Purbeck Formation Analogues - Bibliography
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Ian West,
Romsey, Hampshire

and Visiting Scientist at:
Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences,
Southampton University,
Webpage hosted by courtesy of iSolutions, Southampton University

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This is a select bibliography, in preparation, listing a number of analogues of Purbeck facies, fossils and sediments. See also the main Purbeck Formation Bibliography

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General Purbeck Analogue Publications


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Anadon , P., De Deckker, P. & Julia, R. 1986. The Pleistocene lake deposits of the N.E. Baza Basin (Spain): salinity variation and ostracod succession. Hydrobiologia, 143, 199-208.

Anadon, P. Cabrera, L. and Kelts, K. 1991. Lacustrine Facies Analysis. International Association of Sedimentologists (I.A.S.) Special Publication No. 13, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, ISBN - 10632-03149-2. QE 471 INT. Includes Platt, N.H. and Wright, V.P. 1991. Lacustrine carbonate facies models, facies distributions and hydrocarbon aspects. Pp. 57-74. in Anadon, P. Cabrera, L. and Kelts, K. 1991. Lacustrine Facies Analysis. I.A.S. Special Publication No. 13, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, ISBN - 10632-03149-2.
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Andrews , J. E. and Walton, W. 1990. Depositional environments within Middle Jurassic oyster-dominated lagoons: an integrated litho-, bio- and palynofacies study of the Duntulm Formation (Great Estuarine Group, Inner Hebrides). Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 81, 1-22.
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Cornee, A., Dickman, M. and Busson, G. 1992. Laminated cyanobacterial mats in sediments of solar salt works: some sedimentological implications. Sedimentology, 39, 599-612. Use of silver strips for H2S, Chironomid - p. 600, important - salinity controls on gastropod grazing, petees. Chironomids could tolerate up to almost 100 parts per thousand salinity.
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Gasse , F., Fontes, J.C. Plaziat, J.C., Carbonel, P., Kaczmarska, I, De DeckkerR, P., Soulie-Marsche, I., Callot, Y. & Dupeuble, P.A. 1987. Biological remains, geochemistry and stable isotopes for the reconstruction of environmental and hydrological changes in the Holocene lakes from North Sahara. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 60, 1-46. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, 270pp. ( Reference as Purbeck -Lake Analogue Purbeck - Protocardia analogue Purbeck - ostracod palaeosalinity Purbeck - chara analogue )

Platt, N.H. and Wright, V.P. 1991. Lacustricne carbonate facies models, facies distributions and hydrocarbon aspects. Pp. 57-74. in Anadon, P. Cabrera, L. and Kelts, K. 1991. Lacustrine Facies Analysis. I.A.S. Special Publication No. 13, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, ISBN - 10632-03149-2. QE 471 INT.

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Algae, Stromatolites, Cyanobacteria, Blue-Greens

Cornee, A., Dickman, M. and Busson, G. 1992. Laminated cyanobacterial mats in sediments of solar salt works: some sedimentological implications. Sedimentology, 39, 599-612. Use of silver strips for H2S, Chironomid - p. 600, important - salinity controls on gastropod grazing, petees. Chironomids could tolerate up to almost 100 parts per thousand salinity.

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Broken Beds

Bell, C.M. 1989. Saline lake carbonates within an Upper Jurassic -Lower Cretaceous red sequence in the Atacama region of northern Chile. Sedimentology, 36, 651-663. The laterally extensive, 3 m thick, Codocedo Limestone Member within red beds of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceou Quebrada Monardes Formation in the Atacama region of northern Chile. Vertical accretion within a perenial saline lake. A few dinosaur bones and silicified tree trunks at one location. Centimetre-scale beds of evaporitic gypsum, anhydrite and halite now extensively replaced by calcite, chalcedony and quartz. Geodes and gypsum pseudomorphs in the overlying siltstone and sandstone. Brecciated zones occur (cf. Purbeck Broken Beds). Net-texture, lutecite, pseudomorphs after anhydrite. Laminites. Miliolid foraminifera. Association of folds with brecciation. Muller, Schmidt and Briegel (1981) noted that anydrite begins to deform and flow under geologically reasonable strain rates at 150 and 180 C. These temperatures are normally only reached at depths of 4-6 km but in the Codocedo Member, possibly with an overburden of no more than 1 km, a much higher geothermal gradient is suggested by the interstratified lava flows.

De Putter, T. 1990. The Corenne borehole (Dinant Basin, Belgium): 100 meters of Upper Visean limestone breccia. 13th International Sedimentological Congress, Nottingham, Posters, 60-62. (published abstracts of posters).

