Centre for Biological Sciences

Peter J S Smith

PhD

Primary position:
Director, Institute for Life Sciences (IfLS)
Other positions:
Professor of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Principal Investigator (Biophysics & Cell Biology)

Background

The University of Southampton

Career history

2011-present: Director, Institute for Life Sciences (IfLS). University of Southampton, UK.
2011-present: Professor of Life Sciences. Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Southampton, UK.
2008-2011: Director. Cellular Dynamics Program, Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), USA.
2008-present: Visiting Professor. Dept. of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
2008-2011: Executive Committee. Clinical Science Translational Initiative Brown Univiversity, USA.
2008-2011: Adjunct Professor of Engineering (Research). Brown University, RI, USA.
2007-2011: Member. Institute for Molecular & Nanoscale Innovation, Division of Engineering, Brown University.
2007-present: Honorary Professor. School of Electronic Engineering, University of Wales.
2002-2008: Director, Molecular Physiology Program, MBL.
1999-2011: Senior Scientist, MBL.
1996-2010: Director and Principal Investigator, NIH BioCurrents Research Center, MBL.
1994-1996: Director and PI, NIH National Vibrating Probe Facility, MBL.
1992-1993: Co-Director, NIH Nat’l Vibrating Probe Facility, MBL (With L. F. Jaffe).
1992-1999: Associate Scientist, MBL.
1990-1991: Senior Scientific Officer and Laboratory Leader. AFRC Laboratory of Molecular Signalling, Dept. of Zoology, University of Cambridge and the Babraham Research Institute, UK.
1987-1990: Higher Scientific Officer. AFRC Unit of Insect Neurophysiology and Pharmacology, Dept. of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK.
1986-1991: Fellow and Director of Studies in Natural Sciences. Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, UK.
1985-1987: Leverhulme Research Fellow. University of Cambridge, Dept. of Zoology, Cambridge.
1982-1984: Research Associate. University of Cambridge, Dept. of Zoology, Cambridge, UK.
1979-1982: Research Associate. University of Manchester, UK.

Professor Peter J S Smith's photo

Publications

The University of Southampton's electronic library (e-prints)

