obliquity or axial tilt cycle], and 11,000 years [tectonic or climatic?]. Comparison is made with long-term cyclic durations estimated by other workers. Several of the these periods are coincident with the duration of the astronomical phenomenon which could could cause climatic fluctuations.
Extract (p. 218):
"Whereas the mineralogy of the sequence is quite simple (organic matter, dolomite, calcite, illite, kaolinite, extremely fine-grained quartz, pyrite and rarely siderite), the trace-element geochemistry varies appreciably (Table 1). Statistical analysis of the data has shown Mo, P and some of the Cu and Ni to be associated with the organic fraction. Most of the other elements, including the remainder of the Cu an Ni, are structurally incorporated in, or absorbed on, the clay minerals. Mn is mostly associated with carbonate fraction. Lithological variation indicates no apparent cyclicity over this interval, and no clear cycles emerge from the geochemical data."
[Related webpage: Kimmeridge Clay - Oil Shale at Clavell's Hard - by Ian West]
[Related references: Weedon]
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Ebukanson , E.J. and Kinghorn, R.R.F. 1986. Maturity of organic matter in the Jurassic of southern England and its relation to the burial history of the sediments. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 9 (3), 259-280. Abstract: An investigation of the maturity levels of organic matter in the major potential Jurassic hydrocarbon source rock units in Southern England (i.e. the Lower Lias, Oxford Clay and Kimmeridge Clay) using sporomorph colouration and alkane distribution patterns shows that the Oxford Clay and the Kimmeridge Clay organic materials are immature in most parts of the area. They are mature only in the central parts of the Mesozoic Wealden Basin... The distribution of mature Lower Lias sections is found to be more extensive. Attempted reconstructions of the burial history of the Jurassic sections across Southern England, and the application of the Lopatin method of theoretical organic maturity prediction, seem to support the observed maturity trends and suggest that the present maturity levels of Jurassic organic matter at any given locality are dependent on the structural development of the area through time.

Ebukanson, E.J. and Kinghorn, R.R.F. 1990. Jurassic mudrock formations of southern England: lithology, sedimentation rates and organic carbon content. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 13, (2), 221-228.
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Ensom , P.C. 1986. Evidence for mass mortality of decapod crustaceans in the Upper Kimmeridge Clay, Dorset? Proceedings of Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 107, p. 181-183. [ The laminated coccolith-rich Freshwater Steps Stone Bay has in a layer 20cm above the base with numerous randomly oriented impressions of decapod crustaceans resembling Palaeopolycheles. There is an identical occurrence in the Middle White Stone Band. There is a problem concerning anoxic water, but note that at Rope Lake Head (this website) there are burrows in the White Band.]

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Etches, Steve

Steve Etches the well-known collector and palaeontologist of the Kimmeridge Clay, Dorset, UK

Catalogue of the Steve Etches Kimmeridge Clay collection, Dorset

Steve Etches is the well-known palaeontologist aned collector of vertebrate and invertebrate fossils of the Kimmeridge Clay. He searches the cliffs regularly and has discovered and prepared numerous superb specimens. See the Steve Etches Catalogue, details of which are given below. See also de Bruxelles (1999) (above) for an article in The Times about Steve Etches.

Etches , S. and Clarke, J. 1999 (with updates). Steve Etches Kimmeridge Collection: Illustrated Catalogue. (by Steve Etches and Jane Clarke). The catalogue is in the form of a ring-binder so that pages can be added. It is an assemblage of A4 pages with monochrome photographs and brief captions. It has been privately published by Jane Clarke (jane@geoden.demon.co.uk)
This catalogue illustrates 370 of the most important of the 1,561 fossil specimens contained in the Steve Etches Kimmeridge Collection. This impressive collection is housed in a private museum and it may be viewed by appointment (the telephone number is given in the catalogue). All the specimens have been collected since 1981, the bulk coming from the Kimmeridge Bay area on the Dorset coast. Other material has come from Oday Common, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, the Blue Circle Cement Quarry, Westbury Wiltshire, the Black Isle, Ross and Cromarty, Scotland and Cap de la Havre, Normandy France. The many photographs include those of ammonite, ammonite eggs, bivalves, lobsters, fish, ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, pliosaurs and pterosaurs. An interesting feature are the predatory toothmarks which Steve Etches has found in some of the bones. Genera illustrated include Aspidoceras, Aulacostephanus, Crussoliceras, Pectinatites, Pictonia, Eurycormis, Caturus, Trachyteuthis, Allothrissops, Geosaurus, Metriorhynchus, Eryma, Goniomya, Leptolepis, Hypsocormus, Gyrodus and various genera of marine saurians.

Etches, S., Clarke, J. and Callomon, J. 2009. Ammonite eggs and ammonitellae from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Dorset, England. Lethaia, Vol. 42, pp. 204-217.
Abstract:
Eight clusters of small spherical and subspherical objects, some isolated and some associated with shells of perisphinctid ammonites, have been recovered from the Lower and Upper Kimmeridge Clay (Upper Jurassic) of the Dorset coast, England. They have been interpreted as ammonite egg sacs and represent the freshest and best-preserved examples known so far. Their structures and the ecological framework in which they occur are discussed. The parents are thought to be members of the two eudemic genera Aulacostephanus and Pectinatites that dominate the biostratigraphy of the ammonites in the range of the Kimmeridge Clay in which they occur. Isolated nuclei of ammonitellae have also been recovered.

Etches in:
Gallois, R. and Etches, S. 2001. The stratigraphy of the youngest part of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic) of the Dorset type area. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 112, 169-182. By Ramues Gallois (Exeter) and Steve Etches (Kimmeridge). Abstract: The stratigraphy of the youngest part of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic) of the Dorset type area. The lithostratigraphy of the youngest part of the Kimmeridge Clay of the stratotype section at Houns-tout/Chapman's Pool in south Dorset is described in detail for the first time, and is the correlated with other current exposures in south Dorset and with borehole sequences in more distant areas. The stratotype section, albeit deeply weathered in part, is the only complete succession in Britain through this late Jurassic interval. It remains of key importance to international correlation of the Boreal, Sub-boreal and Tethyan faunal provinces at this stratigraphical level and to the resolution of the debate concerning the boundaries of the Kimmeridgian, Tethyan and Bolonian stages. [Houns-tout is also known as Hounstout.]

(Etches - article about - by -) de Bruxelles , S. 1994. Plumber Makes His Jurassic Mark: a self-taught amateur has transformed the study of fossils. The Times, 8 February, 1999, p. 8. [an article about the fossil collector - Steve Etches].
One man's obsession with fossil collecting has opened a window on the lost world of Britain's Jurassic past. Steve Etches, a plumber who left school without a qualification to his name, has single-handedly repopulated Britain's ancient seas with giant carnivorous reptiles, strange fish and swanns of swimming molluscs. Until recently geologists had little idea of the variety of creatures in the seas around and over Britain in the Jurassic era 150 million years ago. Mr Etches has changed that by studying the Kimmeridge Clay, long neglected because it was believed to contain few fossils of interest. Deposited across northern Europe in the Jurassic era. it was considered of importance mainly because of its oil.
Mr Etches, 49, first took an interest in fossils in his late twenties and decided to concentrate on the Kimmeridge Clay rather than the easy pickings at well-known sites such as Lyme Regis. Named after the Dorset village where he now lives the clay is exposed in the cliffs and beaches of the area.
The tropical Jurassic sea was deep and perfectly calm at the bottom and a steady rain of sediment quickly buried the dead creatures that sank there. Some fossils are remarkably well preserved - even the soft parts normally lost. such as the ink sacs of squid and a ray's wings. By developing his own techniques and using compressed air tools, Mr Etches was able to recover them from their shale shell.
The fossils include the two-metre jawbone of a pliosaur, the largest carnivorous reptile known to have lived, entire lobsters, sharks, turtles and shoals of beautifully preserved fish and fossil ammonites. The bones reveal a world in which the largest got larger and everthing else got eaten. Almost every bone shows signs of having been someone's dinner.
Mr Etches, who moved to Kimmeridge to be closer to the deposits, said: "I was going around to museums telling them that what they thought were scratches were tooth marks. Until I came along, this record of predation went almost unnoticed. Now everyone can see it."
Although he is consulted by palaeontologists from around the world, for five days a week he installs central heating systems. One day he hopes to open his collection to the public and work on his scientific papers but he has to earn a living. He says his wife, Sue, and three children have no interest in fossils and think he is mad. Too often they have had to help to carry some promising looking boulder back to his workshop.
Mr Etches has two regrets: "That I didn't begin collecting fossils earlier and that I can't afford to devote all my time to them. That is what I really have a gift for."
[end of article, which also contains a large photograph of Steve Etches with an ammonite]


Etches, S. and Clarke, J. 2010. Life in Jurassic Seas; the Autobiography of a Fossil Collector. 378pp with many monochrome photographs. Published by Ashfield Books, Chandler's Ford. By Steve Etches and Jane Clarke.

The first part of this book is autobiographical. The major part is palaeontological with photographs of both vertebrate and invertebrate Kimmeridge Clay fossils. Mostly the genus is given, and in some cases the species. The classification in terms of family etc is given. There is discussion of anatomical detail and conditions of preservation. The book is obtainable from Jane Clarke (about £15).

Etches, S. [Nield, E.] 2012 (article about Steve Etches, written by Ted Neild, 2012). Kimmeridge Legend. Ted Nield visits the private museum of a palaeontological pioneer as he nears what he hopes will be the end of a 20-year quest. Geoscientist, Geological Society, London, magazine, October 2012, pp. 18-21.

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Evans , J., Jenkins, D. and Gluyas, J. 1998. The Kimmeridge Bay oilfield: an enigma demystified. In: Underhill, J.R. (Ed.) Development, Evolution and Petroleum Geology of the Wessex Basin. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 133, 1-18. 407-413. Abstract: The Kimmeridge oilfield was the first commercial discovery in the Wessex Basin. It was discovered in 1959 and is still producing from a single well. To date over 3 million barrels of oil have been extracted. Production is likely to continue into the next century. Oil is trapped in the fractured Cornbrash Limestones in an anticline close to the main inversion axis. The Kimmeridge accumulation remains the only producing field in the hanging wall to the Purbeck Disturbance, making it an intriguing enigma within the basin. Many myths have been perpetuated regarding the size of the field and the results from drilling elsewhere within Kimmeridge Bay. By presenting data on the field here, we hope to dispel some of these myths.

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Feistner , K.W.A. 1989. Petrographic examination and reinterpretation of concretionary carbonate horizons from the Kimmeridge Clay, Dorset. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 146, 345-350.
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Fiennes C. (Celia). 1685-c.1712. The Illustrated Journeys of Celia Fiennes, 1685-c1712. Edited by Christopher Morris. MacDonald and Co., London and Sydney; Web and Bower, Exeter, England. Published in Great Britain in 1982. 248pp. ISBN 3456-08631-3. See also the 1888 edition of this work and the Cresset Press editions of Celia Fiennes, 1947 and 1949. The 1947 edition and the 1982 edition referred to here have the benefit of the editing by Christopher Morris. Celia Fiennes is from the manor house of Newton Toney, near Salisbury, and travelled around the country on horseback and wrote very informative descriptions of England at that time. Her original work was probably rather difficult to read because of problems of spelling and punctuation. The editing has made it easy and clear. As Dr. G.M. Trevelyan, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge stated, the edited version provides a correct text, an explanation of many obscurities both as to place names and other matters, and excellent explanatory notes. With the regard to the Dorset coast, Celia Fiennes discusses Brownsea Island, Kimmeridge oil shale, Swanage, Seacombe etc. There is also much on English spa wells, mineral waters, jet deposits, salt production at Lymington, a visit to the Isle of Wight etc.

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Fishman, N.S., Lowers, H.A, Hackley, P.C., Hill, R.J. and Egenhoff, S.O. 2012. --- Porosity in Shales of the Organic-Rich Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic), Offshore United Kingdom.
By Neil S. Fishman, Heather A. Lowers, Paul C. Hackley, Ronald J. Hill and Sven O. Egenhoff. Search and Discovery Article No. 50620 (2012), Posted June 11, 2012. Adapted from an oral presentation at AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition, Long Beach, California, April 22-25, 2012.
Available online at:
Porosity in Shales of the Organic-Rich Kimmeridge Clay Formation.
Abstract:
Petrographic, SEM, and RockEval pyrolysis analyses of organic-rich shale samples from 6 wells that penetrated the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF), offshore United Kingdom, were performed to evaluate the nature (physical and chemical) of the organic material and to document changes in organic porosity as a function of increasing thermal maturity. The formation is at depths ranging from ~6,100 ft to ~15,300 ft (subsea). It is thermally immature to marginally mature in the shallowest core samples, where total organic carbon (TOC) contents are as high as 10 wt%, vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values are ~0.6%, and hydrogen indices (HI ) are high (>400 mg hydrocarbon/g rock). In contrast, it is thermally mature in the deepest core (Ro values ~1.2%), with high TOC contents (as much as 8 wt%) but low HI values (less than 30 mg hydrocarbon/g rock). In addition, the KCF has intermediate HI and Ro values in other core samples. At least four distinct types of organic components were observed in petrographic and SEM analyses, which are, in decreasing abundance: 1) amorphous organic material admixed with clay platelets (as much as 20 ìm long); 2) elongate (up to 300 ìm) mat-like masses (micro-algal mat?) with small (less than 0.5 ìm) quartz, feldspar, and clay entrained within it; 3) discrete particles (possibly alginate?); and 4) Tasmanites microfossils. Regardless of depth and thermal maturity, the following observations were made of porosity in shales of the KCF. On ion-milled surfaces, there are irregular-shaped micropores and nanopores (0.1-0.01 ìm across) in some mat-like masses, whereas regularly shaped micropores (up to 1 ìm across) are in the discrete organic particles. Other types of pores, particularly interparticle (i.e., between illite flakes or platelets as well as between authigenic quartz euhedra), and intraparticle (i.e., between crystallites in framboidal pyrite) are also present and are noteworthy because they compose much of the observable porosity in the KCF shales.
No systematic increase in organic porosity was observed in any organic material within the KCF with increasing depth and thermal maturity. As such, organic porosity does not contribute significantly to overall pore volume in the KCF, even in organic-rich shales that are thermally mature. Therefore, the petroleum storage potential in the formation appears to reside largely within interparticle and intraparticle pores between or within inorganic components of the shales, respectively.
[This now continues with a very good, well-illustrated and interesting presentation!]

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Forbes-Leslie , W. 1917. The Norfolk oil-shales. Journal of the Institute of Petroleum Technology, vol. 3, pp. 152-190.
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Funnel , B.M. 1981. Laminated coccolith limestones - a Black Sea analogue in the Kimmeridgian of England. IAS (International Association of Sedimentologists) 2nd European Meeting, Bologna, 1981, 58.
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Fursich , T.F., Werner, W., Schneider, S. and Mauser, M. 2006. Sedimentology, taphonomy, and palaeoecology of a laminated plattenkalk from the Kimmeridgian of the northern Franconian Alb (southern Germany). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. ?, pp. ?. By Franz Theodor Fursich, Winfried Werner, Simon Schneider and Matthias Mauser.
Abstract: At Wattendorf in the northern Franconian Alb, southern Germany, centimetre- to decimetre-thick packages of finely laminated limestones (plattenkalk) occur intercalated between well bedded graded grainstones and rudstones that blanket a relief produced by now dolomitized microbialite-sponge reefs. These beds reach their greatest thickness in depressions between topographic highs and thin towards, and finally disappear on, the crests. The early Late Kimmeridgian graded packstone - bindstone alternations represent the earliest plattenkalk occurrence in southern Germany. The undisturbed lamination of the sediment strongly points to oxygen-free conditions on the seafloor and within the sediment, inimical to higher forms of life. The plattenkalk contains a diverse biota of benthic and nektonic organisms. Excavation of a 13 cm thick plattenkalk unit across an area of 80 m2 produced 3500 fossils, which, with the exception of the bivalve Aulacomyella, exhibit a random stratigraphic distribution. Two-thirds of the individuals had a benthic mode of life attached to hard substrate. This seems to contradict the evidence of oxygen-free conditions on the sea floor, such as undisturbed lamination, presence of articulated skeletons, and preservation of soft parts. However, palaeoecological and taphonomic analyses indicate that the benthic faunal elements are allochthonous having settled out of suspension and thus must have been derived from hard substrate areas of neighbouring topographic highs. Solely the bivalve Aulacomyella, which occurs concentrated on a single bedding plane, may have colonised the plattenkalk depression during brief periods of oxygenation. Alternatively, a pseudoplanktonic mode of life, attached to floating sea weed, is envisaged for the bivalve. The formation of the plattenkalk is related to local and global factors: a drop in relative sea level caused the death of the microbialite-sponge reefs. Restricted circulation in depressions between the crests of the former reefs led to anoxic conditions and the formation of finely laminated sediments stabilised by microbial mats. The small depressions received sediment and skeletal elements of benthic organisms that were swept off neighbouring topographic highs by storms and that entered the depressions partly as turbidity currents, partly as suspension clouds. A rise in the relative sea level finally terminated the restricted circulation in the depressions and closed the taphonomic window that led to the preservation of the plattenkalk biota.




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Gallois, R.W. - key papers
Publications by the retired British Geological Survey geologist - R.W. Gallois (Dr. Ramues Gallois) of Exeter, the international specialist on the Kimmeridge Clay.

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Gallois, R.W. 1976. Coccolith blooms in the Kimmeridge Clay and origin of North Sea Oil. Nature, London, 259, 473-475.

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Gallois, R.W. 1978. A pilot study of oil shale occurrences in the Kimmeridge Clay. Institute of Geological Sciences, Report 78/13, H.M.S.O. 26 pp. Author and contributor: Ramues W. Gallois, B.Sc., CEng, FIMM ; R.J. Merriman, B.Sc. (clay mineralogy section). By Dr. Ramues Gallois.
Summary:
This report describes the stratigraphical and analytical results obtained from four continuously cored boreholes drilled at Donington on Bain, Lincolnshire; North Runcton, Norfolk; Swindon Wiltshire and West Lavington, Wiltshire to examine the nature and occurrence of oil shales in the Kimmeridge Clay. These oil shales have been shown to be concentrated at five levels throughout southern England and detailed correlations have been made between each group of seams in the boreholes and with those at outcrop in the type section at Kimmeridge, Dorset. Potential oil yields have been determined for each group of seams: the results show that, with mechanical enrichment, some levels of Kimmeridge Clay could provide a richer retorting material than some of the oil shales which have been worked in the past. The clay mineralogy of the raw and spent oil shales has been examined using X-ray diffraction, and posssible uses of the spent shale are discussed. The raw shale has also been examined for possible trace element enrichment. The geophysical characters and engineering properties of the Kimmeridge Clay are briefly discussed since these have a bearing on future exploration and possible methods of working respectively... [end of Abstract]

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Gallois, R.W. 1978a. What price oil shales? New Scientist, 23 February, 1978, pp. 490-493. The world's largest reserves of liquid hydrocarbons are bound up in extensive deposits of oil shales. This article takes a look at their economic potential and the technical difficulties of their exploitation. The Department of Energy has recently commissioned the Institute of Geological Sciences to carry out a detailed study of Britain's Jurassic oil shales.

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Gallois, R.W. 1979. Oil Shale Resources in Great Britain. Institute of Geological Sciences [now British Geological Survey]. Southern England and South Wales, Land Survey Division. By R. W. Gallois B.Sc, FIMM. [This is a major report of 158pp. It is available online, courtesy of the Geologists' Association.]

