Centre for Biological Sciences

Bill Keevil

BSc Biochemistry, University of Birmingham; PhD Biochemistry, University of Birmingham; Chartered Biologist (CBiol); Fellow of the Society of Biology (FSB); Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology (FAAM); Fellow of the World Innovation Foundation (FWIR); Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine (FRSM)

Primary position:
Chair in Environmental Healthcare
Other positions:
Principal Investigator (Microbiology & environmental health), Director of the Environmental Healthcare Unit, Chair of the University Genetic Manipulation and Safety Committee

Background

The University of Southampton

Career history

Head of the Microbiology Group and Director of the Environmental Healthcare Unit. University of Southampton, UK.
Visiting Professor of Microbiology. University of Exeter, UK.
Head of the Environmental Technology Department. Centre for Microbiology and Research, Salisbury, UK.
Scientific Advisor to the House of Commons Select Committee on Science & Technology, London, UK.
Visiting Research Fellow, University of Manitoba, Canada.
Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Southampton, UK.

Professor Bill Keevil's photo

Publications

The University of Southampton's electronic library (e-prints)

Article

Phippen, Curtis William, Mikolajek, Halina, Schlaefli, Henry George, Keevil, Charles William, Webb, Jeremy Stephen and Tews, Ivo (2014) Formation and dimerization of the phosphodiesterase active site of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa MorA, a bi-functional c-di-GMP regulator. FEBS Letters (doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2014.11.002). (In Press).
Meier, Alexandra, Tsaloglou, Nefeli-Maria, Mowlem, Matthew C., Keevil, C. William and Connelly, Douglas P. (2013) Hyperbaric biofilms on engineering surfaces formed in the deep sea. Biofouling, 29, (9), 1029-1042. (doi:10.1080/08927014.2013.824967).
Warnes, Sarah L. and Keevil, C. William (2013) Inactivation of norovirus on dry copper alloy surfaces. PLoS ONE, 8, (9), 1-9. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075017). (PMID:24040380).
Cerqueira, Laura, Fernandes, Ricardo M., Ferreira, Rui M., Oleastro, Mónica, Carneiro, Fátima, Brandao, Catarina, Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro, Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário, Figueiredo, Céu, Keevil, Charles W., Vieira, Maria J. and Azevedo, Nuno F. (2013) Validation of a PNA-FISH method for the detection of Helicobacter pylori clarithromycin resistance in gastric biopsies. Journal of Clinical Microbiology (doi:10.1128/JCM.00302-13). (PMID:23596234).
Almeida, C., Azevedo, N. F., Bento, J. C., Cerca, N., Ramos, H., Vieira, M. J. and Keevil, C. W. (2013) Rapid detection of urinary tract infections caused by Proteus spp. using PNA-FISH. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases (doi:10.1007/s10096-012-1808-2).
Warnes, S. L., Highmore, C. J. and Keevil, C. W. (2012) Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes on abiotic touch surfaces: implications for public health. mBio, 3, (6), e00489-[12 pages]. (doi:10.1128/mBio.00489-12).
Azevedo, Nuno F., Bragança, Sofia M., Simões, Lúcia C., Cerqueira, Laura, Almeida, Carina, Keevil, Charles W. and Vieira, Maria J. (2012) Proposal for a method to estimate nutrient shock effects in bacteria. BMC Research Notes, 5, (1), 422. (doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-422).
Secker, T.J., Hervé, R., Zhao, Q., Borisenko, K.B., Abel, E.W. and Keevil, C.W. (2012) Doped diamond-like carbon coatings for surgical instruments reduce protein and prion-amyloid biofouling and improve subsequent cleaning. Biofouling, 28, (6), 563-569. (doi:10.1080/08927014.2012.698387). (PMID:22694725).
Secker, T.J., Hervé, R. and Keevil, C.W. (2012) Letter to the editor. Response to the letter from M. Feckie. Journal of Hospital Infection, 80, (2), 181-182. (doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2011.11.006).
Hervé, R. and Keevil, C.W. (2012) Current limitations about the cleaning of luminal endoscopes. Journal of Hospital Infection, 83, (1), 22-29. (doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2012.08.008). (PMID:23098682).
Collins, Samuel L., Hervé, Rodolphe, Keevil, C.W., Blaydes, Jeremy P. and Webb, Jeremy S. (2011) Down-regulation of DNA mismatch repair enhances initiation and growth of neuroblastoma and brain tumour multicellular spheroids. PLoS ONE, 6, (12), e28123. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028123). (PMID:22145025).