Ford, D.C. 1989. Palaeokarst of Canada. pp. 313-336 in Bosak, P., Ford, D.C., Glazek, J. and Horacek, I. (eds.), Paleokarst: A Systematic and Regional Review. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 725pp. WBC. Devonian Bear Rock Formation of northwestern Canada - about 200m of limestone, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite breccia - p.319 - foremost Canadian example of a solution breccia.

Palmer, M.V. & Palmer, A.N. 1989. Palaeokarst of the United States. pp. 337- 363 in: Bosak, P., Ford, D.C., Glazek, J. and Horacek, I. (eds.), Paleokarst: A Systematic and Regional Review. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 725pp. Evaporite solution - Silurian and Devonian in Michigan - p. 356.

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Cherty Freshwater Analogues

Gimenez, J. and Calvet, F. 1990. Seasonal control into ostracod-rich facies in the Lower Eocene, southeastern Pyrenees, Spain. 13th International Sedimentological Congress, Nottingham, p.190.

Platt, N.H. and Wright, V.P. 1991. Lacustrine carbonate facies models, facies distributions and hydrocarbon aspects. Pp. 57-74. in Anadon, P. Cabrera, L. and Kelts, K. 1991. Lacustrine Facies Analysis. I.A.S. Special Publication No. 13, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, ISBN - 10632-03149-2.

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Chironomids, Cheironomids

(Evidence for chironomid tubules in the basal Purbeck Caps - see Bosence and Pedley papers)

Cornee, A., Dickman, M. and Busson, G. 1992. Laminated cyanobacterial mats in sediments of solar salt works: some sedimentological implications. Sedimentology, 39, 599-612. Use of silver strips for H2S, Chironomid - p. 600, important - salinity controls on gastropod grazing, petees. Chironomids could tolerate up to almost 100 parts per thousand salinity.

Walker, I.R., Wilson, S.E.and Smol, J.P. 1995. Chironomidae (diptera) - quantitative paleosalinity indicators for lakes of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 52, 5, 950-960.

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Clay Mineral Analogues (Kaolinite, Mixed-Layer, Palgorskite etc.)

Webster, D.M. and Jones, B.F. 1994. Paleoenvironmental implications of lacustrine clay minerals from the Double Lakes Formation, southern High Plains, Texas. Pp. 159-172 in: Renaut, R.W. and Last, W.M. 1994. Sedimentology and Geochemisty of Modern and Ancient Saline Lakes. Based on a symposium sponsored by SEPM (Society of Sedimentary Geology). SEPM Special Publication No. 50, September 1994. Tulsa, Oklahoma. 334 p. Cycles apparently represent evaporatively induced salinity shifts from brackish to saline (perennial), or ephemeral-lake (playa) conditions, as inferred from the predominance of sepiolite, interstratified Mg-smectite, and palygorskite respectively. Spring deposits (tufas) along a principal drainageway near the lake suggest inflow from groundwater had a major effect on the nature of the clays. (a possible Purbeck analogue).

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Collapse Structures (in the Broken Shell Limestone)

Smoot, J.P. and Castens-Seidell, B. 1994. Sedimentary features produced by efflorescent salts Saline Valley and Death Valley, California. Pp 73-90 in: Renaut, R.W. and Last, W.M. 1994. Sedimentology and Geochemisty of Modern and Ancient Saline Lakes. Based on a symposium sponsored by SEPM (Society of Sedimentary Geology). SEPM Special Publication No. 50, September 1994. Tulsa, Oklahoma. 334 p. Most crusts associated with groundwater beneath surface; some from blow salt spray. Halite efflorescent crusts trap wind-blown dust and produce a poorly sorted mud as the crusts dissolve at their bases. It has a porous, almost pelleted texture. The only relic of dissolved crusts are polygonal clay fillings between the upturned edges of the pan (Lowenstein and Hardie, 1985). Popcorn surfaces of efflorescent crusts. Warty surfaces. Deformed hump-shaped ripples. Small growth faults and sediment loading. Small collapse structures occur in sand sheets over salt in Death Valley - see photo fig. 13 - possible Purbeck Broken Shell Limestone collapse structure analogue. Sedimentary structures from efflorescent crusts may be deformed ripples and irregular wispy structures.

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Coorong Lagoons

South Australia National Parks and Wildlife Service. 1994. The Coorong Tattler. South Australia National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Free magazine distributed at the Coorong Lagoons, South Australia. This provides information on the Coorong environment which is analogous to the Purbeck palaeoenvironments in many respects. Useful location maps.

