Medicine

Stephen Holgate

CBE, BSc, MB BS, MD, DSc, FRCP, FRCP (Edin), FRCPath, FIBMS, FSB, CSc (Hon), FMedSci

Primary position:
Medical Research Council Clinical Professor of Immunopharmacology and Honorary Consultant Physician
Other positions:
Honorary Visiting Research Professorship, University of Melbourne, Australia, Honorary Visiting Professorship in Translational Medicine, University of Manchester

Background

The University of Southampton

Stephen Holgate is Medical Research Council Clinical Professor of Immunopharmacology at the Faculty of Medicine, Southampton, UK. After completing his medical training in London he spent 2 years at Harvard Medical School to acquire skills in allergic disease mechanisms. On returning to Southampton in 1980, he set up a research group focused on the mechanisms of asthma. He has utilized many approaches to study this disease including epidemiology, genetics, pathology, microbiology and immunology, pharmacology and experimental medicine. This research has informed guidelines on asthma management and has identified and validated novel therapeutic targets. Notable research contributions include the role of mast cells and their mediators in asthma and allied disorders, the regulation and pharmacology of mast cells, placing inflammation at the core of asthma pathophysiology, uncovering the role of respiratory viruses, allergens and pollutants in asthma exacerbation, the discovery of defects in innate immune responses in asthmatic airways, mechanisms of airway wall remodelling and the discovery of novel asthma susceptibility genes such as ADAM33.

His current research focuses on stratified medicine, the role of the epithelium in orchestrating asthma and the evolution of asthma across the lifecourse. His work has resulted in over 980 peer reviewed publications (H index 133), 60 Book editorships, 453 Book Chapters and Reviews, 48 Editorials, 76 Official and Government Reports. He holds an MRC programme grant focused on the pathogenesis of asthma.

 He is a Past President of the British Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and British Thoracic Society, was Chair of the MRC Population and Systems Medicine Board (PSMB). Stephen is Chair of Main Panel A (Medicine, Health and Life Sciences) of the UK Research Excellence Framework 2014, Chairs the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), the British Lung Foundation Research Committee, the Hazardous Substances Advisory Committee (HSAC), and from 2014, will join the Science and Innovation Strategy Board of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). He is Chair of the European Respiratory Society Scientific Committee, Treasurer of the World Allergy Organization and Member of the Medical Science Committee of Science Europe. In 2003 he cofounded of Synairgen a publically quoted respiratory drug development company with a particular focus on lung antiviral defense in asthma, COPD and severe viral infections.

Qualifications

BSc Biochemistry (Class I), London University (1968)
MB BS, Medicine/Surgery, London University (Charing Cross Hospital Medical School) (1971)
MD, Asthma Research, London University (1979)
DSc, Inflammatory Basis of Asthma, University of Southampton (1991)
MRCP (UK), Royal College of Physicians (1973)
FRCP, Royal College of Physicians of London (1984)
FRCP (Edin), Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (1995)
FMedSci, Foundation Fellow, Academy of Medical Sciences (1997)
FSB, Biological Society, (1999)
FRCPath, Royal College of Pathologists, (1999)
FIBMS, Institute of Biomedical Science, (2009)
CSci (Hon), Science Council, (2009)

Postgraduate Fellowships

MRCP (UK), Royal College of Physicians (1973)
FRCP, Royal College of Physicians of London (1984)
FRCP (Edin), Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (1995)
FMedSci, Foundation Fellow, Academy of Medical Sciences (1997)
FSB, Biological Society, (1999)
FRCPath, Royal College of Pathologists, (1999)
FBMS, Institute of Biomedical Science, (2009)
CSci (Hon), Science Council, (2009)

Honours and Distinctions

1978 Medical Research Council Dorothy Temple Cross & Wellcome Trust Travel Fellowship
1990 Philip Ellman Lecturer, Royal College of Physicians
President, British Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) (to 1993)
1991 Hurst Brown Visiting Professorship, University of Toronto, Canada
Altounyan Lecture, British Thoracic Society
1992 Cournand Lecture, European Respiratory Society
1993 James-Parkinson Memorial Lecture, Society of Occupational Medicine
Thomas Young Medal, St George's Hospital, London
Royal College of Physicians Graham Bull Prize for Clinical Research
1994 Lilly Lecture, Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
CIBA Foundation Lecture, Science Festival, Edinburgh
Jack Pepys Lecture, British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Scientific Achievement Award, International Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology,
Stockholm
1995 Robert Cooke Memorial Lecture, American Academy of Allergy and Immunology
Visiting Professor, Ontario Thoracic Society, Canada
Rhône-Poulenc Rorer World Health Award ($20,000)
1996 Honorary Fellow, South African Pulmonology Society
Priscilla Piper Memorial Lecturer, Royal College of Surgeons
Honorary Member, Nordic Society of Allergology
Evening Discourse, Royal Institution of Great Britain
Visiting Professor, Vanderbilt University, USA
1997 Visiting Professor, Harvard University, Boston, USA
1998 Visiting Professor, University of Rochester USA
Brian Sproule Lecture, University of Alberta, Canada
1999 King Faisal International Prize in Medicine (Gold Medal, $200,000)
Medal for Scientific Achievement, Rijksuniversity, Gent, Belgium
Ranked No.8 in UK Citations in Biomolecular Subjects (ISI), 1990-2000
2000 Lumleian Lecture, Royal College of Physicians
Robert Cooke Memorial Lecture, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology
Honorary Member, Germany Society for Pulmonology
Alec Sehon Distinguished Professorship in Allergy, University of Manitoba, Canada
2001 Visiting Professor, Yale University School of Medicine
The Honorary Fellow Award, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Visiting Professor, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA
Czech Republic Medical Society Medal for Scientific Achievement, Prague
Overseas Fellow, Polish Academy of Science
ISI Most Highly Cited Researcher for Publications 1980-2011
Visiting Professor, Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, USA
2002 Visiting Professor, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, USA
Norman Sterrie Lecture, University of Minnesota, USA
Highly Cited Researcher (Original Member, Highly Cited Researchers database, ISI)
2003 Sir William Osler Lecture, Association of Physicians of GB and Ireland
Ellison-Cliffe Medal, Royal Society of Medicine
GB West Memorial Lecture, European Histamine Research Society
Scientific Achievement Award, International Association of Asthmology (Interasma)
2004 Visiting Professor, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
Visiting Professor, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, N Carolina, USA
Health and Life Sciences Gold Medal, Rijksuniversity, Gent, Belgium
Honorary Member, Association of Physicians of Great Britain and Ireland
Honorary Fellow, American College of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (ACAAI)
Honorary Member, Biochemical Society
British Pharmacological Society Quintiles Prize in Immunopharmacology
Hospital Doctor Academic Medicine Team of the Year Award
2005 Overseas Member, American Association of Physicians (AAP)
Visiting Professor, University of British Columbia, Canada
Visiting Professor, UCSF and the Sandler Asthma Foundation, USA
Sir Anthony Dawson lecture, Royal London and St Bartholomew’s Hospitals
2006 The Huxley Lecture, Imperial College, London
Burns Lecture, RCP Glasgow
Honorary Member, DGAKI (German Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
President of the British Thoracic Society
2007 Visiting Professor, John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA
Visiting Professor Harvard Medical School, Boston and Ohio State, University, Ohio, USA
BMA Medical Book of the Year Award for Allergy 3rd edition
Royal Society of Medicine Book Commendation for Allergy 3rd edition
2008 Paul Ehrlich Award for Research, European Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical
Immunology
Honorary Visiting Professorship, University of Manchester (renewed 2012)
2009 Opening Plenary Lecture, Keystone Conference on Asthma and Allergy
Honorary Fellowship of the Institute of Biomedical Science
Council of the Academy of Medical Sciences
Honorary Chartered Scientist (CSci), Science Council
Almroth Wright Lecture, Imperial College
2010 David W Talmage Lectureship, Aspen Allergy Jack Selner Conference, Colorado, USA
Jeffrey Drazen Visiting Professor, Harvard Medical School, US
2011 Commander of the Order of the British Empire (Queen’s New Year Honours List)
Honorary Life Membership of the Primary Care Respiratory Society UK
2nd Most cited European author 1998-2009 in Respiratory Research
Senior Investigator, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)
2012 Miegunyah Distinguished Visiting Fellowship, University of Melbourne
American Thoracic Society (ATS) Recognition Award for Scientific Accomplishments (first time award was made outside N America)
Alain De Weck Honorary Lecture, VI World Asthma and COPD Forum, NY, USA
2013 Honorary Visiting Research Professorship, University of Melbourne, Australia
Longdagen Lecture 2013, Longdagen Scientific Conference, Utrecht, Netherlands
The Annual Wade Lecture, Faculty of Medicine University of Southampton
2014 The K Frank Austen Visiting Professor, Harvard University, USA
Keynote lecture, Keystone Conference on Biologics

Appointments held

House Physician, Charing Cross Hospital, London, 1971-2

Senior House Officer (Neurology), National Hospital for Nervous Diseases,
London, 1972-3

