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The University of Southampton
Complex Healthcare Processes

Phase I: Developing the intervention

We developed the intervention during 2013, and it is now being tested in our Phase II study.

First, we focused on understanding what might work best by drawing together the evidence across previous studies and looking at other evidence based guidance. .   

To do this, we asked questions like ‘What information do carers most want?' ‘And in what form?' We drew on our experience of designing education for patients and carers, and also thought about which theories could help us to structure the education being developed.  We also observed nurses at work in the community to understand how carers are involved with medicines management at present.

Patients, carers and health care professionals in Hampshire,South Wales and other areas of England and Wales provided their views about this evidence and what else is important to them. Fourteen patients and carers, 3 doctors, 4 pharmacists and 27 nurses contributed their views. Next, we held two workshops where nurses discussed the developing ideas, tested them against their own experience, and worked with us to design the education and support package for carers on pain medicines.

Sixteen nurses with experience in pain medicines for cancer and six carers who had looked after family members with cancer pain reviewed the draft education and support package, and we made amendments based on their feedback and suggestions.

Throughout the process of developing the intervention, we mapped the developing principles and components to the published evidence, evidence based guidance, and the views of the patients, carers and health professionals who talked with us.

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