Azevedo, N.F., Jardim, T., Almeida, C., Cerqueira, L., Almeida, A.J., Rodrigues, F., Keevil, C W. and Vieira, M.J. (2011) Application of flow cytometry for the identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis by peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) in blood samples. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 100, (3), 463-470. (doi:10.1007/s10482-011-9595-9). (PMID:21638111).
Warnes, S.L. and Keevil, C.W. (2011) Mechanism of copper surface toxicity in vancomycin-resistant enterococci following wet or dry surface contact. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77, (17), 6049-6059. (doi:10.1128/AEM.00597-11). (PMID:21742916).
Cerqueira, Laura, Fernandes, Ricardo M.., Ferreira, Rui M., Carneiro, Fátima, Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário, Figueiredo, Céu, Keevil, Charles W., Azevedo, Nuno F. and Vieira, Maria J. (2011) PNA-FISH as a new diagnostic method for the determination of clarithromycin resistance of Helicobacter pylori. BMC Microbiology, 11, (1), 101-[7pp]. (doi:10.1186/1471-2180-11-101).
Almeida, Carina, Azevedo, Nuno F., Santos, Sílvio, Keevil, Charles W. and Vieira, Maria J. (2011) Discriminating multi-species populations in biofilms with peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH). PLoS ONE, 6, (3), e14786-[13pp]. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014786).
Gião, Maria S., Azevedo, Nuno F., Wilks, Sandra A., Vieira, Maria J. and Keevil, Charles W. (2011) Interaction of legionella pneumophila and helicobacter pylori with bacterial species isolated from drinking water biofilms. BMC Microbiology, 11, (1), 57-[10pp]. (doi:10.1186/1471-2180-11-57).
Weaver, L., Noyce, J.O., Michels, H.T and Keevil, C.W. (2010) Potential action of copper surfaces on meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109, (6), 2200-2205. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04852.x). (PMID:21040269).
Warnes, S.L., Gree, S.M., Michels, H.T. and Keevil, C.W. (2010) Biocidal efficacy of copper alloys against pathogenic enterococci involves degradation of genomic and plasmid DNAs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76, (16), 5390-5401. (doi:10.1128/AEM.03050-09). (PMID:20581191).
Almeida, C., Azevedo, Nuno F., Fernandes, R.M., Keevil, Charles W. and Vieira, M.J. (2010) A fluorescence in situ hybridization method using a peptide nucleic acid probe for the identification of Salmonella spp. in a broad spectrum of samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology (doi:10.1128/AEM.01678-09).
Howlin, R.P., Khammo, N., Secker, T., McDonnell, G. and Keevil, C.W. (2010) Application of a fluorescent dual stain to assess decontamination of tissue protein and prion amyloid from surgical stainless steel during simulated washer-disinfector cycles. Journal of Hospital Infection, 75, (1), 66-71. (doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2009.12.023). (PMID:20303614).
Giao, Maria S., Azevedo, N.F., Wilks, Sandra A., Vieira, M.J. and Keevil, C.W. (2010) Effect of chlorine on incorporation of helicobacter pylori into drinking water biofilms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76, (5), 1669-1673. (doi:10.1128/AEM.01378-09).
Weaver, L., Michels, H.T. and Keevil, C.W. (2010) Potential for preventing spread of fungi in air-conditioning systems constructed using copper instead of aluminium. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 50, (1), 18-23. (doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02753.x). (PMID:19943884 ).
Gião, Maria S., Wilks, Sandra A., Azevedo, N.F., Vieira, M.J. and Keevil, Charles W. (2009) Validation of SYTO 9/propidium iodide uptake for rapid detection of viable but noncultivable legionella pneumophila. Microbial Ecology, 58, (1), 56-62. (doi:10.1007/s00248-008-9472-x). (PMID:19043657).
Howlin, R., Harrison, J., Secker, T. and Keevil, C.W. (2009) Acquisition of proteinaceous contamination through the handling of surgical instruments by hospital staff in sterile service departments. Journal of Infection Prevention, 10, (3), 106-111. (doi:10.1177/1757177409105073).
Almeida, C., Azevedo, N.F., Iversen, C., Fanning, S., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2009) Development and application of a novel peptide nucleic acid probe for the specific detection of cronobacter genomospecies (Enterobacter sakazakii) in powdered infant formula. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75, (9), 2925-2930. (doi:10.1128/AEM.02470-08). (PMID:19270117).
Azevedo, Nuno F., Lopes, Susana P., Keevil, Charles W., Pereira, Maria O. and Vieira, Maria J. (2009) Time to “go large” on biofilm research: advantages of an omics approach. Biotechnology Letters, 31, (4), 477-485. (doi:10.1007/s10529-008-9901-4). (PMID:19116693).