Senior House Officer (Respiratory Medicine & Cardiology), Brompton Hospital, London, 1973-4

Registrar (General Medicine), General Infirmary, Salisbury & Southampton General Hospital, 1974-5

Lecturer and Honorary Senior Registrar in Medicine, Southampton General and Western Hospitals, 1975-80

MRC and Wellcome Trust Overseas Research Fellow, Harvard University, Boston, USA, 1978-80

Lecturer in Medicine and Honorary Senior Registrar, University of Southampton Hospitals, 1975-80

Senior Lecturer, Reader then Professor of Medicine and Hon Consultant Physician, Southampton University Hospitals, 1980-6

MRC Clinical Professor of Medicine and Honorary Consultant Physician, Southampton University and Foundation Trust, 1987-present

Professor Stephen Holgate's photo

Publications

The University of Southampton's electronic library (e-prints)

Article

Abdelmotelb, A.M., Rose-Zerilli, M.J., Barton, S.J., Holgate, S.T., Walls, A.F. and Holloway, J.W. (2014) Alpha-tryptase gene variation is associated with levels of circulating IgE and lung function in asthma. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 44, (6), 822-830. (doi:10.1111/cea.12259). (PMID:24372627).
Aryan, Zahra, Holgate, Stephen T, Radzioch, Danuta and Rezaei, Nima (2014) A new era of targeting the ancient gatekeepers of the immune system: toll-like agonists in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 164, (1), 46-63. (doi:10.1159/000362553). (PMID:24853609).
Meyers, Deborah A., Bleecker, Eugene R., Holloway, John W. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2014) Asthma genetics and personalised medicine. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 2, (5), 405-415. (doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70012-8).
Andrews, Allison-Lynn, Nordgren, Ida Karin, Campbell-Harding, Gemma, Holloway, John W., Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E. and Tavassoli, Ali (2013) The association of the cytoplasmic domains of interleukin 4 receptor alpha and interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 regulates interleukin 4 signaling. Molecular BioSystems, 9, (12), 3009-3014. (doi:10.1039/C3MB70298G). (PMID:24056919).
Hardyman, Michelle A., Wilkinson, Emily, Martin, Emma, Jayasekera, Nivenka P., Blume, Cornelia, Swindle, Emily J., Gozzard, Neil, Holgate, Stephen T., Howarth, Peter H., Davies, Donna E. and Collins, Jane E. (2013) TNF-α mediated bronchial barrier disruption and regulation by src-family kinase activation. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 132, (3), 665-675.e8. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.03.005). (PMID:23632299).
Leino, Marina S., Loxham, Matthew, Blume, Cornelia, Swindle, Emily J., Jayasekera, Nivenka P., Dennison, Patrick W., Shamji, Betty W.H., Edwards, Matthew J., Holgate, Stephen T., Howarth, Peter H. and Davies, Donna E. (2013) Barrier disrupting effects of Alternaria alternata extract on bronchial epithelium from asthmatic donors. PLoS ONE, 8, (8), e71278. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071278). (PMID:24009658).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2013) Stratified approaches to the treatment of asthma. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 76, (2), 277-291. (doi:10.1111/bcp.12036).
Bruton, Anne, Kirby, Sarah, Arden-Close, Emily, Taylor, L, Webley, F, George, S, Yardley, L, Price, D, Moore, M., Little, P., Holgate, S., Djukanovic, R., Lee, AJ, Raftery, J., Chorozoglou, M, Versnel, J, Pavord, I, Stafford-Watson, M and Thomas, M. (2013) The BREATHE study: Breathing REtraining for Asthma - Trial of Home Exercises. A protocol summary of a randomised controlled trial. Primary Care Respiratory Journal, 22, (2), PS1-PS7. (doi:10.4104/pcrj.2013.00047).
Campbell-Harding, Gemma, Sawkins, Hannah, Bedke, Nicole, Holgate, Stephen T, Davies, Donna E and Andrews, Allison-Lynn (2013) The innate antiviral response upregulates IL-13 receptor α2 in bronchial fibroblasts. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 131, (3), 849-855. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.08.030). (PMID:23069489).
Blume, Cornelia, Swindle, Emily J., Dennison, Patrick, Jayasekera, Nivenka P., Dudley, Sarah, Monk, Phillip, Behrendt, Heidrun, Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B., Holgate, Stephen T., Howarth, Peter H., Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia and Davies, Donna E. (2012) Barrier responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to grass pollen exposure. European Respiratory Journal (doi:10.1183/09031936.00075612). (PMID:23143548).
Bedke, Nicole, Sammut, David, Green, Ben, Kehagia, Valia, Dennison, Patrick, Jenkins, Gisli, Tatler, Amanda, Howarth, Peter H., Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2012) Transforming growth factor-beta promotes rhinovirus replication in bronchial epithelial cells by suppressing the innate immune response. PLoS ONE, 7, (9), e44580. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044580). (PMID:22970254).
Wang, Chuan, Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J., Koppelman, Gerard H., Sandling, Johanna K., Holloway, John W., Postma, Dirkje S., Holgate, Stephen T., Bours, Vincent, Syvänen, Ann-Christine and Dideberg, Vinciane (2012) Evidence of association between interferon regulatory factor 5 gene polymorphisms and asthma. Gene , 504, (2), 220-225. (doi:10.1016/j.gene.2012.05.021).
Yang, Youwen, Wicks, James, Haitchi, Hans Michael, Powell, Robert M., Manuyakorn, Wiparat, Howarth, Peter H., Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2012) Regulation of a disintegrin and metalloprotease-33 expression by transforming growth factor-β. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 46, (5), 633-640. (doi:10.1165/rcmb.2011-0030OC ). (PMID:22227561).
Bucchieri, Fabio, Fucarino, Alberto, Marino Gammazza, Antonella, Pitruzzella, Alessandro, Marciano, Vito, Paderni, Carlo, De Caro, Viviana, Siragusa, Maria Gabriella, Lo Muzio, Lorenzo, Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E., Farina, Felicia, Zummo, Giovanni, Kudo, Yasusei, Giannola, Italo Libero and Campisi, Giuseppina (2012) Medium-term culture of normal human oral mucosa: a novel three-dimensional model to study the effectiveness of drugs administration. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 18, (34), 5421-5430. (doi:10.2174/138161212803307482). (PMID:22632390).
Campisi, Giuseppina, Giannola, Libero Italo, Fucarino, Alberto, Marino Gammazza, Antonella, Pitruzzella, Alessandro, Marciano, Vito, De Caro, Viviana, Siragusa, Maria Gabriella, Giandalia, Giulia, Compilato, Domenico, Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E., Farina, Felicia, Zummo, Giovanni, Paderni, Carlo and Bucchieri, Fabio (2012) Medium-term culture of primary oral squamous cell carcinoma in a three- dimensional model: effects on cell survival following topical 5-fluororacile delivery by drug-loaded matrix tablets. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 18, (34), 5411-5420. (doi:10.2174/138161212803307536). (PMID:22632387).
Teran, Luis M., Holgate, Stephen T., Park, Hae-Sim and Sampson, Anthony P. (2012) Editorial. Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease. Journal of Allergy, 2012, 473863-[2pp]. (doi:10.1155/2012/473863).
Schauberger, Eric M., Ewart, Susan L., Arshad, Syed H., Huebner, Marianne, Karmaus, Wifried, Holloway, John W., Friderici, Karen H., Ziegler, Julie T., Zhang, Hongmei, Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J., Barton, Sheila J., Holgate, Stephen T., Kilpatrick, Jeffrey R., Harley, John B., Lajoie-Kadoch, Stephane, Harley, Isaac, Hamid, Qutayba, Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J., Seibold, Max A., Avila, Pedro C., Rodriguez-Cintrón, William, Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R., Hu, Donglei, Gignoux, Christopher, Romieu, Isabelle, London, Stephanie, Burchard, Esteban G., Langefeld, Carl D. and Wills-Karp, Marsha (2011) Identification of ATPAF1 as a novel candidate gene for asthma in children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 128, (4), 753-760.e11. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.04.058). (PMID:21696813).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2011) Pathophysiology of asthma: what has our current understanding taught us about new therapeutic approaches? Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 128, (3), 495-505. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.06.052). (PMID:21807404).
Xiao, Chang, Puddicombe, Sarah M., Field, Sarah, Haywood, Joel, Broughton-Head, Victoria, Puxeddu, Ilaria, Haitchi, Hans Michael, Vernon-Wilson, Elizabeth, Sammut, David, Bedke, Nicole, Cremin, Catherine, Sones, Jody, Djukanović, Ratko, Howarth, Peter H., Collins, Jane E., Holgate, Stephen T., Monk, Phillip and Davies, Donna E. (2011) Defective epithelial barrier function in asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 128, (3), 549-556. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.05.038). (PMID:21752437).