Contributors
J. A. Bain, BSc
M. L. Coleman, BSc, MSc, PhD
J. J. Durham, BSc
C. V. Jeans, MA, D Phil
R. J. Merriman, BSc
D. J. Morgan, BSc, PhD
D. Peachey, BA, LRIC
F. R. Stacey, MBE
B. P. Vickers
P. F. V. Williams, BSc, PhD
Commissioned by the Department of Energy
Example extract:
1.1 Historical Background:
It has been estimated that the known world resources of oil shale contain a potential 3xl0 to the 13, tons of oil (Matveyev, 1974, p. 13). Only about 1 to 2 per cent of this is thought to be recoverable by present-day technology, but even this modest amount would more than satisfy the world's needs until well into the 21st century. In practice there are formidable problems in utilising this potential resource and oil shales currently make a negligible contribution to the world energy scene, The name "oil shale" is misleading. Some oil shales contain small amounts of organic matter (bitumen) that can be extracted with solvents, but most of their organic content is in the form of insoluble complex organic compounds (kerogens) which yield oil artificially on heating or, naturally, under the action of the geothermal gradient and overburden pressure in the Earth's crust. The term kerogen covers an enormously variable group of multi-polymers with molecular weights in the range of thousands to ten of thousands. Those in the oil shales have been formed in the sediment by chemical alteration of fats, waxes and other decay products, derived largely from algae. The atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of this algal material is closer to that of petroleum than is the ratio for the higher plants (from which coals are largely derived), Consequently the kerogens in oil shales are readily broken down by heat to produce oils while those in coals more readily yield hydrocarbon gases.
There is no universally agreed definition of the term oil shale. Organic matter, in the form of kerogen, bitumen and hydrocarbons, occurs in various concentrations in most fine-grained sedimentary rocks. Where the organic concentration is sufficiently high to noticeably affect the lithology of the rock, or where it imparts an organic smell to the freshly broken rock, the name 'bituminous mudstone' has commonly been used. This is usually inappropriate since the 'bitumen' fraction of an organic-rich rock is that part which can be extracted with organic solvents, whereas in most of the rocks referred to as 'bituminous' the organic fraction is almost wholly present as insoluble kerogen. Hatch and Rastall (1965, p. 286) proposed terms such as 'kerogenite', 'shale-kerogenite', 'dolomite-kerogenite' etc" as being technically more correct, but these have been ignored and the old term 'oil shale' (i.e, yielding appreciable quantities of oil on destructive distillation by breakdown of the kerogen) remains popular."

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Gallois, R.W. 1998. The stratigraphy and well-completion reports for the Swanworth Quarry No.1 and No.2 and Metherhills No. 1 boreholes (RGGE Project), Dorset. British Geological Survey Technical Report, WA/97/91.

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Gallois, R.W. 2000. The stratigraphy of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic) in the RGGE Project boreholes at Swanworth Quarry and Metherhills, south Dorset. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 111, 265-280.
Abstract: Three continuously cored boreholes were drilled in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation in south Dorset to provide unweathered samples for a multidisciplinary study of late Jurassic rhythmic sedimentation and its possible causes. Taken together, the borehole cores provide the first complete sequence through the Kimmeridge Clay and the Kimmeridgian Stage in the type area. The cores have been correlated in detail with the succession exposed in the nearby Kimmeridge cliffs and other sections in south Dorset, as well as with those proved in borehole sections elsewhere in southern and eastern England. The cores have enabled the current chronostratigraphical classification of the Kimmeridge Clay to be extended to the top of the formation, covering strata that are poorly exposed at outcrop. Four types of small-scale rhythm are present within the formation, each of which can be related to the sequence stratigraphy. Only one of these is organic rich and of importance as an oil-source rock.
End of abstract. (Additional notes: This is a key paper for providing stratigraphical information on the top and bottom of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation. Types of rhythms are shown diagrammatically. There is some lateral variations in stone beds (actually mostly dolomite). Some notable Kimmeridge Clay horizons include - the Hobarrow Bay Fluidised Bed of seismic shock origin and the Chapman's Pool Pebble Bed. For the unexposed section beneath Kimmeridge Bay there are new names for stone bands - Metherhills SB, Swanworth A, B, C, and D stone bands. The Kimmeridge Cliffs thickness is 7 percent greater than that at Swanworth Quarry. RGGE stand for "Rapid Global Geological Events", a special research topic to examine rhthmicity and its possible causes in the Kimmeridge Clay. This was initiated by NERC in 1995.).
[Example extract from the Introduction follows:]
"1. Introduction.
Rapid Global Geological Events (RGGE) Project.
In 1995 the National Environmental Research Council (NERC) initiated the Rapid Global Geological Events (RGGE) special research topic to examine rhythmicity and its possible causes in the Kimmeridge Clay. The formation was chosen for the study because it consists of an almost unbroken sequence of relatively uniform, high fossiliferous marine-shelf mudstones that have suffered little tectonic deformation. The mudstones contain rhythmic variations in clay mineralogy, and faunal and organic content that reflect climatic and sea-level changes, some of which have been interpreted as Milankovitch precession/obliquity rhythms (House, 1995). In order to obtain enough material for the interdisciplinery study, it was proproposed that two continuously cored boreholes, about 20m apart, should be drilled through the full thickness of the formation at a single site close to the type section at Kimmeridge, Dorset.
The drilling site originally chosen, in the floor of Swanworth Quarry [or Worth Quarry] [SY 9675 7823] near Worth Matravers (fig. 1), enabled drilling to begin at a known stratigraphical horizon (the top of the Portland Sand), and it could be seen from the adjacent quarry faces to be in an unfaulted area. Examination of the geophysical logs from boreholes through all or part of the Kimmeridge Clay in this area, together with seismic-reflection profiles provided by British Petroleum Ltd, had suggested that the full thickness of the formation here was between 535 and 585m. To this was added 40m for the overlying Portland Sand and 15m to allow for over-run of the geophysical tools at the bottom of the borehole, to give an estimated total required depth of 590 to 640m if the full formational thickness was to be recovered. [....continues]

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Gallois, R.W. 2005. On the Kimmeridgian (Jurassic) succession of the Normandy coast, northern France. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 116, 33-43. Abstract: Kimmeridgian rocks crop out on the Normandy coast north and south of the Seine Estuary at Le Havre in a series of small foreshore and cliff exposures separated by beach deposits and landslips. A total thickness of about 45 m of richly fossiliferous strata is exposed, ranging from the base of the Baylei Zone to the middle part of the Eudoxus Zone. The sections are mostly unprotected by sea-defence works and are subject to rapid marine erosion and renewal. Taken together, the Normandy exposures currently provide a more complete section through the low and middle parts of the Kimmeridgian Stage than any natural English section, including those of the Dorset type area. Descriptions and a stratigraphical interpretation of the Normandy sections are presented that enable the faunal collections to be placed in their regional chronostratigraphical context. The Kimmeridgian succession at outcrop on the Normandy coast contains numerous sedimentary breaks marked by erosion, hardground and omission surfaces. Some of these are disconformities that give rise to rapid lateral variations in the succession: biostratigraphical studies need, therefore, to be carried out with particular care. [This includes a brief mention of the main Dorset localities with references.]

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Gallois, R.W. 2011 or 2012. A revised description of the lithostratigraphy of the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian and Kimmeridgian-Volgian boundary beds at Kimmeridge, Dorset, UK. Geoscience in South-West England: Proceedings of the Ussher Society, 12 (3). pp. 288-294. Abstract online at: Gallois, A revised description etc.
Full version available only to Members of the Ussher Society. See: Ussher Society, Geoscience in South-West England - Index.

Abstract:
The type sections of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation and the upper part of the Kimmeridgian Stage are cliff and foreshore exposures close to the village of Kimmeridge, Dorset. The succession is made up of rhythmic alternations of mudstone, organic-rich mudstone and calcareous mudstone that contains only minor sedimentary breaks. The exposures provide the only complete section in the UK of the succession adjacent to the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian and Kimmeridgian-Volgian boundaries, and are one of the most complete in Europe at this stratigraphical level. Accurate thickness measurements can be made in the cliffs, but palaeontological collecting is difficult due to their weathered state. In contrast, there are extensive outcrops in a relatively unweathered condition in the intertidal zone. This is where almost all the better preserved fossils recorded to date have been collected from. The cliff and foreshore outcrops are mostly separated by beach deposits that make precise correlation between them difficult. The stratigraphical accuracy with which specimens from the intertidal outcrops have been recorded with respect to the succession exposed in the cliffs has mostly been not better than ± 2 m. The use of ortho-rectified air photographs of the intertidal-shallow subtidal areas combined with digitally rectified photographs of the cliff sections has made it possible to produce more accurate correlations between the cliff and foreshore exposures. These have been combined with a revised description of the cliff sections based on rhythms to divide the succession into numbered units that can be recognised in all the outcrops. The revised classification makes it possible to place samples and/or specimens collected from the cliff and intertidal exposures in the stratigraphical succession with an accuracy of ± 0.1 m or better.

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Gallois, R. 2012. The Norfolk Oil Shale Rush, 1916-1921. Proceedings of the Geologists's Association, London, vol. 123, January 2012, pp. 64-73. By Dr. Ramues Gallois. Gallois Geological Consultancy, Exeter.
Available online at:
The Norfolk Oil Shale Rush, 1916-1921.
Abstract:
Oil shales are one of those naturally occurring resources that require so much costly treatment to convert them into useful products that they are only worked on a large scale at times when the availability of cheaper alternatives is restricted. The need to find secure UK supplies during the First World War led to attempts to exploit the potential oil reserves contained in the more organic-rich parts of the Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation. The most costly of these was that carried out in west Norfolk by the privately funded English Oilfields Ltd. (EOL) in 1916–1921 under the direction of Dr. William Forbes-Leslie M.D., FGS. Extensive treatment works were constructed on the Kimmeridge Clay outcrop at Setchey, five miles south of King's Lynn, but very little oil shale was worked or retorted. An extensive drilling programme claimed to have proved sulphur-free oil shales, hundreds of millions of tons of free oil, a 21-m thick seam of natural paraffin wax (ozokerite), and an abundance of metalliferous minerals. At its peak in 1920, the stock-market value of the company was several hundred million pounds at present-day prices. The turning point came in 1921 when samples of shale oil from Setchey and the products derived from them by distillation were shown to have no commercial value because of their high sulphur contents. There was, at that time, no commercially viable method of reducing the sulphur contents to an acceptable level. The free oil, ozokerite and metalliferous minerals only existed in the reports to the shareholders.

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Gallois, 2013. Webpage: Gallois Geological Consultancy - Oil Shales. Webpage published by the Dorset Group of the Geologists' Association. Contains sections on other topics.

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Gallois R.W. and Cox, B.M. 1976. The stratigraphy of the Lower Kimmeridge Clay of eastern England. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 41, 13-26.

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Gallois, R. and Etches, S. 2001. The stratigraphy of the youngest part of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic) of the Dorset type area. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 112, 169-182. By Ramues Gallois (Exeter) and Steve Etches (Kimmeridge). Abstract: The stratigraphy of the youngest part of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic) of the Dorset type area. The lithostratigraphy of the youngest part of the Kimmeridge Clay of the stratotype section at Houns-tout/Chapman's Pool in south Dorset is described in detail for the first time, and is the correlated with other current exposures in south Dorset and with borehole sequences in more distant areas. The stratotype section, albeit deeply weathered in part, is the only complete succession in Britain through this late Jurassic interval. It remains of key importance to international correlation of the Boreal, Sub-boreal and Tethyan faunal provinces at this stratigraphical level and to the resolution of the debate concerning the boundaries of the Kimmeridgian, Tethyan and Bolonian stages. [Houns-tout is also known as Hounstout.]

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Gallois, R.W. and Medd, A.W. 1979. Coccolith-rich marker bands in the English Kimmeridge Clay. Geological Magazine, vol. 116, No. 4, July 1979, pp. 247-334.
Abstract: Thin coccolith-rich bands, in which coccoliths make up a major part of the rock, have been recorded at 11 horizons in the Kimmeridge Clay of Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Surrey and Wiltshire and also in cliff sections at and adjacent to Kimmeridge Bay, Dorset. It seems likely that at least nine of these bands form persistant markers thoughout southern and eastern England. The coccolithophorid assemblages are discussed and some species of Stradnerlithus are systematically described. [See also Young and Bown (1991)]

The Key Publication on the Kimmeridge Cliff Sections, Dorset, by Cox and Gallois, 1981

See also Cox, B.M. and Gallois, R.W. 1981. Stratigraphy of the Kimmeridge Clay of the Dorset type area and its correlation with some other Kimmeridgian sequences. Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences, No. 80/4, 144. [Key publication for details of Kimmeridge Clay stratigraphy at Kimmeridge and elsewhere]

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[* Key Paper re North Sea Kimmeridge Clay]
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GAUTIER, D.L. 2005. -- Kimmeridgian shales total petroleum system of the North Sea graben province.

U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 2204-C, 24pp. By Donald L. Gautier. With 8 figures and 1 table, and with reference list. Available online: Kimmeridge Shales, North Sea Graben.
Abstract:
The North Sea Graben of northwestern Europe, World Energy Project Province 4025, is entirely offshore within the territorial waters of Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Extensional tectonics and failed rifting are fundamental to the distribution of oil and gas in the province. Accordingly, the geologic history and reservoir rocks of the province are considered in the context of their temporal relationship to the principal extension and rifting events. The oil and gas accumulations of the province are considered part of a single petroleum system: the Kimmeridgian Shales Total Petroleum System (TPS). Source rocks of the Kimmeridgian Shales TPS were deposited in Late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous time during the period of intensive extension and rifting. The Kimmeridgian Shales contain typical "type II" mixed kerogen. Oil and gas generation began locally in the North Sea Graben Province by Cretaceous time and has continued in various places ever since.

Reservoirs are found in strata with ages ranging from Devonian to Eocene. Pre-rift reservoirs are found in fault-block structures activated during rifting and can be of any age prior to the Late Jurassic. Syn-rift reservoirs are restricted to strata actually deposited during maximum extension and include rocks of Late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous age. Post-rift reservoirs formed after rifting and range in age from Early Cretaceous to Eocene. Seals are diverse, depending upon the structural setting and reservoir age. Pre-rift reservoirs commonly have seals formed by fine-grained, post-rift sedimentary sequences that drape the Late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous structures. Contemporaneous shales such as the Kimmeridge Clay seal many syn-rift reservoirs. Fields with post-rift reservoirs generally require seals in fine-grained Tertiary rocks. In most of the North Sea Graben, source rocks have been continuously buried since deposition. Structural trap formation has also taken place continuously since Mesozoic time. As a result, oil and gas are present in a wide variety of settings within Province 4025.

Assessment units for the World Energy Project were defined geographically in order to capture regional differ-ences in exploration history, geography, and geological evolution. Three geographic areas were assessed. The Viking Graben, in the northern part of the province, includes both United Kingdom and Norwegian territorial areas. The Moray Firth/Witch Ground in the west-central part of the province is entirely in United Kingdom. waters. The Central Graben in the southern part of the province includes territorial areas of Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. The North Sea Graben is estimated to contain between 4.3 and 25.6 billion barrels (BBO) of undiscovered, conventionally recoverable oil. Of that total, the Viking Graben is believed to contain 2.2 to 14.8 BBO of undiscov-ered oil, the Moray Firth/Witch Ground may contain between 0.3 and 1.9 BBO, and the Central Graben was estimated to contain undiscovered oil resources of 1.7 to 8.8 BBO. Province 4025 was also estimated to hold between 11.8 and 75 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas. Of this total, 6.8 to 44.5 TCF is thought to exist in the Viking Graben, 0.6 to 3.4 TCF is estimated to be in the Moray Firth/Witch Ground, and 4.5 to 27.1 TCF of undiscovered gas is estimated to be in the Central Graben.

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Gentleman's Magazine . 1768. Kimmeridge Shale.
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Geyssant , R., Vidier, J.-P., Herbin, J.-P., Proust, J.-N., Deconinck, J.-F., 1993. Biostratigraphie et paléoenvironnement des couches de passage Kimméridgien/Tithonien du Boulonnais (Pas-de Calais) : nouvelles données paléontologiques (ammonites), organisation séquentielle et contenu en matière organique. In Géologie de la France, No 4, 1993, Éditions B.R.G.M. & S.G.F.
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Gimez , G.U. 1970. Dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs from the basal Kimmeridgian (Upper Jurassic) of England. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology, 18, 231-331.
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Gradstein , F.M., Agterberg, F.P., Ogg, J.G., Hardenbol, J., Van Veen, P., Theirry, J. and Huang, Z. 1994. A Mesozoic timescale. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 24,051-24,074.

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Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., Schmitz, M.D. and Ogg, G. 2012. The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Elsevier. In a two volume paperback set. Price £52.49p. from Amazon.UK in 2013 (also available as a Kindle Edition). By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Mark D. Schmitz and Gabi M. Ogg. This is an update of Gradstein, F., Ogg, J. and Smith, A. 2004. A Geologic Time Scale, 2004. Cambridge. (one volume, 585pp.).
The Geologic Time Scale 2012, winner of a 2012 Prose Award Honorable Mention for Best Multi-volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers, is the framework for deciphering the history of our planet Earth. The authors have been at the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives to create an international geologic time scale for many years, and the charts in this book present the most up-to-date, international standard, as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. This 2012 geologic time scale is an enhanced, improved and expanded version of the GTS2004, including chapters on planetary scales, the Cryogenian-Ediacaran periods/systems, a prehistory scale of human development, a survey of sequence stratigraphy, and an extensive compilation of stable-isotope chemostratigraphy. This book is an essential reference for all geoscientists, including researchers, students, and petroleum and mining professionals. The presentation is non-technical and illustrated with numerous colour charts, maps and photographs. The book also includes a detachable wall chart of the complete time scale for use as a handy reference in the office, laboratory or field. This is the most detailed international geologic time scale available that contextualizes information in one single reference for quick desktop access. It gives insights in the construction, strengths, and limitations of the geological time scale that greatly enhances its function and its utility. I

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Guerrero-Munoz

[Miguel Guerrero-Munoz, (or Munoz) with a paper (2001) regarding faulting in the Kimmeridge Clay of the North Sea and Kimmeridge, Dorset. Re: Dr. Miguel Guerrero-Munoz, a petroleum geologist of Mexico, and formerly at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Manchester. He has written other papers on petroleum geology topics.]

Guerrero-Munoz, M. 1999. Fluid Expulsion from Hydrocarbon Source Rocks: A Stable Isotope Study of Hydrofracture Cements in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation at Clavell's Hard, Dorset Coast, UK. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Manchester, 388 pp. [Not seen]

Guerrero-Munoz, M. 2001. Interpretation of the fault system in a hydrocarbon source rock: The Kimmeridge Clay Formation in the North Sea, U.K. [Not really on the North Sea, but actually with detailed and useful information about the faulting in the Upper Kimmeridge Clay of Clavell's Hard, Kimmeridge, southern England.]. A Conference paper, available online as a pdf file. To obtain the paper search for: Munoz Guerrero Kimmeridge, or Guerrero Munoz Kimmeridge. Published at the meeting in 2001 of the IAMG, International Association for Mathematical Geosciences. Given at Tuesday afternoon, Session J, Petroleum Engineering, IAMG Annual Conference, Cancun, Mexico, 6th - 12th September, 2001. [Probably based on: Guerrero-Munoz, M. 1999. Fluid Expulsion from Hydrocarbon Source Rocks: A Stable Isotope Study of Hydrofacture Cements in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation at Clavell's Hard, Dorset Coast, UK. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Manchester, 388 pp.] Address in 2001, given as: Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Simulacion Molecular, Mexico (see the paper for more details of location at that date).
Abstract:
The Kimmeridge Clay Formation is widely regarded as the predominant source rock of the North Sea oil. However, in the Wessex Basin it is not the major source to known hydrocarbons, not because of its lithology and organic matter content, but because of its low maturity, a function of maximum burial depth. The organic matter in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of the Wessex Basin is dominantly marine type II kerogen with only a minor contribution of terrestrial material. The Kimmeridge Bay Field (discovered in 1959) produces from fractures in the middle Jurassic Cornbrash limestones and the Oxford Clay, being sourced from the Lias. Oil in the field was being generated by and migrating during the Early Cretaceous, with peak generation in the Late Cretaceous. The migration of oil from the area of generation to the Kimmeridge Bay Field reservoir must involve faults as well as a component of lateral migration through carrier bed formations. The continued replenishment of the Kimmeridge Bay Field suggests that some faults are still open. Over 25 years this field field has produced 2.5 x (10 to the 6th) bbl [i.e. 2.5 million barrels] without decline. This seems more than the fracture system in the closure can contain and suggests that the field is being constantly replenished from a deeper reservoir.
Small N-S faults in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation east of Kimmeridge Bay, Dorset, southern England are all normal. Conjugate faults formed during overpressure generation during burial in the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous, by a process comparable to fluid pressure hydrofracturing. They are not related to compressional tectonics associated with the formation of the Kimmeridge Bay anticline. Faults at Clavell's Hard were examined in detail, these faults have arrays of smaller displacement faults associated with them that cluster either side of the main fault defining a damage zone in the mudstones. The extent and symmetry of the damage zone was investigated by measuring the abundance of small faults in a series of traverses across these faults. The faults and associated calcite-filled veins are considered from outcrop evidence to be entirely enclosed within the Kimmeridge Clay Formation and were the conduits for intraformational fluids that were expelled upwards. As such they are ideal for investigating the nature and composition of fluids generated in this mudstone sequence during early burial.
Applications to the petroleum industry are obvious, these faults at small scale (even veins) increase permeability in reservoirs. Investigation of the this effects are crucial and bring gradually to the process of understand the migration pathways, compartmentalization patterns and oil traps.
[See also a related paper: Hunsdale and Sanderson (1998), Fault Size Distribution Analysis - an example from Kimmeridge Bay, Dorset, UK.]