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Dirt Bed Pebbles

(See - Black Pebbles)

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Durlston Head (Downbulge) Analogue

(See also - Fluid Flow)

Jenyon, M.K. 1985. Fault-associated salt flow and mass movement. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 142, 547-553. Key paper showing structure like that at Durlston Head.

Muller, W.H., Schmid, S.M. and Briegel, U. 1981. Deformation experiments on anhydrite rocks of different grain sizes: rheology and microfabrics. Tectonophysics, 78, 527-544. Muller, Schmidt and Briegel (1981) noted that anhydrite begins to deform and flow under geological reasonable strain rates at between 150 and 180 C. These temperatures are normally only reached at depths of 4 - 6 km. Reference in Bell, 1989. Relevant to the replaced, deformed anhydrite at Durlston Head. Palynology has not suggested such high temperatures in the Purbeck of Dorset, though.

Raymond, L.R. 1960. The Pre-Permian floor beneath Billingham, County Durham, and structures in overlying Permian Sediments. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 116, 297-315.

Go back to top Fluid Flow Analogues (relevant to Durlston Head, Broken Beds etc)

Alexander, J., Black, J.H. & Brightman, M.A. 1987. The role of low-permeabilty rocks in regional flow. In Goff, J.C. and Williams, B.P.J. 1987. Fluid Flow in Sedimentary Basins and Aquifers. Geological Society Special Publication, No. 34, Geological Society, London, 230p. pp.173-183. In sedimentary basins there is subhorizontal flow -throughflow - in high permeability rocks and vertical flow across intervening mudrocks (crossflow). Faults as features of high permeability effectively shield the centre of the basin from the high heads associated with the basin margins and reduce overall head gradients. Channelled flow is an attractive mechanism for flow through mudrocks containing evaporites. I think that basinward throwflow in the Portland Stone with crossflow through the Purbecks at the Durlston Head fault and perhaps channelled flow in the evaporites might explain the Durlston Head celestite etc. Perhaps this occurred in the Cretaceous when the basinward flow would have been southward.

Chapman, R.E 1987. Fluid flow in sedimentary basins: a geologist's perspective. Pp. 3-18 in Goff, J.C. and Williams, B.P.J. 1987. Fluid Flow in Sedimentary Basins and Aquifers. Geological Society Special Publication. No. 34, Geological Society, London, 230p.

Downing, R.A., Edmunds, W.M. & Gale, I.N. 1987. Regional groundwater flow in sedimentary basins in the U.K. pp 105-125 in Goff, J.C. and Williams, B.P.J. 1987. Fluid Flow in Sedimentary Basins and Aquifers. Geological Society Special Publication, No. 34, Geological Society, London, 230p.

Goff, J.C. and Williams, B.P.J. 1987. Fluid Flow in Sedimentary Basins and Aquifers. Geological Society Special Publication, No. 34, Geological Society, Lond., 230p.

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Fossil Forest Analogues

Adams, A.E. and Horbury, A.D. 1989. Tree root structures on a Dinantian palaeokarst, Urswick Limestone, south Cumbria. Proceedings of Yorkshire Geological Society, 47, 345-348. Pits in limestone with raised rims like the Purbeck fossil forest. Remains of tree roots.

Bell, C.M. 1989. Saline lake carbonates within an Upper Jurassic -Lower Cretaceous red sequence in the Atacama region of northern Chile. Sedimentology, 36, 651-663. The laterally extensive, 3 m thick, Codocedo Limestone Member within red beds of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceou Quebrada Monardes Formation in the Atacama region of northern Chile. Vertical accretion within a perenial saline lake. A few dinosaur bones and silicified tree trunks at one location. Centime tre-scale beds of evaporitic gypsum, anhydrite and halite now extensively replaced by calcite, chalcedony and quartz. Geodes and gypsum pseudomorphs in the overlying siltstone and sandstone. Brecciated zones occur (cf. Purbeck Broken Beds). Net-texture, lutecite, pseudomorphs after anhydrite. Laminites. Miliolid foraminifera. Association of folds with brecciation. Muller, Schmidt and Briegel (1981) noted that anydrite begins to deform and flow under geologically reasonable strain rates at 150 and 180 C. These temperatures are normally only reached at depths of 4-6 km but in the Codocedo Member, possibly with an overburden of no more than 1 km, a much higher geothermal gradient is suggested by the interstratified lava flows.

Glesinger, 1960. Bibliographic details not known. Mediterranean forests are now 1% to 2% of the forests of 6000 BP.