Maeda, Yutaka, Chen, Gang, Xu, Yan, Haitchi, Hans Michael, Du, Lingling, Keiser, Angela R., Howarth, Peter H, Davies, Donna E., Holgate, Stephen T. and Whitsett, Jeffrey A. (2011) Airway epithelial transcription factor NK2 homeobox 1 inhibits mucous cell metaplasia and Th2 inflammation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 184, (4), 421-429. (doi:10.1164/rccm.201101-0106OC). (PMID:21562130).
Holgate, Stephen T., Komaroff, Anthony L., Mangan, Dennis and Wessely, Simon (2011) Chronic fatigue syndrome: understanding a complex illness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience (doi:10.1038/nrn3087). (PMID:21792218).
Holgate, Stephen T., Komaroff, Anthony L, Mangan, Dennis and Wessely, Simon (2011) Chronic fatigue syndrome: understanding a complex illness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience (doi:10.1038/nrn3087). (PMID:21792218). (In Press).
Bjornsdottir, Unnur S., Holgate, Stephen T., Reddy, Padmalatha S., Hill, Andrew A., McKee, Charlotte M., Csimma, Cristina I., Weaver, Amy A., Legault, Holly M., Small, Clayton G., Ramsey, Renee C., Ellis, Debra K., Burke, Conor M., Thompson, Philip J., Howarth, Peter H., Wardlaw, Andrew J., Bardin, Phillip G., Bernstein, David I., Irving, Louis B., Chupp, Geoffrey L., Bensch, George W., Bensch, Gregory W., Stahlman, Jon E., Karetzky, Monroe, Baker, James , Miller, Rachel L., Goodman, Brad H., Raible, Donald G., Goldman, Samuel J., Miller, Douglas K., Ryan, John L., Dorner, Andrew J., Immermann, Frederick W. and O'Toole, Margot (2011) Pathways activated during human asthma exacerbation as revealed by gene expression patterns in blood. PloS One, 6, (7), e21902-[19pp]. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021902). (PMID:3136489).
Holgate, Stephen T (2011) The sentinel role of the airway epithelium in asthma pathogenesis. Immunological Reviews, 242, (1), 205-219. (doi:10.1111/j.1600-065X.2011.01030.x). (PMID:21682747).
Babu, Suresh K., Puddicombe, Sarah M., Arshad, Hasan S., Wilson, Susan J., Ward, Jonathan, Gozzard, Neil, Higgs, Gerry, Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2011) Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) autoregulates its expression and induces adhesion molecule expression in asthma. Clinical Immunology, 140, (1), 18-25. (doi:10.1016/j.clim.2011.03.005). (PMID:21459047).
Holmes, Anthony M, Solari, Roberto and Holgate, Stephen T. (2011) Animal models of asthma: value, limitations and opportunities for alternative approaches. Drug Discovery Today, 16, (15-16), 659-670. (doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2011.05.014 ). (PMID:21723955).
Morjaria, J .B., Babu, K .S., Vijayanand, P., Chauhan, A.J., Davies, D.E. and Holgate, S. (2011) Sputum IL-6 concentrations in severe asthma and its relationship with FEV1. Thorax, 66 (6), 537. (doi:10.1136/thx.2010.136523). (PMID:20880874).
Holgate, S.T., Noonan, M., Chanez, P., Busse, W., Dupont, L., Pavord, I., Hakulinen, A., Paolozzi, L., Wajdula, J., Zang, C., Nelson, H. and Raible, D. (2011) Efficacy/safety of etanercept in moderate-to-severe asthma: a randomised, controlled trial. European Respiratory Journal, 37, (6), 1352-1359. (doi:10.1183/09031936.00063510). (PMID:21109557).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2011) Asthma: a simple concept but in reality a complex disease. European Journal of Clinical Investigation (doi:10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2362). (PMID:21615731).
Maeda, Yutaka, Chen, Gang, Xu, Yan, Haitchi, Hans Michael, Du, Lingling, Keiser, Angela R., Howarth, Peter H., Davies, Donna E., Holgate, Stephen T. and Whitsett, Jeffrey A. (2011) Airway epithelial transcription factor NK2 homeobox 1 inhibits mucous cell metaplasia and Th2 inflammation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 184, (4), 421-429. (doi:10.1164/rccm.201101-0106OC). (PMID:21562130).
Cakebread, Julie A., Xu, Yunhe, Grainge, Chris, Kehagia, Valia, Howarth, Peter H., Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2011) Exogenous IFN-β has antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties in primary bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic subjects exposed to rhinovirus. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 127, (5), 1148-1154.e9. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.01.023). (PMID:21329968).
Grainge, Christopher L., Lau, Laurie C.K., Ward, Jonathan A., Dulay, Valdeep, Lahiff, Gemma, Wilson, Susan , Holgate, Stephen , Davies, Donna E. and Howarth, Peter H. (2011) Effect of bronchoconstriction on airway remodeling in Asthma. New England Journal of Medicine, 364, 2006-2015. (doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1014350).
Papadopoulos, N.G., Christodoulou, I., Rohde, G ., Agache, I ., Almqvist, C ., Bruno, A., Bonini, S., Bont, L., Bossios, A., Bousquet, J., Braido, F., Brusselle, G., Canonica, G.W., Carlsen, K.H., Chanez, P., Fokkens, W.J., Garcia-Garcia, M., Gjomarkaj, M., Haahtela, T., Holgate, S.T., Johnston, S.L., Konstantinou, G., Kowalski, M., Lewandowska-Polak, A., Lødrup-Carlsen, K., Mäkelä, M., Malkusova, I., Mullol, J., Nieto, A., Eller, E., Ozdemir, C., Panzner, P., Popov, T., Psarras, S., Roumpedaki, E., Rukhadze, M., Stipic-Markovic, A., Todo Bom, A., Toskala, E., van Cauwenberge, P., van Drunen, C., Watelet, J.B., Xatzipsalti, M., Xepapadaki, P. and Zuberbier, T. (2011) Viruses and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations--a GA² LEN-DARE systematic review. Allergy, 66, (4), 458-68. (doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02505.x). (PMID:21087215).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2011) The acetaminophen enigma in asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 183, (2), 147-148. (doi:10.1164/rccm.201007-1135ED ). (PMID:20935107).
Dunford, Paul J and Holgate, Stephen T (2011) The role of histamine in asthma. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 709, 53-66. (doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-8056-4_6). (PMID:21713689).
Bousquet, Jean, Mantzouranis, Eva, Cruz, Alvaro A., Aït-Khaled, Nadia, Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E., Bleecker, Eugene R., Brightling, Chris E., Burney, Peter, Bush, Andrew, Busse, William W., Casale, Thomas B., Chan-Yeung, Moira, Chen, Rongchang, Chowdhury, Badrul, Chung, Kian Fan, Dahl, Ronald, Drazen, Jeffrey M., Fabbri, Leonardo M., Holgate, Stephen T., Kauffmann, Francine, Haahtela, Tari, Khaltaev, Nikolaï, Kiley, James P., Masjedi, Mohammad R., Mohammad, Yousser, O'Byrne, Paul, Partridge, Martyn R., Rabe, Klaus F., Togias, Alkis, van Weel, Christiaan, Wenzel, Sally, Zhong, Nanshan and Zuberbier, Torsten (2010) Uniform definition of asthma severity, control, and exacerbations: document presented for the World Health Organization Consultation on Severe Asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 126, (5), 926-938. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.07.019). (PMID:21050941).
Holloway, John W., Arshad, Syed H. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2010) Using genetics to predict the natural history of asthma? Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 126, (2), 200-209. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.06.006).
Uller, L, Leino, M., Bedke, Nicole, Sammut, David, Green, B., Lau, L., Howarth, P.H., Holgate, S.T. and Davies, D.E. (2010) Double-stranded RNA induces disproportionate expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin versus interferon-beta in bronchial epithelial cells from donors with asthma. Thorax, 65, (7), 626-632. (doi:10.1136/thx.2009.125930).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2010) A brief history of asthma and its mechanisms to modern concepts of disease pathogenesis. Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research, 2, (3), 165-171. (doi:10.4168/aair.2010.2.3.165 ). (PMID:19027147).
Church, M.K., Maurer M, K., Simons, F.E.R., Bindslev-Jensen, C., van Cauwenberge, P., Bousquet, J., Holgate, S.T. and Zuberbier, T. (2010) Risk of first-generation H1-antihistamines: a GA2LEN position paper. Allergy, 65, (4), 459-466. (doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02325.x). (PMID:20146728).
Holloway, John W., Yang, Ian A. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2010) Genetics of allergic disease. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 125, (2, Supplement 2), S81-S94. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.10.071).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2010) Exposure, uptake, distribution and toxicity of nanomaterials in humans. Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, 6, (1), 1-19. (doi:10.1166/jbn.2010.1098). (PMID:20499827).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2010) Has the time come to rethink the pathogenesis of asthma? Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 10, (1), 48-453. (doi:10.1097/ACI.0b013e3283347be5). (PMID:19915457).
Massanari, M., Holgate, S.T., Busse, W.W., Jimenez, P., Kianifard, F. and Zeldin, R. (2010) Effect of omalizumab on peripheral blood eosinophilia in allergic asthma. Respiratory Medicine, 104, (2), 188-196. (doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2009.09.011). (PMID:19846286).