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Hakimi, M.H., Abdullah, W.H., Shalaby, M.R. and Alramisy, G.A. 2013. Geochemistry and organic petrology study of Kimmeridgian organic-rich shales in the Marib-Shabowah Basin, Yemen: origin and implication for depositional environments and oil-generation potential.
By Mohammed Hail Hakimi, Wan Hasiah Abdudlla, Mohamed Ragab Shalaby and Gamal A. Alramisya. Marine and Petroleum Geology, available online 17th October 2013. [Abstract, figures and tables can be seen online via Science Direct, Elsevier, but not the full paper without subscription or institional access.]
[Highlights: Kimmeridgian organic-rich shales have high total organic carbon (TOC) content. The kerogen is characterized by predominantly alginite and marine organic matter. The high amounts of organic matter are mainly due to a good preservation under relatively reducing conditions. The Kimmeridgian Madbi shales have very good oil-generative potential.][Very relevant to studies of Kimmeridge Clay, Kimmeridge Oil Shale, Kimmeridge Blackstone, Dorset, England.]
Abstract
Kimmeridgian organic-rich shales from the Marib–Shabowah Basin in western Yemen were analysed to evaluate the type of organic matter, origin and depositional environments as well as their oil-generation potential. The current study establishes the organic geochemical characteristics of the Kimmeridgian organic-rich shales and identifies the kerogen type based on their organic petrographic characteristics as observed under reflected white light and blue light excitation. Kerogen microscopy shows that the Kimmeridgian organic-rich shales contain a large amount of organic matter, consisting predominantly of yellow fluorescing alginite and amorphous organic matter with marine-microfossils (e.g., dinoflagellate cysts and micro-foraminiferal linings). Terrigenous organic matters (e.g., vitrinite, spores and pollen) are also present in low quantities. The high contributions of marine organic matter with minor terrigenous organic matter are also confirmed by carbon isotopic values. The organic richness of the Kimmeridgian shales is mainly due to good preservation under suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions, as indicated by the percent of numerous pyritized fragments associated with the organic matter. The biomarker parameters obtained from mass spectrometer data on m/z 191 and m/z 217 also indicate that these organic-rich shales contain mixed organic matter that were deposited in a marine environment and preserved under suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions.
The Kimmeridgian organic-rick shales thus have high oil and low gas-generation potential due to oil window maturities and the nature of the organic matter, with high content of hydrogen-rich Type II and mixed Type II-III kerogens with minor contributions of Type III kerogen.

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Hallam , A. 1967. The depth significance of shales with bituminous laminae. Marine Geology, 5, 481-493.

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Hammes, U., Hamlin, H.S. and Ewing, T.E. 2011. Geologic analysis of the Upper Jurassic Haynesville Shale in east Texas and west Louisiana. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, vol. 95, pp. 1643-1666. (October 2011). By Ursula Hammes, H. Scott Hamlin and Thomas E. Ewing.
The abstract, with information on access to the full paper as a pdf, is available online at: Geologic analysis of the Upper Jurassic Haynesville Shale in east Texas and west Louisiana.
Abstract:
The Upper Jurassic Haynesville Shale is currently regarded as one of the most prolific emerging shale-gas plays in the continental United States. It has estimated play resources of several hundred trillion cubic feet and per-well reserves estimated as much as 7.5 bcf. The reservoir spans more than 16 counties along the boundary of eastern Texas and western Louisiana. Although this basin has a long history of exploration and analysis of its Mesozoic section, a comprehensive subsurface study characterizing the Haynesville Shale has not been conducted. This article is the first to address the structural setting, stratigraphy, depositional environment and facies, fracturing, and production challenges of the Haynesville shale-gas play.
Basement structures and salt movement influenced carbonate and siliciclastic sedimentation associated with the opening of the Gulf of Mexico. The Haynesville Shale is an organic- and carbonate-rich mudrock that was deposited in a deep partly euxinic and anoxic basin during the Kimmeridgian to the early Tithonian, related to a second-order transgression that deposited organic-rich black shales worldwide [as at Kimmeridge, Dorset, England]. The Haynesville Basin was surrounded by carbonate shelves of the Smackover and Haynesville lime Louark sequence in the north and west. Several rivers supplied sand and mud from the northwest, north, and northeast into the basin. Haynesville mudrocks contain a spectrum of facies ranging from bioturbated calcareous mudstone, laminated calcareous mudstone, and silty peloidal siliceous mudstone, to unlaminated siliceous organic-rich mudstone. Framboidal to colloidal pyrite is variably present in the form of concretions, laminae, and individual framboids and replaces calcite cement and mollusk shells. Haynesville reservoirs are characterized by overpressuring, porosity averaging 8 to 12%, Sw of 20 to 30%, nanodarcy permeabilities, reservoir thickness of 200 to 300 ft (70 to100 m), and initial production of as much as 30 mmcf/day. Reservoir depth ranges from 9000 to 14,000 ft (3000 to 4700 m), and lateral drilling distances are 3000 to 5000 ft (1000 to 1700 m). Typical Haynesville wells exhibit a steeper decline curve (sim80% in the first year) than other shale-gas plays, which is attributed to a very high overpressure.

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Hammes, U and Gale, J. (Editors). 2014. Geology of the Haynesville Gas Shale in East Texas and West Louisiana. Memoir No. 105. American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Edited by Ursala Hammes and Julia Gale. 236 pp. Price £141.50p. For Fellows of the Geological Society, reduced to £106.25p.
This AAPG Memoir on the Haynesville Shale of East Texas, USA, provides an overview of the main geologic, stratigraphic, sedimentologic, geomechanical, micro-seismic and engineering characteristics of the Haynesville mudrocks. Experts on mudrocks from academia, industry, and government contribute with a variety of topics that describe the Haynesville Shale from basin- to nannoscale, reflecting the dimensions affecting shale-gas assessment and demonstrating the variety of techniques applicable to shale-gas evaluation. The included papers serve not only as examples of shale-gas analyses of the East Texas shale basin employing different techniques, but also are examples of approaches to evaluating shale basins worldwide.
Contents:
Editorial
About the Editors
Paper Peer Reviewers
Introduction, Ursula Hammes and Julia Gale
Shale Hydrocarbon Reservoirs: Some Influences of Tectonics and Paleogeography During Deposition, Jennifer D. Eoff
Sequence Stratigraphy and Depositional Environments of the Haynesville and Bossier Shales, East Texas and North Louisiana, Andrea D. Cicero and Ingo Steinhoff
Sedimentology of the Haynesville (Upper Kimmeridgian) and Bossier (Tithonian) Formations, in the Western Haynesville Basin, Texas, U.S.A., Gregory Frébourg, Stephen C. Ruppel, and Harry Rowe
Low-latitude Oxfordian to Early Berriasian Nannofossil Biostratigraphy and its Application to the Subsurface of Eastern Texas, J.A. Bergen, T.M. Boesiger, and J.J. Pospichal
Biostratigraphic Correlation and Biofacies of the Haynesville Shale and Bossier Shale in East Texas and Western Louisiana, T. Scott Staerker, Peter R. Thompson, Abelardo Cantu-Chapa, Ignacio Pujana, and Todd M. Boesiger
Chemostratigraphy of the Haynesville Shale, Jennifer L. Sano, David R. Spain, and Ken T. Ratcliffe
Overview of Haynesville Shale Properties and Production, Fred P. Wang, Ursula Hammes, Qinghui Li
Microstructure and Anisotropy in Gas Shales, Carl H. Sondergeld, Chandra S. Rai, and Mark E. Curtis
Rock Physics Relationships between Elastic and Reservoir Properties in the Haynesville Shale, Kyle T. Spikes, Meijuan Jiang
Variation of Lithology in the Haynesville Shale Observed with LWD Tools, Barrett R. Summers
Microseismic Monitoring in Early Haynesville Development, Peter M. Duncan, Peter G. Smith, Kevin Smith, William B. Barker, Sherilyn Williams-Stroud, and Leo Eisner

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Hantzpergue , P. 1989. Les ammonites kimmeridgiennes du haut-fond d'Europe occidentale. Biochronologie, Systematique, Evolution, Paleobiogeographie. Cahiers de Paleontologie. CNRS, Paris.

Hantzpergue, P., Enay, R. & Atrops, F. 1997. Kimmeridgien. In (Cariou, E. & Hantzpergue, P.; co-ordinators; eds) Groupe Francais d'Etude du Jurassique - Biostratigraphie du Jurassique ouest europeen et mediterraneen: zonations parallides et distribution des invertebres et microfossiles. Elf Aquitaine, Memoire, 17, 87-102.


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Hart, M.B. and Fitzpatrick, M.E.J. 1995. Kimmeridgian palaeoenvironments; a micropalaeontological perspective. Proceedings of the Ussher Society, 8, 433-436.
By M.B.Hart and M.E.J. FitzPatrick, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA.
Full paper is available online free as a pdf file. Go to: Hart and Fitzpatrick - Kimmeridgian Palaeoenvironments.
Abstract:
The Kimmeridge Clay Formation of the Dorset Coast is a classic example of a succession of mudstones, claystones and muddy limestones deposited in a range of dysaerobic or anoxic environments. The various models presently available draw on both macro-and micropalaeontological data but fail to present a convincing picture of what is undoubtedly a complex depositional setting. It is suggested here that only by considering the complete structure of the food chain will it be possible to resolve some of the difficulties.


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Healey , M. 1904. Notes on Upper Jurassic ammonites with special reference to specimens in the University Museum, Oxford: No. 1. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 60, 54-64, pls. 9-12.


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Herbin, J.P., Muller, C., Geyssant, J.R., Melieres, F, Penn, I.E. and Yorkim Group. 1993. Variation in the distribution of organic matter within a transgressive systems tract: Kimmeridge Clay (Jurassic), England. In Source Rocks in a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework (eds B.J. Katz and L.M. Pratt), pp. 67-100. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Studies in Geology, no. 37.

Herbin, J.P., Fernandez-Martinez, J.L., Geyssant, J.R., El Albani, A., Deconinck, J.F., Proust, J.N., Colbeaux, J.P. and Vidier, J.P. 1995. Sequence stratigraphy of source rocks applied to the study of the Kimmeridgian/Tithonian in the north-west European shelf (Dorset/UK, Yorkshire/UK and Boulonnais, France). Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 12, pp. 177-194.


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Hess H. and Etter, W. 2011. Life and Death of Saccocoma tenella. Swiss Journal of Geoscience, Swiss Geological Society, Vol. 104, Supplement 1, S99 - S106. Extract from the abstract: "Saccocoma tenella is considered to have been pelagic, a benthic lifestyle is rejected on ecological and taphonomic grounds. Adorally-curved arms are considered a reaction to a hostile environment before death, not a taphonomic artifact."
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Hesselbo, S.P., Deconinck, J-F, Huggett, J.M. and Morgans-Bell, H.S. 2009. Late Jurassic palaeoclimatic change from clay mineralogy and gamma-ray spectrometry of the Kimmeridge Clay. Journal of the Geological Society, London, vol. 166, pp. 1123-1133. By Stephen P. Hesselbo, Jean-Francois Deconinck, Jennifer M. Huggett and Helen S. Morgans-Bell.
Abstract: The Late Jurassic was a time of increasing aridity in NW Europe. Here a new clay mineral dataset is presented from a 600m thick composite core through the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, southern England. Clay mineral assemblages comprise mainly illite and kaolinite with minor randomly interstratified illite-smectite mixed layer clays. SEM observations indicate that the clay minerals are mainly detrital, except in silty strata of Tithonian age, which contain abundant pore-filling kaolinite aggregates. Th/K ratios determined from gamma ray spectrometry mirror palaeoclimatically significant variations in kaolinite/illite ratios, with notable exceptions where diagenetic kaolinite occurss. Comparison with age-equivalent strata identifies regional cylic variations in clay minerals at the 100 to 300 m scale. Small scale (10 - 20 m)variations in clay minerals and Th/K also occur. It is proposed that the region experienced progressively intense humidity through the Kimmeridgian, followed by a return to more arid conditions during the early Tithonian. Following a mid-Tithonian peak in aridity (the 'Hudlestoni Event'), more humid conditions returned prior to the development of latest Tithonian intense aridity. Late Jurassic climate was apparently subject to synchronously cyclic changes across a broad area of the Laurasian continent. Such changes could not have resulted from mountain building of continental rotations.
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House , M. E. 1989. Geology of the Dorset Coast. Geologists' Association Guide, 162pp. See later edition - 1993.

House, M.E. 1993 (and earlier edition in 1989) - Geology of the Dorset Coast. Geologists Association Guide No. 22. 2nd edition, 164 pages plus plates. ISBN 0 7073 0485 7.
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Huc , A.Y., Lallier-Verges, E., Bertrand, P., Carpentier, B. and Hollander, D.J. 1992. Organic matter response to change of depositional environment in Kimmeridgian Shales, Dorset, UK. In: Whelan, J.K. and Farrington, J.W. (eds.). Organic Matter Productivity, Accumulation and Preservation in Recent and Ancient Sediments. Columbia University Press, New York, 469-486.
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Huang , C., Hesselbo, S.P. and Hinnov, L. 2010. Astrochronology of the late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay (Dorset, England) and implications for Earth system processes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 289, issues 1-2, 15th Jan. 2010, pp. 242-255. By Chunju Huang, Stephen P. Hesselbo and Linda Hinnov,
Abstract:
The Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF) is an economically important, organic-rich source rock of Kimmeridgian–Early Tithonian age. The main rock types of the KCF in Dorset, UK, include grey to black laminated shale, marl, coccolithic limestone, and dolostone, which occur with an obvious cyclicity at astronomical timescales. In this study, we examine two high-resolution borehole records (Swanworth Quarry 1 and Metherhills 1) obtained as part of a Rapid Global Geological Events (RGGE) sediment drilling project. Datasets examined were total organic carbon (TOC), and borehole wall microconductivity by Formation Microscanner (FMS). Our intent is to assess the rhythmicity of the KCF with respect to the astronomical timescale, and to discuss the results with respect to other key Late Jurassic geological processes. Power spectra of the untuned data reveal a hierarchy of cycles throughout the KCF with approx. 167 m, approx. 40 m, 9.1 m, 3.8 m and 1.6 m wavelengths. Tuning the approx. 40 m cycles to the 405-kyr eccentricity cycle shows the presence of all the astronomical parameters: eccentricity, obliquity, and precession index. In particular, approx. 100-kyr and 405-kyr eccentricity cycles are strongly expressed in both records. The 405-kyr eccentricity cycle corresponds to relative sea-level changes inferred from sequence stratigraphy. Intervals with elevated TOC are associated with strong obliquity forcing. The 405-kyr-tuned duration of the lower KCF (Kimmeridgian Stage) is 3.47 Myr, and the upper KCF (early part of the Tithonian Stage, elegans to fittoni ammonite zones) is 3.32 Myr. Two other chronologies test the consistency of this age model by tuning approx. 8–10 m cycles to 100-kyr (short eccentricity), and approx. 3–5 m cycles to 36-kyr (Jurassic obliquity). The obliquity-tuned chronology resolves an accumulation history for the KCF with a variation that strongly resembles that of Earth's orbital eccentricity predicted for 147.2 Ma to 153.8 Ma. There is evidence for significant non-deposition (up to 1 million years) in the lowermost KCF (baylei–mutabilis zones), which would indicate a Kimmeridgian/Oxfordian boundary age of 154.8 Ma. This absolute calibration allows assignment of precise numerical ages to zonal boundaries, sequence surfaces, and polarity chrons of the lower M-sequence.
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Hulke , J.W. 1869. Note on a large saurian humerus from the Kimmeridge Clay of the Dorset coast. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 25, 386-389.

Hulke, J.W. 1869. Notes on some fossil remains of a gavial-like saurian from Kimmeridge Bay, collected by J.C. Mansel, Esq., establishing its identity with Cuvier's Deuxieme Gavial d'Honfleur, tete a museau plus court (Steneosaurus-rostro minor of Geoffroy St.-Hillaire, 1825), and with Quenstedt's Dakosaurus. By J.W. Hulke, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 25, first part (Proceedings of the Geological Society), pp. 390-400 with plates.

Hulke, J.W. 1874. Note on a very large saurian limb-bone adapted for progression upon land from the Kimmeridge Clay of Weymouth, Dorset. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 30, 16-17.

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Hunsdale, R. and Sanderson, D.J. 1998. Fault size distribution analysis — an example from Kimmeridge Bay, Dorset, UK. Geological Society of London, Special Publications: No. 133. Development, Evolution and Petroleum Geology of the Wessex Basin, pp. 299-310. By Dr. Robert Hunsdale and Professor David J. Sanderson, both of Southampton University (at the time, the Geomechanics Research Group, Departmemt of Geology, University of Southampton, then at the Southampton Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, Southampton).
Abstract:
Fault displacement data were measured over four orders of magnitude for a fault set cross-cutting Upper Jurassic rocks exposed along the Dorset coast. Fault data were subdivided into three data-sets, based on data source and field character. Distribution analysis showed that these faults conform to a power law. The scaling relationship is, however, not constant over the entire displacement range of the faults. Faults with displacement greater than 2m are characterized by a negative power law having an exponent of approximately 0.96, while faults with displacement of less than 1m are related by a negative exponent of approximately 0.7. The change at the small scale is interpreted as being a product of the influence of lithological heterogeneity on fracture initiation and growth.
Notes:
"The association of damage with hanging walls of exposed faults indicate that all faults propogated upwards and that the current coastal section represents a high tectonic window."
[See also related paper:
Guerrero-Munoz, M. 2001. Interpretation of the fault system in a hydrocarbon source rock: The Kimmeridge Clay Formation in the North Sea, UK. (actually also on faults at Kimmeridge in Dorset, rather than the North Sea. Available online.)]


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Hutchins, J. 1773. The History and Antiquities of the County of Dorset. By the Reverend John Hutchins, M.A. The full set is available online for 90 pounds from the Dorset Family History Society. It is also available in parts as CDs.

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Ioannides , N.S., Stavrinos, G.N. and Downie, C. 1976. Kimmeridgian microplankton from Clavell's Hard, Dorset, England. Micropaleontology, 22, 443-478, plates 1-5 show microplankton. By N.S. Ioannides from Esso Production Research - European, Begles, France; G.N. Stavros, Nicosia, Cyprus and by Professor Charles Downie, University of Sheffield, England. Paper published October, 1976.
Abstract:
The present paper provides the first detailed account of the microplankton assemblages associated with the rich bituminous shale, the Kimmeridge Blackstone. Forty-nine taxa of dinoflagellate cysts and 13 of acritarchs are recorded; two genera and eighth species are regarded as new and emendation of one genus is proposed. There are brief remarks on previously described Upper Jurassic assemblages. One result of this study is the new insight given on the origin of the Kimmeridge Oil Shale, which is seen to be an essentially marine deposit, owing its unique character to an abundant supply of swamp-generated organic matter. [Although this paper is mainly concerned with the microplankton, the introductory section is also of interest in that it provides a table of combustible organic matter for the Blackstone, the Bubbicum and associated strata. The maximum recorded is 67.7% for the very base of the Best Blackstone. The Bubbicum has 52%.]
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Irwin , H., Curtis, C. and Coleman, M. 1977. Isotopic evidence for source of diagenetic carbonates formed during burial of organic-rich sediments. Nature, 269, 209-213. Abstract: Organic matter is modified by several processes operating at different depths during burial diagenesis: 1. sulphate reduction; 2. fermentation ; 3. thermally-induced decarboxylation, and so on. CO
2 , one common product of each can be distinguished by its carbon isotope composition: approximately 1. - 25, 2. +15, 3 -20 parts per thousand relative to PDB. These values are preserved in diagenetic carbonates of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay. Independent corroboration of the relative dominance of each process within specific depth intervals is given by the isotopic composition of incorporated oxygen which is temperature dependent: 1. 0 to -2, 2. -1.5 to -5, 3. -3.5 to -7.0 parts per thousand.