Article

Katis, I.N., Holloway, Judith A., Madsen, Jens, Faust, S.N., Garbis, Spiros D., Smith, Peter J.S., Voegeli, David, Bader, Dan L., Eason, Robert W. and Sones, C.L. (2014) Paper-based colorimetric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay fabricated by laser induced forward transfer. Biomicrofluidics, 8, (3), 1-10. (doi:10.1063/1.4878696).
Brodsky, Alexander S., Fischer, Andrew, Miller, Daniel H., Vang, Souriya, MacLaughlan, Shannon, Wu, Hsin-Tu, Yu, Jovian, Steinhoff, Margaret, Collins, Colin, Smith, Peter J.S., Raphael, Benjamin J. and Brard, Laurent (2014) Expression profiling of primary and metastatic ovarian tumors reveals differences indicative of aggressive disease. PLoS ONE, 9, (4), e94476. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094476).
Van Mooy, Benjamin A.S., Hmelo, Laura R., Fredricks, Helen F., Ossolinski, Justin E., Pedlera, Byron E., Bogorff, Daniel J. and Smith, P.J.S. (2014) Quantitative exploration of the fundamental microbial processes that contribute to the accumulation of natural biofilms on ships’ hulls. Biofouling, 30, (2), 223-236. (doi:10.1080/08927014.2013.861422).
Smith, Peter J.S., Davis, Ilan, Galbraith, Catherine G. and Stemmer, Andreas (2013) Special issue on high-resolution optical imaging. Journal of Optics, 15, (9), 1-3. (doi:10.1088/2040-8978/15/9/090201).
Vang, Souriya, Wu, Hsin-Ta, Fischer, Andrew, Miller, Daniel H, MacLaughlan, Shannon, Douglass, Elijah, Steinhoff, Margaret, Collins, Colin, Smith, Peter J S, Brard, Laurent and Brodsky, Alexander S (2013) Identification of ovarian cancer metastatic miRNAs. PLoS ONE, 8, (3), e58226. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058226). (PMID:23554878).
Alavian, Kambiz N, Dworetzky, Steven I, Bonanni, Laura, Zhang, Ping, Sacchetti, Silvio, Mariggio, Maria A, Onofrj, Marco, Thomas, Astrid, Li, Hongmei, Mangold, Jamie E, Signore, Armando P, DeMarco, Ulrike, Demady, Damon R, Nabili, Panah, Lazrove, Emma, Smith, Peter J S, Gribkoff, Valentin K and Jonas, Elizabeth A (2012) Effects of dexpramipexole on brain mitochondrial conductances and cellular bioenergetic efficiency. Brain Research, 1446, 1-11.
Heart, Emma, Womack, Trayce, Smith, Peter J. S. and Gray, Joshua P., Palo, Meridith (ed.) (2012) The level of mendione redox-cycling in pancreatic β-cells is proportional to the glucose concentration: role of NADH and consequences for insulin secretion. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 258, 216-225.
Alavian, Kambiz N., Li, Hongmei, Collis, Leon, Bonanni, Laura, Zeng, Lu, Sacchetti, Silvio, Lazrove, Emma, Nabili, Panah, Flaherty, Benjamin, Graham, Morven, Chen, Yingbei, Messerli, Shanta M., Mariggio, Maria A., Rahner, Christopher, McNay, Ewan, Shore, Gordon C., Smith, Peter J.S., Hardwick, J. Marie and Jonas, Elizabeth A. (2011) Bcl-xl regulates metabolic efficiency of neurons through interaction with the mitochondrial F1FoATP synthase. Nature Cell Biology, 13, (10), 1224-1233. (doi:10.1038/ncb2330). (PMID:21926988).
Fussell, Karma C., Udasin, Ronald G., Smith, Peter J.S., Gallo, Michael A. and Laskin, Jeffrey D. (2011) Catechol metabolites of endogenous estrogens induce redox cycling and generate reactive oxygen species in breast epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis, 32, (8), 1285-1293. (doi:10.1093/carcin/bgr109 ). (PMID:21665890).
Smith, Joel, Morgan, Jennifer R., Zottoli, Steven J., Smith, Peter J.S., Buxbaum, Joseph D. and Bloom, Ona E. (2011) Regeneration in the era of functional genomics and gene network analysis. The Biological Bulletin, 221, (1), 18-34.
Gray, Joshua P., Eisen, Timothy, Cline, Gary W., Smith, Peter J.S. and Heart, Emma (2011) Plasma membrane electron transport in pancreatic β-cells is mediated in part by NQO1. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism, 301, E105-E112. (doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00673.2010). (PMID:21505151).
Fussell, Karma C., Udasin, Ronald G., Gray, Joshua P., Mishin, Vladimir, Smith, Peter J.S., Heck, Diane E. and Laskin, Jeffrey D. (2011) Redox cycling and increased oxygen utilization contribute to diquat-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 50, (7), 874-882. (doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.12.035). (PMID:21215309).
Menachery, A., Graham, D., Messerli, S.M., Pethig, R. and Smith, P.J.S. (2011) Dielectrophoretic tweezer for isolating and manipulating target cells. IET Nanobiotechnology, 5, (1), 1-7. (doi:10.1049/iet-nbt.2010.0010).
Smith, Peter J.S., Collis, Leon P. and Messerli, Mark A. (2010) Windows to cell function and dysfunction: signatures written in the boundary layers. BioEssays, 32, (6), 514-523. (doi:10.1002/bies.200900173). (PMID:20486138).
Smith, Kristin E., Raymond, Steven L., Valenti, Micheala L., Smith, Peter J.S. and Linser, Paul J. (2010) Physiological and pharmacological characterizations of the larval Anopheles albimanus rectum support a change in protein distribution and/or function in varying salinities. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 157, (1), 55-62. (doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.05.002). (PMID:20460167).
Lv, Ping, Rodriguez-Contreras, Adrian, Kim, Hyo Jeong, Zhu, Jun, Wei, Dongguang, Choong-Ryoul, Sihn, Eastwood, Emily, Mu, Karen, Levic, Snezana, Song, Haitao, Yevgeniy, Petrov Y, Smith, Peter J S and Yamoah, Ebenezer N (2010) Release and elementary mechanisms of nitric oxide in hair cells. Journal of Neurophysiology, 103, (5), 2494-505. (10.​1152/​jn.​00017.​2010). (PMID:20220083).
Peyot, Marie-Line, Gray, Joshua P, Lamontagne, Julien, Smith, Peter J S, Holz, George G, Madiraju, S R Murthy, Prentki, Marc and Heart, Emma (2009) Glucagon-like peptide-1 induced signaling and insulin secretion do not drive fuel and energy metabolism in primary rodent pancreatic beta-cells. PLoS ONE, 4, (7), e6221-[10pp]. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006221).
Heart, Emma, Cline, Gary W., Collis, Leon P., Pongratz, Rebecca L., Gray, Joshua P. and Smith, Peter J.S. (2009) Role for malic enzyme, pyruvate carboxylation, and mitochondrial malate import in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 296, (6), E1354-62. (10.​1152/​ajpendo.​90836.​2008). (PMID:19293334).