Self, J., Haitchi, H.M., Griffiths, H., Holgate, S.T., Davies, D.E. and Lotery, A. (2010) Frmd7 expression in developing mouse brain. Eye, 24, (1), 165-169. (doi:10.1038/eye.2009.44). (PMID:19265863).
Holgate, Stephen T., Arshad, Hasan S., Roberts, Graham C., Howarth, Peter H., Thurner, Philipp J. and Davies, Donna E. (2009) A new look at the pathogenesis of asthma. Clinical Science, 118, (7), 439-450. (doi:10.1042/CS20090474). (PMID:20025610).
Holgate, Stephen T., Roberts, Graham, Arshad, Hasan S., Howarth, Peter H. and Davies, Donna E. (2009) The role of the airway epithelium and its interaction with environmental factors in asthma pathogenesis. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 6, (8), 655-659. (doi:10.1513/pats.200907-072DP). (PMID:20008870).
Koppelman, Gerard H., Meyers, Deborah A., Howard, Timothy D., Zheng, S. Lilly, Hawkins, Greg A., Ampleford, Elizabeth J., Xu, Jianfeng, Koning, Henk, Bruinenberg, Marcel, Nolte, Ilja M., van Diemen, Cleo C., Boezen, H. Marike, Timens, Wim, Whittaker, Paul A., Stine, O. Colin, Barton, Sheila J., Holloway, John W., Holgate, Stephen T., Graves, Penelope E., Martinez, Fernando D., van Oosterhout, Antoon J., Bleecker, Eugene R. and Postma, Dirkje S. (2009) Identification of PCDH1 as a novel susceptibility gene for bronchial hyperresponsiveness. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 180, (10), 929-935. (doi:10.1164/rccm.200810-1621OC). (PMID:19729670).
Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2009) Rethinking the pathogenesis of asthma. Immunity, 31, (3), 362-367. (doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2009.08.013). (PMID:19766079).
Haitchi, Hans Michael, Bassett, David J.P., Bucchieri, Fabio, Gao, Xiufeng, Powell, Robert M., Hanley, Neil A., Wilson, David I., Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2009) Induction of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 during embryonic lung development and the influence of IL-13 or maternal allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 124, (3), 590-597.e11. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.06.026).
Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra, Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J., Barton, Sheila J., Holgate, Stephen T. and Holloway, John W. (2009) Association analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphisms in asthmatic families. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 149, (4), 343-349. (doi:10.1159/000205580). (PMID:19295238).
Barton, Sheila J., Koppelman, Gerard H., Vonk, Judith M., Browning, Claudia A., Nolte, Ilja M., Stewart, Ceri E., Bainbridge, Sue, Mutch, Stacey, Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J., Postma, Dirkje S., Maniatis, Nikolas, Henry, Amanda P., Hall, Ian P., Holgate, Stephen T., Tighe, Patrick, Holloway, John W. and Sayers, Ian (2009) PLAUR polymorphisms are associated with asthma, PLAUR levels, and lung function decline. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 123, (6), 1391-1400. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.03.014).
Haitchi, H.M., Yoshisue, H., Ribbene, A., Wilson, S.J., Holloway, J.W., Bucchieri, F., Hanley, N.A., Wilson, D.I., Zummo, G., Holgate, S.T. and Davies, D.E. (2009) Chronological expression of ciliated bronchial epithelium 1 during pulmonary development. European Respiratory Journal, 33, (5), 1095-1104. (doi:10.1183/09031936.00157108).
Bedke, Nicole, Haitchi, Hans Michael, Xatzipsalti , Mara, Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies , Donna E. (2009) Contribution of bronchial fibroblasts to the antiviral response in asthma. Journal of Immunology , 182, (6), 3660-3667. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0802471 ).
Andrews, Allison-Lynn , Nordgren, Ida Karin, Kirby, Isabelle , Holloway, John W., Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E. and Tavassoli, Ali (2009) Cytoplasmic tail of IL-13Rα2 regulates IL-4 signal transduction. Biochemical Society Transactions, 37, 873-876. (doi:10.1042/BST0370873).
Wenzel, S. E., Barnes, P. J., Bleecker, E. R., Bousquet, J., Busse, W., Dahlen, S.-E., Holgate, S. T., Meyers, D. A., Rabe, K. F., Antczak, A., Baker, J., Horvath, I., Mark, Z., Bernstein, D., Kerwin, E., Schlenker-Herceg, R., Lo, K. H., Watt, R., Barnathan, E. S. and Chanez, P. (2009) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tumor necrosis factor- blockade in severe persistent asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 179, (7), 549-558. (doi:10.1164/rccm.200809-1512OC).
Holgate, S., Bisgaard, H., Bjermer, L., Haahtela, T., Haughney, J., Horne, R., McIvor, A., Palkonen, S., Price, D.B., Thomas, M., Valovirta, E. and Wahn, U. (2008) The Brussels Declaration: the need for change in asthma management. European Respiratory Journal, 32, (6), 1433-1442. (doi:10.1183/09031936.00053108).
Babu, K. Suresh, Gadzik, Frantisek and Holgate, Stephen T. (2008) Absence of respiratory effects with ivabradine in patients with asthma. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 66, (1), 96-101. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2008.03160.x).
Morjaria, J.B., Chauhan, A.J., Babu, K.S., Polosa, R., Davies, D.E. and Holgate, S.T. (2008) The role of a soluble Tnf-A receptor fusion protein (etanercept) in corticosteroid-refractory asthma: a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Thorax, 63, (7), 584-591. (doi:10.1136/thx.2007.086314).
Puxeddu, Ilaria, Pang, Yun Yun, Harvey, Anna, Nicholas, Ben, Haitchi, Hans Michael, Yoshisue, Hajime, Ribatti, Dominico, Clough, Geraldine, Powell, Rob M., Murphy, Gillian, Hanley, N.A., Wilson, David I., Howarth, Peter H., Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2008) The soluble form of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 promotes angiogenesis: implications for airway remodelling in asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 121, (6), 1400-1406.e4. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.03.003). (PMID:18410963).
Yang, Youwen, Haitchi, Hans Michael, Cakebread, Julie, Sammut, David, Harvey, Anna, Powell, Robert M., Holloway, John W., Howarth, Peter, Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2008) Epigenetic mechanisms silence a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 expression in bronchial epithelial cells. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 121, (6), 1393-1399. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.02.031).
Hackett, Tillie-Louise, Holloway, Rebecca, Holgate, Stephen T. and Warner, Jane A. (2008) Dynamics of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine release during acute inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an ex vivo study. Respiratory Research, 9, 47-[14pp]. (doi:10.1186/1465-9921-9-47). (PMID:18510721).
Pourazar, Jamshid, Blomberg, Anders, Kelly, Frank J., Davies, Donna E., Wilson, Susan J., Holgate, Stephen T. and Sandstrom, Thomas (2008) Diesel exhaust increases EGFR and phosphorylated C-terminal Tyr 1173 in the bronchial epithelium. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 5, (8) (doi:10.1186/1743-8977-5-8). (PMID:18460189).
Holloway, J.W., Barton, S.J, Holgate, S.T ., Rose-Zerilli, M.J. and Sayers, I. (2008) The role of LTA4H and ALOX5AP polymorphism in asthma and allergy susceptibility. Allergy, 59, (8), 1046-1053. (doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01667.x).
Kerr, Jonathan R., Petty, Robert, Burke, Beverley, Gough, John, Fear, David, Sinclair, Lindsey I., Mattey, Derek L., Richards, Selwyn C.M., Montgomery, Jane, Baldwin, Don A., Kellam, Paul, Harrison, Tim J., Griffin, George E., Main, Janice, Enlander, Derek, Nutt, David J. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2008) Gene expression subtypes in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197, (8), 1171-1184. (doi:10.1086/533453). (PMID:18462164).
Holloway, John W., Yang, Ian A. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2008) Interpatient variability in rates of asthma progression: can genetics provide an answer? Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 121, (3), 573-579. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.01.007).
Holgate, Stephen T. and Polosa, Riccardo. (2008) Treatment strategies for allergy and asthma. Nature Reviews Immunology, 8, (3), 218-230. (doi:10.1038/nri2262). (PMID:18274559).
Wee, B.L., Coleman, P.G., Hillier, R. and Holgate, S.T. (2008) Death rattle: its impact on staff and volunteers in palliative care. Palliative Medicine, 22, (2), 173-176. (doi:10.1177/0269216307087146).
Yang, I. A., Fong, K. M., Zimmerman, P. V., Holgate, S. T. and Holloway, J. W. (2008) Genetic susceptibility to the respiratory effects of air pollution. Thorax, 63, (6), 555-563. (doi:10.1136/thx.2007.079426).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2008) The airway epithelium is central to the pathogenesis of asthma. Allergology International, 57, (1), 1-10. (doi:10.2332/allergolint.r-07-154).