Irwin, H. 1981. On calcic dolomite-ankerite from the Kimmeridge Clay. Mineralogical Magazine, 44, 105-107.

Irwin, H. 1979. On an environmental model for the type Kimmeridge Clay. Nature, London, 279, 819.

Irwin, H. 1980. Early diagenetic carbonate precipitation and pore fluid migration in the Kimmeridge Clay of Dorset, England. Sedimentology, 27, 577-591.

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Jaekel, O. 1892. Uber Plicatocriniden, Hyocrinus and Saccocoma. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, vol. 44, pp. 619-696. (A drawing based on this work is given in Milsom (1994)).


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Jokanola, O. 20??. Porosity, Permeability and Capillary Pressure Properties of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of the North Sea using Pore Size Distribution Method. M.Sc. Thesis?.
In the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF), porosity and permeability decreases with depth from 24%-3% and less than 10-0.09nD between 1.5-5.0km depth of burial. The upper 2.3 km showed porosity and permeability decreasing with depth from 24-19% and 5-1.5nD respectively. Between 2.3-3.4 km, abnormally high porosity and permeability (20% and 2-9nD) occur due probably to reduced effective stress implying abnormal pore-pressure. The atypical pore size distribution pattern of the mudstones within this regional also suggests presence of coarse grained materials thought to have come from incising alluvial fans. At 3.5km, the KCF is lithologically similar, and reached mechanical compaction equilibrium resulting in best-possible pore sorting with porosity and permeability being less than 10% and 0.3-09nD respectively. The 3.5km also defines the critical depth of burial (CDB). Compared with existing mudstone data, the KCF porosity-permeability data plots in the lowest portion of the porosity -permeability profile, similar to values extrapolated from previous organic poor, fine- grained mudstones. Capillary pressure measurements shows that if "water wet", the KCF at >3.5km could support >5km and >1.7km oil and gas respectively. Conversely, geochemical data suggest that this source rock may be "oil-wet" and may not be good capillary seals but behave more like a "permeability barrier". At the 2.3-3.4km band, where the KCF appears overpressured, it may be a good pressure seal. The upper 2.3 km is thought to be "water wet" and would make a good capillary seal, capable of holding up to 3.5 km and 1.3 km of oil and gas respectively. [Femi Jokanola, . Geologist-Petroleum Systems, ConocoPhillips.
Femi graduated with a PhD in Petroleum Geoscience in 2007, thesis title "Pore Pressure, Seal Risking and Column Height Predictions in Leaky Petroleum Systems: Some Case Studies". Prior to that Femi obtained his BSc in Geology from Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria, and an MSc in Petroleum Geochemistry from the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Femi is now working as a Petroleum Systems Analyst with the Subsurface Technology Group, ConocoPhillips in Houston.]

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Kent , A. 1973(?). The day the earth caught fire - and Mr Cole spotted it. By Ann Kent. [Newspaper article, the newspaper is not known but might well be the Southern Evening Echo, Southampton, since another article refers to Southampton Education Committee and Redbridge School. Date probably late 1973.]
It may be chilly in city offices, but down in rural Dorset things are pretty hot. At Clavell's Hard near the seaside village of Kimmeridge, smoke is rising through cracks in . the cliffs, the ground is hot, and evil-smelling gases have killed off the grass. Deep inside, the ground is actually, on fire.
Phenomenon: The phenomenon was discovered by Douglas Cole, a 24-year-old geological research student, who was walking in the area. Mr Cole, who lives in Church Lane, Southampton, said: 'There is a 3ft. 6in. layer of oil shale underneath the rock surface which has caught fire. This is an extremely rare occurrence - the last case noted in geological records was in 1826 [but the Lyme Volcano was later]. There is a large area of dead grass on the cliff; Immediately under the loose stone the ground is red hot. If you thrust a stick into it, it would burn. I measured temperatures of just over 500deg. C. Once combustion like this starts nothing will stop it until the fuel is exhausted.' Major John Mansel, of Smedmore House, Corfe Castle, who owns the burning cliff,said 'There is a footpath running nearby and the cliffs are a popular beauty spot In the summer.'
Spontaneous: Mr Reginald Leonard, engineer for Wareham rural council. which covers the area, said 'We often hear of spontaneous combustion In rubbish tips but this is the first I have heard of it happening in oil shale.'
[see also papers etc by Cole.]
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Kent, P.E. and Casey, R. 1963. A Kimmeridgian sandstone in north Lincolnshire. Proceedings of the Geological Society, London, No. 1606, pp. 57-62.
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Kitchen, F.L. 1919. The faunal characteristics and correlation of the concealed Mesozoic rocks in Kent. Summary of Progress of the Geological Survey for 1918, pp. 37-45. [Kitchen reported Saccocoma at the level of the Blackstone.]

Kitchen, F.L. 1926. A new genus of lamellibranchs (Hartwellia gen. nov.) from the Upper Kimmeridge Clay of England with a note on the position of the Hartwell Clay. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 9, vol. 18, pp. 433-455.
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Kodrans-Nsiaha , M., Marz, C., Harding, I.C., Kasten, S. and Zonneveld, A.F. 2009. Are the Kimmeridge Clay deposits affected by "burn-down" events? Palynological and geochemical studies on a 1 metre long section from the Upper Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Dorset, UK). By Monika Kodrans-Nsiah, Christian Marz, Ian C. Harding, Sabine Kasten and Karin A.F. Zonneveld. Sedimentary Geology, vol. 222, issues 3-4, 15th December 2009, pp. 301-313.
Abstract:
Two independent analytical approaches, palynology and inorganic geochemistry, were applied to identify potential oxygen "burn-down" events in the Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF). The KCF interval of the rotunda ammonite zone, spanning 121.82–122.72 m depth was sampled from the Swanworth Quarry 1 borehole (Dorset, UK) at 2.5–5.0 cm resolution. Samples were analysed for total organic carbon (TOC), concentrations of elements that are known to be productivity- and/or nutrient-related (e.g. Cu, P), detrital (e.g. Al, Ti, Zr) and redox-sensitive/sulphide-forming (e.g. V, Mo, Fe, Mn, S), and palynofacies components including analysis of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) on a species level. The TOC contents generally exceed 2 wt.%, with a maximum of 8.8 wt.% at 122.37 cm depth and elevated values in the central part of the investigated interval. This interval of relatively higher TOC values correlates well with the maximum recovery of marine palynomorphs and low Al values, suggesting that the TOC is primarily of marine organic matter (OM). Changes in V/Al, Mo/Al, Fe/Al, Mn/Al and S patterns at 122.37 m depth mark a shift from anoxic conditions in the lower part of the studied interval to more oxic conditions in its upper part. Such a shift could explain the relatively high TOC and marine palynomorph concentrations in the lower part of the studied interval as a result of better preservation, and the subsequent decrease as an effect of a post-depositional "burn-down", i.e. OM oxidation. As the amount of marine palynomorphs and TOC content diminishes from the middle part of the section upwards, species-specific changes in dinocyst assemblages can be observed. In particular, concentrations of Circulodinium spp., Cyclonephelium spp., Sirmiodinium grossi, Senoniasphaera jurassica and Systematophora spp. decrease rapidly in comparison to other species, such as Glossodinium dimorphum and Cribroperidinium sp. 1, which may suggest selective degradation of dinocysts due to oxidation. We suggest that post-depositional oxygenation of bottom and pore waters within the sediment was most probably the cause for decreasing TOC values and reduced recovery of marine palynomorphs towards the top of the studied interval in comparison to high TOC and marine palynomorph values in the central part of the studied interval due to anoxic conditions.


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Kornacki, A.S. 2010. Integrated hydrocarbons charge evaluation of the Haynesville and Bossier Gas Shale Reservoirs, Northern Lousiana. Presentation at the 2010 GSA Denver Annual Meeting (31 October –3 November 2010).

Gas-bearing shales in the Upper Jurassic Haynesville Formation and the overlying Bossier Formation in northern Louisiana are a new energy source. [The Haynesville Shale is the age equivalent of the Kimmeridge Clay of the UK]. These unconventional reservoirs contain gas generated by indigenous kerogen that was retained in intergranular matrix porosity and kerogen nanoporosity. We applied integrated HC charge evaluation methods to help identify shale intervals with the best commercial potential. Our study involves three complementary elements: (1) characterizing the source rock (SR) potential of Bossier and Haynesville shales; (2) analyzing the composition of gas samples obtained from different shale intervals; and (3) modeling oil and gas generation by Bossier and Haynesville SRs. We identified two good SR intervals: Upper Haynesville/Basal Bossier shales contain ~1.5-5.0 wt% total organic C (TOC); a second SR interval in the Middle Bossier Formation contains ~1.5-3.0 wt% TOC. Upper and Lower Bossier shales generally are much leaner (less than 1.5 wt% TOC). Bossier and Haynesville shales have reached such a high level of thermal maturity (VR ~ 2.0-2.8) it is difficult to determine what kind of kerogen they originally contained. But the presence of pyrobitumen in Haynesville SRs and the abundance of gas-prone and inert kerogen in lean Bossier shales indicate only the two good SR intervals contained oil-prone kerogen. Basin modeling indicates the volume of gas generated by Haynesville and Middle Bossier SRs exceeded their intrinsic storage capacity, while lean gas-prone Bossier shales generated less gas than they could retain. Excess gas expelled by good SRs probably migrated through the leaner shales via fractures and faults. The molecular and C isotopic composition of gas samples produced from Haynesville and Middle Bossier shales support these intepretations: e.g., C1/C2 ratios (~1000-2100) indicate the gas was generated at very high maturity. Systematic changes in gas composition across the study area indicate that the maturity of kerogen in each good SR largely controls gas wetness and the C isotopic composition of HC gases: i.e., the reservoirs are compartmentalized vertically and laterally. Mud gas samples from lean Bossier shales are much wetter than mud gas samples obtained from good SR intervals, suggesting Upper and Lower Bossier shales do not contribute significantly to production.

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Lallier-Verges , E., Bertrand, P., Huc, A.Y., Buckel, D. and Tremblay, P. 1993. Control of preservation of organic matter by productivity and sulphate reduction in Kimmeridgian shales from Dorset (UK).Marine and Petroleum Geology, 10, 600-605

Lallier-Verges, E. and Tribovillard, N-C. 1995. Organic Matter Accumulation : The Organic Cyclicities of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation .In: ? Paperback (July 1995). Springer Verlag; ASIN: 0387591702.
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Leddra , M.J., Yassir, N.A., Jones, C. and Jones, M.E. 1987. Anomalous compression structures formed during diagenesis of a dolostone at Kimmeridge Bay, Dorset. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 98, 145155.
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Lees , J.A., Bown, P.R., Young, J.R. and Riding, J.B. 2004. Evidence for annual records of phytoplankton productivity in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation coccolith stone bands (Upper Jurassic, Dorset, UK), Marine Micropaleontology, Special Issue, 52 (2004), pp. 29–49.

Lees, J.A., Bown, P.R. and Mattioli, E. 2005. Problems with proxies? Cautionary tales of calcareous nannofossil palaeoenvironmental indicators, Micropaleontology, 51 (2005) (4), pp. 333–343.

Lees, J., Bown, P.R. and Young, J.R. 2006. Photic zone palaeoenvironments of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic, UK) suggested by calcareous nannoplankton palaeoecology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 235, Special Issue - Causes and Consequences of Marine Organic Burial Through Time, 110-134. By Jackie A. Lees (UCL), Paul R. Bown (UCL)and Jeremy R. Young (Natural History Museum, London). [See the full paper which is available on the internet through Science Direct of Elsevier]
Abstract: Nannoplankton abundance data has revealed significant and systematic population fluxes through all representative lithologies and cycle types of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF), and also through intervals in which lithology is visually homogeneous. The majority of KCF samples yielded nannofossil assemblages of low species richness (1 to 10) and marked unevenness, independent of preservational state. All samples were dominated by coccoliths of one family, the Watznaueriaceae. While assemblage unevenness is characteristic of nannofossil populations, such low species richness is atypical, particularly when compared with coeval assemblages of similar latitude. Such anomalously low nannofossil diversity may be explained as a response to nutrient-rich euphotic environments. We postulate that consistently high trophic conditions supported the eurytopic watznaueriaceans but excluded most normal open-ocean taxa. The switching of dominance within this group most likely reflects different adaptations within an r-selected ecological strategy, related to nutrient concentration. Lowest diversities were recorded in mudstone/oil-shale lithologies where Watznaueria britannica is the dominant species, suggesting adaptation to the highest nutrient concentrations. Watznaueria barnesiae/fossacincta is particularly dominant in coccolith stone bands, where diversity is slightly higher, suggesting adaptation to lower high nutrient levels. Cyclagelosphaera margerelii appears to be the most extremely r-selected species, exploiting unusual (very high trophic/lowered sea-level?) conditions that excluded even W. britannica. [end of abstract]
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Legg , R. 1984. Guide to Purbeck Coast and Shipwreck. Dorset Publishing Company, Milborne Port, Sherborne, Dorset,DT9 5HJ. 96 pp. ISBN 0 90212958 9. [Well illustrated account of the topography, history and shipwrecks of the coast. Interesting old photographs and maps. Includes map of the oil-shale workings at Kimmeridge. Recommended.] Back cover information on the author: "Rodney Legg has been collecting the minutiae of Purbeck history since he was twelve. He has walked every path in this superb corner of Dorset, some at night as well as day, and has talked with fishermen, quarrymen and farmers. He has accumulated a vast store of information that is now unsurpassed by any individual and much of the material in this book is from his personal archive. Rodney Legg has shared his enthusiasm for Purbeck, publishing Purbeck Island in 1972 and Purbeck Walks and Old Swanage in 1983, as well as numerous articles over the years in his own Dorset County Magazine which he founded in 1968. In this Guide to Purbeck Coast and Shipwreck he gives a story, often with pathos or tragedy, to every rock-pool between Kimmeridge and Studland. Each location is approached logically rather than alphabetically, much as you would on the ground, in a general amble from west to east. A fifteen mile sweep of coast is covered, with sufficient detailed diversions to deter anyone who is dismissive enough about Dorset to feel he can 'do' it in a day's walk. Apart from his series of Purbeck studies, Rodney Legg has achieved a national archaeological reputation for his work with John Fowles in transcribing the two massive volumes of John Aubrey's Monumenta Britannica as well as his own books on the Romans in Britain (Heinemann) and the Stonehenge Antiquaries."
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Lloyd , A.J. 1959. Arenaceous foraminifera from the type Kimmeridgian (Upper Jurassic). Palaeontology, 1 (4), 298-320.

Lloyd, A.J. 1961. The microfauna of some samples from submarine samples from Weymouth Bay. Appendix 2 in: Donovan, D.T. and Stride, A.M. 1961. An acoustic survey of the sea floor south of Dorset and its geological interpretation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B, Biological Sciences, Vol. 244, No. 712, pp. 299-330, 23rd November, 1961.
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Macdougall , D. and Cawley, C.M. 1951. Recovery and treatment of oil shale from the Kimmeridge area, Dorset, England. Pp. 440-448 in Oil Shale and Cannel Coal. London, The Institute of Petroleum.
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Macquaker, J. H. S., Curtis C. D., and Coleman M. L. 1997. The role of iron in mudstone diagenesis: Comparison of Kimmeridge Clay Formation mudstone from Onshore and Offshore (UKCS) localities. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, vol. 67, pp. 1129-1143.

Macquaker, J.H.S., K.G. Taylor and R.L. Gawthorpe 2007. High-resolution facies analyses of mudstones: Implications for palaeoenvironmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretations of offshore ancient mud-dominated successions. Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 77, no. 3-4, p. 324-339.
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Mansell , J.C. 1967 and later edition, about 2000. Kimmeridge, Smedmore and the Bay: Guide and History with Footpath Map. Abbotsbury Press Ltd., Bournemouth, Dorset. 30 pp. with maps, colour photographs (in later edition) etc. [Booklet written by Major J.C. Mansell, owner of Smedmore Estate and Kimmeridge, with much information on the industrial history of Kimmeridge including the oil-shale, alum and salt industries.]

[Example extract from pages 17 and 18, including text with original spelling from the Survey of Dorsetshire:]

"And not farre hence (i.e. from Smedmore) the nowe, Owner, beeing ingenious in diverse Faculties, put in tryall the makeing of Allom, which he had noe sooner, by much Cost and Travell, brought to a reasonable Perfection, but the Farmers of the Allom Workes seized to the Kings Use; and beeing not so skillfull or fortunate as himselfe, were forced with Losses to leave it offe, and soe nowe it rests almost ruined.

"But in place of it Sir William Clavile, who one disaster dismayed not, hath sithence sett up a Glasse House (which is come to Perfection, and is likely to redounde to a good Benefit) and Salt House."

"For transportation of these Commodities, as also of white salt (there is made in great Abundance, by boyling it out of the Sea Water) hee hath at his owne Charge, with great Rocks and Stones piled together, built a little key in Imitation of that at Lime, for small Barkes to ride, invironed on the East side with an Hill yeelding Myne (as they call it) for the Allom Works, and a kind of blueish Stones that serve to burne, for maintaining fire in the Glasse House; but in burneing yeelds such an offensive savour that the People labouring about those Fires are more like Furies than Men".

About this time, Sir William drew up a document which he entitled "Arguments in the behalf of Sir William Clavell, to prove that hee ought to bee allowed to make Allome, or well recompensed for his workes, to his content"; it was his claim for compensation, probably intended for James I's Council. As it shows how the alum first came to be mined, and how those with Court influence could frustrate other developers, it is given here in full:

"The old Lord Mountjoy about 40 yeres past, discovered that the land of Kimridge was full of Allom myne [allom myne = pyrite? - iron sulphide, the raw material for alum manufacture, is abundant in the Kimmeridge Clay at certain horizons, particularly at the Blackstone], and laboured with John Clavell esq. the owner of those landes to joyne with him in his pattent to make Allom in England. And tryalls were made on those lands, the ruins of which worke, or some other of antiquitie yet remaynes.

"About ten yeres past Mr Clavell acquainted his sonne Sir William Clavell with those proceedings, who thereupon laboured to finde out Coles neere adioyning, knowing it behovefull for such his purpose: which with cost and labour hee atteyned.

"Whilest these things were in practize, some got from his Majestie a pattent to make Allom alone, wherein yet there was an exception to my Lord Mountjoys heires in all places put in tryall for making of Allom, whereof Kimridge was one.

"Sir William Clavell unwilling to oppose his Majesties prerogative sat quietlie downe, and converted his courses to making of salte, untill the Marchaunte patentees carried with the rumor of Sir William Clavells endevours sought him oute, and came in their persones 100 myles to compound with him: who tooke composicion for his houses, furnaces and Cole pitts, and agreed for £1000 rent per annum.

"After one yere the said Marchauntes brake from all their bargaynes, ruined and ransacked all the Allom houses, sold Sir William Clavells stocke of Cattell from his ground, to his infinite preiudice; and for his recompence left his worke in disgrace. "Sir William Clavell sued at the Councell table to revive his worke at his owne charge, and obteyned his suit.