Cerqueira, Laura, Azevedo, Nuno F., Almeida, Carina, Jardim, Tatiana, Keevil, Charles William and Vieira, Maria J. (2008) DNA mimics for the rapid identification of microorganisms by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). [in special issue: Nucleic Acid Derivatives in Emerging Technologies] International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 9, (10), 1944-1960. (doi:10.3390/ijms9101944). (PMID:19325728).
Azevedo, N.F., Almeida, C., Fernandes, I., Cerqueira, L., Dias, S., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2008) Survival of gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. in water: implications for transmission. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, (6), 1805-1811. (doi:10.1128/AEM.02241-07).
Weaver, L., Michels, H.T. and Keevil, C.W. (2008) Survival of Clostridium difficile on copper and steel: futuristic options for hospital hygiene. Journal of Hospital Infection, 68, (2), 145-151. (doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2007.11.011).
Lipscomb, I.P., Sihota, A.K. and Keevil, C.W. (2008) Comparison between visual analysis and microscope assessment of surgical instrument cleanliness from sterile service departments. Journal of Hospital Infection, 68, (1), 52-58. (doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2007.08.009). (PMID:17942186).
Giao, Maria S., Azevedo, N.F., Wilks, Sandra A., Vieira, M.J. and Keevil, Charles W. (2008) Persistence of helicobacter pylori in heterotrophic drinking-water biofilms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, (19), 5898-5904. (doi:10.1128/AEM.00827-08).
Juhna, T., Birzniece, D., Larsson, S., Zulenkovs, D., Sharipo, A., Azevedo, N.F., Menard-Szczebara, F., Castagnet, S., Feliers, C. and Keevil, C.W. (2007) Detection of Escherichia coli in biofilms from pipe samples and coupons in drinking water distribution networks. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 7456-7464. (doi:10.1128/AEM.00845-07).
Lipscomb, I.P., Herve, R., Harris, K., Pinchin, H., Collin, R. and Keevil, C.W. (2007) Amyloid-specific fluorophores for the rapid, sensitive in situ detection of prion contamination on surgical instruments. Journal of General Virology, 88, part 9, 2619-2626. (doi:10.1099/vir.0.82228-0). (PMID:17698675).
Azevedo, N.F., Giao, S., Almeida, C., Fernandes, I., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2007) Relevance of heterotrophic biofilms on the agglomeration of Helicobacter pylori in water environments: Implications for transmission. Helicobacter, 12, (4), 392. (doi:10.1111/j.1523-5378.2007.00540_5.x).
Guimaraes, N., Azevedo, N.F., Figueiredo, C., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2007) A multiroute way of transmission for Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter, 12, (4(P142)), p.456. (doi:10.1111/j.1523-5378.2007.00540_20.x).
Azevedo, N.F., Guimaraes, N., Figueiredo, C., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2007) A new model for the transmission of Helicobacter pylori: Role of environmental reservoirs as gene pools to increase strain diversity. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 33, (3), 157-169. (doi:10.1080/10408410701451922).
Lehtola, M.J., Torvinen, E., Kusnetsov, J., Pitkanen, T., Maunula, L., Bonsdorff, C.H., Martikainen, P.J., Wilks, S.A., Keevil, C.W. and Miettinen, I.T. (2007) Survival of Mycobacterium avium, Legionella pneumophila, Escherichia coli, and caliciviruses in drinking water-associated biofilms grown under high-shear turbulent flow. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, (9), 2854-2859. (doi:10.1128/AEM.02916-06).
Azevedo, N.F., Almeida, C., Cerqueira, L., Dias, S., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2007) Coccoid form of Helicobacter pylori as a morphological manifestation of cell adaptation to the environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, (10), 3423-3427. (doi:10.1128/AEM.00047-07).
Noyce, J.O., Michels, H. and Keevil, C.W. (2007) Inactivation of influenza A virus on copper versus stainless steel surfaces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, (8), 2748-2750. (doi:10.1128/AEM.01139-06).
Zhang, Fang Z., Wagstaff, Carol, Rae, Anne M., Sihota, Arinder K., Keevil, C. William, Rothwell, Steve D., Clarkson, Graham J. J., Michelmore, Richard W., Truco, Maria Jose, Dixon, Mark S. and Taylor, Gail (2007) QTL for shelf life in lettuce co-locate with those for leaf biophysical properties but not for leaf developmental traits. Journal of Experimental Botany, 58, (6), 1433-1449. (doi:10.1093/jxb/erm006). (PMID:17347132).
Lipscomb, I.P, Pinchin, H.E., Collin, R., Harris, K. and Keevil, C.W. (2006) The sensitivity of approved Ninhydrin and Biuret tests in the assessment of protein contamination on surgical steel as an aid to prevent iatrogenic prion transmission. Journal of Hospital Infection, 64, (3), 288-292. (doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2006.07.007).