Konstantinidis, A.K., Puddicombe, S.M., Mochizuki, A., Sheth, P.D., Yang, I.A., Yoshisue, H., Wilson, S.J., Davies, D.E., Holgate, S.T. and Holloway, J.W. (2008) Cellular localization of interleukin 13 receptor alpha2 in human primary bronchial epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology, 18, (3), 174-180. (PMID:18564628).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2007) Epithelium dysfunction in asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 120, (6), 1233-1244. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.10.025).
Wark, Peter A.B., Bucchieri, Fabio, Johnston, Sebastian L., Gibson, Peter G., Hamilton, Lynnsey, Mimica, Joanna, Zummo, Giovanni, Holgate, Stephen T., Attia, John, Thakkinstian, Ammarin and Davies, Donna E. (2007) IFN-γ–induced protein 10 is a novel biomarker of rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 120, (3), 586-593. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.04.046).
Kerr, J.R., Christian, P., Hodgetts, A., Langford, P.R., Devanur, L.D., Petty, R., Burke, B., Sinclair, L.I., Richards, S.C.M., Montgomery, J., McDermott, C.R., Harrison, T.J., Kellam, P., Nutt, D.J., Holgate, S.T., Honeybourne, D., Smith, A.P., Thomas, M., Ayres, J.G., Main, J., Daymond, T., Bansal, A., Puri, B.K., Morgan, R., Peveler, R.C., Axford, J.S., Weir, W., Enlander, D. and Chia, J.K. (2007) Current research priorities in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: Disease mechanisms, a diagnostic test and specific treatments. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 60, (2), 113-116. (doi:10.1136/jcp.2006.042374).
Andrews, Allison-Lynn, Bucchieri, Fabio, Arima, Kazuhiko, Izuhara, Kenji, Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E. and Holloway, John W. (2007) Effect of IL-13 receptor α2 levels on the biological activity of IL-13 variant R110Q. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 120, (1), 91-97. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.04.026).
Chanez, Pascal, Wenzel, Sally E., Anderson, Gary P., Anto, Josep M., Bel, Elisabeth H., Boulet, Louis-Philippe, Brightling, Christopher E., Busse, William W., Castro, Mario, Dahlen, Babro, Dahlen, Sven Erik, Fabbri, Leo M., Holgate, Stephen T., Humbert, Marc, Gaga, Mina, Joos, Guy F., Levy, Bruce, Rabe, Klaus F., Sterk, Peter J., Wilson, Susan J. and Vachier, Isabelle (2007) Severe asthma in adults: what are the important questions? Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 119, (6), 1337-1348. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.11.702). (PMID:17416409).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2007) The epithelium takes centre stage in asthma and atopic dermatitis. Trends in Immunology, 28, (6), 248-251. (doi:10.1016/j.it.2007.04.007).
James, A.J., Lackie, P.M., Cazaly, A.M., Sayers, I., Penrose, J.F., Holgate, S.T. and Sampson, A.P. (2007) Human bronchial epithelial cells express an active and inducible biosynthetic pathway for leukotrienes B4 and C4. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 37, (6), 880-892. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2007.02733.x).
Holgate, S.T., Davies, D.E., Powell, R.M., Howarth, P.H., Haitchi, H.M. and Holloway, J.W. (2007) Local genetic and environmental factors in asthma disease pathogenesis: chronicity and persistence mechanisms. European Respiratory Journal, 29, (4), 793-803. (doi:10.1183/09031936.00087506).
Konstantinidis, A.K., Barton, S.J., Sayers, I., Yang, I.A., Lordan, J.L., Rorke, S., Clough, J.B., Holgate, S.T. and Holloway, J.W. (2007) Genetic association studies of interleukin-13 receptor alpha1 subunit gene polymorphisms in asthma and atopy. European Respiratory Journal, 30, (1), 40-47. (doi:10.1183/09031936.00025706).
Pierrou, Stefan, Broberg, Per, O'Donnell, Rory A., Pawlowski, Krzysztof, Virtala, Robert, Lindqvist, Eva, Richter, Audrey, Wilson, Susan J., Angco, Gilbert, Möller, Sebastian, Bergstrand, Håkan, Koopmann, Witte, Wieslander, Elisabet, Strömstedt, Per-Erik, Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E., Lund, Johan and Djukanovic, Ratko (2007) Expression of genes involved in oxidative stress responses in airway epithelial cells of smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 175, (6), 577-586. (doi:10.1164/rccm.200607-931OC).
Bousquet, J., Rabe, K., Humbert, M., Chung, K.F., Berger, W., Fox, H., Ayre, G., Chen, H., Thomas, K., Blogg, M. and Holgate, S.T. (2007) Predicting and evaluating response to omalizumab in patients with severe allergic asthma. Respiratory Medicine, 101, (7), 1483-1492. (doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2007.01.011).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2007) Priorities for respiratory research in the UK. Thorax, 62, (1), 5-7. (doi:10.1136/thx.2006.073882).
Yoshisue, Hajime, Kirkham-Brown, Jody, Healy, Eugene, Holgate, Stephen T., Sampson, Anthony P. and Davies, Donna E. (2007) Cysteinyl leukotrienes synergize with growth factors to induce proliferation of human bronchial fibroblasts. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 119, (1), 132-140. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.08.028).
Pierrou, Stefan, Broberg, Per, O’Donnell, Rory A., Pawłowski, Krzysztof, Virtala, Robert, Lindqvist, Eva, Richter, Audrey, Wilson, Susan J., Angco, Gilbert, Möller, Sebastian, Bergstrand, Håkan, Koopmann, Witte, Wieslander, Elisabet, Strömstedt, Per-Erik, Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E., Lund, Johan and Djukanovic, Ratko (2007) Expression of genes involved in oxidative stress responses in airway epithelial cells of smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 175, (6), 577-586. (doi:10.1164/rccm.200607-931OC).
Adam, Elizabeth C., Holgate, Stephen T. and Lackie, Peter M. (2007) Epithelial repair is inhibited by an α1,6-fucose binding lectin. American Journal of Physiology: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 292, (2), L462-L468. (doi:10.1152/ajplung.00292.2006).
Haitchi, H.M., Yoshisue, H., Powell, R.M., Bucchieri, F., Hanley, N.A., Wilson, D.I., Holgate, S.T. and Davies, D.E. (2006) Chronological expression of ciliated bronchial epithelim 1 in mouse and human pulmonary differentiation. Thorax, 61, (Supplement 2), pp.ii45.
Radcliffe, Michael J., Lewith, George T., Prescott, Philip, Church, Martin K. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2006) Do skin prick and conjunctival provocation tests predict symptom severity in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis? Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 36, (12), 1488-1493. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02594.x).
Holgate, Stephen T., Price, David and Valovirta, Erkka (2006) Asthma out of control? A structured review of recent patient surveys. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 6, (Supp/1) (doi:10.1186/1471-2466-6-S1-S2).
Holgate, Stephen T. and Price, David (2006) Improving outcomes for asthma patients with allergic rhinitis: the MetaForum conferences. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 6, (1) (doi:10.1186/1471-2466-6-S1-S2).
Holgate, S.T. (2006) A need for circulating biomarkers of severe persistent asthma and its treatment. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 36, (11), 1355-1356. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02605.x).
Andrews, Allison-Lynn, Nasir, Tosia, Bucchieri, Fabio, Holloway, John W., Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2006) IL-13 receptor α 2: a regulator of IL-13 and IL-4 signal transduction in primary human fibroblasts. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 118, (4), 858-865. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.06.041).
Holgate, Stephen T. and Polosa, Riccardo (2006) The mechanisms, diagnosis, and management of severe asthma in adults. The Lancet, 368, (9537), 780-793. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69288-X).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2006) Rhinoviruses in the pathogenesis of asthma: The bronchial epithelium as a major disease target. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 118, (3), 587-590. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.06.023).
James, A.J., Penrose, J.F., Cazaly, A.M., Holgate, S.T. and Sampson, A.P. (2006) Human bronchial fibroblasts express the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. Respiratory Research, 7, (1), 102-113. (doi:10.1186/1465-9921-7-102).
Holgate, Stephen T., Yang, Youwen, Haitchi, Hans-Michael, Powell, Rob M., Holloway, John W., Yoshisue, Hajime, Pang, Yun Yun, Cakebread, Julie and Davies, Donna E. (2006) The genetics of asthma: ADAM33 as an example of a susceptibility gene. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 3, (5), 440-443. (doi:10.1513/pats.200603-026AW).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2006) Susceptibility genes in severe asthma. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 6, (4), 345-348. (doi:10.1007/s11882-006-0071-y).
Andrews, Allison-Lynn, Holloway, John W., Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2006) IL-4 receptor α is an important modulator of IL-4 and IL-13 receptor binding: implications for the development of therapeutic targets. Journal of Immunology, 176, (12), 7456-7461.