"After one years endevour, and expence of £2000 Sir Walter Cope, Sir Arthur Ingram and Mr Johnson laboured to drawe this worke into his Majesties hands, and promised reasonable satisfaction, and thereupon undertooke to deliver £5000 to set up so many houses and pannes as should make 500 tunnes of Allom yerely, who hath received £3300 of the same for which there is erected two strong Allom houses, absolutely furnished, which will neere bring foorth that proporcion. For the carefull performing whereof, Sir William Clavell hath disbursed £2000 more out of his owne decayed estate, which hee hath performed within the space of eight moneths, haveing also built within the same tyme a strong huge peere of Stone, 100 foote long, 50 foote highe, and 60 foote broade. And Sir William Clavell will prove that never so much worke was done within so short a tyme, performed for soe little money, and so exactly and substancially finished".

The dimensions of the pier are highly suspect. Surely it cannot have been 50 foot high. Perhaps 15, or even 5! And perhaps the breadth was exaggerated too. Hutchins, writing his History of Dorset in the middle of the 18th century, says that there used to be a "large key or Cobb, beginning at the east side of the bay and extending north, paralleled with the east shore. At the south end was detached another branch, which ran NW far into the bay. It was almost entirely ruined by a storm, 1745". One would dearly like to see Sir William's plans and, bearing in mind how shallow the bay is, to know what sort of boats were able to make use of the pier, quay or cobb.

Clearly Sir William flung himself into the alum venture with great energy and high hopes; and although he ended £2000 the poorer he lacked neither energy nor hope when he "put in tryall" his next venture, glass. Would that the one disaster had dismayed him!
[continues]




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Miller, R. G. 1990. A Paleoceanographic Approach to the Kimmeridge Clay Formation: Chapter 2, AAPG Special Volumes: Volume SG 30: Deposition of Organic Facies, Pages 13 - 26 (1990). Paper by Richard G. Miller.
Abstract:
The Kimmeridge Clay Formation is a Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous clastic source rock which extends from offshore Norway to offshore Canada and the English Channel. It is the principal source of the North Sea oils. The base is diachronous but the top is synchronous over the North Sea. In the North Sea it is typically 150 m thick with TOC = 4-5% and HI = 350 to 450; accumulation rate was about 15 m/Ma. Deposition apparently occurred in a stratified sea. An upper layer flowed southward from the polar Boreal Ocean to Tethys at perhaps 1 km day-1, over a warm saline bottom water (WSBW). Much evidence exists for a negative water balance, but none for unusual organic productivity. Deposition of the organic-rich facies probably ceased following a slight climatic change; this produced a basin overturn, and consequently a cool, oxygenated bottom current flowing southward.
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Mansel-Pleydell , J.C. 1888. Fossil reptiles of Dorset. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club , 9, 1-40.

Mansel-Pleydell, J.C. 1894. Kimmeridge shale. Proceedings of Dorset Field Club, 15, 172-183.
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Matthews , A., Morgans-Bell, H.S, Emmanuel, S., Jenkyns, H.C. Erel, Y, and Halicz, L. 2004. Controls on iron-isotope fractionation in organic-rich sediments (Kimmeridge Clay, Upper Jurassic, southern England). By Alan Matthews, Helen S. Morgans-Bell, Simon Emmanuel, Hugh C. Jenkyns, Yigal Erel, and Ludwik Halicz. Geochima et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 68, No. 14, pp. 3107-3123. Available online. See PDF version. Abstract: This study explores the fractionation of iron isotopes (57Fe/54Fe) in an organic-rich mudstone succession, focusing on core and outcrop material sampled from the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation type locality in south Dorset, UK. The organic-rich environments recorded by the succession provide an excellent setting for an investigation of the mechanisms by which iron isotopes are partitioned among mineral phases during biogeochemical sedimentary processes. Two main types of iron-bearing assemblage are defined in the core material: mudstones with calcite and/or pyrite and/or siderite mineralogy, and ferroan dolomite (dolostone) bands. A cyclic data distribution is apparent, which reflects variations in isotopic composition from a lower range of del57Fe values associated with the pyrite/siderite mudstone samples to the generally higher values of the adjacent dolostone samples. Most pyrite/siderite mudstones vary between -0.4 and 0.1‰ while dolostones range between -0.1 and 0.5‰, although in very organic-rich shale samples below 360 m core depth higher del57Fe values are noted. Pyrite nodules and pyritized ammonites from the type exposure yield del57Fe values of -0.3 to -0.45‰. A fractionation model consistent with the del57Fe variations relates the lower del57Fe pyrite and siderite and/or pyrite mudstones values to the production of isotopically depleted Fe(II) during biogenic reduction of the isotopically heavier lithogenic Fe(III) oxides. A consequence of this reductive dissolution is that a 57Fe-enriched iron species must be produced that potentially becomes available for the formation of the higher del57Fe dolostones. An isotopic profile across a dolostone band reveals distinct zonal variations in del57Fe, characterized by two peaks, respectively located above and below the central part of the band, and decoupling of the isotopic composition from the iron content. This form of isotopic zoning is shown to be consistent with a onedimensional model of diffusional-chromatographic Fe-isotope exchange between dolomite and isotopically enriched pore water. An alternative mechanism envisages the infiltration of dissolved ferrous iron from variable (high and low) del57Fe sources during coprecipitation of Fe(II) ion with dolomite. The study provides clear evidence that iron isotopes are cycled during the formation and diagenesis of organic carbon-rich sediments.
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Maxwell , D. 1927. Unknown Dorset.[With reference to oil-shale workings.]
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Miller , R.G. 1991. A paleoceanographic approach to the Kimmeridge Clay Formation. pp. 13-26 in: Deposition of Organic Facies (ed. A.Y. Huc). Tulsa: A.A.P.G., 234p. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Studies in Geology, 30. By Richard G. Miller.
The Kimmeridge Clay Formation is a Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous clastic source rock which extends from offshore Norway to offshore Canada and the English Channel. It is the principal source of the North Sea oils. The base is diachronous but the top is synchronous over the North Sea. In the North Sea it is typically 150 m thick with TOC = 4-5% and HI = 350 to 450; accumulation rate was about 15 m/Ma. Deposition apparently occurred in a stratified sea. An upper layer flowed southward from the polar Boreal Ocean to Tethys at perhaps 1 km day-1, over a warm saline bottom water (WSBW). Much evidence exists for a negative water balance, but none for unusual organic productivity. Deposition of the organic-rich facies probably ceased following a slight climatic change; this produced a basin overturn, and consequently a cool, oxygenated bottom current flowing southward.
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Milsom, C.V. 1994. Saccocoma: a benthic crinoid from the Jurassic Solnhofen Limestone, Germany. Palaeontology, vol. 37, Part 1, pp. 121-129. By Clare V. Milsom of the School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University.
Abstract:
Saccocoma is the most numerous macrofossil in the Solhofen Limestone but its study has been relatively neglected. Functional interpretations of the morphology and mode of life have been based on Jaekel's definitive paper (1892)in which the lifestyle of Saccocoma was considered to be pelagic. However, new morphological interpretations suggest that Saccocoma may have been benthic. This conflicts with conventional intepretations of the Solnhofen environments proposes that adverse conditions precluded colonization by benthos.
Extract (p. 121) regarding Kimmeridgian etc. occurrences:
"Saccocoma tenella is also common in the Upper Kimmeridgian of Kimmeridge Bay (Arkell 1947)[Saccocoma was recorded by Arkell near the Blackstone, and this is not in Kimmeridge Bay, it is east of Kimmeridge Bay], where unlike in the Solnhofen Limestone, preservation is poor. Only isolated ossicles are found and these are rarely complete. S. tenella also occurs in the Kimmeridgian at Talloires near Lake Annecy in the Haute-Savoie district of France (Verniory, 1960; 1962). S. vernioryi is reported from the Tithonian of Marche, Italy (Manni and Nicosia, 1985). S. tenella and S. quenstedti occur in the Upper Oxfordian of Sisteron, Provence, France, the Malm 6 (= Middle Kimmeridgian (ki2) of Wurtemburg, Germany (Verniory 1961, 1962) and the late Jurassic of the North American Atlantic seaboard (Hess 1972). S. subornata occurs in the 'Weissjura Gamma' (Lower Kimmeridgian) of Southern Germanyand the late Jurassic of the North American Atlantic seaboard (Hess 1972)."
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Morgans-Bell , H.S., Coe, A.L., Hesselbo, S.P., Jenkyns, H.C., Weedon, G.P., Marshall, J.E.A., Tyson, R.V. and Williams, C.J. 2001. Integrated stratigraphy of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic) based on exposures and boreholes in south Dorset. Geological Magazine, 138, 511-539.
Abstract:
For the purposes of a high-resolution multi-disciplinary study of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, two boreholes were drilled at Swanworth Quarry and one at Metherhills, south Dorset, UK. Together, the cores represent the first complete section through the entire formation close to the type section. We present graphic logs that record the stratigraphy of the cores, and outline the complementary geophysical and analytical data sets (gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, total organic carbon, carbonate, delta 13C org). Of particular note are the new borehole data from the lowermost part of the formation which does not crop out in the type area. Detailed logs are available for download from the Kimmeridge Drilling Project web-site at http://kimmeridge.earth.ox.ac.uk/. Of further interest is a mid-eudoxus Zone positive shift in the delta 13C org record, a feature that is also registered in Tethyan carbonate successions, suggesting that it is a regional event and may therefore be useful for correlation. The lithostratigraphy of the cores has been precisely correlated with the nearby cliff section, which has also been examined and re-described. Magnetic-susceptibility and spectral gamma-ray measurements were made at a regular spacing through the succession, and facilitate core-to-exposure correlation. The strata of the exposure and core have been subdivided into four main mudrock lithological types: (a) medium-dark–dark-grey marl; (b) medium-dark–dark grey–greenish black shale; (c) dark-grey–olive-black laminated shale; (d) greyish-black–brownishblack mudstone. The sections also contain subordinate amounts of siltstone, limestone and dolostone. Comparison of the type section with the cores reveals slight lithological variation and notable thickness differences between the coeval strata. The proximity of the boreholes and different parts of the type section to the Purbeck–Isle of Wight Disturbance is proposed as a likely control on the thickness changes.
This paper is available on the internet at Integrated stratigraphy of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic) based on exposures and boreholes in south Dorset, UK.
Detailed, large-scale graphic logs of the Swanworth and Metherhill cores and of the cliff section, with geochemical data etc. are available from the British Library Document Supply Centre as Supplementary Publication No. SUP 90490 (51) pages. They can be downloaded from the Kimmeridge Drilling Project web-site . For the coast see: Coe, A.L., Hesselbo, S.P., Jenkyns, H.C., Morgans Bell, H. and Weedon, G.P. 2001. Kimmeridge Clay Formation composite graphic log for coastal exposures, near Kimmeridge, Dorset. Part of Supplementary Publication No. SUP 90490, British Library.


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Go to: Guerrero-Munoz, with a paper (2001) regarding faulting in the Kimmeridge Clay of the North Sea and Kimmeridge, Dorset. Re: Miguel Guerrero-Munoz, a petroleum geologist of Mexico, and formerly at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Manchester.
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Murray, J.W. (Ed.) 1985. Atlas of Invertebrate Macrofossils. Longman, The Palaeontological Association, 241 pp. Edited by Professor John W. Murray.
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Myers , K. and Wignall, P. 1987. Understanding Jurassic organic-rich mudrocks: new concepts using gamma-ray spectrometry and palaeoecology; examples from the Kimmeridge Clay of Dorset and the Jet Rock of Yorkshire. In: Leggett, J.K. and Zuffa, G.G. (eds). 1987. Marine Clastic Sedimentology: Concepts and Case Studies. Graham and Trotman, London, 172-189.

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Neaverson , E. 1924. The zonal nomenclature of the Upper Kimmeridge Clay. Geological Magazine, 61, 146-151.
Previous to the year 1913 the English Kimmeridge Clay was divided into two zones only, which were believed tp be "intimately blended". In 1913 Dr. H. Salfeld instituted a more detailed subdivision of eleven zones, the upper three of which constitute the Upper Kimmeridge Clay as since defined by Dr. F. L. Kitchin. Salfeld's sequence of zones was emended in 1922 by Messrs. Chatwin and Pringle, who showed that at Swindon the zone of Pectinatites pectinatus (Phill.) occurs below the Swindon Clay, and not above it, as Salfeld had supposed. In the early part of last year Mr. S. S. Buckman 5 also presented a similar scheme of zones, and subdivided Salfeld's zone of P. pectinatus, which he placed in the Lower Portland, as in Salfeld's original scheme. The ammonites of the Upper Kimmeridge Clay, for long known by the comprehensive name "Ammonites biplex" auctt. (non. Sow.), have been identified in recent years with the Russian form Ammonites pallasianus d'Orb. and its allies. A detailed investigation, however, discloses that the English ammonites have no direct relation with the Russian forms and are probably of later geological age....[continues].

Neaverson, E. 1925. Ammonites from the Upper Kimmeridge Clay. Papers and Proceedings of the Geology Department of the University of Liverpool, 1, 1-52, pls. 1-4.

Neaverson, E. 1925. The petrography of the Upper Kimmeridge Clay and the Portland Sand in Dorset, Wiltshire, Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 36, 240-256
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Newell, A.J. (Andrew J. Newell). 2000. Fault activity and sedimentation in a marine rift basin (Upper Jurassic, Wessex Basin, UK). Journal of the Geological Society, vol. 157, pp. 83-92. By Andrew J. Newell, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12.
Abstract:
Shallow-marine carbonates and siliciclastics of the Corallian Formation (Oxfordian–Early Kimmeridgian) accumulated on and around an intrabasinal high in the extensional Wessex Basin. Four sequences can be recognized. Sequences 1–3 accumulated under conditions of thermal subsidence on a ramp-type margin. The initial sequence was siliciclastic. Highstand sedimentation in this sequence reflects the supply of sandy mud from a recently emergent intrabasinal high. During transgression and regression this muddy sediment was reworked into cleaner sandstone bodies by landward or basinward migrating zones of shoreface erosion. Carbonates dominate the second and third sequences when rising sea level increased the area of carbonate production and reduced siliciclastic input. Oolite bodies developed as both transgressive barrier bars and highstand sheets. The forth sequence formed during the activation of major normal faults. This caused the breakdown of the ramp system, and patterns of sediment accumulation were strongly controlled by tectonic subsidence patterns. [Discusses the Abbotsbury Ironstone as the result of sediment starvation at the time of maximum flooding.]
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Noel, D. 1965. Coccolithes Jurassique. Centre de la Recherche Scientifique. Paris, 209pp. [This is a hard-cover, well-illustrated book on Jurassic coccoliths, including a section on Kimmeridge coccoliths, shown by SEM. Denise Noel visited the White Stone Band near Rope Lake Head in the company of Ian West in the 1960s to collect samples used in this study. We travelled westward from Chapmans Pool, over Hounstout and down Freshwater Steps to Rope Lake Head.]

Noel , D. 1972. Nannofossiles calcaires de sediments jurassiques finement lamines [Calcareous nannofossils of finely laminated Jurassic sediments]. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 3rd Series, No. 75, September-October, 1972, Earth Sciences 14, pp. 95-155.
Abstract. - This paper includes the study of calcareous nannofossils (Coccolithophorids and incertae sedis), from French and English Jurassic sediments (Toarcian, Kimmeridgian, Portlandian), characterized by their laminated facies. Twenty six species are described, of which nine are new species; four are new combinations. Four new genera and two families are also proposed as new. The stratigraphical conclusions will be the purpose of a later work.
"Au cours des dernieres annees, le nombre des travaux sur le nannoplancton calcaire fossile est alle sans cesse grandissant. Les raisons de ce remarquable developpement sont sans nul doute liees a la mise en oeuvre de plus en plus courante des techniques de la microscopie electronique facilitant et rendant plus precise l'observation de ces minuscules fossiles, mais tiennent egalement aux interessantes possibilites d'utilisation stratigraphique de ces derniers. .
Pour ce qui est des periodes geologiques concernees par ces travaux, on constate une tres grande disparite. Variees et abondantes pour le Tertiaire dans son ensemble, les publications le sont nettement moins pour le Cretace et deviennent meme rares pour le Jurasslque.
Nos premieres connaissances sur les coccolithes de ce systeme sont dues aux travaux de G. Deflandre (1939, 1954) sur les marnes de I'Oxfordien de Villers-sur-Mer (Calvados), du Charmouthien de Tilly-sur-Seule (Calvados) et du Lias superieur d'Urkut (Hongrie). J'ai moi-meme donne en 1956 et 1958 la description et la repartition stratigraphique des nannofossiles observes - en microscopie photonique - dans des marnes et calcaires marneux du J urassique d' AIgerie (Pliensbachien a Portlandien)." [continues]
[See p. 97 on "Kimmeridge Clay of Chapman's Pool". This actually refers to the Kimmeridge Clay of Rope Lake Hole, between Rope Lake Head and Freshwater Steps, west of Chapmans Pool (I assisted Denise Noel in the collection of specimens). The particular bed studied was the White Stone Band at the base of the Pectinatites pectinatus Zone. See also p. 96 on banded bituminous limestone of Armailles (Ain). These are of Upper Kimmeridgian age in the French sense and thus correspond to some part of the Lower Kimmeridge Clay of Dorset. Much of the paper is on the systematics of the calcareous nannofossils and there are 15 plates of excellent scanning electron photomicrographs. On p. 52, plate 14, fig. 1 shows numerous coccospheres of Ellipsagellosphaera communis (Reinhardt) Perch-Nielsen, 1968. These coccosphere essentially make up the White Band. See the webpage Kimmeridge - Rope Lake Head to Freshwater Steps. ]
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Oates , M.J. 1974. The stratigraphy and palaeoecology of the Hartwell Clay (Upper Kimmeridgian) of Aylesbury, Buckingshire. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, 85, 367-375.
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Oschmann, W. 1988. Kimmeridge Clay sedimentation - a new cyclic model . Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 65, pp. 217-251.

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Osborne, R. 1999. The Floating Egg: Episodes in the Making of Geology. Pimlico, Random House, London. 372pp. See particularly Chapter 2: But Dreamers; In search of the alum-maker's secret. He discusses the history of the alum workings in the alum shales of the Lower Jurassic, Toarcian, Lias of the Yorkshire coast from 1620 to 1870. Millions and millions of tons of rock were taken out by pickaxe and wheelbarrow. By the early part of the nineteenth century production was over 3,000 tons of alum per year. This could have happened at Kimmeridge as there is adequate bituminous shale and pyrite, but the seizing of Sir William Clavell's alum works for the king (King James I?), stopped the work. Incidently the reference to a floating egg is with regard to using an egg to establish the concentration of the alum solution during the manufacturing process.
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Oschmann , W. 1988. Upper Kimmeridgian and Portlandian marine macrobenthic associations from southern England and northern France. Facies, 18, 49-82.

Oschmann, W. 1990. Environmental cycles in the late Jurassic northwest European epieric basin: interaction with atmospheric and hydrospheric circulations. In: Aigner, T. and Dott, R.H. (eds.) Processes and Patterns in Epeiric Basins. Sedimentary Geology, 69, 313-332.
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Owen , R. 1861-1889. Monograph on the Reptilia of the Kimmeridge Clay and Portland Stone. Palaeontographical Society, London. By Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., Foreign Associate of the Institute of France, etc. etc. 12 pp. and 14 plates.
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Palmer , C.P. 1987. The Kimmeridgian fauna associated with the Portland plesiosaur. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 109, 109-112.
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Pancost , R.D., Van Dongen, B.E., Esser, A., Morgans-Bell, H.S., Jenkyns, H.C. and Sinninghe Damste, J.S. 2004. Variation in organic matter composition and its impact on organic-carbon preservation in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic, Dorset, southern England). In: Harris, N. (ed.), The Deposition of Organic Carbon-rich Sediments: Models. Mechanisms and Consequences. Special Publication of the Society of Sedimentary Geology (SEPM).

Pavlow, A. 1896. On the classification of the strata between the Kimeridgian and Aptian. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 52, pp. 542-555.