Azevedo, N.F., Pacheco, A.P., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2006) Adhesion of water stressed Helicobacter pylori to abiotic surfaces. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 101, (3), 718-724. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.03029.x).
Wilks, S.A., MichelS, H.T. and Keevil, C.W. (2006) Survival of Listeria monocytogenes Scott a on metal surfaces: Implications for cross-contamination. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 111, (2), 93-98. (doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.04.037).
Azevedo, N.F., Almeida, C., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2006) Coccoid morphology as a possible manifestation of Helicobacter pylori adaptation to adverse environments. Helicobacter, 11, (4), 342-343.
Guimaraes, N.M., Azevedo, N.F., Figueiredo, C., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2006) Development and application of a novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe for the specific detection of Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter, 11, (Abs.10.10), 383-383. (doi:10.1111/j.1523-5378.2006.00419_12.x).
Noyce, J.O., Michels, H. and Keevil, C.W. (2006) Use of copper cast alloys to control Escherichia coli O157 cross-contamination during food processing. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, (6), 4239-4244. (doi:10.1128/AEM.02532-05).
Lipscomb, I.P., Sihota, A., Botham, M., Harris, K.L. and Keevil, C.W. (2006) Rapid method for the sensitive detection of protein contamination on surgical instruments. Journal of Hospital Infection, 62, (2), 141-148. (doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2005.07.008).
Simoes, L.C., Azevedo, N., Pacheco, A., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2006) Drinking water biofilm assessment of total and culturable bacteria under different operating conditions. Biofouling, 22, (2), 91-99. (doi:10.1080/08927010600598603).
Lipscomb, I.P., Sihota, A. and Keevil, C.W. (2006) Letter to the Editor. Diathermy forceps and pencils: reservoirs for protein and prion contamination? Journal of Hospital Infection, 64, (2), 193-194. (doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2006.05.011).
Azevedo, N.F., Pinto, A.R., Reis, N.M., Vieira, M.J. and Keevil, C.W. (2006) Shear stress, temperature and inoculation concentration influence on the adhesion of water-stressed Helicobacter pylori to stainless steel 304 and polypropylene. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, (4), 2936-2941. (doi:10.1128/AEM.72.4.2936-2941.2006).
Wilks, S.A., Michels, H. and Keevil, C.W. (2005) The survival of Escherichia coli O157 on a range of metal surfaces. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 105, (3), 445-454. (doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.04.021).
Azevedo, N.F., Pacheco, A.P., Pinto, A.R., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2005) Factors affecting the adhesion of water-stressed Helicobacter pylori to plumbing materials. Helicobacter, 10, (5), p.485. (doi:10.1111/j.1523-5378.2005.00342.x).
Horan, N.J., Fletcher, L., Betmal, S.M., Wilks, S.A. and Keevil, C.W. (2004) Die-off of enteric bacterial pathogens during mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Water Research, 38, (5), 1113-1120. (doi:10.1016/j.watres.2003.12.004).
Keevil, C.W. (2004) The physico-chemistry of biofilm-mediated pitting corrosion of copper pipe supplying potable water. Water Science & Technology, 49, (2), 91-98.
Azevedo, N.F., Pacheco, A.P., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2004) Nutrient shock and incubation atmosphere influence recovery of culturable Helicobacter pylori from water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70, (1), 490-493. (doi:10.1128/AEM.70.1.490-493.2004).
Azevedo, N.F., Vieira, M.J. and Keevil, C.W. (2003) Establishment of a continuous model system to study Helicobacter pylori survival in potable water biofilms. Water Science & Technology, 47, (5), 155-160.
Lynch, M.J., Swift, S., Kirke, D.F., Keevil, C.W., Dodd, C.E.R. and Williams, P. (2002) The regulation of biofilm development by quorum sensing in Aeromonas hydrophila. Environmental Microbiology, 4, (1), 18-28. (doi:10.1046/j.1462-2920.2002.00264.x).
Lynch, M.J., Swift, S., Kirke, D.F., Keevil, C.W., Dodd, C.E.R. and Williams, P. (2002) The regulation of biofilm development by quorum sensing in Aeromonas hydrophila. Environmental Microbiology, 4, (1), 18-28. (doi:10.1046/j.1462-2920.2002.00264.x).
Keevil, C.W. (2001) Continuous culture models to study pathogens in biofilms. Methods in Enzymology: Microbial Growth in Biofilms Part B, (337), 104-122. (doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(01)37010-6). (PMID:11398424).