Gleichmann, Marc, Collis, Leon P., Smith, Peter J.S. and Mattson, Mark P. (2009) Simultaneous single neuron recording of O2 consumption, [Ca2+]i and mitochondrial membrane potential in glutamate toxicity. Journal of Neurochemistry, 109, (2), 644-655. (doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.05997.x). (PMID:19226367).
Messerli, Mark A., Collis, Leon P. and Smith, Peter J.S. (2009) Ion trapping with fast-response ion-selective microelectrodes enhances detection of extracellular ion channel gradients. Biophysical Journal, 96, (4), 1597-1605. (doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2008.11.025). (PMID:19217875).
Shum, Winnie Wai Chi, Da Silva, Nicolas, McKee, Mary, Smith, Peter J.S., Brown, Dennis and Breton, Sylvie (2008) Transepithelial projections from basal cells are luminal sensors in pseudostratified epithelia. Cell, 135, (6), 1108-1117. (doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.10.020).
Pethig, R., Menachery, A., Heart, E., Sanger, R.H. and Smith, P.J.S. (2008) Dielectrophoretic assembly of insulinoma cells and fluorescent nanosensors into three-dimensional pseudo-islet constructs. IET Nanobiotechnology, 2, (2), 31-38. (doi:10.1049/iet-nbt:20070027).
Nuccitelli, Richard, Nuccitelli, Pamela, Ramlatchan, Samdeo, Sanger, Richard and Smith, Peter J.S. (2008) Imaging the electric field associated with mouse and human skin wounds. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 16, (3), 432-441. (doi:10.1111/j.1524-475X.2008.00389.x). (PMID:18471262).
Messerli, Mark A., Kurtz, Ira and Smith, Peter J.S. (2008) Characterization of optimized Na+ and Cl− liquid membranes for use with extracellular, self-referencing microelectrodes. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 390, (5), 1355-1359. (doi:10.1007/s00216-007-1804-z). (PMID:18193410).
Li, Hongmei, Chen, Yingbei, Jones, Adrienne F., Sanger, Richard H., Collis, Leon P., Flannery, Richard, McNay, Ewan C., Yu, Tingxi, Schwarzenbacher, Robert, Bossy, Blaise, Bossy-Wetzel, Ella, Bennett, Michael V.L., Pypaert, Marc, Hickman, John A., Smith, Peter J.S., Hardwick, J. Marie and Jonas, Elizabeth A. (2008) Bcl-xL induces Drp1-dependent synapse formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, (6), 2169-2174. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0711647105). (PMID:18250306).
Kreitzer, Matthew A., Collis, Leon P., Molina, Anthony J.A., Smith, Peter J.S. and Malchow, Robert Paul (2007) Modulation of extracellular proton fluxes from retinal horizontal cells of the catfish by depolarization and glutamate. The Journal of General Physiology, 130, (2), 169-182. (doi:10.1085/jgp.200709737 ). (PMID:17664345).
Da Silva, Nicolas, Shum, Winnie W.C., El-Annan, Jaafar, Păunescu, Teodor G., McKee, Mary, Smith, Peter J.S., Brown, Dennis and Breton, Sylvie (2007) Relocalization of the V-ATPase B2 subunit to the apical membrane of epididymal clear cells of mice deficient in the B1 subunit. American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, 293, (1), C199-210. (10.​1152/​ajpcell.​00596.​2006). (PMID:17392376).
Heart, Emma and Smith, Peter J.S. (2007) Rhythm of the beta-cell oscillator is not governed by a single regulator: multiple systems contribute to oscillatory behavior. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 292, (5), E1295-E1300. (10.​1152/​ajpendo.​00648.​2006). (PMID:17213468).
Heart, Emma, Yaney, Gordon C., Corkey, Richard F., Schultz, Vera, Luc, Esthere, Liu, Lihan, Deeney, Jude T., Shirihai, Orian, Tornheim, Keith, Smith, Peter J.S. and Corkey, Barbara E. (2007) Ca2+, NAD(P)H and membrane potential changes in pancreatic beta-cells by methyl succinate: comparison with glucose. The Biochemical Journal, 403, (1), 197-205. (doi:10.1042/BJ20061209). (PMID:17181533).
Messerli, Mark A., Corson, Erica D. and Smith, Peter J.S. (2007) Measuring extracellular ion gradients from single channels with ion-selective microelectrodes. Biophysical Journal, 92, (7), L52-L54. (doi:10.1529/biophysj.106.102947). (PMID:17259274).
Gray, Joshua P., Heck, Diane E., Mishin, Vladimir, Smith, Peter J.S., Hong, Jin-Yun, Thiruchelvam, Mona, Cory-Slechta, Deborah A., Laskin, Debra L. and Laskin, Jeffrey D. (2007) Paraquat increases cyanide-insensitive respiration in murine lung epithelial cells by activating an NAD(P)H:paraquat oxidoreductase: identification of the enzyme as thioredoxin reductase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282, (11), 7939-7949. (doi:10.1074/jbc.M611817200). (PMID:17229725).
Osbourn, Damon M., Sanger, Richard H. and Smith, Peter J. S. (2005) Determination of single-cell oxygen consumption with impedance feedback for control of sample−probe separation. Analytical Chemistry, 77, (21), 6999-7004. (doi:10.1021/ac050326w). (PMID:16255601).
Li, Rulin, Chase, Martha, Jung, Sung-Kwon, Smith, Peter J.S. and Loeken, Mary R. (2005) Hypoxic stress in diabetic pregnancy contributes to impaired embryo gene expression and defective development by inducing oxidative stress. American Journal of Physiology : Endocrinology and Metabolism, 289, (4), E591-E599. (doi:10.1152/​ajpendo.​00441.​2004). (PMID:15928021).
MacLellan, J. Darcy, Gerrits, Martin F., Gowing, Adrienne, Smith, Peter J.S., Wheeler, Michael B. and Harper, Mary-Ellen (2005) Physiological increases in uncoupling protein 3 augment fatty acid oxidation and decrease reactive oxygen species production without uncoupling respiration in muscle cells. Diabetes, 54, (8), 2343-2350. (doi:10.2337/diabetes.54.8.2343). (PMID:16046300).
Messerli, Mark A., Amaral-Zettler, Linda A., Zettler, Erik, Jung, Sung-Kwon, Smith, Peter J.S. and Sogin, Mitchell L. (2005) Life at acidic pH imposes an increased energetic cost for a eukaryotic acidophile. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208, (13), 2569-2579. (doi:10.1242/​jeb.01660). (PMID:15961743).
Garber, S.S., Messerli, M.A., Hubert, M., Lewis, R., Hammar, K., Indyk, E. and Smith, P.J.S (2005) Monitoring Cl- movement in single cells exposed to hypotonic solution. The Journal of Membrane Biology, 203, (2), 101-110. (doi:10.1007/s00232-005-0735-x). (PMID:15981714).
Twig, Gilad, Graf, Solomon A., Messerli, Mark A., Smith , Peter J.S., Yoo, Seung H. and Shirihai, Orian S. (2005) Synergistic amplification of beta-amyloid-and interferon-γ-induced microglial neurotoxic response by the senile plaque component chromogranin A. American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, 288, (1), C169-C175. (doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00308.2004).