Hao, L., Sayers, I., Cakebread, J.A., Barton, S.J., Beghé, B., Holgate, S.T., Sampson, A.P. and Holloway, J.W. (2006) The cysteinyl-leukotriene type 1 receptor polymorphism 927T/C is associated with atopy severity but not with asthma. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 36, (6), 735-741. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02511.x).
Bradding, Peter, Walls, Andrew F. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2006) The role of the mast cell in the pathophysiology of asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 117, (6), 1277-1284. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.02.039).
Holgate, Stephen T., Holloway, John, Wilson, Susan, Howarth, Peter H., Haitchi, Hans Michael, Babu, Suresh and Davies, Donna E. (2006) Understanding the pathophysiology of severe asthma to generate new therapeutic opportunities. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 117, (3), 496-506. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.01.039).
Burkart, Kristin M., Barton, Sheila J., Holloway, John W., Yang, Ian A., Cakebread, Julie A., Cruikshank, William, Little, Frederic, Jin, Xiaoyi, Farrer, Lindsay A., Clough, Joanne B., Keith, Tim P., Holgate, Stephen, Center, David M. and O'Connor, George T. (2006) Association of asthma with a functional promoter polymorphism in the IL16 gene. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 117, (1), 86-91. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.10.011).
Contoli, Marco, Message, Simon D., Laza-Stanca, Vasile, Edwards, Michael R., Wark, Peter A.B., Bartlett, Nathan W., Kebadze, Tatiana, Mallia, Patrick, Stanciu, Luminita A., Parker, Hayley L., Slater, Louise, Lewis-Antes, Anita, Kon, Onn M., Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E., Kotenko, Sergei V., Papi, Alberto and Johnston, Sebastian L. (2006) Role of deficient type III interferon-λ production in asthma exacerbations. Nature Medicine, 12, (9), 1023-1026. (doi:10.1038/nm1462).
Yang, I.A., Fong, K.M., Holgate, S.T. and Holloway, J.W. (2006) The role of Toll-like receptors and related receptors of the innate immune system in asthma. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 6, (1), 23-28.
Wicks, J., Haitchi, H.M., Holgate, S.T., Davies, D.E. and Powell, R.M. (2006) Enhanced upregulation of smooth muscle-related transcripts by TGFβ₂in asthmatic (myo)fibroblasts. Thorax, 61, (4), 313-319. (doi:10.1136/thx.2005.050005).
Holgate, S.T., Davies, D.E., Powell, R.M. and Holloway, J.W. (2006) ADAM33: a newly identified protease involved in airway remodelling. Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 19, (1), 3-11. (doi:10.1016/j.pupt.2005.02.008).
Haitchi, H.M., Bucchieri, F., Powell, R.M., Hanley, N.A., Wilson, D.I., Holgate, S.T. and Davies, D.E. (2005) ADAM33 in embryonic lungs. Thorax, 60, (Supplement 2), p.ii22.
Steel, Mark D., Puddicombe, Sarah M., Hamilton, Lynnsey M., Powell, Rob M., Holloway, John W., Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E. and Collins, Jane E. (2005) β-catenin/T-cell factor-mediated transcription is modulated by cell density in human bronchial epithelial cells. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 37, (6), 1281-1295. (doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2004.12.010).
Simpson, Angela, Maniatis, Nikolas, Jury, Francine, Cakebread, Julie A., Lowe, Lesley A., Holgate, Stephen T., Woodcock, Ashley, Ollier, William E. R., Collins, Andrew, Custovic, Adnan, Holloway, John W. and John, Sally L. (2005) Polymorphisms in a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) predict impaired early-life lung function. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 172, (1), 55-60. (doi:10.1164/rccm.200412-1708OC).
Hamilton, L.M., Puddicombe, S.M., Dearman, R.J., Kimber, I.T., Wallin, A., Howarth, P.H., Holgate, S.T., Wilson, S.J. and Davies, D.E. (2005) Altered protein tyrosine phosphorylation in asthmatic bronchial epithelium. European Respiratory Journal, 25, (6), 978-985.
Holgate, Stephen, Powell, Richard, Jenkins, Maureen and Ali, Omar (2005) A treatment for allergic rhinitis: a view on the role of levocetirizine. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 21, (7), 1099-1106. (doi:10.1185/030079905X53298).
Howarth, P.H., Babu, K.S., Arshad, H.S., Lau, L., Buckley, M., McConnell, W., Beckett, P., Ali, M. Al, Chauhan, A., Wilson, S.J., Reynolds, A., Davies, D.E. and Holgate, S.T. (2005) Tumour necrosis factor (TNFα) as a novel therapeutic target in symptomatic corticosteroid dependent asthma. Thorax, 60, (12), 1012-1018. (doi:10.1136/thx.2005.045260).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2005) Exacerbations: the asthma paradox. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 172, (8), 941-943. (doi:10.1164/rccm.2507007).
Cho, Sang-Heon, Stanciu, Luminita A., Holgate, Stephen T. and Johnston, Sebastian L. (2005) Increased interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interferon-gamma in airway CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in atopic asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 171, (3), 224-230. (doi:10.1164/rccm.200310-1416OC).
Haitchi, Hans Michael, Powell, Robert M., Shaw, Timothy J., Howarth, Peter H., Wilson, Susan J., Wilson, David I., Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2005) ADAM33 expression in asthmatic airways and human embryonic lungs. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 171, (9), 958-965. (doi:10.1164/rccm.200409-1251OC).
Norris, Virginia, Choong, Lee, Tran, Duyen, Corden, Zoe, Boyce, Malcom, Arshad, Hasan, Holgate, S., O'Connor, Brian, Millet, Sylvaine, Miller, Barry, Rohatagi, Shashank and Kirkesseli, Stephane (2005) Effect of IVL745, a VLA-4 antagonist, on allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 116, (4), 761-767. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.04.045).
Fedorov, I.A., Wilson, S.J., Davies, D.E. and Holgate, S.T. (2005) Epithelial stress and structural remodelling in childhood asthma. Thorax, 60, (5), 389-394. (doi:10.1136/thx.2004.030262).
Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E., Powell, Rob M. and Holloway, John W. (2005) ADAM33: a newly identified gene in the pathogenesis of asthma. Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, 25, (4), 655-668. (doi:10.1016/j.iac.2005.07.003).
Stanciu, Luminita A., Roberts, Kevan, Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G., Cho, Sang-Heon, Holgate, Stephen T., Coyle, Anthony J. and Johnston, Sebastian L. (2005) IL-4 increases type 2, but not type 1, cytokine production in CD8+ T cells from mild atopic asthmatics. Respiratory Research, 6, (1), 67. (doi:10.1186/1465-9921-6-67).
Gaga, M., Papageorgiou, N., Yiourgioti, G., Karydi, P., Liapikou, A., Bitsakou, H., Zervas, E., Koulouris, N.G. and Holgate, S.T. (2005) Risk factors and characteristics associated with severe and difficult to treat asthma phenotype: an analysis of the ENFUMOSA group of patients based on the ECRHS questionnaire. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 35, (7), 954-959. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02281.x).
DeBilderling, G., Chauhan, A.J., Jeffs, J.A., Withers, N., Johnston, S.L., Holgate, S.T. and Clough, J.B. (2005) Gas cooking and smoking habits and the risk of childhood and adolescent wheeze. American Journal of Epidemiology, 162, (6), 513-522.
Kaushik, N., Fear, D., Richards, S.C., McDermott, C.R., Nuwaysir, E.F., Kellam, P., Harrison, T.J., Wilkinson, R.J., Tyrrell, D.A., Holgate, S.T. and Kerr, J.R. (2005) Gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 58, (8), 826-832. (doi:10.1136/jcp.2005.025718).
Wark, Peter A.B., Johnston, Sebastian L., Bucchieri, Fabio, Powell, Robert, Puddicombe, Sarah, Laza-Stanca, Vasile, Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2005) Asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells have a deficient innate immune response to infection with rhinovirus. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 201, (6), 937-947. (doi:10.1084/jem.20041901).
Holgate, S.T. and Lack, G. (2005) Improving the management of atopic disease. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, (8), 826-831. (doi:10.1136/adc.2004.053280).
Bousquet, J., Cabrera, P., Berkman, N., Buhl, R., Holgate, S., Wenzel, S., Fox, H., Hedgecock, S., Blogg, M. and Cioppa, G. Della (2005) The effect of treatment with omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody, on asthma exacerbations and emergency medical visits in patients with severe persistent asthma. Allergy, 60, (3), 302-308. (doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2004.00770.x).
Yang, Ian A., Holz, Olaf, Jorres, Rudolf A., Magnussen, Helgo, Barton, Sheila J., Rodríguez, Santiago, Cakebread, Julie A., Holloway, John W. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2005) Association of tumor necrosis factor-α polymorphisms and ozone-induced change in lung function. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 171, (2), 171-176. (doi:10.1164/rccm.200402-194OC).
Holgate, S.T., Djukanovic, R., Casale, T. and Bousquet, J. (2005) Anti-immunoglobulin E treatment with omalizumab in allergic diseases: an update on anti-inflammatory activity and clinical efficacy. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 35, (4), 408-416. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02191.x).