Book Section

Keevil, C.W. and Wilks, S.A. (2011) Rapid confirmation of microbiological alerts using off-line molecular methods. In, Borchers, Ulrich and Thompson, K. Clive (eds.) Water Contamination Emergencies: Monitoring, Understanding and Acting. London, GB, Royal Society of Chemistry, 48-58.
Keevil, Charles (2003) Pathogens in environmental biofilms. In, Bitton, G. (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology. New York, US, Wiley, 2339-2356. (doi:10.1002/0471263397.env202).
Clark, S.A., Watkins, J., Wilks, S.A. and Keevil, C.W. (2003) The use of commercial products for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts throughout the food chain. In, Cryptosporidium parvum in food and water. Cryptosporidium parvum in Food and Water Carlow, IE, Teagasc, 84-93.
Warnes, S. and Keevil, C.W. (2003) Survival of Cryptosporidium parvum in faecal wastes and salad crops. In, Duffy, G. (ed.) Cryptosporidium parvum in Food and Water. Dublin, IE, Teagasc, 15-24.

Conference or Workshop Item

Wilks, S., Koerfer, V., Prieto, J., Fader, M. and Keevil, C.W. (2012) New approaches in the detection of biofilms on catheters. In, Association for Continence Advice Conference & Exhibition 2012, Brighton, GB, 14 - 15 May 2012.

Monograph

Weaver, Louise, Keevil, C. William and Warnes, Sarah L. Horizontal Hygeine (2005) Critical review on: feasibility of horizontal standard rapid method for detection of Clostridium perfringens and enterococci in sludges, soil, soil improvers, growing media and biowastes. Southampton, GB, University of Southampton, 135pp. (Horizontal Standards on Hygienic Microbiological parameters for Implementation of EU Directives on Sludge, Soil and Treated Biowastes, HOR-HYG WP 2/2).
Warnes, Sarah L. and Keevil, C. William Horizontal Hygeine (2004) Desk studies on feasibility of horizontal standard rapid methods for detection of Clostridium perfringens and enterococci in sludges, soil, soil improvers, growing media and biowastes. Southampton, GB, University of Southampton, 50pp. (Work Package 3, Task 4).
Warnes, Sarah L. and Keevil, C. William Horizontal Hygeine (2004) Desk studies on feasibility of horizontal standard rapid methods for detection of E. coli (including E. coli O157) and Salmonella. Southampton, GB, University of Southampton, 53pp. (Work Package 3, Task 3B).