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Pearson, M.J., Hill, A.F.M., Fallick, A.E and Ecuvillon, S. 1996. Sulphur incorporation in Jurassic marine mudrocks and their bitumens at low thermal maturity, Cleveland Basin, England. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 60, Issue 21, pp. 4181-4192. By Pearson, Michael J.; Hill, Alan F. M.; Fallick, Anthony E.; Ecuvillon, Severine.
Abstract:
The distribution of sulphur between pyrite, kerogen, elemental sulphur, and the aromatic fraction of mudrock bitumens has been quantitated in two cored sections of immature marine Kimmeridgian strata which have experienced different levels of thermal stress. Strata in the two boreholes (Ebberston and Reighton) were deposited in different basinal settings (basinal marine and platform, respectively) and occasional euxinic (laminated) horizons are present at Ebberston, otherwise dysoxic deposition was the norm at both localities. Pyrite, the dominant sulphur carrier in all the mudrocks, has a sulphur isotopic composition consistent with mineralisation in a system mainly open to sulphate diffusion. Kerogens are mostly low sulphur (atomic S/C < 0.02 ) and account for between 5 and 10% of rock sulphur although occasionally up to 30%. Kerogen sulphur is closely correlated with TOC and highest in laminated mudrocks consistent with most effective sulphurization of kerogen under anoxic conditions. Although kerogen compositions in both cores vary with organic richness, no systematic differences in organic input between the borehole localities are recognised geochemically. Some thermal effects on sulphur geochemistry are, therefore, interpreted from a comparison of stratigraphically equivalent sections from the two cores. Bitumen yields and abundances of aromatic sulphur in the more thermally-stressed Ebberston section, although variable, are generally much higher than in the Reighton section and are partly related to kerogen sulphur content. This is tentatively attributed to thermal release of additional extractable bitumen from macromolecules. Elemental sulphur (S 0) in bitumen is unrelated in abundance to other sulphur species and isotopically heavier than coexisting pyrite. Overprinting of minor preserved diagenetic S 0 by secondary oxidation of pyrite appears likely. The distributions of individual sulphur-aromatic compound classes have features related both to maturity and stratigraphy.


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Pearson , S.J. 2000. High-resolution environmental change in the late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation. University of Southampton, Faculty of Science, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Doctoral Thesis, 334pp. Available on line as a pdf file. By Sarah Jane Pearson. This thesis was submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. It does not necessarily represent the final form of the thesis deposited in the University after examination. School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton University, June 2000.
Pearson, S.J. 2000. Ph.D. Thesis.
Several discrete intervals of the Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation were analyzed to assess the high-resolution environmental change, which occurs within laminated lithologies. The material was from new boreholes drilled in Dorset, southern England, for the Rapid Global Geological Events (RGGE) project. Complementary techniques of back scattered electron microscopy, palynology, total organic carbon and atomic H/C ratios were used to determine the fabric structure and composition and the character of the organic matter component. The sampling resolution was higher than for previous studies, based on two scales, a lower resolution 5cm point sample scale and a high-resolution lamina scale. Modern day water column, benthic and sedimentary processes were applied to explain fabric composition and structure. This shows the KCF to have been a complex marine system. All lithologies were dominated by three major components of organic matter, carbonate and clays/silts, the flux of which was a primary control on both the lithology and microfabric, together with water column oxygenation levels and terrestrial input. Sedimentation rates, based on a yearly assumption for organic-rich and coccolith-rich laminae couplets, ranged from 4.5cm per 1000 years for the oil shales to 30-118cm per 1000 years for the coccolith limestone. TOC percent ranged from 3-51 percent, while an average atomic H/C ratio of 1.5 indicated type I to type II kerogens. Optical microscopy found the organic matter to be dominated by amorphous forms (AOM). Palynological analysis of structured organic particles revealed a close correlation between the marine and terrestrial environments and significant variability between lithologies. Oil shales were characterized by very low particle abundances, while coccolith-rich lithologies showed high frequency and high-amplitude pulses of organic particles. These pulses are interpreted as the result of storms causing re-suspension and transportation of organic material, clays and nutrients from the proximal shelf into the distal basin. These storm events occur at the beginning and end of the coccolith limestones and thus, are suggested to have been linked to the initiation and cessation of coccolith limestone deposition. An intensification of the palaeo-Atlantic storm track due to an increase in climate humidity and instability is postulated to have resulted in these high frequency and high intensity storms. The frequency of these storm episodes was calculated to represent periods of 60 to 100 years, and possibly up to 200-400 years.
Environmental and climatic reconstructions were made for the intervals by combining the fabric, geochemical and palynological results and interpretations. High-resolution change below the Milankovitch frequency was found to be present within the intervals on a number of scales. These changes ranged from yearly 'varve couplet' alternations of organic-rich and coccolith-rich fabric, to 60-100 year and perhaps 200-400 year storm events and larger scale events of the order of several 1000 years. The later represent changes in climatic humidity over the limestone lithologies.

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Pearson , S.J., Marshall, J.E.A. and Kemp, A.E.S. 2004. The White Stone Band of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, an integrated high resolution approach to understanding environmental change Journal of the Geological Society, London, 161 (4), 675-683. Abstract: The Kimmeridge Clay is a Jurassic mudrock succession that shows Milankovitch Band climatic cyclicity. A key issue is to determine how the subtle changes that define this cyclicity result from climatic change. Using material from the Natural Environment Research Council Rapid Global Geological Events (RGGE) Kimmeridge Drilling Project boreholes, the White Stone Band was investigated at the lamination scale using backscattered electron imagery and quantitative palynofacies. Fabric analysis shows the lamination to represent successive deposition of coccolith-rich and organic-matter-rich layers. Individual laminae contain unsorted palynological debris with a consistent ratio of marine and terrestrial components. Such mixed organic matter input is interpreted as the result of storm transport. Linking water column processes to laminae deposition suggests seasonal input with a coccolith bloom followed by a more diverse assemblage including dinoflagellates and photosynthetic chlorobiacean bacteria. As the photic zone extended into the euxinic water column organic matter export to the sea bed underwent minimal cycling through oxidation and subsequently became preserved through sulphurization with greatly increased sequestration of carbon. This was significantly increased by late season storm-driven mixing of euxinic water into the photic zone. Increased frequency of storm systems would therefore dilute the coccolith input to give an oil shale. Hence climatically induced changes in storm frequency would progressively vary the organic content of the sediment and generate the climate cycle signal. Keywords: Milankovitch theory, Kimmeridge Clay, organic matter, high-resolution methods, climate change.

Pearson, Marshall and Kemp, 2004. Kimmeridge White Band.- internet version.

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Pushman , D. 1999. The Loss of the SS Treveal: Dorset Shipwreck Mystery. Downsway Books, Downsway, The Hyde, Langton Matravers, Swanage, Dorset, BH19 3HE. 176pp. ISBN 0 9517621 2 5. "The loss of the SS Treveal off the Purbeck coast of Dorset in 1920 is one of the most extraordinary and melancholy stories in the annals of shipwreck. Not since the Halsewell was wrecked in 1786, a tragedy described by Charles Dickens in The Long Voyage , had a shipwreck on that notorious stretch of coast resulted in such a heavy loss of life. ..."
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Rapid Global Geological Events. 2001. The Rapid Global Geological Events (RGGE) Project. A Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Special Topic.

The main aim of this project is to develop a high-resolution stratigraphy for the Kimmeridge Clay. We are also sponsored by the following companies, here listed under their original names (circa 1997): ARCO British, Conoco Norway, Enterprise Oil, FINA Exploration, Phillips Petroleum, Saga Petroleum, Shell UK Exploration and Production, Statoil (UK), and Texaco. This funding benefits a consortium of institutions which include the British Geological Survey, the Natural History Museum, University College, London, Leeds, Luton, Newcastle, Open, Oxford, Reading, and Southampton Universities.
This server provides data collected by these various research groups, much of which is now available for download by project participants and general users alike.
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Raiswell , R. 1987. Non–steady state microbiological diagenesis and the origins of concretions and nodular limestones. In: Diagenesis in Sedimentary Sequences (ed. J. D. Marshall), pp. 41–54. Special Publication 36. Geological Society of London.

Raiswell, R. and Fisher Q. J. 2000. Mudrock-hosted carbonate concretions: A review of growth mechanisms and their influence on chemical and isotopic composition. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 157, 239–251
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Radley , J.D., Gale, A.S. and Barker, M.J. 1998. Derived Jurassic fossils from the Vectis Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Isle of Wight, southern England. Proceedings of the Geologists Association, 109, 81-91. Derived late Jurassic fossils occur commonly in the uppermost part of the Vectis Formation (Wealden Group, Lower Cretaceous) at Sandown Bay, on the southeast coast of the Isle of Wight. These records corroborate subsurface data which indicate the proximity of Jurassic sediments on the footwall of the syn-depositional fault (Purbeck-Isle of Wight structure) which marked the northern margin of the Channel Basin during Wealden times. The most abundant derived fossils are bivalves (oysters, scallops), with rarer echinoid spines and serpulid worms, derived from late Oxfordian and early Kimmeridgian sediments. Worn phosphatised fragments of the ammonite Pavlovia sp. occur rarely and were probably derived from late Kimmeridgian or early Portlandian pebble beds to the north of the Island. A model for formation of derived fossil concentrations which involves storm action and winnowing is based on comparisons between the environment during formation of the Vectis Formation and the present-day Fleet lagoon in Dorset. (Authors' abstract). (Note - not directly on Kimmeridge but with Kimmeridge type fossils reworked in the Cretaceous of the Isle of Wight)
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Riding, J.B. and Thomas, J.E. 1988. Dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy of the Kimmeridge Clay (Upper Jurassic) from the Dorset coast, Southern England. Palynology, 12, 65-88.
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Ramsay , J.G. 1992. Some geometric problems of ramp-flat thrust models. Pp. 191-200 in McClay, K.R. (ed.) Thrust Tectonics. [Argues that Kimmeridge thrusts are tectonic. Shows that the classic "fault bend fold model" does not strictly apply and the "Kimmeridge model" shows faults to be local with changing amounts of slip and with thrust wedges in competent layers. See also Bellamy and see Ledra.]
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Restuccia, F., Ptak, N., Rein, G. 2016. Self heating behaviour and ignition of shale rock. Combustion and Flame, vol. 176, February 2017, pp. 213-219. Online as a pdf in Science direct. Online as an article at
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010218016302954
Abstract: The combustion of shale, a porous sedimentary rock, has been reported at times in outcrop deposits and mining piles. However, the initiating event of most of these fires is unknown. It could be that, under the right conditions, shale rock undergoes spontaneous exothermic reactions in the presence of oxygen. This work studies experimentally and for the first time the self-heating behavior of shale rock. Because shale has high inert content, novel diagnostics such as mass loss measurements and visual observation of charring are introduced to detect self-heating ignition in respect to other self-heating materials with lower inter content. Using field samples collected from the outcrop at Kimmeridge Bay (UK) and the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of ignition, we determine the effective kinetic parameters for two particle-size distributions of shale. These parameters are then used to upscale the results to geological deposits and mining piles of different thicknesses. We show that for fine particles, with diameter below 2 mm, spontaneous ignition is possible for deposits of thickness between 10.7 m and 607 m at ambient temperatures between -20 degrees C and 44 degrees C. For the same ambient temperature range, the critical thickness is in excess of 30 km for deposits made of coarse particles with diameter below 17 mm. Our results indicate that shale rock is reactive, with reactivity highly dependent on particle diameter, and that self-ignition is possible for small particles in outcrops, piles or geological deposits accidentally exposed to oxygen.
[Note by Ian West. Disappointinly, The exact horizon or locality of the material investigated does not seem to be given. However, do be confused and think that the sample was from Blackstone in situ, of the Upper Kimmeridge clay. I do not know but it is not out of the question that the authors found reworked Blackstone (the Romans transported Blackstone to the cliff above for their Kimmeridge industry). Apparent lack of detailed record is suprising. All the Kimmeridge Clay exposed has been logged and with much detail, including gamma ray logging and some geochemistry is available. the specimen investigated by these authors seems though to have come from the western side of Kimmeridge Bay, about 100 or 200 yards west of the car park. It seems that they did not go west to the Blackstone exposure near Rope Lake Head. If the sample collected from Kimmeridge Bay was in situ it would probably have come from the autissiodorensis Zone of the Lower Kimmeridge Clay, but I do not know. This apparent lack of serious geological data seems to significantly reduce the value of the paper. In any case, why was the famous Kimmeridge Oil Shale or Blackstone of the Upper Kimmeridge Clay not chosen? Or did they find a reworked piece? Perhaps I have misunderstood something but the paper seems peculiar and very odd in geological terms. Perhaps there is some sensible explanation and I have missed the point.]
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Robinson , C.E. 1882. A Royal Warren; or Picturesque Rambles in the Isle of Purbeck. The Typographical Etching Company, 23 Farringdon Street, E.C., London. 186pp. By C.E. Robinson, M.A., Barrister-at-Law, Author of the "Cruise of the Widgeon"; "The Golden Hind, Thessale, and other poems" etc. The etchings by Alfred Dawson.

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Saelen, G., Tyson R. V., TelnæS. N., and Talbot, M. R. 2000. Contrasting watermass conditions during deposition of the Whitby Mudstone (Lower Jurassic) and Kimmeridge Clay (Upper Jurassic) formations, UK. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 163, 163–196.
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Salfeld , H. 1913. Certain Upper Jurassic strata of England. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 69, 423-430. By Dr. Hans Salfeld, University of Gottingen. Communicated by S.S. Buckman, F.G.S. Read June 11th 1913.
Extract (beginning): "By combining the evidence of a number of sections in England and near Boulogne-sur-Mer I have succeeded in establishing a normal succession of zones in the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Portlandian rocks, using these terms according to the German and French classifications" [continues]
Extract p. 424-425 follows: "So much for the zonal subdivisions; let us now turn to the individual sections in England. At the classic locality of Kimmeridge, which has given its name to the Kimmeridge Clay and to the formation "Kimmeridgian" the lowest subdivision seen in the flat anticline near the 'Life-boat House' [this was formerly at Charnell on the east side of Kimmeridge Bay] consists of clays with Aulacostephanus eudoxus, A. pseudomutabilis, etc., the fauna remaining unchanged up to the 'supposed Maple Ledge' [west side of Kimmeridge Bay]. Above this bed up to the 'Yellow Ledge' [eastern end of Hen Cliff] the clays contain Gravesiae flattened by pressure, those below belonging to the group of Gr. gravesiana d'Orb. sp., those above to the group of Gr. irius d'Orb. sp.
This is of great importance. It is not only that the Gravesia are here recognized in England for the first time, but we are thereby enabled to fix exactly the boundary between the 'Kimmeridgian' and 'Portlandian' in the Kimmeridge section; that is to say, all that follows above the 'supposed Maple Ledge' be correlated with the Portlandian. [this was an major conclusion that drastically changed the Kimmeridgian correlation between Britain and continental Europe]
The clays between the' Yellow Ledge Stone-Band' and the 'Oil-Shales' form the equivalent of the Virgatites Beds [i.e. Pectinatites beds], although I have never found a true Virgatites here. To the same zone we must also assign a part of the overlying clays. Somewhat below the 'White Septarian Band,' [the White Band] however, we reach the beds with Perisphinctes pallasianus d'Orb. sp. This zone must be recognized as extending up to the basal limit of the 'Portland Sands'
Blake's statements concerning the ammonites contained in the Portland Sands and Portland Oolite of Purbeck, and also of Portland, I can, in the main, confirm. In the highest beds of the Portland Sand at Portland I found Perisphinctes gorei sp. nov. [Glaucolithites gorei ], which indicates that the overlying Portland Oolite comprises two zones characterized by Perisphinctes pseudogigas Blake sp. and P. giganteus J. Sow. sp. [now Titanites titan] respectively, as assumed by Blake." [continues]

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SCOTCHMAN


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Scotchman , I.C. 1987. Relationship between clay diagenesis and organic maturation in the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, Onshore UK. In: Petroleum Geology of North West Europe (ed. by K. Brooks and J.W. Glennie), pp. 251-262.

Scotchman, I.C. 1989. Diagenesis of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, Onshore UK. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 146, 285-303. By I.C. Scotchman, then at Department of Geology, University of Sheffield, and subsequently at Amoco (UK) Exploration Co., London.
Abstract: Study of sedimentology, carbonate geochemistry and clay mineralogy of four laterally continuous beds from the outcrop of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation indicates strong lateral variations in the depositional and early diagenetic processes, reflecting the basin and swell topography of the depositional basin. The mudstones from the swell environment with low sedimentation and subsidence rates are shelly and carbonate-rich with thin, poorly developed oil shales. They were deposited under dysaerobic conditions with consequent poor organic-matter preservation. Early diagenetic processes were limited to the sulphate reduction and methanogenesis zones with the formation of discrete horizons of concretions. The shallow burial depths attained are reflected by the immaturity of the organic matter in the mudstones although ordered illite-smectites are present. Sediments from other locations comprise black, organic-rich mudstones, the thick beds and good organic-matter preservation indicating deposition under high sedimentation and subsidence rates with anoxic bottom waters in a basinal environment. These indurated mudstones contain a few shell fragments and much pyrite, indicating intense reaction in the sulphate reduction zone. Carbonates were precipitated in the methanogenesis and decarboxylation zones as ferroan calcites and dolomites. The much greater burial depths are indicated by the higher maturity of the organic matter and by the ordered nature of the illite-smectites and the loss of kaolinite.

Scotchman, I.C. 1991. The geochemistry of concretions from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of southern and eastern England. Sedimentology, 38, 79-106. [Three types of nodules - calcareous concretions, septarian calcareous concretions and pyrite/calcite concretions. Septarian - long history - early initiation, several phases of burial. Non-septarian concretions began growth in sulphate reduction zone. Pyrite/calcite concrets formed in sulphate-reduction to methanogenesis transition zone. Calcareous concretions form in swell areas and also in basin during low sedimentation rate. Pyrite/calcite concretions occur in organic rich mudstones deposited in basin under high sedimentation rates. Ferroan dolomite nodules grew under very high sedimentation rates. Curtis zones. Sulphate reduction known as SR zone, Methanogenesis is Me zone, decarboxylation zone is D zone. Due to lack of sulphate in the Me and D zone porewater carbonates are predominantly dolomitic. Nodule locations can be controlled by high organic matter horizons or biogenic carbonate. In fractures early brown cement and later white cement. Fibrous outer calcite is synchronous with septarian fracture infills. Burial history curves. Useful isotope data.]

Scotchman, I.C. 1991a. Kerogen facies and maturity of the Kimmeridge Clay in southern and eastern England. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 8, 278-295.

Scotchman, I.C., Carr, A.D., Astin, T.R. and Kelly, J. 2002. Pore fluid evolution in the Kimmeridge Clay. Formation of the UK Outer Moray Firth: implications for sandstone diagenesis. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19, (3), 247-273. Abstract: Carbonate concretions in Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation from three overpressured wells provide a detailed record of pore fluid evolution in the Outer Moray Firth/Northern Central Graben. The concretions contain multiple generations of septarian cements, with morphologies ranging from simple cracks to complex fractures. Discrepancy exists between diagenetic studies, which indicate these concretions formed during the initial 1¯1.5 km of burial and palaeotemperature predictions, based on a thermal history calibrated from the vitrinite reflectance kinetic model, which indicate formation at much greater depths of between 1.5 and 2.5 km. Modelling undertaken for this study indicate that the concretions formed during the initial stages of burial under high heat flows, fitting the early diagenetic model for their formation. These conclusions have important implications for understanding the cementation of adjacent sandstone reservoirs where cement sequences have similar mineralogy and isotopic compositions, with precipitation in the same temperature range from mudrock derived pore fluids. Early cementation of these sandstones is implied by analogy with the mudrock concretions. [A diagram shows the isotopic data on the Kimmeridge dolomites of Dorset in relation to the new Kimmeridge North Sea data. ]. The paper is available in full on the Internet at Science Direct, but an id and password may be needed.

