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The University of Southampton
Quality HandbookAssessment

Types of Breach

A breach of Regulations means that a student acts or behaves in a manner which is inconsistent with the definition detailed in section A1 of the Regulations or assists others in doing so.  This may occur as a result of mistake, negligence or as a result of intentional misconduct.  Specific breaches are:


Plagiarism is the use of ideas, intellectual property, or work of others without appropriate acknowledgement.


Cheating is any action before, during, or after an examination or assessment by which you seek to gain unfair advantage or assist another student to do so.


Collusion is working with another student or students in an unauthorised way to create academic work that should be created by a student independently.

External authorship

External authorship is where you present work as your own that created using unauthorised external input.


Falsification is any attempt to present fictitious or distorted data, evidence, references, experimental results etc.


Recycling is where a piece of work or part thereof which has already been used in one context is used again in another context.

Breaching ethical standards:

Breaching ethical standards is failing to comply with your ethical obligations when carrying out your academic work as set out in the University Ethics Policy.

Misconduct in Research

Misconduct in Research includes any of the above breaches in relation to research and/or other factors.

There may be other breaches of Academic Integrity which are not specifically referred to above, and some breaches may fall into more than one category.  For further information please see the Academic Integrity Guidance document.

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