Pearce, F. 1966. Trouble bubbles for hydropower. New Scientist, 4 May 1996. WRC. Reservoir produced by the Balbina Dam in Brazil has flooded 310,000 hectares. Rotting trees etc in anoxic conditions produce 150,000 tonnes of methane anually more or less indefinately. In the Amazon tree trunks take 500 years to decay in anoxic conditions. Decaying plants breaking the water surface and decaying plants in oxygenated waters produce CO2. About 2% of the Amazon region floods naturally for part of each year.

Renaut, R.W. 1990. Recent sedimentation in the saline, alkaline playa-lake basins of interior British Columbia, Canada. 13th International Sedimentological Congress, Nottingham, 455-6 (alkaline lakes surrounded by forest. dolomite magnesite etc.)

Stein, C.L. 1982. Silica recrystallization in petrified wood. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 52, 1277-1282.

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Great Estuarine Group, Jurassic, Scotland

Wakefield, M.1995. Ostracoda and palaeosalinity fluctuations in the middle Jurassic Lealt Shale Formation, Inner Hebrides, Scotland. Palaeontology, 38, Part 3. 583-617.

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Halite - Displacive Crystals Analogue

Handford, C.R. 1982. Terrigenous clastic and evaporite sedimentation in a Recent continental sabkha playa basin, Bristol Dry Lake, California. 65-74 in Handford, C.R., Loucks, R.G. and Davies, G.R. Depositional and Diagenetic Spectra of Evaporites - A Core Workshop. S.E.P.M. Core Workshop No. 3, Calgary Canada - June 26-27, 1982. S.E.P.M. 395p. see p.67.

Schreiber, B.C. and Hsu, K.J. 198? Evaporites. Chapter 3 in Hobson, G.D. 198 Developments in Petroleum Geology - 2. 87-138. Applied Science Publishers, London. (see p. 91 Dead Sea displacive halite cubes)

(Others in old card index - Lake Macloud Australia, Dead Sea, Gornitz & Schreiber, 81, Neeve and Emery, 67 etc).

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Lake Analogues

Coulter, G.W. (ed.) 1991. Lake Tanganyika and its Life. With contributions by J-J. Tiercelin, A. Mondegeur, R. Hecky and R. Spigel. March 1991, 352p. Natural History Museum, London. co-published with OUP. 0 19 858 525 X . Hardback. Lake Tanganyika is the largest in volume of the African Lakes and is the second deepest lake in the world. The aquatic flora and fauna are remarkable for their diversity and high degree of endemicity, as well as for the number of species and genera present. Collates scientific knowledge. Comprehensive bibliography.

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Lake Analogues, Australian

Burne, R.V., Bauld, J. and De Deckker, P. 1980. Saline lake charophytes and their geological significance. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 50, 0281-0293. Near Coorong, Spencer Gulf etc.

Burne, R.V. and Ferguson, J. 1983. Contrasting marginal sediments of a seasonally flooded lake - Lake Eliza, South Australia: significance for oil shale genesis. BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics, 8, 99-108.

Coshell, L. and Rosen, M.R. 1994. Stratigraphy and Holocene history of Lake Hayward, Swan coastal plain wetlands, Western Australia. Pp. 173-188 in: Renaut, R.W. and Last, W.M. 1994. Sedimentology and Geochemisty of Modern and Ancient Saline Lakes. Based on a symposium sponsored by SEPM (Society of Sedimentary Geology). SEPM Special Publication No. 50, September 1994. Tulsa, Oklahoma. 334 p. South of Perth and Rotnest. Good Purbeck analogue. Gypsum, dolomite, teepees, stromatolites, ostracods.

Ferguson, J., Burne, R.V. and Chambers, L.A. 1982. Lithification of peritidal carbonates by continental brines at Fisherman Bay, South Australia, to form a megapolygon/spelean limestone association. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 52, 1127-1147.

Ferguson, J. Chambers, L.A., Donnelly, T.H. and Burne, R.V. 1988. Carbon and isotope composition of a recent megapolygon-spelean limestone, Fisherman Bay, South Australia. Chemical Geology, 72, 63-76.

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Mammals, Multituberculates etc.

Novacem, M.J., Norell, M, McKenna, M.C. and Clark, J. 1994. Fossils of the flaming cliffs. (about Mongolia's Gobi Desert and dinosaur and mammal remains). Scientific American, Dec. 1994., 36-43. Good pictures. References to earlier mammal work.

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Megapolygons (of the basal Purbecks at the Fossil Forest etc)

Coshell, L. and Rosen, M.R. 1994. Stratigraphy and Holocene history of Lake Hayward, Swan coastal plain wetlands, Western Australia. Pp. 173-188 in: Renaut, R.W. and Last, W.M. 1994. Sedimentology and Geochemisty of Modern and Ancient Saline Lakes. Based on a symposium sponsored by SEPM (Society of Sedimentary Geology). SEPM Special Publication No. 50, September 1994. Tulsa, Oklahoma. 334 p. South of Perth and Rotnest. Good Purbeck analogue. Gypsum, dolomite, teepees, stromatolites, ostracods.