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SELLEY

Selley, R.C. 2012. UK shale gas: The story so far. By Richard C. Selley, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK. Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 31, (2012), pp. 100-109.
Available online:
Selley, R.C. 2012. UK Shale Gas: The Story So Far.
Abstract:
The UK’s first well to encounter shale gas was drilled into the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay in 1875, but its significance was not realised at the time. 25 years ago research at Imperial College applied the US shale gas paradigm to evaluate the UK’s shale gas potential. Shale sequences with potential for gas production were identified in Carboniferous strata in the Midlands, and in Jurassic strata, particularly in the Weald. Without encouragement from Her Majesty’s Government no exploration resulted from this initial research. Publication of the results of the project was rejected by many UK journals. It was finally published in the USA in 1987. Subsequent evaluations of UK petroleum resources by the Department of Energy and its descendants published in 2001 and 2003 omitted any mention of shale gas resources. Recent timely re-evaluations of the UK’s shale gas potential have been carried out by the British Geological Survey and the Department for Energy & Climate Change. In 2008 the 13th Round of Onshore Licensing resulted in the award of several blocks for shale gas exploration, though bids were often based on a quest for both shale gas and conventional prospects. Cuadrilla Resource’s Preese Hall No. 1 well drilled in 2010 was the first well drilled to specifically test for UK shale gas. The same drilling and fracturing techniques that led to the shale gas renaissance in the USA are now being applied to extracting oil from organic-rich shales that are currently in the oil window. It is interesting to speculate that oil may be produced by such techniques from the thermally mature Jurassic shales in the Wessex and Weald basins in the southern UK."


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Selley , R.C. and Stoneley, R. 1987. Petroleum habitat in south Dorset. Pp. 139-148 in: Brooks, J. and Glennie, K. (eds.), Petroleum Geology of North West Europe. Graham and Trotman. Abstract: An analysis of the surface geology and of surface and subsurface petroleum occurrences is used to unravel the complex history of the generation, migration and entrapment of oil in south Dorset. Early basin subsidence lead to growthfaults downthrown to the south. Field evidence suggests that the Purbeck - Isle of Wight disturbance controlled the deformation of the Broken Beds of the Purbeck Beds, and that these brecciatet down the northern limb of a rollover anticline. This fault also appears to have controlled sedimentation in a Wealden palaeovalley. Liassic shales began to generate oil in the Early Cretaceous. Some oil escaped up faults to the surface, generating the Mupe Bay palaeoseep, but much was trapped in the Briport Sands. By the end of the Cretaceous, oil was migrating north across the Purbeck - Isle of Wight flexure. Inversion through the Tertiary sealed the faults, trapping petroleum in Wytch Farm and adjacent traps. Palaeogene uplift and cooling allowed the development of the fault-sealed Kimmeridge Bay underpressured system. Adjacent fault blocks to the north and south may still be petroliferous at deeper levels.

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STONELEY


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Stoneley , R.C. 1982. The structural development of the Wessex Basin. Journal of the Geological Society, London 139, 545-552.

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STRAHAN, SIR AUBREY

(Aubrey Strahan, M.A., K.B.E., D.Sc., F.R.S. Born 1852 in Sidmouth; Became fellow of the Royal Society in 1903; President of the Geological Society, 1912-1914; Director of the Geological Survey in 1914. Go to British Geological Survey webpage: "Pioneers of the British Geological Survey" (includes three photographs. Strahan was investigation the Isle of Purbeck, Dorset etc in 1887, after surveying work in the Isle of Wight.) Sir Aubrey Strahan died in 1928 at Goring, Berkshire. He is best know to Dorset geologists (i.e. Jurassic Coast geologists) for his Memoir on the Geology of the Isle of Purbeck and Weymouth, referred to below.
See:
British Geological Survey - Pioneers of the BGS.)


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Strahan , A. 1898. The Geology of the Isle of Purbeck and Weymouth. Memoirs of the Geological Survey, England and Wales, 278pp.


Strahan, A. 1920. Mineral Oil, Kimmeridge Oil-Shale, Lignites, Jets, Cannel Coals, Natural Gas. Memoirs of the Geological Survey. Special Reports on Mineral Resources of Great Britain, vol. 7, second edition, 69pp. with 1 plate and 3 text figures (see pp. 18-40). Part 1: England and Wales. 69pp. By Sir Aubrey Strahan, Director of the Geological Survey of England and Wales. With contributions by J. Pringle. Originally published, first edition, in 1918 at the price of 2 shillings and six pence; second edition, 1920.

[Aubrey Strahan graduated from Cambridge in 1875 and immediately joined the Geological Survey. During the First World War he worked on mineral resources and this publication is a result of that study.]

A old review, probably from the Geological Magazine, is provided below to indicate the contents:

During the last four years there has been a vast amount of irresponsible talking and writing about the possibility of the discovery of workable sources of oil and other natural fuels, other than coal, in the British Isles. It is, therefore, highly satisfactory to find that the Geological Survey has collated all known information on the subject, examining the records of past operations so far as available, and in the case of present explorations, carrying out independent investigations on the spot. The scope of the Memoir is sufficiently indicated by its title. The most important sections deal with the lignites of Bovey Tracey, the explorations made in them by Germans and others, and the uses to which they have been put; the distribution of Kimmeridge Oil-shale throughout the country; the principal known occurrences of mineral oil, cannel coal, and natural gas. It may be said at once in general terms that a careful perusal of this volume does not lend any notable amount of support to the highly optimistic views set forth in the daily papers during the last year or two.
A very full description is given of the well-known lignite and clay deposits of Bovey Tracey, and of the somewhat obscure operations of the German company, which mysteriously vanished two days before the declaration of war [1914-18 First World War]. It appears that the products of their industry were not of satisfactory quality, owing to the fact that the lignite consists mostly of highly resinous Sequoia wood, which seems to be unsuitable for the manufacture of paraffin wax and similar materials; the chief product of distillation being an evil-smelling yellow tar, a wholly unsaleable substance. Detailed sections are given of several borings put down in this area; these show the presence of a large amount of lignite, which is apparently only of poor quality and much mixed with clay. It is also shown that lignite has a wide distribution in Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Jurassic rocks, but nowhere in workable quantities.

A brief account is given of the almost extinct Whitby jet industry.

A chapter of seventeen pages is devoted to a consideration of the Oil-shales of the Kimmeridge series, which have lately been the subject of much discussion. The observations here recorded are largely founded on the results of borings made by the Department for the Development of Mineral Resources. The possible oil-yielding bed, locally known as the "Blackstone", forms part of the upper division of the Kimmeridge, and was probably never laid down over much of the distance between Dorset and Cambridgeshire, coming in again as bituminous shales in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. Numerous analyses are given of samples from Kimmeridge and Corton [near Portesham], in Dorset, and from Donnington-on-Bain, in Lincolnshire. The yield of oil varies from 13 to 39 gallons per ton, and of sulphate of ammonia from 11 to 32lb. per ton in Dorset, the figures for Lincolnshire being much lower.
The well-known occurrence of natural gas at Heathfield, in Sussex, is described, as well as other instances met with in borings at Calvert, in Bucks, and near Middlesbrough, which appear to be unimportant. From a statement in the preface it appears that this memoir is to be regarded as an instalment, and that a further publication on the subject of mineral oil in Britain is in contemplation. R.H.R.

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Stuart-Gray , M.G. 1902. In memoriam: the late John Clavell Mansel-Pleydell, Esq., of Whatcombe, B.A., J.P., and D.L., F.G.S., F.L.S., President of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, 23, pp. lxii - lxxii.

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Taitt , A.H. and Kent, P.E. 1958. Deep boreholes at Portsdown (Hants) and Henfield (Sussex). Technical Publications of the British Petroleum Company Ltd., London, 41pp with diagrams showing parts of the borehole logs. For Kimmeridge [referred to in this publication as "Kimeridge"] Clay see pp. 18-19. A bituminous shale with Saccocoma, probably corresponding to the Kimmeridge Blackstone was encountered in both boreholes
[Example extract]
Introduction:
The pages which follow give an account of the strata penetrated in the Portsdown and Henfield boreholes drilled by the D'Arcy Exploration Company in 1936-37. These wells commenced in Cretaceous rocks and reached Trias and Carboniferous respectively, proving a very full and thick development of the Jurassic in what might be described as a new province. A short summary of the formations penetrated has already been published (Lees and Cox, 1937), and in the present paper the evidence for the classification of the beds will be discussed in detail. Since the publication of that paper identification of a more complete series of fossils has led to minor revisions in the position of certain formation boundaries.
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Tarlo , L.B. 1959. Pliosaurus brachyspondylus (Owen) from the Kimmeridge Clay. Palaeontology, 1 (4), 238-291.

Tarlo, L.B. 1959a. A New Pliosaur from the Kimmeridge Clay. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University College, London.

Tarlo, L.B. 1960. A review of Upper Jurassic Pliosaurs. Bulletin of the British Museum, Natural History (Geology) 4 (5).
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Taylor , M.A. 1984. Studies on Plesiosaurs from the Jurassic of Britain. D.Phil., Oxford University.

Taylor, M.A. and Benton, M.J. 1986. Reptiles from the Upper Kimmeridge Clay (Kimmeridgian, Upper Jurassic) of the the vicinity of Egmont Bight, Dorset. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 107 (for 1985), 121-125.

Taylor, S.P., Sellwood, B.W., Gallois, R.W. and Chambers, M.H. 2001. A sequence stratigraphy of the Kimmeridgian and Bolonian stages (late Jurassic): Wessex-Weald Basin, southern England. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 158, 179-192. Abstract: A sequence stratigraphic framework for the late Jurassic Kimmeridgian and Bolonian stages of the Wessex-Weald Basin, southern England is proposed, based on the integration of sedimentological, geophysical and geochemical data. The NERC-funded Rapid Global Geological Events (RGGE) boreholes of Swanworth Quarry 1 and 2, and Metherhills 1, are used as reference sections. Eleven complete depositional sequences and their component system tracts are recognised within the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, bounded by 12 sequence boundaries (Kml1-12). Seventy-four boreholes have been used in this study. During the Kimmeridgian, a major transgression, associated with tectonic movements, led to a marked change in basin geometry. Major deepening of the sea during the late Kimmeridgian (Eudoxus Zone) led to a change from unconformities of basinwide extent to those confined to the basin margins. The progressive deepening of the basin towards a highstand in the mid-Bolonian (Wheatleyensis to Pectinatus zones) was associated with a broad-scale change in sedimentary, faunal and geochemical characters. The 'layer-cake' basin architecture and thickening of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation towards the basin centre suggests a dominantly aggradational system. The partially enclosed nature of the Kimmeridgian and Bolonian seas generated basin dynamics more analogous to modern day meromictic lakes. Consequently, sequence stratigraphic approaches derived from continental shelf-margins are inappropriate in epicontinental basins of this type.

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Taylor, S.P. and Sellwood, B.W. 2002. The context of lowstand events in the Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) sequence stratigraphic evolution of the Wessex-Weald Basin, Southern England. Sedimentary Geology, 151, 89-106.
A depositional sequence stratigraphic framework for the Kimmeridgian Stage of the Wessex–Weald Basin, southern England, is applied in the investigation of the sedimentary and erosional response to proposed lowstand events. This framework recognises 13 sequence boundaries (Km1-Km13) and is based on the integrated assessment of geophysical, sedimentological, palaeontological and geochemical data. Changes in the nature and continuity of Kimmeridgian unconformity surfaces record the effect of the reorganisation of the onshore basins in response to eustasy and tectonic movements. During the Earliest Kimmeridgian, the basin geometry was such that falls in relative sea level generated widespread unconformities. Associated lowstand events are recorded in marginal areas by a number of sand units, derived from a variety of local sources. A tectonically enhanced deepening event during the late Early Kimmeridgian (Eudoxus Zone) led to unconformities being confined in their distribution, to the basin margins. As sea level fell during the Latest Kimmeridgian, a progressive reduction in the depositional area led to an amplification of the effects of lowstand processes at the basin margins where unconformity surfaces are amalgamated. On the most positive areas these surfaces are overprinted by a major interregional hiatus, the ‘Late Cimmerian Unconformity’. The timing and effects of Kimmeridgian lowstand events were intimately linked to the tectonic evolution of the Wessex–Weald Basin. Thus at times when rates and amounts of eustatic change are small (i.e. during 'greenhouse times') the tectonic signature of a basin will be the primary signal recorded in sedimentary successions.

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Todd , J.E. 1913. More about septarian structure. Geological Magazine, 10, 361-364.
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Townson , W.G. 1971. Facies Analysis of the Portland Beds. Unpublished D.Phil. thesis, Oxford University., 284pp.

Townson, W.G. 1975 Lithostratigraphy and deposition of the type Portlandian. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 131, 619-638. Abstract: The "Portland Beds" of Dorset (Portlandian of English usage) are described in terms of a Group comprising two Formations and seven Members. Facies and thickness variations indicate the presence of a swell separating an East from a West Basin. The swell may be due to the movement of Triassic salt. The environmental history of the Portland Group is described in terms of three cycles consisting of major regressive and minor transgressive phases superimposed on an overall regression. The lower cycle consists of siliciclastics and dolomite deposited in a relatively deep marine environment. The dolomite formed by in situ replacement of lime mud. The middle cycle consists of cherty fine-grained limestones deposited on the outer part of a carbonate shelf. The abundance of replaced sponge spicules adequately accounts for the amount of chert. The upper cycle consists of cherty limestones passing up into shallow-water grainstones. Ooid shoals developed over the swell. These marine limestones are overlain by stromatolites and evaporites which formed on the basin margin.

Townson, W.G. 1976. Discussion of Portlandian faunas. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 132, 335-336.
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Tribovillard , N., Bialkowski, A., Tyson, R.V., Lallier-Vergès, E. and Deconinck, J-F. 2001. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 18, (3), pp. 371-389. Abstract: Recent studies of the upper Kimmeridgian of the Boulonnais area (northernmost France) have provided a sequence-stratigraphical framework that is here used to help interpret variations in sedimentary organic matter (OM) content and composition in response to fluctuations in relative sea-level. The organic facies are characterised using a combination of palynofacies, bulk organic geochemistry (TOC, Rock Eval pyrolysis, and sulphur data), and the particle-size distribution of the total palynological residues. The organic facies show a good correlation with the sequence stratigraphy, exhibiting peak TOC, HI, total S and Sorg values in the lithofacies deposited around the two MFS. The palynofacies in these intervals is characterised by a high content of fluorescent, orange, marine AOM. There is a strong correlation between the orange AOM and the total and organic sulphur contents. Similar positive correlations between orange AOM and organic sulphur have previously been observed in the distal organic-rich sediments of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of Dorset (lateral time equivalents of the Boulonnais facies), but there the sulphur contents are lower, indicating that organic sulphur content of orange AOM is not fixed, suggestive of preservation-related parallel but not intrinsically related trends. The S data can be used to estimate an apparent burial efficiency and hence the proportion of the primary productivity preserved; this allows a rough estimate of palaeoproductivity. Model calculations suggest that for a sulphide retention of 30-70% and uncompacted sedimentation rate estimates in the range 5-10cm/ka, the mean palaeoproductivity was in the range 52-175gC/m2/a (up to 6% of which was preserved). Thus, if the preservation is high, as is the case for MFS, the palaeoproductivity does not need to be above average for shelf waters to produce a given TOC.

Tribovillard, N., Trentesaux, A., Ramdani, A., Baudin, F., Riboulleau, A. 2004. Controls on organic accumulation in late Jurassic shales of northwestern Europe as inferred from trace-metal geochemistry. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, 175 (5), 491-506. Abstract: In the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of the Wessex-Weald Basin, five organic-matter-rich intervals (or ORIs), dated from Kimmeridgian-Tithonian times, can be correlated from distal depositional environments in Dorset and Yorkshire (UK) to the proximal environments in Boulonnais, northern France. The ORIs are superimposed on a meter-scale cyclic distribution of organic matter (OM), referred to as primary cyclicity, which is commonly interpreted to result from Milankovitch climate forcing. The present work addresses the distribution of redox-sensitive and/or sulfide-forming trace metals and selected major elements (Si, Al and Fe) in Kimmeridge Clay shales from the Cleveland Basin (Yorkshire) and the Boulonnais cliffs with two objectives: 1) to determine whether the ORIs formed in similar paleoenvironments, and 2) to identify the mechanism(s) of OM accumulation. High-resolution geochemical data from primary cycles in the Yorkshire boreholes (Marton and Ebberstone boreholes), were studied and the results are then applied with lower resolution sampling at the ORI scale in the Flixton borehole and Boulonnais cliff. Good correlations are found between total organic carbon (TOC) vs Cu/Al and Ni/Al, but relationships between TOC and Mo/Al, V/Al and U/Al are more complex. Cu and Ni enrichment is interpreted to have resulted from passive accumulation with OM in an oxygen-deficient basinal setting, which prevented the subsequent loss of Cu and Ni from the sediment. Mo and V were significantly enriched only in sediments where considerable amounts of OM (TOC>7%) accumulated, the result of strongly reducing conditions and OM burial. At the scale of the Flixton ORIs, the samples with the highest Mo and V concentrations also show relative Fe enrichment, suggesting pyrite formation in the water column (combination of euxinic conditions and presumably low sedimentation rates). Samples from all ORIs were slightly enriched in Si relative to Al, interpreted as reflecting decreased sediment flux during transgressive and early-highstand systems tracts. The data show that in some ORIs, OM accumulation proceeded while productivity was not particularly high and sediments were not experiencing strong anoxia. In other ORIs, OM accumulation was accompanied by widespread anoxia and possibly euxinic conditions in distal settings. Though somewhat different from each other, the ORIs have all developed during episodes of reduced terrigenous supply (transgressive episodes). The common feature linking these contrasted episodes of enhanced OM storage (ORIs) must be the conjunction of productivity coupled with a decrease in the dilution effect by the land-derived supply, in a depositional environment prone to water stratification and, therefore, favorable to OM preservation and accumulation.
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Tyson , R. V. 1985. Palynofacies and sedimentology of some Late Jurassic sediments from the British Isles and northern North Sea. Ph.D. thesis. Open University.

Tyson R. V. 1989. Late Jurassic palynofacies trends, Piper and Kimmeridge Clay Formations, UK onshore and northern North Sea. In: Northwest European Micropalaeontology and Palynology (eds. D. J. Batten and M. C. Keen), pp. 135-172. Ellis Horwood.

Tyson, R.V. 2004. Variation in marine total organic carbon through the type Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Late Jurassic), Dorset, UK. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, vol. 161, 667-673. By Richard V. Tyson, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Drummond Building. University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK.
Abstract: Bulk geochemical data from the NERC Rapid Global Geological Events project are used to appraise the pattern of variation in mean organic content through the cymodoce to rotunda zones of the type Kimmeridge Clay Formation in southern Dorset. There is a symmetrical stratigraphic pattern in mean and modal total organic carbon (TOC) values, which increase from 1-2% at the top and base to a peak of 8-9% in the middle of the formation. To remove distortion caused by the strong positive skewness of the TOC values, the mean TOC per zone was recalculated for the first mode of the TOC distribution only, and combined pragmatically with pyrolysis estimates of the reactive (marine) TOC fraction to derive marine TOC values; these also vary symmetrically from c. 0.5% to peak values of c. 5.0%. The mean TOC is negatively correlated with sedimentation rate, indicating that dilution is a significant controlling variable. Mean palaeoproductivity was assessed using modem marine sediment relationships between carbon burial efficiency, sedimentation rate (derived from RGGE cyc10stratigraphic analyses), the likely dissolved oxygen range, and water depth. Best estimates of palaeoproductivity range from 40 to 150 g C m-2 a-1 [per square metre per annum] (low to moderate by comparison with present-day shelves) and are positively but nonlinearly correlated with mean dell3C TOC values.

Tyson , R.V., Wilson, R.C.L. and Downie, C. 1979. A stratified water column environmental model for the type Kimmeridge Clay. Nature, 277, 377-380.