Holgate, S.T. and Holloway, J.W. (2005) Is big beautiful? The continuing story of ADAM33 and asthma. Thorax, 60, (4), 263-264.
Holgate, S., Casale, T., Wenzel, S., Bousquet, J., Deniz, Y. and Reisner, C. (2005) The anti-inflammatory effects of omalizumab confirm the central role of IgE in allergic inflammation. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 115, (3), 459-465. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2004.11.053).
O'Donnell, R.A., Richter, A., Ward, J., Angco, G., Mehta, A., Rousseau, K., Swallow, D.M., Holgate, S.T., Djukanovic, R., Davies, D.E. and Wilson, S.J. (2004) Expression of ErbB receptors and mucins in the airways of long term current smokers. Thorax, 59, (12), 1032-1040. (doi:10.1136/thx.2004.028043). (PMID:15563701).
Powell, Robert M., Wicks, James, Holloway, John W., Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2004) The splicing and fate of ADAM33 transcripts in primary human airways fibroblasts. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 31, (1), 13-21. (doi:10.1165/rcmb.2003-0330OC).
Holgate, Stephen T., Holloway, John, Wilson, Susan, Bucchieri, Fabio, Puddicombe, Sarah and Davies, Donna E. (2004) Epithelial-mesenchymal communication in the pathogenesis of chronic asthma. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 1, (2), 93-98.
Djukanovic, Ratko, Wilson, SusanJ., Kraft, Monica, Jarjour, Nizar N., Steel, Mark, Chung, K. Fan, Bao, Weibin, Fowler-Taylor, Angel, Matthews, John, Busse, William W., Holgate, Stephen T. and Fahy, John V. (2004) Effects of treatment with anti-immunoglobulin E antibody omalizumab on airway inflammation in allergic asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 170, (6), 583-593. (doi:10.1164/rccm.200312-1651OC).
Haitchi, H.M. and Holgate, S.T. (2004) New strategies in the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 13, (2), 107-124.
Yoshisue, Hajime, Puddicombe, Sarah M., Wilson, Susan J., Haitchi, Hans-Michael, Powell, Robert M., Wilson, David I., Pandit, Anita, Berger, Ann E., Davies, Donna E., Holloway, John W. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2004) Characterization of ciliated bronchial epithelium 1, a ciliated cell-associated gene induced during mucociliary differentiation. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 31, (5), 491-500. (doi:10.1165/rcmb.2004-0050OC).
Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E., Rorke, Steuart, Cakebread, Julie, Murphy, Gillian, Powell, Robert M. and Holloway, John W. (2004) ADAM 33 and its association with airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, 27, (1), 23-34.
Grimfeld, A., Holgate, S.T., Canonica, G.W., Bonini, S., Borres, M.P., Adam, D., CansecoGonzalez, C., Lobaton, P., Patel, P., Szczeklik, A., Danzig, M.R., Roman, I., Bismut, H. and Czarlewski, W. (2004) Prophylactic management of children at risk for recurrent upper respiratory infections: the Preventia I Study. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 34, (11), 1665-1672. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.02098.x).
Holgate, S.T. (2004) Lessons learnt from the epidemic of asthma. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 97, (5), 247-257. (doi:10.1093/qjmed/hch052).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2004) The epidemic of asthma and allergy. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 97, (3), 103-110.
Yang, I.A., Barton, S.J., Rorke, S., Cakebread, J.A., Keith, T.P., Clough, J.B., Holgate, S.T. and Holloway, J.W. (2004) Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphism and severity of atopy in asthmatics. Genes and Immunity, 5, (1), 41-45. (doi:10.1038/sj.gene.6364037).
Beghé, B., Padoan, M., Moss, C.T., Barton, S.J., Holloway, J.W., Holgate, S.T., Howell, W.M. and Mapp, C.E. (2004) Lack of association of HLA class I genes and TNF α-308 polymorphism in toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma. Allergy, 59, (1), 61-64. (doi:10.1046/j.1398-9995.2003.00352.x).
Cakebread, Julie A., Haitchi, H.-M., Holloway, John W., Powell, Robert M., Keith, Tim, Davies, Donna E. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2004) The role of ADAM33 in the pathogenesis of asthma. Springer Seminars in Immunopathology, 25, (3-4), 361-375. (doi:10.1007/s00281-003-0153-z).
Holgate, S.T., Bousquet, J., Chung, K.F., Bisgaard, H., Pauwels, R., Fabbri, L., Rabe, K., Doherty, M., Snell, N.J.C., Cuss, F., D'Amato, M. and Reginster, J.Y. Group for the Respect of Ethics and Excellence in Science (GREES): Asthma section (2004) Summary of recommendations for the design of clinical trials and the registration of drugs used in the treatment of asthma. Respiratory Medicine, 98, (6), 479-487. (doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2003.12.005).
Yang, I.A., Holgate, S.T. and Holloway, J.W. (2004) Toll-like receptor polymorphisms and allergic disease: interpreting the evidence from genetic studies. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 34, (2), 163-166. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.01893.x).
Cushley, M.J., Tattersfield, A.E. and Holgate, S.T. (2004) Inhaled adenosine and guanosine on airway resistance in normal and asthmatic subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 58, (7), S751-S755. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2004.02285.x).
Holloway, John W., Keith, Tim P., Davies, Donna E., Powell, Robert, Haitchi, Hans-Michael and Holgate, Stephen T. (2004) The discovery and role of ADAM33, a new candidate gene for asthma. Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, 6, (17), 1-12. (doi:10.1017/S1462399404007963).
Holgate, S.T., Chuchalin, A.G., Hebert, J., Lotvall, J., Persson, G.B., Chung, K.F., Bousquet, J., Kerstjens, H.A., Fox, H., Thirlwell, J. and Cioppa, G.D. (2004) Efficacy and safety of a recombinant anti-immunoglobulin E antibody (omalizumab) in severe allergic asthma. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 34, (4), 632-638. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.1916.x).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2004) Genetic common ground between allergic and autoimmune disease: the role of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 114, (2), 277-279. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2004.05.052).
Babu, K. Suresh, Davies, Donna E. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2004) Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in asthma. Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, 24, (4), 583-597. (doi:10.1016/j.iac.2004.06.010).
Bousquet, Jean, Wenzel, Sally, Holgate, Stephen, Lumry, William, Freeman, Peter and Fox, Howard (2004) Predicting response to omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody, in patients with allergic asthma. Chest, 125, (4), 1378-1386.
Lee, J.H., Park, H.S., Park, S.W., Jang, A.S., Uh, S.T., Rhim, T., Park, C.S., Hong, S.J., Holgate, S.T., Holloway, J.W. and Shin, H.D. (2004) ADAM33 polymorphism: association with bronchial hyper-responsiveness in Korean asthmatics. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 34, (6), 860-865. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.01977.x).
Stenfors, N., Nordenhall, C., Salvi, S.S., Mudway, I., Soderberg, M., Blomberg, A., Helleday, R., Levin, J.O., Holgate, S.T., Kelly, F.J. and Frew, A.J. T. (2004) Different airway inflammatory responses in asthmatic and healthy humans exposed to diesel. European Respiratory Journal, 23, (1), 82-86.
Holloway, J.W. and Holgate, S.T. (2004) Genetics. Chemical Immunology and Allergy, 84, 1-35. (doi:10.1159/000081548).
Asher, I., Baena-Cagnani, C., Boner, A., Canonica, G.W., Chuchalin, A., Custovic, A., Dagli, E., Haahtela, T., Haus, M., Lemmo-Hoten, M., Holgate, S., Holloway, J., Holt, P., Host, A., Iikura, Y., Johansson, S.G., Kaplan, A., Kowalski, M.L., Lockey, R.F., Naspitz, C., Odhiambo, J., Ring, J., Sastre, J., Venables, K., Vichyanond, P., Volovitz, B., Wahn, U., Warner, J., Weiss, K. and Zhong, N.S. (2004) World Allergy Organization guidelines for prevention of allergy and allergic asthma. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 135, (1), 83-92. (doi:10.1159/000080524).
Polosa, Riccardo, Sapsford, Raymond J., Dokic, Dejan, Cacciola, Rossella R., Prosperini, Gaetano, Devalia, Jagdish L., Holgate, Stephen T., Howarth, Peter H. and Davies, Donna E. (2004) Induction of the epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligands in nasal epithelium by ozone. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 113, (1), 120-126. (doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2003.09.040).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2004) Pharmacogenetics: the new science of personalizing treatment. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 4, (1), 37-38.
O'Donnell, R.A., Peebles, C., Ward, J.A., Daraker, A., Angco, G., Broberg, P., Pierrou, S., Lund, J., Holgate, S.T., Davies, D.E., Delany, D.J., Wilson, S.J. and Djukanovic, R. (2004) Relationship between peripheral airway dysfunction, airway obstruction, and neutrophilic inflammation in COPD. Thorax, 59, (10), 837-842. (doi:10.1136/thx.2003.019349).