Additional publications

Warner, J., Rothwell, S.D. and Keevil, C.W. (2008). Use of Episcopic Differential Interference Contrast microscopy to identify bacterial biofilms on salad leaves and track colonisation by Salmonella Thompson. Environmental Microbiology, 10, 918-925.

Weaver, L.. Michels, H.T. and Keevil, C.W. (2008). Survival of Clostridium difficile on copper and steel: futuristic options for hospital hygiene. Journal of Hospital Infection 68, 145-151.

Azevedo N.F., Almeida, C., Fernandes, I., Dias, S., Keevil C.W. and Vieira M.J. (2008). Survival of gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. in water: implications for transmission. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74, 1805–1811.

Abdel Ghani, S., Louise Weaver, L., Zidan, Z.H., Ali, H.M., Keevil, C.W. and Brown, R.C.D. (2008). Microwave assisted synthesis and antimicrobial activities of flavonoid derivatives. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 18, 518–522.

Lipscomb, I., Sihota, A.K and Keevil, C.W. (2008). Comparison between visible analysis and microscopy assessment of surgical instrument cleanliness from sterile service departments. Journal of Hospital Infection 68, 52-58.
(Selected as one of the six best articles for all ASM journals for the Journal Highlights section of Microbe (formerly ASM News), January 2008 issue)

Braganca, S.M., Azevedo, N.F., Simoes, L.C., Keevil, C.W. and Vieira, M.J. (2007). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization for the visualization of Helicobacter pylori in real drinking water biofilms. Water Science and Technology 55, 387-93.

Wilks , S.A. , Azevedo, N., Juhna, T., Lehtola, M. and Keevil, C.W. (2005). Tools for the rapid detection of pathogens in mains drinking water supplies. In Water Contamination Emergencies: Enhancing our Response (ed. K.C. Thompson and J. Gray). London : IWO , in press. ISBN 0 85404 658 5.

Branganca, S. M., Azevedo, N. F., Chaves, L., Vieira, M. J. and Keevil C. W. (2005). Detection of H. pylori in biofilms formed in a real drinking water distribution system using peptide nucleic acid fluorescence i n situ hybridization. In Biofilms (Ed. A. McBain et al.), pp. 231-240. Manchester : BiofilmClub. ISBN 0 9551030 0 2

Azevedo, N. F., Vieira M. J. and Keevil C. W. (2005). Development of an optimized technique for the recovery of H. pylori from water and drinking water biofilms. In Biofilms (Ed. A. McBain et al.), pp. 221-230. Manchester : BiofilmClub. ISBN 0 9551030 0 2

Warnes, S.L. and Keevil, C.W. (2004). Feasibility of horizontal standard methods for detection of Clostridium perfringens and enterococci in sludges, soil, soil improvers, growing media and biowastes. EC HORIZONTAL. Petten: ECN http://www.ecn.nl/docs/society/horizontal/hor4_enter_clos.pdf

Warnes, S.L. and Keevil, C.W. (2004). Feasibility of horizontal standard methods for the rapid detection of E. coli (including E. coli O157) and Salmonella in sludge. EC HORIZONTAL . Petten: ECN http://www.ecn.nl/docs/society/horizontal/hor3b_ec_salm_rapid.pdf

Cairns , G., Boyle, J.D., Keevil, C.W. and Lappin-Scott, H.A. (2003). The effect of saliva on the attachment and detachment rates of oral bacteria. In Biofilm communities: Order from Chaos? (Ed. McBain, A., Allison, D., Brading, M., Rickard, A., Verran, J. and Walker, J.), pp. 61-70. Cardiff ; Bioline.