Pethig, R., Jakubek, L.M., Sanger, R.H., Heart, E., Corson, E.D. and Smith, P.J.S. (2005) Electrokinetic measurements of membrane capacitance and conductance for pancreatic -cells. IEE Proceedings - Nanobiotechnology, 152, (6), 189-193.
Katzman, S.M., Messerli, M.A., Grossman, A., Harel, T., Barry, D.T., Smith, P.J.S., Chenault, V.M. and Shirihai, O.S. (2004) Mitochondrial metabolism reveals a functional architecture in intact islets of Langerhans from normal and diabetic Psammomys obesus. AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism, 287, (6), E1090-E1099. (doi:10.1152/​ajpendo.​00044.​2004). (PMID:15339741).
Messerli, Mark A., Smith, Peter J.S., Lewis, Robert C. and Robinson, Kenneth R. (2004) Chloride fluxes in lily pollen tubes: a critical reevaluation. The Plant Journal, 40, (5), 799-812. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2004.02252.x). (PMID:15546362).
Beaulieu, Valerie, Da Silva, Nicolas, Pastor-Soler, Nuria, Brown, Christopher R., Smith, Peter J.S., Brown, Dennis and Brenton, Sylvie (2004) Modulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton via Gelsolin Regulates Vacuolar H+-ATPase Recycling. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280, (9), 8452-8463. (doi:10.1074/jbc.M412750200). (PMID:15591047).
Molina, Anthony J.A, Verzi, Michael P., Birnbaum, Andrea D., Yamoah, Ebenezer N., Hammar, Katherine, Smith, Peter J.S. and Malchow, Robert Paul (2004) Neurotransmitter modulation of extracellular H+ fluxes from isolated retinal horizontal cells of the skate. The Journal of Physiology, 560, (3), 639-657. (doi:10.1111/(ISSN)1469-7793). (PMID:15272044).
Bogorff, Daniel J., Messerli, Mark A., Malchow, Robert P. and Smith, Peter J.S. (2003) Development and characterization of a self-referencing glutamate-selective micro-biosensor. The Biological Bulletin, 205, (2), 207-208. (PMID:14583532).
Molina, Anthony J.A., Hammar, Katherine, Sanger, Richard, Smith, Peter J.S. and Malchow, Robert P. (2003) Intracellular release of caged calcium in skate horizontal cells using fine optical fibers. Biological Bulletin, 205, (2), 215-216. (PMID:14583536).
Pepperell, John R., Porterfield, D Marshall, Keefe, David L., Behrman, Harold R. and Smith, Peter J.S. (2003) Control of ascorbic acid efflux in rat luteal cells: role of intracellular calcium and oxygen radicals. AJP Cell Physiology, 285, (3), C642-C651. (10.​1152/​ajpcell.​00587.​2002). (PMID:12724141).
Amaral Zettler, Linda A., Messerli, Mark A., Laatsch, Abby D, Smith, Peter J.S. and Sogin, Mitchell L. (2003) From genes to genomes: beyond biodiversity in Spain's Rio Tinto. The Biological Bulletin, 204, (2), 205-209. (PMID:12700155).
Liu, Lin, Trimarchi, James R., Smith, Peter J. S. and Keefe, David L. (2002) Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to telomere attrition and genomic instability. Aging Cell, 1, (1), 40-46. (doi:10.1046/j.1474-9728.2002.00004.x).
Twig, Gilad, Malchow, Robert Paul, Hammar, Katherine, Smith, Peter J S, Levy, Hanna and Perlman, Ido (2002) A novel turtle retinal preparation for simultaneously measuring light-induced electrical activity and changes in metabolite levels. Biological Bulletin, 203, (2), 198-200. (PMID:12414576).
Liu, Lin, Trimarchi, James R., Smith, Peter J.S. and Keefe, David L. (2002) Checkpoint for DNA integrity at the first mitosis after oocyte activation. Molecular Reproduction and Development, 62, (2), 277-288. (doi:10.1002/mrd.10094). (PMID:11984839).
Trimarchi, James R., Liu, Lin, Smith, Peter J.S. and Keefe, David L. (2002) Apoptosis recruits two-pore domain potassium channels used for homeostatic volume regulation. American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology, 282, (3), C588-C594. (10.​1152/​ajpcell.​00365.​2001). (PMID:11832344).
Liu, L., Hammar, K., Smith, P.J.S., Inoue, S. and Keefe, D.L. (2001) Mitochondrial modulation of calcium signaling at the initiation of development. Cell Calcium, 30, (6), 423-433. (doi:10.1054/ceca.2001.0251).
Porterfield, D. Marshall, Laskin, Jeffrey D., Jung, Sung-Kwon, Malchow , Robert Paul, Billack, Blase, Smith, Peter J.S. and Heck, Diane E. (2001) Proteins and lipids define the diffusional field of nitric oxide. AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 281, (4), L904-L912.
Twig, Gilad, Jung, Sung-Kwon, Messerli, Mark A., Smith, Peter J.S. and Shirihai, Orian S. (2001) Real-time detection of reactive oxygen intermediates from single microglial cells. Biological Bulletin, 201, (2), 261-262. (PMID:11687412).
Smith, P.J.S., Haydon, P.G., Hengstenberg, A. and Jung, S-K. (2001) Analysis of cellular boundary layers: application of electrochemical microsensors. Electrochimica Acta, 47, (1-2), 283-292. (doi:10.1016/S0013-4686(01)00567-9).
Billack, Blase, Heck, Diane E., Porterfield, D. Marshall, Malchow, R .Paul, Smith, Peter J.S., Gardner, Carol R., Laskin, Debra L. and Laskin, Jeffrey D. (2001) Minimal amidine structure for inhibition of nitric oxide biosynthesis. Biochemical Pharmacology, 61, (12), 1581-1586. (doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(01)00630-X). (PMID:11377388).
Jung, Sung-Kwon, Trimarchi, James R., Sanger, Richard H. and Smith, Peter J. S. (2001) Development and application of a self-referencing glucose microsensor for the measurement of glucose consumption by pancreatic β-cells. Analytical Chemistry, 73, (15), 3759-3767. (doi:10.1021/ac010247u).
Boudko, D.Y., Moroz, L.L., Linser, P.J., Trimarchi, J.R., Smith, P.J. and Harvey, W.R. (2001) In situ analysis of pH gradients in mosquito larvae using non-invasive, self-referencing, pH-sensitive microelectrodes. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 204, part 4, 691-699. (PMID:11171351).
Kumar, Shanta M., Porterfield, D. Marshall, Muller, Kenneth J., Smith, Peter J.S. and Sahley, Christie L. (2001) Nerve injury induces a rapid efflux of nitric oxide (NO) detected with a novel NO microsensor. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, (1), 215-220. (PMID:11150338).
Smith, P.J. and Trimarchi, J. (2001) Noninvasive measurement of hydrogen and potassium ion flux from single cells and epithelial structures. AJP Cell Physiology, 280, (1), C1-C11. (PMID:11121371).
