The University of Southampton
Medicine

Professor Cyrus Cooper OBE, MA, DM, FRCP, FFPH, FMedSci

Director of the MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, Vice Dean, Professor of Rheumatology, Honorary Consultant Rheumatologist

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Cyrus Cooper is Professor of Rheumatology and Director of the MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit; Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton; and Professor of Epidemiology at the Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford.

Professor Cooper graduated from the University of Cambridge and St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London in 1980, and completed his residency in 1985 at the Southampton University Hospitals. In 1990, he won an MRC Travelling Fellowship to the Mayo Clinic, USA, where he continued his research in osteoporosis. He returned to the UK in 1992 to take up a position as Senior Lecturer in Rheumatology and MRC Senior Clinical Scientist. He was promoted to the foundation Chair in Rheumatology at the University of Southampton in 1997 while continuing as an MRC Senior Clinical Scientist at the MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit; in 2003 he was appointed Director of the MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton. In 2010, this was reconfigured as the MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit; quinquennial funding has been extended from 2015 to 2020.

Professor Cooper leads an internationally competitive programme of research into the epidemiology of musculoskeletal disorders, most notably osteoporosis. His key research contributions have been: 1) discovery of the developmental influences which contribute to the risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture in late adulthood; 2) demonstration that maternal vitamin D insufficiency is associated with sub-optimal bone mineral accrual in childhood; 3) characterisation of the definition and incidence rates of vertebral fractures; 4) leadership of large pragmatic randomised controlled trials of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in the elderly as immediate preventative strategies against hip fracture.

Professor Cooper is Chairman of the Committee of Scientific Advisors, International Osteoporosis Foundation; Chair of the Arthritis Research UK Clinical Studies Initiative; Chair of the BHF Project Grants Committee; Vice-Dean at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton Medical School; an NIHR Senior Investigator; and Associate Editor of Osteoporosis International. He has previously served as Chairman of the MRC Population Health Sciences Research Network; Chairman of the National Osteoporosis Society of Great Britain; past-President of the Bone Research Society of Great Britain; and has worked on numerous Department of Health, European Community and World Health Organisation committees and working groups. He has published extensively (over 750 research papers) on osteoporosis and rheumatic disorders and pioneered clinical studies on the developmental origins of peak bone mass. In 2015, he was awarded an OBE for services to medical research.

Qualifications

BA (Hons), Medical Sciences, Cambridge (1977)
MBBS, Medicine, London (1980)
MA, Medical Sciences, Cambridge (1983)
MRCP (UK), Medicine, London (1983)
DM, Epidemiology, University of Southampton (1989)
FRCP (UK), Medicine, London (1996)
FMedSci, Medical Sciences, London (2000)
FFPH, Medicine, London (2005)

Appointments held

MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton: Clinical Scientist/Senior Lecturer 1992 - 1997

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA: MRC Travelling Fellow/Assistant Prof. 1990 - 1992

Bristol Royal Infirmary: Senior Registrar in Rheumatology 1988 - 1990

Highly cited

Research

Responsibilities

Publications

Teaching

Contact

Research interests

Professor Cooper established and continues to lead a directly funded MRC research programme into the Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Disease. The programme focuses on the following areas: (a) the epidemiology, pathophysiology and prevention of osteoporosis; (b) the epidemiology and natural history of osteoarthritis; (c) the occupational and environmental determinants of soft tissue rheumatic disorders (low back pain and neck/upper limb pain).

The osteoporosis research programme has three broad objectives: (1) to delineate the extent to which the risk of osteoporosis in late adulthood might be programmed by environmental influences during intrauterine and early postnatal life, and to characterize the mechanisms whereby such programming might occur; (2) to characterize the descriptive epidemiology of vertebral and limb fractures; (3) to evaluate the roles of calcium and Vitamin D supplementation in the elderly as immediate preventative strategies against hip fracture.

The two most significant examples of the relevance of this research to patient care and the public health are: (1) the discovery that maternal Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with reduced bone mass in the offspring (Javaid MK et al. Maternal Vitamin D Status During Pregnancy and Childhood Bone Mass at Age 9 Years: A longitudinal study. Lancet 2006;367:36-43). This discovery had a major influence on public health policy (NICE Guidelines on Maternal Nutrition) through a recommendation to optimize vitamin D status during pregnancy; (2) the demonstration that oral vitamin D3 and calcium alone, are ineffective in the secondary prevention of low trauma fractures in elderly people (Grant A et al. Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or Vitamin D, RECORD): A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;365:1621-1628).