Azevedo, N.F, Vieira, M.J. and Keevil (2003). Development of peptide nucleic acid probes to detect Helicobacter pylori in diverse species potable water biofilms. In Biofilm communities: Order from Chaos? (Ed. McBain, A., Allison, D., Brading, M., Rickard, A., Verran, J. and Walker, J.), pp. 105-112. Cardiff ; Bioline.
Caddy, D.L., Earley, F. and Keevil, C.W. (2003). Structure and viability assessment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using episcopic differential interference contrast microscopy. In Biofilm communities: Order from Chaos? (Ed. McBain, A., Allison, D., Brading, M., Rickard, A., Verran, J. and Walker, J.), pp. 37-50. Cardiff ; Bioline.

Wilks, S.A. and Keevil, C.W. (2003). Structure of diverse species potable water biofilms under defined shear flow regimes in the Propella® reactor. In Biofilm communities: Order from Chaos? (Ed. McBain, A., Allison, D., Brading, M., Rickard, A., Verran, J. and Walker, J.), pp. 341-351. Cardiff ; Bioline.

Noyce, J.O. and Keevil, C.W. (2003). Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157. In Biofilm communities: Order from Chaos? (Ed. McBain, A., Allison, D., Brading, M., Rickard, A., Verran, J. and Walker, J.), pp. 401- 408. Cardiff ; Bioline.

Clark, S.A., Watkins, J., Wilks, S.A. and Keevil, C.W. (2003). The use of commercial products for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts throughout the food chain. In Cryptosporidium parvum in Food and Water (ed. G. Duffy). Dublin: Teagasc, pp. 84-93. (ISBN 1 84170 3273).

Warnes, S. and Keevil, C.W. (2003). Warnes, S. and Keevil, C.W. (2003). Survival of C ryptosporidium parvum in faecal wastes and salad crops. In Cryptosporidium parvum in Food and Water (ed. G. Duffy). Dublin: Teagasc, pp. 15-24 (ISBN 1 84170 3273).

Surman, S., Morton, G., Keevil, C.W. and Fitzgeorge, R. (2002). Legionella pneumophila proliferation is not dependent on intracellular replication. In Legionella (ed. Marre, R. et al.). Washington , DC : ASM Press, 86-89.

Keevil, C.W. (2002). Pathogens in environmental biofilms. In The Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology (ed. G. Bitton). New York: Wiley, 2339-2356.

Keevil, C.W. (2001). Suitability of microbial assays for potable water and wastewater applied to land. In Rapid Detection Assays for Food and Water. (ed. S.A. Clark, C.W. Keevil, K.J. Thompson and M. Smith). Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 3-26. (ISBN 0 85402 - 7794)

Nicholson, F.A., Hutchison, M.L., Smith, K.A., Keevil, C.W., Chambers, B.J. and Moore, A. (2000). A study of farm manure applications to agricultural land and an assessment of the risks of pathogen transfer into the food chain. HMSO: MAFF Publications.

Keevil, C.W. (2000). Survival of Escherichia coli O157 in water and organic wastes on land: the potential to contaminate untreated private water supplies. SCIEH Weekly Report Supplement 34, 24-26.

 

Research

Research Interests

  • Physiology and adaptive mechanisms for survival of pathogens, in vivo and in vitro e.g. Legionella, Helicobacter, E. coli O157, MRSA, C. difficile.
  • Biofilms in the environment, the built environment and clinical practice.
  • Surface contamination, including prions; fouling and corrosion.
  • Survival of sublethally damaged pathogens in water and human and animal wastes recycled to agricultural land, e.g. E coli O157 Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, Cryptosporidium

PhD supervision

Tom Secker: BBSRC Industrial CASE student / Development of rapid, sensitive neuroblastoma and stem cell culture systems to assess the efficacy of prion decontamination technologies.
Nicola Gibbins: BBSRC Industrial CASE student / Role of nitric oxide in the control of biofilm and zoonotic pathogen colonisation on the salad leaf phylloplane.
Aaron Dye: EC FP7 student / FeS production by sulphate reducing bacteria for the decontamination of radionuclides in drinking water.
David Walker: EC FP7 student / Biofilm prevention on microfluidic sensor devices.