Gleeson, R.A., Hammar, K. and Smith, P.J. (2000) Sustaining olfaction at low salinities: mapping ion flux associated with the olfactory sensilla of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, (20), 3145-3152. (PMID:11003825).
Gleeson, R.A., Hammar, K. and Smith, P.J. (2000) Sustaining olfaction at low salinities: mapping ion flux associated with the olfactory sensilla of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, (20), 3145-3152. (PMID:11003825).
Molina, Anthony J.A., Smith, Peter J.S. and Malchow, Robert Paul (2000) Hydrogen ion fluxes from isolated retinal horizontal cells: modulation by glutamate. The Biological Bulletin, 199, (2), 168-70. (PMID:11081717).
Trimarchi, James R., Liu, Lin, Smith, Peter J.S. and Keefe, David L. (2000) Noninvasive measurement of potassium efflux as an early indicator of cell death in mouse embryos. Biology of Reproduction, 63, (3), 851-857. (doi:10.1095/​biolreprod63.3.851). (PMID:10952931).
Porterfield, D. Marshall, Corkey, Richard F., Sanger, Richard H., Tornheim, Keith, Smith, Peter J.S. and Corkey, Barbara E. (2000) Oxygen consumption oscillates in single clonal pancreatic beta-cells (HIT). Diabetes, 49, (9), 1511-1516. (doi:10.2337/diabetes.49.9.1511). (PMID:10969835).
Herak-Kramberger, Carol M., Sabolić, Ivan, Blanusa, Maja, Smith, Peter J.S., Brown, Dennis and Breton, Sylvie (2000) Cadmium inhibits vacuolar H(+)ATPase-mediated acidification in the rat epididymis. Biology of Reproduction, 63, (2), 599-606. (doi:10.1095/​biolreprod63.2.599). (PMID:10906070).
Trimarchi, James R., Liu, Lin, Porterfield, D. Marshall, Smith, Peter J.S. and Keefe, David L. (2000) Oxidative phosphorylation-dependent and -independent oxygen consumption by individual preimplantation mouse embryos. Biology of Reproduction, 62, (6), 1866-1874. (doi:10.1095/​biolreprod62.6.1866). (PMID:10819794).
Breton, S, Nsumu, N N, Galli, T, Sabolic, I, Smith, P J and Brown, D (2000) Tetanus toxin-mediated cleavage of cellubrevin inhibits proton secretion in the male reproductive tract. AJP Renal Physiology, 278, (5), F717-F725. (PMID:10807583).
Chatterjee, Ani, Marshall Porterfield, D., Smith, Peter S. and Roux, Stanley J. (2000) Gravity-directed calcium current in germinating spores of Ceratopteris richardii. Planta, 210, (4), 607-610. (doi:10.1007/s004250050050).
Serikawa, Kyle A., Porterfield, D. Marshall, Smith, Peter J. S. and Mandoli, Dina F. (2000) Calcification and measurements of net proton and oxygen flux reveal subcellular domains in Acetabularia acetabulum. Planta, 211, (4), 474-483. (doi:10.1007/s004250000318).
Smith, Peter J.S., Hammar, Katherine, Porterfield, D. Marshall, Sanger, Richard H. and Trimarchi, James R. (1999) Self-referencing, non-invasive, ion selective electrode for single cell detection of trans-plasma membrane calcium flux. [in special issue: Calcium Identification] Microscopy Research and Technique, 46, (6), 398-417. (doi:10.1002/(ISSN)1097-0029). (PMID:10504217).
Katoh, K, Hammar, K, Smith, P J and Oldenbourg, R (1999) Arrangement of radial actin bundles in the growth cone of Aplysia bag cell neurons shows the immediate past history of filopodial behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96, (14), 7928-7931. (doi:10.1073/pnas.96.14.7928). (PMID:1608453).
Hill, J.L., Hammar, K., Smith, P.J.S. and Gross, D.J. (1999) Stage-dependent effects of epidermal growth factor on Ca2+ efflux in mouse oocytes. Molecular Reproduction and Development, 53, (2), 244-253. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2795(199906)53:2<244::AID-MRD13>3.0.CO;2-7). (PMID:10331462).
Pepperell, J.R., Kommineni, K., Buradagunta, S., Smith, P.J. and Keefe, D.L. (1999) Transmembrane regulation of intracellular calcium by a plasma membrane sodium/calcium exchanger in mouse ova. Biology of Reproduction, 60, (5), 1137-1143. (doi:10.1095/​biolreprod60.5.1137). (PMID:10208975).
Baikie, I.D., Smith, P.J.S., Porterfield, D.M. and Estrup, P.J. (1999) Multitip scanning bio-Kelvin probe. Review of Scientific Instruments, 70, (3), 1842. (doi:10.1063/1.1149678).
Katoh, Kaoru, Hammar, Katherine, Smith, Peter J.S. and Oldenbourg, Rudolf (1999) Birefringence imaging directly reveals architectural dynamics of filamentous actin in living growth cones. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 10, (1), 197-210. (PMID:8900961).
Land, S.C., Porterfield, D.M., Sanger, R.H. and Smith, P.J. (1999) The self-referencing oxygen-selective microelectrode: Detection of transmembrane oxygen flux from single cells. Journal of Experimental Biology, 202, (2), 211-218. (PMID:9851909).
Malchow, R.P., Verzi, M.P. and Smith, P.J. (1998) Extracellular pH gradients measured from isolated retinal cells. Biological Bulletin, 195, (2), 203-204. (PMID:9818370).
Porterfield, D.M., Trimarchi, J.R., Keefe, D.L. and Smith, P.J. (1998) Characterization of oxygen and calcium fluxes from early mouse embryos and oocytes. Biological Bulletin, 195, (2), 208-209. (PMID:9818373).
Tamse, C.T., Hammar, K., Porterfield, D.M. and Smith, P.J. (1998) Transmembrane calcium flux in Pb+2-exposed Aplysia neurons. Biological Bulletin, 195, (2), 201-202. (PMID:9818369).
Breton, Sylvie, Hammar, Katherine, Smith, Peter J.S. and Brown, Dennis (1998) Proton secretion in the male reproductive tract: involvement of Cl--independent HCO-3 transport. AJP Cell Physiology, 275, (4), C1134-C1142. (PMID:9755067).
Smith, Peter J.S. (1998) Review: Nervous System Regeneration in the Invertebrates. by Stacia B. Moffett. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 73, (1), 108.
Yamoah, Ebenezer N., Lumpkin, Ellen A., Dumont, Rachel A., Smith, Peter J.S., Hudspeth, A.J. and Gillespie, Peter G. (1998) Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase extrudes Ca2+ from hair cell stereocilia. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, (2), 610-624. (PMID:9425003).
Katoh, K., Langford, G., Hammar, K., Smith, P.J. and Oldenbourg, R. (1997) Actin bundles in neuronal growth cone observed with the Pol-Scope. Biological Bulletin, 193, (2), 219-220. (PMID:9390389).
Malchow, R.P., Land, S.C., Patel, L.S. and Smith, P.J.S. (1997) Consumption of oxygen by isolated skate retinal photoreceptors. Biological Bulletin, 192, (2), 231-232.
Land, S.C., Sanger, R.H. and Smith, P.J. (1997) O2 availability modulates transmembrane Ca2+ flux via second-messenger pathways in anoxia-tolerant hepatocytes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 82, (3), 776-783. (PMID:9074963).