Other examples of how research findings have translated into improvements in health care and public health include:

(a) Accurate characterisation of the risk of fracture among men and women using oral glucocorticoids in the United Kingdom (van Staa TP et al. Use of oral corticosteroids and risk of fractures. J Bone Min Res 2000;15:pp 993-1000). This highly cited manuscript had a major influence on national guidance (Royal College of Physicians, UK) for the prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

(b) Water fluoridation and risk of osteoporotic fracture (Hillier S, Cooper C, Kellingray S, Russell G, Hughes H, Coggon D. Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: A case control study. Lancet 2000;355:265-270). This large study comprised a response to Parliamentary Questions addressing the safety of water fluoridation. It clearly demonstrated that there was no excess risk of osteoporotic fracture associated with fluoridation of drinking water up to 1ppm (part per million) in the United Kingdom.

(c) Occupational physical activity and the risk of hip and knee osteoarthritis (Coggon D et al. Osteoarthritis of the hip and occupational lifting. Am J Epidemiol 1998;147:532-528; Cooper C et al. Risk factors for the incidence and progression of radiographic knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2000;43:995-1000). These studies led to alteration in guidance from the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council listing osteoarthritis as an occupational hazard.

(d) Developmental origins of osteoporosis and fracture (Cooper C et al. Osteoporosis 2001;12:623-629; Dennison EM et al. Paediatric Research 2005;57:582-586; Javaid MK et al. J Bone Min Res 2006;21:508-512; Harvey NC et al. J Endocrinol Metab 2008; in press; and Gluckman PD et al. Developmental pathways to future health and disease. New Engl J Med 2008;359:61-73). This body of research confirmed the developmental origins of osteoporosis and fracture; identified potential physiological mechanisms; and informed on potential intervention strategies which are now the basis of randomised controlled trials.

(e) Detection of novel genetic loci for osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, obesity/type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Williams FM et al. Arthritis Rheum 2011;63:708-712; Wang TJ et al. Lancet 2010;376:180-188; Nature Genetics 2010;42:142-148; Repapi E et al. Nature Genetics 2010;42:36-44).

For more information on the work of the MRC LEU, please visit
www.mrc.soton.ac.uk

 

Academic unit(s)

Human Development and Health Academic Units

Affiliate academic unit(s)

Human development and physiology Research group

Research project(s)

COntinuous, Mobile Patient Assessment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (COMPARA)

Acupuncture for Back Pain: Evaluating Patient Outcomes and Their Determinants

Identification of perinatal epigenetic markers of later phenotype

Professor Cooper established and led the Bone and Joint Research Programme at the MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, from 1992-2003. Following the retirement of Professor David Barker in 2003, the Unit was reconfigured as an MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, under Professor Cooper’s direction, and in 2010, established as the MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit and quinquennial funding extended to 2015. The Unit will continue as an international centre of excellence in epidemiological research which: (a) maintains and develops the long-term cohort studies assembled in Southampton as national resources to explore the developmental origins of adult disease; (b) supports directly funded MRC research programmes into the epidemiology of musculoskeletal ageing; metabolic disorders (obesity and type II diabetes mellitus); and occupational health; (c) permits flexible research support for MRC epidemiological resources and facilities, as needs and opportunities emerge. The Resource Centre was reviewed in December 2009, with successful funding (£14.4 million) obtained for the quinquennium 2010 to 2015.

In 2007, Professor Cooper was appointed to the Chair of Musculoskeletal Sciences, at the University of Oxford; and holds this position concurrently with Directorship of the MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit at the University of Southampton, with our future programmes developing to include research into the aetiology and outcome of osteoarthritis and lower limb arthroplasty. In March 2008, Professor Cooper was co-Principal Investigator on two successful NIHR Biomedical Research Unit bids (Nutrition, Southampton; and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Oxford). His research income over the last quinquennium includes intramural Medical Research Council support to the Epidemiology Resource Centre (£9.8 million); together with adjunctive programme and project grant support from the ARC, BHF, FSA, Colt Foundation, and Research into Ageing (total £4.6 million).

Other senior academic responsibilities include the Chair of the MRC Population Health Sciences Research Network; Chair of the Committee of Scientific Advisers, International Osteoporosis Foundation; and Membership of the BHF Chairs and Programme Grants Committee.