Ferguson, J., Burne, R.V. and Chambers, L.A. 1982. Lithification of peritidal carbonates by continental brines at Fisherman Bay, South Australia, to form a megapolygon/spelean limestone association. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 52, 1127-1147.

Ferguson, J. Chambers, L.A., Donnelly, T.H. and Burne, R.V. 1988. Carbon and isotope composition of a recent megapolygon-spelean limestone, Fisherman Bay, South Australia. Chemical Geology, 72, 63-76.

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Palaeosalinity

Wakefield, M.1995. Ostracoda and palaeosalinity fluctuations in the middle Jurassic Lealt Shale Formation, Inner Hebrides, Scotland. Palaeontology, 38, Part 3. 583-617.

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Solenhofen Limestone

Barthel, K.W., Swinburne, N.H.M. and Morris, S.C. 1990. Solnhofen: a Study in Mesozoic Palaeontology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 236 p. Main Library QE 733 BAR. ISBN - 0 521 33344 X Hardback. Originally published in German as 'Solnhofen: Ein Blsick in die Erdgeschichte' by Ott Verlag. Thun 1978. The English edition is revised by the English authors. P. 59 - 60 - Preservation of insects in salt-rich sediment - Death Valley, California. "Pickling" in salt solutions is an effective method of culinary preservation, because many of the decomposing microbes are inactivated and the decay process greatly slowed. In natural hypersaline environments sthere are documented cases of exceptionally slow organic decay which has resulted in special preservation of organisms. For example, in the extremely hot environment of Death Valley, California, there are examples of exquisite preservation of insects in the salt-rich sediment (W. Berger, pers. comm. 1989)." .. " The analogy between these extremely salty environments and the Solnhofen lagoonal basins cannot be carried very far, because salt concentrations in the (p. 60) Solnhofen water never reached very high values and the evaporating lagoonal waters must have been constantly diluted by an influx of normal marine water. Certainly the level of saturation of the lagoonal waters nearly always remained below the level of saturation with respect to the common dissolved salts, as there are no evaporitic beds in the plattenkalk sequences. ---. Sometimes the traces of salt crystals, long since dissolved away and infilled by calcite (making salt pseudomorphs) are found on bedding planes, but they probably did not form on the lagoon floor and attest only to local conditions within the sediment." Anoxia major preservation factor, moderate hypersalinity secondary. Mesolimulus King crabs occur, marine organisms ,coccoliths in clayey horizons but not much preserved in the porous micritic limestones. Different coccolith assemblages in different layers. Cyclagelosphaera margereli (p.34) in the Red Marl Layer. Some coccoliths more tolerant of high salinity. No logs found. Plant remains include cycadophytes, ginkgos, Araucaria, Palaeocyparis etc. Lizards, turtles, crocodiles, rhynchocephalians, pterosaurs with possible hair (warm - blooded?), fish, crinoid -Saccocoma -sometimes complete unlike Kimmeridge Clay. Low organic matter. Fish, birds, Archaeopteryx -several specimens from different localities. Good insects, lacewings, beetles, water-scorpions, water skater (interesting - some modern forms are marine). Ammonites, jellyfish. Lagerstatten. Red tides.

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Tufa

Pedley, H.M. 1987. The Flandrian (Quaternary) Caerwys Tufa, North Wales: an ancient barrage tufa deposit. Proceedings of Yorkshire Geological Society, 46, 141-152. An extensive deposit of tufa, including organic build-ups, oncoid facies and micrite facies, extents as a lobate deposit downslope from a Carboniferous Limestone scarp near Caerwys, North Wales. The deposit contains terrestrial and freshwater molluscs, ostracods and plant remains, the latter now preserved as moulds and casts. Abstract continues. Note that the Purbeck stromatolites do not normally contain freshwater molluscs, but have some evidence of evaporites.

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Dr Ian West, author of these webpages

Webpage - written and produced by:


Ian West, M.Sc. Ph.D. F.G.S.

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at his private address, Romsey, Hampshire, kindly supported by Southampton University,and web-hosted by courtesy of iSolutions of Southampton University. The website does not necessarily represent the views of Southampton University. The website is written privately from home in Romsey, unfunded and with no staff other than the author, but generously and freely published by Southampton University. Field trips shown in photographs do not necessarily have any connection with Southampton University and may have been private or have been run by various organisations.