Brown, D., Smith, P.J. and Breton, S. (1997) Role of V-ATPase-rich cells in acidification of the male reproductive tract. Journal of Experimental Biology, 200, (2), 257-262. (PMID:9050233).
Pelc, Radak, Smith, Peter J.S. and Ashley, Christopher C. (1996) In vivo recording of calcium fluxes accompanying 'catch' contraction of molluscan smooth muscle. Journal of Physiology, 497.P, 41-41.
Smith, Peter J.S. and Howes, Elizabeth A. (1996) Long-term culture of fully differentiated adult insect neurons. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 69, (1), 113-122. (doi:10.1016/S0165-0270(96)00026-X).
Kuzirian, A.M., Child, F.M., Epstein, H.T., Smith, P.J.S. and Tamse, C.T. (1996) Lead affects learning by Hermissenda crassicornis. Biological Bulletin, 191, (2), 260-261.
Malchow, R.P. and Smith, P.J.S. (1996) Ion fluxes from skate retinal horizontal cells measured using self-referencing ion-selective electrodes. Biological Bulletin, 191, (2), 261-262.
Knox, R.J., Jonas, E.A., Kao, L.S., Smith, P.J., Connor, J.A. and Kaczmarek, L.K. (1996) Ca2+ influx and activation of a cation current are coupled to intracellular Ca2+ release in peptidergic neurons of Aplysia californica. Journal of Physiology, 494, (3), 627-639. (PMID:1316764).
Smith, Peter J.S. (1995) Non-invasive ion probes — tools for measuring transmembrane ion flux. Nature, 378, (6557), 645-646. (doi:10.1038/378645a0).
Devlin, C.L. and Smith, P.J.S. (1995) Acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ flux across the sarcolemma of an echinoderm smooth muscle. Biological Bulletin, 189, (2), 207. (PMID:8541403).
Smith, P.J., Hammar, K. and Tytell, M. (1995) Effects of exogenous heat shock protein (hsp70) on neuronal calcium flux. Biological Bulletin, 189, (2), 209-210. (PMID:8541405).
Keefe, D., Pepperell, J., Rinaudo, P., Kunkel, J. and Smith, Peter J.S. (1995) Identification of calcium flux in single preimplantation mouse embryos with the calcium-sensitive vibrating probe. Biological Bulletin, 189, (2), 200.
Kunkel, J G and Smith, P J (1994) Three-dimensional calibration of the non-invasive ion probe, NVP(i), of steady ionic currents. Biological Bulletin, 187, (2), 271-272. (PMID:7529056).
Hill, S.D., Shipley, A.M. and Smith, P.J. (1994) Ionic fluxes during wound healing following segment amputation in sabellid fanworms. Biological Bulletin, 187, (2), 253-254. (PMID:7529055).
Tamse, C.T., Smith, P.J., Aloulou, A., Epstein, H.T. and Kuzirian, A.M. (1994) Lead toxicity in Hermissenda crassicornis embryos and cultured neurons. Biological Bulletin, 187, (2), 251-252. (PMID:7811805).
Yamoah, E. and Smith, P.J. (1994) Second messenger modulation of steady-state calcium efflux in Aplysia bag cells. Biological Bulletin, 187, (2), 270. (PMID:7811820).
Duthie, G.G., Shipley, A. and Smith, P.J.S. (1994) Use of a vibrating electrode to measure changes in calcium fluxes across the cell membranes of oxidatively challenged Aplysia nerve cells. Free Radical Research, 20, (5), 307-313.
Hill, S.D., Shipley, A.M. and Smith, P.J.S. (1993) Endogenous currents during wound healing and regeneration in Sabellid Fanworms. Biological Bulletin, 185, (2), 303-304.
Smith, P.J.S., Duthie, G.G., Shipley, A. and Tytell , M. (1993) Steady-state calcium efflux from aplysia neurons: Perturbation by H202 and protection by stress protein, HSP70. Biological Bulletin, 185, (2), 293-294.
Pierson, E.S., Smith, P.J.S., Shipley, A.M., Jaffe, L.F., Cresti, M. and Hepler, P.K. (1993) Ca2+ fluxes around pollen grains and pollen tubes of Lily; Normal development and effects of thermal shock, BAPTA-type buffer microinjection and depletion of boric acid from the medium. Biological Bulletin, 185, (2), 302-303.
Newland, N.L., Smith, P.J.S. and Howes, E.A. (1993) Regenerating adult cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurones in vitro retain their in vivo membrane characteristics. Journal of Experimental Biology, 179, (1), 323-329.
Miller, A.L., Smith, P.J.S., Rainville, C.A., Shimomura, O., Strumwasser, F. and Jaffe, L.F. (1991) Imaging free calcium in cultured aplysia bag cell neurons. Biological Bulletin, 181, (2), 325.
Howes, E.A., Cheek, T.R. and Smith, P.J.S. (1991) Long-term growth in vitro of isolated, fully differentiated neurones from the central nervous system of an adult insect. Journal of Experimental Biology, 156, (1), 591-606. (PMID:2051137).
Smith, P.J. and Shipley, A. (1990) Regional variation in the current flow across an insect blood-brain barrier. Journal of Experimental Biology, 154, 371-382. (PMID:2277262).
Smith, P.J., Howes, E.A. and Treherne, J.E. (1990) Cell proliferation in the repairing adult insect central nervous system: incorporation of the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine in vivo. Journal of Cell Science, 95, (4), 599-604. (PMID:2384529).
Wells, M.J., Duthie, G.G., Houlihan, D.F., Smith, P.J.S. and Wells, J. (1987) Blood flow and pressure changes in exercising Octopuses (Octopus Vulgaris). Journal of Experimental Biology, 131, 175-187.
Smith, P.J., Howes, E.A. and Treherne, J.E. (1987) Mechanisms of glial regeneration in an insect central nervous system. Journal of Experimental Biology, 132, 59-78. (PMID:3323407).
Smith, P.J.S. and HILL, R.B. (1987) Modulation of output from an isolated gastropod heart: Effects of acetylcholine and FMRFamide. Journal of Experimental Biology, 127, 105-120.
Smith, P.J.S., Duthie, G.G., Wells, M.J. and Houlihan, D.F. (1985) Short Communication: Continuous Recording of Arterial Blood PO2 in Octopus Vulgaris During Progressive Hypoxia and Movement. Journal of Experimental Biology, 117, (1), 475-479.
Wells, M.J. and Smith, P.J.S. (1985) The ventilation cycle in Octopus. Journal of Experimental Biology, 116, 375-383.
Treherne, J.E., Smith, P.J. and Leech, C.A. (1984) Glial repair in an insect central nervous system: effects of selective glial disruption. Journal of Neuroscience, 4, (11), 2698-2711. (PMID:6502199).
Smith, P.J. and Howes, E.A. (1984) Glial toxin effect on protein synthesis in an insect connective. Journal of Cell Science, 70, 83-92. (PMID:6501439).
Smith, P.J.S. (1982) The contribution of the branchial heart to the accessory branchial pump in the Octopoda. Journal of Experimental Biology, 98, (1), 229-237.