Supervision of Postgraduate Research

1. PhD thesis. Water fluoridation and hip fracture. Dr Sharon Hillier.
2. DM thesis. Occupational risk factors for meniscal injury. Dr Paul Baker, Faculty of Occupational Medicine.
3. PhD thesis. Growth in infancy and bone loss in adulthood. Dr Elaine Dennison, Wellcome Research Fellow.
4. PhD thesis. Prevalence and impact of disorders of the neck and upper limb. Dr Karen Walker-Bone, ARC Clinical Research Fellow.
5. PhD thesis. Diagnostic classification of disorders of the upper limb. Dr Isabel Reading, Colt Research Fellow.
6. PhD thesis. Maternal body composition, nutrition, and bone growth in the neonate. Dr M. Kassim Javaid, ARC Clinical Research Fellow.
7. MD thesis. Health status of adults with chronic arthritis since childhood: a clinical, functional and psychosocial assessment. Dr Jonathan Packham, Faculty of Medicine.
8. PhD thesis. Early life determinants of skeletal growth in children: a longitudinal study. Dr Nicholas Harvey, MRC Clinical Research Fellow.
9. PhD thesis. Diet, physical activity and bone development. Dr Zoe Cole.
10. PhD thesis. Physical performance in older people. Dr Helen Martin.
11. PhD thesis. Developmental origins of sarcopenia. Dr Harnish Patel.

Senior Academic Responsibilities

(2006 to current)

1. Associate Director of Clinical Research, University of Southampton School of Medicine, 2006-current.
2. Professional Practice Committee, American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 2003-2007.
3. Member, Scientific Programme Committee, World Congress on Osteoporosis, 2004-2006.
4. Chair, Scientific Programme Committee, World Congress on Osteoporosis, 2008-current.
5. Member, BHF Chairs and Programme Grants Committee, 2003-2008.
6. MRC Representative, Specialist Training Authority of the Medical Royal Colleges, 2004-2007.
7. Chairman, Board of Trustees of the National Osteoporosis Society of Great Britain, 2003-2007.
8. Member, Academic Careers Committee, Academy of Medical Sciences, 2004-2008.
9. Chair, Committee of Scientific Advisors, International Osteoporosis Foundation, 2006-current.
10. Member, Physiological Sciences and Clinical Sciences Board, Medical Research Council, 2006-2010.
11. Chair-Elect, MRC Population Health Sciences Research Network, 2009-current.
12. President, Bone Research Society, 2008-current.
13. F.I.R.M.O. External Scientific Committee, University of Florence, 2009 – current.
14. External Adviser, NIHR BRU on Ageing and Age-related Diseases, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 2009 – current.

Editorial Responsibilities

1. Editorial Board
a) Associate Editor, Osteoporosis International, 2006 - current
b) Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 1994-1999
c) Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 1993-1998
d) Bone, 1997 - current
e) Osteoporosis International, 1998 - 2005
f) Arthritis & Rheumatism: Arthritis Care and Research, 2001 - current

2. External Referee
New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, BMJ, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Arthritis and Rheumatism, British Journal of Rheumatology, Osteoporosis International, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, American Journal of Epidemiology, Bone, Calcified Tissue International, Occupational Medicine, Bone and Mineral, American Journal of Public Health.

Prizes

Clinical Exhibition, University of Cambridge 1977-1980
ICCRH Young Investigator Award 1989
Norwich Eaton Young Investigator Award 1990
ASBMR Young Investigator Award 1991
BMA Medical Book Competition 1999
Medical Book of the Year, 2004
Hospital Doctor of the Year – Rheumatology, 2005
Clinical Excellence Award (Platinum), 2009
NIHR Senior Investigator Award, 2009
HRH Duchess of Cornwall Award, 2009
BSR Heberden Oration, 2011

Article(s)

Book(s)

Book Section(s)

Conference(s)

Teaching

• Organisation of undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum in rheumatology for Southampton University Medical School.
• Regular teaching in epidemiology and rheumatology modules for students at University of Southampton Medical School.
• Contribution to weekly Rheumatology Unit postgraduate programme.
• External examiner for PhD, Universities of Cambridge, Manchester, Glasgow and King's College London.
• Scientific Organiser, ‘Epidemiology for Clinicians’ Course, University of Southampton, 2005-2011.

Professor Cyrus Cooper
Phone: (023) 8076 4032 Fax: (023) 8070 4021
Email: cc@mrc.soton.ac.uk

Room Number: SGH/MRC/MP95

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