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Van Kaam-Peters , H.M.E., Schouten, S., Koster, J. and Damste, J.S.S. 1998. Controls on the molecular and carbon isotopic composition of organic matter deposited in a Kimmeridgian euxinic shelf sea: Evidence for preservation of carbohydrates through sulfurisation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, (19-20) pp. 3259-3283, Oct 1998. Abstract: Thirteen samples from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF) in Dorset, covering all different lithologies, were studied using bulk and molecular geochemical and microscopical techniques. Our data show that the positive correlation between TOC and delta(13)C(TOC) reported for shales (Huc et al., 1992) also holds for other lithologies (e.g., limestones) if we correct for dilution by carbonate (TOC*). Despite the wide range of delta(13)C(TOC) values (-26.7 to -20.7 parts per thousand), the delta(13)C values of individual biomarkers of algal and green sulfur bacterial origin and of kerogen pyrolysis products (i.e., n-alkanes) show in general only small changes (less than 2 parts per thousand). This indicates that changes in the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) or delta(13)C of DIC (delta(13)C(DIC)) in the palaeowater column cannot account for the 6 parts per thousand difference in delta(13)C(TOC).-- Kerogen pyrolysates indicated that with increasing TOC*, and thus increasing delta(13)C(TOC), carbon isotopically heavy C-1-C-3 alkylated thiophenes with a linear carbon skeleton become increasingly abundant; in the case of the Blackstone Band kerogen (TOC* = 63%) they dominate the pyrolysate. These thiophenes are probably derived from sulfur-bound carbohydrates in the kerogen. Algal carbohydrates are typically 5-10 parts per thousand heavier than algal lipids and differences in preservation of labile carbohydrate carbon through sulfurisation may thus explain the range in delta(13)C(TOC) values without the need to invoke any change in water column conditions. The increasing dominance of thiophenes in the kerogen pyrolysate with increasing TOC* is consistent with the increasing Sulfur Index (mg S org/g TOC), the decreasing S-PYRITE/S-TOT ratio, and the increasing dominance of orange amorphous organic matter produced by natural sulfurisation. -- The organic matter of all sediments was deposited under euxinic conditions as revealed by the occurrence of isorenieratene derivatives indicating (periodic) photic zone euxinia. At times of reduced run-off from the hinterland, represented by so-called condensed sections, the flux of reactive iron was relatively small compared to the flux of reactive organic matter, which resulted in the formation of relatively small amounts of pyrite and an excess of hydrogen sulfide capable of reacting with fresh organic matter. Within the condensed sections, variations in the degree of sulfurisation of organic matter are probably due to both differences in primary production and differences in the supply of reactive iron. These findings demonstrate that climatic changes, probably driven by Milankovitch cycles, can have a large impact on the molecular and carbon isotopic compositions of the sedimentary organic matter in an otherwise relatively stable stratified basin. They also show that large amounts of labile carbohydrate carbon may be preserved through sulfurisation.
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von Hoffman , A. W. 1857. [Production of gas from Kimmeridge oil shale]. Journal of Gas Lighting , vol ?.
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Ward , T. (year unknown). [on Kimmeridge oil shale]. Dorset County Magazine, vol. 102. (not seen)
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Waterhouse , H.K. 1992. Quantitative Palynofacies Analysis of Jurassic Climatic Cycles. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southampton.

Waterhouse, H. K. 1995. High-resolution palynofacies investigation of Kimmeridgian sedimentary cycles. From House, M. R. and Gale, A.S. (eds), 1995. Orbital Forcing Timescales and Cyclostratigraphy. Geological Society of London, Special Publication No. 85, pp. 75- 114. Abstract: Palynofacies analysis is used as a tool to investigate in detail the palaeoenvironmental variations through several sedimentary cycles in the Kimmeridge Clay of Kimmeridge Bay, Dorset, UK. Evidence is given of palaeoenvironmental variations within cycles corresponding to those expected for obliquity orbital forcing (c. 40 ka). In addition, a second cyclical palaeoenvironmental variation, probably precessional forced (22.2 ka), is seen in the palynofacies data. Further small-scale variations in palynofacies characteristics, which are not evident in the sedimentology are also identified and allow cycles to be divided into a number of distinct palaeoenvironmental units. It is proposed that the obliquity cycle (c. 40 ka) had its greatest effect on the marine environment. The abundance of useful palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic information obtainable through high-resolution sampling in conjunction with a tool such as palynofacies analysis, provides evidence for and information about orbital forcing additional to that of most orbital forcing studies as it allows variation within cycles to be investigated.
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Weedon , G.P., Jenkyns, H.C., Coe, A.L. and Hesselbo, S.P. 1999. Astronomical calibration of the Jurassic time-scale from cyclostratigraphy in British mudrock formations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series A, Vol. 357, pp. 1787-1813. Extract from abstract: " In the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Kimmeridgian - Tithonian), magnetic-susceptibility measurements made on exposures, core material and down boreholes can be correlated at the decimetre scale. Only measurements of magnetic susceptibility made below the Yellow Ledge Stone Band (midway through the formation) are suitable for analysis of the bedding cyclicity. A large-amplitude sedimentary cycle detected in the lower part of the formation is probably related to the orbital-obliquity cycle (38 ka). In certain stratigraphical intervals, there is evidence for small amplitude cycles related to orbital precession (20 ka). "

Weedon, G.P., Coe, A.L. and Gallois, R.W. 2004. Cyclostratigraphy, orbital tuning and inferred productivity for the type Kimmeridge Clay (Late Jurassic), Southern England. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 161, 655-666. Part of a thematic set of ten papers on: Organic Carbon Burial, Climate Change and Ocean Chemistry (Mesozoic-Palaeogene). Authors - Weedon and Coe, Department of Earth Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes; Gallois, 92 Stoke Valley Road, Exeter.
Abstract: Three independently measured variables (magnetic susceptibility, photoelectric factor and total gamma-ray) obtained from throughout the type Kimmeridge Clay Fm in Dorset (Southern England) were used to identify regular metre-scale, sedimentary cycles. Spectral analysis demonstrates that for long stratigraphical intervals the cycles are expressed as large-amplitude cycles of 1.87-4.05 m wavelength and smaller-amplitude cycles of around half that wavelength. These cycles are interpreted to record orbital obliquity and precession, respectively. The much larger amplitude of the inferred obliquity cycles compared with the precession cycles may indicate a high-latitude climatic forcing transferred to lower latitudes via sea-level variations. Orbital tuning indicates that the Early Kimmeridgian (sensu anglico) lasted at least 3.6 Ma (95 longer-wavelength cycles) and the Late Kimmeridgian at least 3.9 Ma (103 longer-wavelength cycles). The first detailed productivity estimates for the Kimmeridge Clay Fm, on a cycle-by-cycle calculation, indicate that average productivity of the type Kimmeridge Clay (220 g m-2 a-I) was less than the average productivity on modern continental shelves. The high average organic carbon content of the type Kimmeridge Clay (3.8% total organic carbon) cannot be attributed to high average productivity. However, the average organic carbon content is consistent with low siliciclastic mineral dilution of organic matter and/or elevated preservation linked to reduced bottom-water oxygenation.
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West, I.M. and Hooper, M.J. 1969. Detrital Portland chert and limestone in the Upper Purbeck Beds at Friar Waddon, Dorset. Geological Magazine, 106, 277-280.


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Whitaker, W. and Edwards, W. 1926. Wells and Springs of Dorset. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of England and Wales. Printed under the authority of H.M. Stationery Office, London, 119pp + xi. There are references to the Kimmeridge Clay in some boreholes. See particularly p. 91 for Portisham (Portesham), Corton Farm borehole. See also Littlemore and Upway (Upwey) Boreholes, with reference to the "Main Bed" of the Kimmeridge oil shale. The descriptions of boreholes into the Kimmeridge Clay at Kimmeridge are quite good. See pages 86 and 87. It is of interest that the "Bubbicum", a lower oil shale at Kimmeridge, is referred to here as the "Rudicum" (this probably clarifies the pronunciation of the word at least - "Bubicum" or "Rudicum"). The short borehole logs are given by a notable geologist, Mr. J. Pringle, and contain fossil records are almost certainly quite reliable.
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White , P. 2003. The petrological analysis of a selection of mosaic material from Fishbourne Roman Palace. Essay by Pari White, Year 3, Archaeology and History, Birkbeck College, Geological Archaeology Course, GEOLB276, 8pp. [Includes notes on mid-grey and dark grey tesserae considered to be Kimmeridge dolomite. This is laminated dolomite with some fish teeth in one case. Reddish-brown streaks of kerogen are present. There is also a sample of red burnt Kimmeridge oil shale with crushed ammonite remains and small bivalves (see also Allen and Fulford (2004) on this material).]
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Wignall, Paul B.

Various papers and a book on the Kimmeridge Clay and on Black Shales.

Wignall , P.B. 1989. Sedimentary dynamics of the Kimmeridge Clay: tempests and earthquakes. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 146, 273-284. By Paul B. Wignall, then at the University of Birmingham, and subsequently at the University of Leicester.
Abstract: Storms are suggested to be an important influence upon the formation of epicontinental black shales, controlling both their distribution and fades types. A variety of storm-produced event beds are described from the Kimmeridge Clay of Dorset. These include horizons of graded rip-up clasts, silt laminae, thin graded mud horizons and shell pavements. Biostratinomy and population dynamics indicate that the pavements represent brief benthic colonization events in a predominantly anaerobic-dysaerobic environment. Differential near-surface lithification has also affected the sediments, leading to the formation of flow phenomena. These include loop structures, microfolding and brecciation. Earthquake-induced fissuring also occurs at a number of horizons. The Kimmeridge Clay shows well-developed cyclically alternating organic-rich shales and mudstones on a decimetre scale. A feedback mechanism of storm-induced benthic oxygenation and temperature-stratified inhibition of storm mixing may account for the abrupt nature of the cyclicity. Subsidence and sedimentation rate were probably important factors controlling the thickness and organic-richness of the sediments whilst the influence of storms was important in controlling the distribution and fades types of these important source rocks. The model proposed for the Kimmeridge Clay may be of general application to many epicontinental black shales in the geological record.

Wignall, P.B. 1990. Benthic palaeoecology of the late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay of England. Special Papers in Palaeontology, No. 43, Palaeontological Association, London. 74 pp. ISBN: 0901702420.

Wignall, P.B. 1991. Dysaerobic trace fossils and ichnofabrics in the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay of southern England. Palaios, vol. 6, No. 3 (June, 1991), pp. 264-270.
The trace fossil suite from the Kimmeridge Clay is calibrated against an oxygen gradient derived from previous geochemical, lithological and shelly macrofaunal studies. Several soft-bodied trace markers appear to have tolerated lower oxygen tensions than even the hardiest shelly benthic macrofauna - a common occurrence in both recent and ancient dysaerobic settings. Lowest diversity trace fossil assemblages consist of Asticomorphichnus etchesi (new ichnotaxon), a small endostratal pascichnial trace attributed to pioneering polychaete populations. Eskdale and Mason's (1988) contention that fodichnia dominate the lowest diversity and lowest oxygen settings is not substantiated as the only example of this feeding strategy. Rhizocorallium irregulare, is encountered in moderately diverse trace fossil assemblages associated with a low diversity shelly macrofauna.
Upper Dysaerobic conditions are characterised by the development of a surface mixed layer and the consequent destruction of fine lamination. Tiering is only developed under normal oxygen conditions with Chondrites as the deepest trace. In contrast to many previous studies Chondrites is never found in dysaerobic facies.

Wignall, P.B. 1994. Black Shales. Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Black shales provides the first comprehensive synthesis of the diverse research regarding the origin of petroleum source rocks. The book offers in-depth reviews from the fields sedimentology, palaeoecology, and geochemistry, and particularly focuses on the influence of palaeo-oxygen levels. Current debates--including the one over the influence of sedimentation rate, productivity, and enhanced preservation on the burial efficiency of organic carbon - - receive a lively discussion. In addition, the importance of newly defined concepts of sequence stratigraphy to models of the formation of black shales receives an in-depth treatment for the first time. The book will be of interest to all geologists investigating palaeoenvironments, particularly those engaged in the search for hydrocarbons.

Wignall, P.B. and Ruffell, A.H. 1990. The influence of a sudden climatic change on marine deposition in the Kimmeridgian of northwest Europe. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 147, 365-371. By Paul B. Wignall and Alastair H. Ruffell.
Abstract: A sudden change from humid style to semi-arid style deposition markedly affected the accumulation of the Upper Kimmeridge Clay in southern England. Many of the changes appear to be related to a change in sedimentation rate at this time. Thus softground faunas are replaced by firm ground faunas; diagenetic dolostones formed in the methanogenic zone are replaced by sulphate reduction zone carbonate nodules; and depositional gradients, recorded by lateral biofacies changes, becomes steeper. The evidence available is in accord with a decline in offshore sedimentation rates during this interval. Other changes, such as a decline in kaolinite abundance, were more directly controlled by the 'drying-out' of the hinterland. Similar changes, elsewhere in the marine geological record, could be used as climatic indicators. The climatic change is part of a wider, northern hemisphere dry event which affect a broad area in the late Jurassic. The Kimmeridge Clay of southern England was one of the last depositional environments to be influenced by the climatic change at this latitude.
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Wilkinson , I.P. 2007. The distribution of Late Kimmeridgian and Portlandian ostracoda in southern England. La répartition des ostracodes du Kimméridgien supérieur au Portlandien en Angleterre méridionale Revue de Micropaleontologie. By Ian P. Wilkinson, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Available online 1 October 2007.
Abstract: The vertical distribution of ostracods in the Upper Kimmeridgian and Portlandian (sensu anglico) succession in three cored boreholes at Hartwell, Tisbury and Fairlight, are compared to other successions in southern England. The Upper Kimmeridge Clay Formation yields rich, but low diversity ostracod faunas, characterised by stratigraphically restricted species of Aaleniella, Galliaecytheridea, Klentnicella, Macrodentina, Mandelstamia, Micrommatocythere, Paralesleya and Prohutsonia. Several continue into the Portlandian, but some species, belonging to genera such as Cytherelloidea, Paracypris, Fabanella, Galliaecytheridea, Klieana, Paraschuleridea, Eocytheridea, Paranotacythere, Procytheropteron, Rectocythere and Macrodentina, appear for the first time. Biostratigraphical subdivision is made difficult by provincialism caused by decreasing salinities and facies change during the Late Portlandian. Marine taxa such as Protocythere, Macrocypris, Paraschuleridea, Paranotacythere, Procytheropteron and Rectocythere were replaced by euryhaline forms, such as species of Fabanella and Mantelliana, and fresh-oligohaline species of the genera Cypridea, Scabriculocypris, Alicenula and Rhinocypris.
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Williams , D.B. and Douglas, J.G. 1983. The effects of lithological variation on organic geochemistry in the Kimmeridge Clay of Britain. In: Bjoroy, M. et al. (eds). Advances in Geochemistry, 1981. Wiley, Chichester, 16-27.

Williams, P.F.V. 1986. Petroleum geochemistry of the Kimmeridge Clay of onshore southern and eastern England. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 3, 258-281.

Williams, M.E. 2003. The development of hiatal surfaces in the Osmington Mills Ironstone Member of the Upper Jurassic Ringstead Formation of south Dorset, England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, 114, No. 3, pp. 193-210. Abstract: The Osmington Mills Ironstone Member, a Corallian hiatal-condensed bed, contains a varied, mainly in situ fauna. It developed over a relatively short time (less than 0.33 Ma) and is part of a transgressive systems tract. A sharp deepening in sea-level, which has not been previously identified, marks its base; its top, the Oxfordian–Kimmeridge boundary, is a recognized maximum flooding surface. Although it is the only Corallian bed in south Dorset that contains corals, it comprises ooidal ironstone in places. Replacement of corals by ooidal ironstone indicates how the local depositional environment changed and explains lateral variation in the unit. Hiatal surfaces in the unit formed in different ways. Firm grounds and increased bioturbation record surfaces developed over the shortest time. Coral masses that have been modified by biomechanical processes indicate hiatal surfaces formed over longer periods. Reworked bioclasts and mixed fossil assemblages mark longer hiatuses. Early near-surface diagenesis, resulting in formation of berthierine, apatite and siderite, indicates hiatal surfaces formed over the longest time. Fundamental processes controlling bioturbation, destructive taphonomic patterns and early diagenetic mineralization interact with each other during the formation of hiatal surfaces. Integrated approaches to the identification and analysis of hiatal surfaces will help to unlock their potential use in sequence stratigraphy.
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Wilson , R.C.L. 1979 (?). Unpublished photographs, diagrams and notes on the Kimmeridge Clay of the Kimmeridge coastal section. Flowage of coccolith limestone.
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Wimbledon , W.A. 1987. Rhythmic sedimentation in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 108 for 1986, 127-133. Most of this paper is on the Portland Group. An Appendix refers to Purbeck nomenclature. Abstract: A number of shallowing and deepening phases is described in the late Kimmeridgian - Berriasian interval. Eleven deepening / transgressive events are noted in the most complete Dorset section. A preferred lithostratigraphy for these beds is compared to previous lithostratigraphy, and "event correlations" are critically examined.

Wimbledon, W.A. and Cope, J.C.W. 1978. The ammonite faunas of the English Portland Beds and the zones of the Portlandian Stage. Journal of the Geological Society, 135, 183-190.
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Woodward , H.B.1895. The Jurassic Rocks of Britain. Vol 5. The Middle and Upper Oolitic Rocks of England (Yorkshire excepted). Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. 499pp.


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Wright , J.K. & Cox, B.M. 2001. British Upper Jurassic Stratigraphy (Oxfordian to Kimmeridgian). Geological Conservation Review Series, 21. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
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Young, J.R. and Bown, P.R. 1991. An ontogenetic sequence of coccoliths from the Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay of England. Palaeontology, 34, 843-850.
Abstract: The Kimmeridge Clay of Kimmeridge Bay, Dorset, UK, includes several stone bands which electron microscopy shows are coccolith limestones dominated by the species Watznauria fossacincta. The assemblage includes not only fully grown coccoliths but also specimens at earlier growth stages, including proto-coccolith rings. A complete ontogenetic sequence can thus be reconstructed. This interpretation is supported by the occurrence of early growth stages inside coccospheres, i.e. intracellular coccoliths preserved in the process of growth. The coccolith formation process appears to have been directly comparable to that known in living coccolithophores. The early growth phases have previously been described as separate species; these can now be put in synonomy.
Additional extract (p. 849):
"Palaeoecological Significance:
Incomplete coccolith morphotypes have not been widely reported from the fossil record, even when they have been described as separate species. Probably this is mainly because they are somewhat inconspicuous in the light microscope or easily dismissed as preservational artefacts. If they are specifically looked for then they can be found in most coccolith assemblages. Nonetheless their abundance in the White Stone Band does seem unusually high, for either fossil or living coccolith assemblages. Culture work on the living Emiliania huxleyi provides one possible interpretation. Incomplete coccoliths are most common in samples from the logarhythmic growth phase of cultures grown in high nutrient media (Young unpublished data). An ecological analogue for this situation might be bloom conditions. Such conditions have been independently suggested for the pectinatus Zone of the Kimmeridge Clay, in order to explain the coincidence of high productivity, monospecific assemblages and anoxic conditions (Gallois, 1976). Possibly the high occurrence of early growth stages may be a useful indicator of blooms."
[This paper is well-illustrated with SEM photographs and with diagrams. The work has mainly been on the White Stone Band, the main and lowest of the three coccolith limestone of the Upper Kimmeridge Clay.]


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(Papers on Kimmeridge Clay ammonites and ammonite stratigraphy in Europe.)

Ziegler, B. 1961. Stratigraphische und zoogeographische Beobachtungen an Aulacostephanus (Ammonoidea - Oberjura). Palaont. Z., vol. 35, pp. 79-89.

Ziegler , B. 1962. Die Ammonitengattung Aulacostephanus in Oberjura (Taxonomie, Stratigraphie, Biologie). Palaeontographica, Vol. 119A, pp. 1-172.

Ziegler, B. 1962. Some Upper Jurassic ammonites from Scotland. Palaeontology, vol. 5, pp. 765-769.

Ziegler, B. 1964. Das untere Kimmeridgien in Europa. Pp. 145-354. in C.R. et Mem. Colloq. Jurassique, Luxembourg 1962. (Luxembourg: Inst. Gr.-Duc. Sect. Sci. Nat. Phys. Math.).

Ziegler, B. 1974. Grenzen der Biostratigraphie im Jura and Grenzen zur stratigraphichen Methodik. Colloque du Jurassique a Luxembourg 1967. Mem. Bur. Rech. Geol. Miniere France, No. 75, pp.35-67.

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