Book Section

Messerli, Mark A. and Smith, Peter J.S. (2010) Construction, theory, and practical considerations for using self-referencing of Ca2+-selective microelectrodes for monitoring extracellular Ca2+ gradients. In, Whitaker, Michael (ed.) Calcium in Living Cells. , Elsevier, 91-111.
Messerli, M.A., Robinson, K.R. and Smith, P.J.S. (2006) Electrochemical sensor applications to the study of molecular physiology and analyte flux in plants. In, Volkov, Alexander G. (ed.) Plant Electrophysiology: Theory and Methods. Berlin, DE, Springer-Verlag, 4.1-4.5.
 

Research

Research Interests

My interests lie in monitoring cells, in health and disease, by targeting the dynamics of living systems. In particular, I’ve been interested in following cell activity non-invasively by sampling chemical profiles in the unstirred layers surrounding single cells and tissues. The unstirred layer is surprisingly deep. In still culture medium estimates range up to 300m and even in flowing medium this layer can be 10s of microns in depth. There is ample volume for establishing chemical gradients in the boundary layers that result from cell activity and ample space for deploying electrochemical sensors of micron diameters within these layers. Chemical signals are quite strong, particularly when backgrounds and/or competing chemicals are low in activity. However, instabilities in the electrode and the recording circuit frequently prevent extraction of useful data. Here a modulation technique, termed self-referencing, comes into play. With this technique an electrochemical microelectrode records chemically dependent signals at two positions and a differential is calculated. This results in a 1000 fold improvement in resolution over the same electrode in a static configuration. Both potentiometric and amperometric sensors can be used, delivering high spatial and temporal fidelity. (See Smith et al. 2010 Bioessays 32 514-523).

Current Research

Current research aims to explore opportunities unique to Southampton.

  • Non-invasive sensing of cell dynamics
    Single cells are addressed using novel methods in cell manipulation, light and electrochemistry.
  • Manipulating cell metabolism
    Building on recent studies with hippocampal neurons (see below) further work targets the metabolism of cancer cells.
  • Providing resources for cell observation
    Transferred technology opens access to researchers for self-referencing measurements built around a spinning disc confocal and electrophysiology platform.