Affiliated research Group: Institute of Life Sciences

Primary research group:  Environmental Biosciences

Affiliate research group:  Institute for Life Sciences (IfLS)

Research projects

Biofouling control for in-situ lab-on-a-chip environmental sensors

Using microscopy and molecular community analysis techniques, the effects of antifouling methods will be assessed.

Development of endoscope decontamination procedures

Antimicrobial copper: Biocidal efficacy and killing mechanism of copper and copper alloy dry surfaces against bacterial and viral pathogens

Touch surfaces are an important conduit for transmission of bacteria, viruses and fungi, leading to mass outbreaks of disease in the community and healthcare acquired infections by multiple antibiotic resistant microorganisms causing great morbidity and mortality.

BioliSME II: Demonstration, validation and preliminary promotion of a commercial prototype speedy system for sampling and detecting Listeria monocytogenes

Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) for the decontamination of reusable surgical instruments

To evaluate the potential of Cold Atmospheric Plasma as a tool for the decontamination of reusable surgical instruments and endoscopes, thus significantly reducing the risk of iatrogenic infections with prions and potentially other resilient agents.

Development of anti-fouling strategies for long-term deployed in situ sensors in marine environments

Analysis of biofilms in the marine environment and of the effectiveness of antifouling strategies

Environmental Healthcare Unit Consultancy

Our Consultancy Service has dealt with a wide range of projects in collaboration with both small and large multinational companies.We offer a range of testing services using up-to-date microbiological methods and the latest techniques in specialised microscopy.

Microbial interactions in multi-species drinking water biofilm community

Using the model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa to investigate mechanisms by which drinking water biofilms harbour important pathogenic microorganism and how these interactions within multi-species biofilms can enhance genetic adaptation and evolution of microbial pathogens.

Rapid assessment of surface contamination and decontamination efficacy

Development of rapid, sensitive, advanced EDIC/EF light microscopy based protocols to assess the efficacy of current bio-decontamination systems.

Role of hypoxia and DNA mismatch repair in tumorigenesis

Using a multicellular tumour spheroid model to investigate the role of hypoxia and DNA mismatch repair on the fundamental processes of importance in tumour development

The role of nitric oxide in the control of biofilm and zoonotic pathogen colonisation of the salad phylloplane

Investigating the use of the signalling molecule nitric oxide for microbial control at the phylloplane

SecurEau – Security and decontamination of drinking water distribution systems following a deliberate contamination event.

This work aims to design novel methodologies for the detection of low levels of contaminants, model the distribution of contaminants throughout a network and identify the point of origin, develop the use of sensors for surveillance and provide decontamination protocols for polluted networks and installations, including the neutralisation of contaminated water and residues.

Teaching Responsibilities

Lecturer 

BIOL1007 The Molecular basis of Life I
BIOL1020 Bioanalysis
BIOL2022 Immunology, Infection and Inflammation
BIOL2038 Microbiology - From the Natural Environment to Disease
BIOL3017 The Molecular Structural Basis of Disease
BIOL3057 Biofilms and Microbial Communities

Project Supervisor

BIOL3031 Literature-based Research Project
BIOL3032 Literature-based Research Project
BIOL3034 In-depth Research Project

Contributions

Professional membership

Member of EPSRC National Centre for Advanced Tribology (nCATS) Management Board
CfBS Liaison Officer with Society of Biology, London
MOD Independent Scientific and Technical Advice (ISTA) Register
DEFRA Drinking Water Inspectorate Rapid Methods Committee, London
DoH Decontamination Working Group, London
IWW Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut für Wasser, Mulheim, External Management Board
CEN TC308 WG1 Committee, Brussels
British Standards Institute EH/5 Wastes Committee, London

Contact

Professor Bill Keevil
FNES Student Office
Centre for Biological Sciences
Faculty of Natural & Environmental Sciences
Life Sciences Building 85
University of Southampton
Highfield Campus
Southampton
SO17 1BJ

Room Number: 85/4059

Telephone: (023) 8059 4726
Email: C.W.Keevil@soton.ac.uk