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The University of Southampton
Active Living

Progress of research to date

Research with Myoton in Southampton began in 2010 and builds on existing literature of research using earlier Myoton prototypes.

Our studies of young and older healthy groups have found that novice users can successfully take reliable measurements using the latest device, the MyotonPRO. Various muscles have been studied and repeated testing on different days and between different investigators has shown that measurements are reliable.  Examples of  papers published so far:  Agyapong-Badu et al., 2013; Aird et al., 2012; Bailey et al., 2013; Mooney et al.m 2013; Mullix et al., 2012) and several others are in preparation, including studies of professional footballers and rugby league players.

Our research spans the activity spectrum from the sporting elite through to inactive frail older people. We are building large databases for each group to provide normal reference values for assessing abnormalities in order to prevent injury. Case studies of sports injuries are being documented during recovery. The MyotonPRO is also being used as a secondary outcome measure in studies of exercise interventions for back and hip pain.


Agyapong-Badu S, Aird L, Bailey L, Mooney K, Mullix J, Warner M, Samuel D, Stokes M. Interrater reliability of muscle tone, stiffness and elasticity measurements of rectus femoris and biceps brachii in healthy young and older males. Working Papers in Health Sciences 2013; Summer 1(4):1-11.

Aird L, Samuel D, Stokes M. Quadriceps muscle tone, elasticity and stiffness in older males: Reliability and symmetry using the MyotonPRO. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 2012; 55:e31-e39. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2012.03.005

Bailey L, Samuel D, Warner M, Stokes M. Parameters representing muscle tone, elasticity and stiffness of biceps brachii in healthy older males: symmetry and within-session reliability using the MyotonPRO. Journal of Neurological Disorders 2013;1(1):1000116 pgs 1-7. International open access journal

Mooney K, Warner M, Stokes M. Symmetry and within-session reliability of mechanical properties of biceps brachii muscles in healthy young adult males using the MyotonPRO device. Working Papers in Health Sciences 2013; Spring 1(3):1-11

Mullix J, Warner M, Stokes M. Testing muscle tone and mechanical properties of rectus femoris and biceps femoris using a novel hand held MyotonPRO device: relative ratios and reliability. Working Papers in the Health Sciences 2012; 1(1):1-8.  


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