Case studies

Case studies illustrate the strength of the microsensor approach and two examples are given below. References covering ion transport, as well as oxygen, nitric oxide, glucose, lactate and others, can be found in: Smith et al.  (2007) Principles, Development and Applications of Self-Referencing Electrochemical Microelectrodes to the Determination of Fluxes at Cell Membranes. In: Methods and New Frontiers in Neuroscience. Ed. Adrian C. Michael.  CRC Press. Chapter 18

Case Study 1: Oxygen consumption from identified neurons in culture
In collaboration with investigators at Yale and Johns Hopkins, micro-oxygen electrodes were used to monitor metabolism in identified transfected hippocampal neurons. Monitoring single neurons, expressing Bcl-xL, showed novel metabolic regulation through the interaction of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL with the mitochondrial F1FO ATP synthase. Healthy neurons use Bcl-xL to produce a different kind of metabolic efficiency. The changes in metabolism produced by Bcl-xL may also enhance resistance to pathological stressors including hypoxia and substrate deprivation. Further, Bcl-xL may also maintain cytosolic ATP levels in the face of the increased energy demand during  synaptic development, and long- or short-term changes in synaptic plasticity. These data indicate that increased mitochondrial efficiency contributes to the enhanced synaptic efficacy found in Bcl-xL-expressing neurons. (Alavian, K. et al. 2011. Nat Cell Biol 13(10), 1224-1233. See also; Li, H. et al. 2008 Bcl-xL induces Drp1-dependent synapse formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 2169-2174).

Case Study 2: Proton pumping in the epididymis
With collaborators at Harvard and Massachusetts General Hospital we focussed on the mechanisms behind the acidification of fluid in the epididymis. This was an in vitro tissue study where a potentiometric hydrogen selective microelectrode was scanned across the surface of an excised and opened section from the epididymis. Our studies rapidly identified a role for the vacuolar-type proton ATPase (Breton et al. 1996 Nat . Med. 2, 470-472). The ion selective microelectrode then became a workhorse approach to testing the functional impact of various treatments, delivering an ever more refined understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying pump function and trafficking. The study recently culminated in demonstrating that transepithelial projections from basal cells function as luminal sensors in pseudostratified epithelia, modulating epithelial function by a mechanism involving crosstalk with other epithelial cells (Shum et al. 2008 Cell 135, 1108-1117).

PhD Supervision

Ishna Mistry Dept of Chemistry, University of Southampton. The project title is "Tolerating Hypoxia in Rapidly Growing Cells: Parallels between cancer and development"

Primary research group:  Institute for Life Sciences (IfLS)

Affiliate research group:  Imaging in the Nanodomain

Research project

Grant - Charting Intercellular Space

The principal aim of this project is to demonstrate sensing in the extracellular/intercellular space using functionalized quantum dots. Spatial and temporal information on intercellular concentrations will allow us to study how analyte concentrations in the EICS are linked to physiological status.

Contributions

University of Southampton

2013-2015: Principal Investigator on BBSRC Sparking Impact Competition entitled: Excellence with Impact. £26,539 (Direct)
2013-2014: Co-Principal Investigator on Southampton Imaging: 3D Imaging at millimetre to nanometre scales for regenerative medicine using multiple complimentary modalities. With Richard Oreffo (PI) Medicine, Anton Page ( Medicine), Peter Lackie ( Medicine), Ian Sinclair ( Engineering). MRC Award £1.171M - Capital Equipment for Regenerative Medicine.
2013-2014: Principal Investigator on University of Southampton Enterprise Fund, Nanoscope: Translation to biomedical applications and markets. Co-Is. Dr John Chad (FNES) Dr Tracey Newman (F0M). Advisor N. Zheludev (FPAS). £89,000.
2013-2014: Co-Principal Investigator on EPSRC Laser-printable point-of-care sensors for low-cost medical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Principal Investigator, Prof. Robert Eason, Optoelectronics Research Centre, Co-Investigators Dr Spiros Garbis Cancer Sciences, Dr Saul Faust Medicine, Researcher-Co-Investigator Dr Collin Lawrence. £232,528 (FEC), £186,022 (EPSRC).
2012-present: Co-supervisor with Ali Tavassoli of PhD student Ishna Mistry, Dept of Chemistry, University of Southampton. The project title is "Tolerating Hypoxia in Rapidly Growing Cells: Parallels between cancer and development"
2012-present: Chair, Life Sciences Building Operations Group, University of Southampton, UK.
2012-present: Chair, Management Group, Wessex Life Science Alliance.
2012-present: Member, Faculty Health and Safety review group.
2011-present: Member, Faculty of Physical and Applied Sciences Faculty Research Committee.
2011-present: Member, Faculty of Medicine Research Management Committee.
2011-present: Member, Centre for Biological Sciences Research Management Committee.
2011-present: Professor of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Southampton, UK.
2011-present: Director, Institute for Life Sciences (IfLS), University of Southampton, UK.
2011-present: Appointed Trustee, Southampton University representative, Board, Wessex Medical Research, UK.

Professional Contributions

2013-present: Visiting Fellow, Marine Biological Association, Plymouth, UK.
2011-2014: Co-Principal Investigator on Australian Research Council Discovery Project (DP120104035): Charting Intercellular Space, M. H. Todd, P. J. Rutledge and P. J. Smith ($348K) Univ. of Sydney, Australia.
2011-present: Adjunct Senior Scientist, Cellular Dynamics Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, USA
2011-present: Representative, University of Southampton, Euro-Bioimaging Project, UK.
2008-present: Visiting Professor, Dept. of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
2008-present: Advisory Committee, Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia, USA.
1999-present: Consultant, CIR Biomedical Technology and Engineering, Falmouth, USA.

Professional Memberships

2012-present: Member, Joint Research Strategy Board, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton, UK.
2012-present: Member, Health and Pharma, University Industrial Sector Team, University of Southampton, UK.
2012-present: Board member, Zepler Institute, University of Southampton, UK.

Contact

Professor Peter J S Smith
Institute for Life Sciences (IfLS)
University of Southampton
Life Sciences Building 85, Highfield
Southampton, SO17 1BJ

Room Number: 85/3011

Telephone: (023) 8059 6701
Email: P.J.Smith@soton.ac.uk