Centre for Biological Sciences

Sarah Louise Warnes

BSc, Phd

Primary position:
Research Fellow (Copper Development)


The University of Southampton
Dr Sarah Louise Warnes's photo

Career history

2008-present: Research Fellow. University of Southampton, UK.
2007-2014: Learning Support Assistant. Enabling Services (P/T), University of Southampton, UK.
2004-2007: Research Assistant. University of Southampton, UK.
1994-2003: Research Assistant. University of Southampton, UK.
1985-1987: Research Assistant. University of Southampton, UK.
1982-1985: Project Leader. Xoma (UK) Ltd.
1980-1982: Research Assistant. University of Leeds, UK..

Academic qualifications

2008-2013: PhD. University of Southampton, UK.
1977-1980: BSc. University of Leeds, UK.


The University of Southampton's electronic library (e-prints)


Warnes, Sarah L., Summersgill, Emma N. and Keevil, C William (2015) Inactivation of murine norovirus on a range of copper alloy surfaces is accompanied by loss of capsid integrity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81, (3), 1085-1091. (doi:10.1128/AEM.03280-14). (PMID:25452290).
Warnes, Sarah L. and Keevil, C. William (2013) Inactivation of norovirus on dry copper alloy surfaces. PLoS ONE, 8, (9), 1-9. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075017). (PMID:24040380).
Warnes, S. L., Highmore, C. J. and Keevil, C. W. (2012) Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes on abiotic touch surfaces: implications for public health. mBio, 3, (6), e00489-[12 pages]. (doi:10.1128/mBio.00489-12).
Warnes, S.L. and Keevil, C.W. (2011) Mechanism of copper surface toxicity in vancomycin-resistant enterococci following wet or dry surface contact. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77, (17), 6049-6059. (doi:10.1128/AEM.00597-11). (PMID:21742916).
Keevil, B. and Warnes, S. (2011) New insights into the antimicrobial mechanisms of copper touch surfaces. BMC Proceedings, 5, supplement 6, P39. (doi:10.1186/1753-6561-5-S6-P39).
Warnes, S.L., Gree, S.M., Michels, H.T. and Keevil, C.W. (2010) Biocidal efficacy of copper alloys against pathogenic enterococci involves degradation of genomic and plasmid DNAs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76, (16), 5390-5401. (doi:10.1128/AEM.03050-09). (PMID:20581191).
Flavell, David J., Warnes, Sarah L., Bryson, Christine J., Field, Sarah A., Noss, Armorel L., Packham, Graham and Flavell, Sopsamorn U. (2006) The anti-CD20 antibody rituximab augments the immunospecific therapeutic effectiveness of an anti-CD19 immunotoxin directed against human B-cell lymphoma. British Journal of Haematology, 134, (2), 157-170. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2006.06155.x). (PMID:16771848).
Flavell, D.J., Boehm, D.A., Noss, A., Warnes, S.L. and Flavell, S.U. (2001) Therapy of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with a combination of anti-CD7 and anti-CD38-SAPORIN immunotoxins is significantly better than therapy with each individual immunotoxin. British Journal of Cancer, 84, (4), 571-578. (doi:10.1054/bjoc.2000.1633). (PMID:11207056).
Flavell, D.J., Warnes, S.L., Noss, A.L. and Flavell, S.U. (2000) Anti-CD7 antibody and immunotoxin treatment of human CD7+T-cell leukaemia is significantly less effective in NOD/LtSz-scid mice than in CB.17 scid mice. British Journal of Cancer, 83, (12), 1755-1761. (doi:10.1054/bjoc.2000.1565). (PMID:11104577).
Davies, D. E., Farmer, S., White, J. K., Senior, P. V., Warnes, S. L. and Alexander, P. (1994) Contribution of host-derived growth factors to in vivo growth of a transplantable murine mammary carcinoma. British Journal of Cancer, 70, (2), 263-269. (doi:10.1038/bjc.1994.290). (PMID:8054274).
Sweetenham, J.W., Davies, D.E., Warnes, S. and Alexander, P (1990) Urinary epidermal growth factor (hEGF) levels in patients with carcinomas of the breast, colon and rectum. British Journal of Cancer, 62, (3), 459-461. (doi:10.1038/bjc.1990.318). (PMID:2206955).

Book Section

Warnes, S. and Keevil, C.W. (2003) Survival of Cryptosporidium parvum in faecal wastes and salad crops. In, Duffy, G. (ed.) Cryptosporidium parvum in Food and Water. Dublin, IE, Teagasc, 15-24.


Weaver, Louise, Keevil, C. William and Warnes, Sarah L. Horizontal Hygeine (2005) Critical review on: feasibility of horizontal standard rapid method for detection of Clostridium perfringens and enterococci in sludges, soil, soil improvers, growing media and biowastes. Southampton, GB, University of Southampton, 135pp. (Horizontal Standards on Hygienic Microbiological parameters for Implementation of EU Directives on Sludge, Soil and Treated Biowastes, HOR-HYG WP 2/2).
Warnes, Sarah L. and Keevil, C. William Horizontal Hygeine (2004) Desk studies on feasibility of horizontal standard rapid methods for detection of Clostridium perfringens and enterococci in sludges, soil, soil improvers, growing media and biowastes. Southampton, GB, University of Southampton, 50pp. (Work Package 3, Task 4).
Warnes, Sarah L. and Keevil, C. William Horizontal Hygeine (2004) Desk studies on feasibility of horizontal standard rapid methods for detection of E. coli (including E. coli O157) and Salmonella. Southampton, GB, University of Southampton, 53pp. (Work Package 3, Task 3B).


Warnes, Sarah Louise (2014) Laboratory studies to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of action of copper alloys to kill a range of bacterial pathogens and inactivate norovirus. University of Southampton, Biological Sciences, Doctoral Thesis , 156pp.


Research Interests

  • Viral glycoproteins
  • Development of diagnostic kits for the detection of microbial pathogens
  • Production of immunotoxins in the treatment of childhood leukaemia
  • Investigating the incidence of protozoan parasites and bacterial pathogens in biowastes and the subsequent risk of infection and contamination of the human food chain.
  • Potential benefits of fish oils in pregnancy
  • The use of antimicrobial surfaces in high risk clinical and community environments to reduce infection spread and horizontal gene transfer which has led to the evolution of multi-drug-resistant pathogens.
  • The mechanism of dry surface copper toxicity against microbial pathogens including the role of copper ionic and reactive oxygen species, and also identification of the physiological targets.
  • Norovirus persistence in the environment.

Research supervised by Professor Bill Keevil

Primary research group:  Environmental Biosciences

Research project

Antimicrobial copper: Biocidal efficacy and killing mechanism of copper and copper alloy dry surfaces against bacterial and viral pathogens

Touch surfaces are an important conduit for transmission of bacteria, viruses and fungi, leading to mass outbreaks of disease in the community and healthcare acquired infections by multiple antibiotic resistant microorganisms causing great morbidity and mortality.


University of Southampton

Supervision and design of laboratory research projects for final year Biological Sciences undergraduates.
2011: Supervision of medical students undertaking laboratory project.


Dr Sarah Louise Warnes
Centre for Biological Sciences Faculty of Natural & Environmental Sciences Life Sciences Building 85 University of Southampton Highfield Campus Southampton SO17 1BJ

Room Number: 85/4041