BIOL3067 Evolution and Development
This module will deliver a comprehensive analysis of the topics associated with evolutionary developmental biology. This will involve exploring the theory of evolution; embryology and molecular pathways of development; what the fossil record tells us about development and the timings of emergence of species, body plans and morphological characters; how this can be used to produce trees elucidating evolutionary relationships. This module will link traditional 19th century topics of evolutionary theory and embryology with 21st century insights from phylogenetics, developmental and molecular biology and palaeontology
Aims and Objectives
The aim of this module is to provide students with a research level understanding of various topics in evolutionary developmental biology. ‘Evo-devo' is a discipline that involves tackling subjects including classical evolutionary theory, embryology, palaeontology, molecular biology and phylogenetics. All of these topics will be covered in the course of this module. This will elucidate the relationships of organisms as diverse as jellyfish and chickens, and will develop an understanding of the mechanism of natural selection both at the molecular and organismal level. Students will appreciate how the regulation of gene networks affects phenotype and how this can have micro and macro evolutionary effects. Students will learn about the importance of the fossil record for providing soft minimum and maximum dates for species divergence and appearance of novel morphological characters, and also see what the fossil record of development tells us about the evolution of body plans during the most rapid radiation of forms, the Cambrian Explosion. This module will also provide a broad understanding of development in a number of taxa both vertebrate and invertebrate, from fertilisation to hatching/birth.
Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:
- Describe the relationship between evolution and development.
- Outline the approaches used to detect phylogenetic relationships using the range of techniques and tools available.
- Describe the developmental patterns and function of toolkit genes Hox and Pax6 in model organisms.
- Describe how gene regulation plays a key role in evolution.
- Explain the role of gene co-option in evolution eg. Hox in anterior-posterior patterning (ancestral) and its co-option to patterning the tetrapod limb.
- Describe how signalling molecules contribute to the development of the body plan.
- Explain how the fossil record allows soft minimum/maximum dates to be applied to species divergence and the appearance of morphological characters
Lecture titles for BIOL3*** Evolution and Development 1. Introduction, Darwin to development 2. What is Evo-Devo? 3. Development, cells and molecules 4. Natural populations 5. Mutation and developmental repatterning 6. Heterochrony 7. Heterotopy 8. Heterometry 9. Heterotypy 10. The integrative nature of repatterning 11. Mapping repatterning to trees 12. adaptation, coadaptation and exaptation 13. Developmental bias and constraint 14. Developmental genes and evolution 15. Gene co-option as an evolutionary mechanism 16. Developmental plasticity and evolution 17. The origin of species, novelties and body plans 18. The evolution of complexity 19. Key concepts and connections 20. The future
Element of Flip Learning 100% coursework-assessed • Students write an essay on a 1 of 2 topics. • Peer review: students review/critique (but not mark/grade) another students essay, on the topic that differs from their own essay. • 5 minute video podcast on contemporary topic in Evo-Devo. Each element of the course work is equally weighted in contribution to the grade for the module.
Learning and Teaching
Teaching and learning methods
The module is delivered principally via lectures taking their titles from Evolution a developmental approach, by Wallace Arthur (2011), supported by informal discussions with lecturers and independent study of recommended reading material. Lectures will take the title of chapter in the book, which should be read before the lecture (element of flip learning). The lecture will then elaborate on the topic of that chapter, or examine exciting developments in the field around the topic.
|Wider reading or practice||130|
|Total study time||150|
Resources & Reading list
Arthur, W (2011). Evolution a developmental approach.
Costs associated with this module
Students are responsible for meeting the cost of essential textbooks, and of producing such essays, assignments, laboratory reports and dissertations as are required to fulfil the academic requirements for each programme of study.
In addition to this, students registered for this module typically also have to pay for:
Books and Stationery equipment
Students will need to obtain the key text Arthur, W., 2011, Evolution a developmental approach, Wiley-Blackwell (approx £45 for the paperback, £42.71 Kindle edition from amazon.co.uk; £49 paperback, £44 e-book from Wiley Blackwell)
Please also ensure you read the section on additional costs in the University’s Fees, Charges and Expenses Regulations in the University Calendar available at www.calendar.soton.ac.uk.