Mansur, A.H., Bishop, D.T., Holgate, S.T., Markham, A.F. and Morrison, J.F.J. (2004) Linkage/association study of a locus modulating total serum IgE on chromosome 14q13-24 in families with asthma. Thorax, 59, (10), 876-882.
Iwanaga, T., McEuen, A., Walls, A.F., Clough, J.B., Keith, T.P., Rorke, S., Barton, S.J., Holgate, S.T. and Holloway, J.W. (2004) Polymorphism of the mast cell chymase gene (CMA1) promoter region: lack of association with asthma but association with serum total immunoglobulin E levels in adult atopic dermatitis. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 34, (7), 1037-1042. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.02000.x).
Radcliffe, Michael J., Lewith, George T., Turner, Richard G., Prescott, Phillip, Church, Martin K. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2003) Enzyme potentiated desensitisation in treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis: double blind randomised controlled study. British Medical Journal, 327, (7409), 251-254. (doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7409.251).
Beghé, B., Barton, S., Rorke, S., Peng, Q., Sayers, I., Gaunt, T., Keith, T.P., Clough, J.B., Holgate, S.T. and Holloway, J.W. (2003) Polymorphisms in the interleukin-4 and interleukin-4 receptor α chain genes confer susceptibility to asthma and atopy in a Caucasian population. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 33, (8), 1111-1117. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2003.01731.x).
Sayers, I., Sampson, A.P., Ye, S. and Holgate, S.T. (2003) Promoter polymorphism influences the effect of dexamethasone on transcriptional activation of the LTC4 synthase gene. European Journal of Human Genetics, 11, (8), 619-622. (doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201015).
Wallin, Annika, Sue-Chu, Malcolm, Bjermer, Leif, Ward, Jonathan, Sandström, Thomas, Lindberg, Anne, Lundbäck, Bo, Djukanovic, Ratka, Holgate, Stephen and Wilson, Susan (2003) Effect of inhaled fluticasone with and without salmeterol on airway inflammation in asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 112, (1), 72-78. (doi:10.1067/mai.2003.1518).
Babu, K.S., Woodcock, D.A., Smith, S.E., Staniforth, J.N., Holgate, S.T. and Conway, J.H. (2003) Inhaled synthetic surfactant abolishes the early allergen-induced response in asthma. European Respiratory Journal, 21, (6), 1046-1049.
Watson, Mark W., Beasley, Rrichard, Holgate, Stephen T. and Bardin, Philip G. (2003) Rhinovirus is not detectable in peripheral lung tissue after asthma death. Respirology, 8, (2), 234-238. (doi:10.1046/j.1440-1843.2003.00462.x).
Kurukulaaratchy, R.J., Fenn, M.H., Waterhouse, L.M., Matthews, S.M., Holgate, S.T. and Arshad, S.H. (2003) Characterization of wheezing phenotypes in the first 10 years of life. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 33, (5), 573-578. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2003.01657.x).
Holgate, S.T. and Peters-Golden, M. (2003) Introduction: the anti-inflammatory role of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists in asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 111, (Supplement 1), S1-S4.
Holgate, Stephen T., Peters-Golden, Marc, Panettieri, Reynold A. and Henderson, William R. (2003) Roles of cysteinyl leukotrienes in airway inflammation, smooth muscle function, and remodeling. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 111, (Supplement 1), S18-S34.
Holgate, S.T., Davies, D.E., Puddicombe, S., Richter, A., Lackie, P., Lordan, J. and Howarth, P. (2003) Mechanisms of airway epithelial damage: epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the pathogenesis of asthma. European Respiratory Journal Supplement, 44, 24s-29s. (doi:10.1183/09031936.03.00000803).
Sayers, I., Barton, S., Rorke, S., Sawyer, J., Peng, Q., Beghe, B., Ye, S., Keith, T., Clough, J.B., Holloway, J.W., Sampson, A.P. and Holgate, S.T. (2003) Promoter polymorphism in the 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) genes and asthma susceptibility in a Caucasian population. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 33, (8), 1103-1110. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2003.01733.x).
Sayers, I., Barton, S., Rorke, S., Beghe, B., Hayward, B., Van Eerdewegh, P., Keith, T., Clough, J.B., Ye, S., Holloway, J.W., Sampson, A.P. and Holgate, S.T. (2003) Allelic association and functional studies of promoter polymorphism in the leukotriene C4 synthase gene (LTC4S) in asthma. Thorax, 58, (5), 417-424. (doi:10.1136/thorax.58.5.417).
Holgate, Stephen T. and Broide, David (2003) New targets for allergic rhinitis--a disease of civilization. Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery, 2, (11), 902-914. (doi:10.1038/nrd1224).
Chauhan, A.J., Inskip, Hazel M., Linaker, Catherine H., Smith, Sandra, Schreiber, Jacqueline, Johnston, Sebastian L. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2003) Personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the severity of virus-induced asthma in children. The Lancet, 361, (9373), 1939-1944. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13582-9).
Jeffery, Peter, Holgate, Stephen and Wenzel, Sally (2003) Methods for the assessment of endobronchial biopsies in clinical research: application to studies of pathogenesis and the effects of treatment. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 168, (6 Supplement), S1-S17. (doi:10.1164/rccm.200202-150WS).
Puddicombe, Sarah M., Torres-Lozano, Carlos, Richter, Audrey, Bucchieri, Fabio, Lordan, James L., Howarth, Peter H., Vrugt, Bart, Albers, Rene, Djukanovic, Ratko, Holgate, Stephen T., Wilson, Susan J. and Davies, Donna E. (2003) Increased expression of p21(waf) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in asthmatic bronchial epithelium. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 28, (1), 61-68. (doi:10.1165/rcmb.4715).
Pathmanathan, S., Krishna, M.T., Blomberg, A., Helleday, R., Kelly, F.J., Sandström, T., Holgate, S.T., Wilson, S.J. and Frew, A.J. (2003) Repeated daily exposure to 2 ppm nitrogen dioxide upregulates the expression of IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and ICAM-1 in the bronchial epithelium of healthy human airways. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60, (11), 892-896.
Holgate, Stephen T., Sandström, Thomas, Frew, Anthony J., Stenfors, Nikolai, Nördenhall, Charlotta, Salvi, Sundeep, Blomberg, Anders, Helleday, Ragnberth and Söderberg, Margaretha (2003) Health effects of acute exposure to air pollution. Part I: healthy and asthmatic subjects exposed to diesel exhaust. Health Effects Institute Research Report, (112), 1-30.
Fleming, J.S., Conway, J.H., Bolt, L. and Holgate, S.T. (2003) A comparison of planar scintigraphy and SPECT measurement of total lung deposition of inhaled aerosol. Journal of Aerosol Medicine, 16, (1), 9-19. (doi:10.1089/089426803764928310).
Bosson, J., Stenfors, N., Bucht, A., Helleday, R., Pourazar, J., Holgate, S.T., Kelly, F.J., Sandström, T., Wilson, S., Frew, A.J. and Blomberg, A. (2003) Ozone-induced bronchial epithelial cytokine expression differs between healthy and asthmatic subjects. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 33, (6), 777-782. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2003.01662.x).
Holgate, S.T., Canonica, G.W., Simons, F.E., Taglialatela, M., Tharp, M., Timmerman, H. and Yanai, K. (2003) Consensus Group on New-Generation Antihistamines (CONGA): present status and recommendations. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 33, (9), 1305-1324. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2003.01769.x).
Joos, G.F., O'Connor, B., Anderson, S.D., Chung, F., Cockcroft, D.W., Dahlen, B., DiMaria, G., Foresi, A., Hargreave, F.E., Holgate, S.T., Inman, M., Lotvall, J., Magnussen, H., Polosa, R., Postma, D.S. and Riedler, J. (2003) Indirect airway challenges. European Respiratory Journal, 21, (6), 1050-1068.
Davies, Donna E., Wicks, James, Powell, Robert M., Puddicombe, Sarah M. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2003) Airway remodeling in asthma: new insights. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 111, (2), 215-225. (doi:10.1067/mai.2003.128).
Powell, Robert M., Hamilton, Lynnsey M., Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E. and Holloway, John W. (2003) ADAM33: a novel therapeutic target for asthma. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, 7, (4), 485-494. (doi:10.1517/14728222.7.4.485).
Adam, E.C., Holgate, S.T., Fildew, C.J. and Lackie, P.M. (2003) Role of carbohydrates in repair of human respiratory epithelium using an in vitro model. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 33, (10), 1398-1404. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2003.01771.x).
Knight, Darryl A. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2003) The airway epithelium: structural and functional properties in health and disease. Respirology, 8, (4), 432-446. (doi:10.1046/j.1440-1843.2003.00493.x).
Camporota, L., Corkhill, A., Long, H., Lordan, J., Stanciu, L., Tuckwell, N., Cross, A., Stanford, J.L., Rook, G.A., Holgate, S.T. and Djukanovic, R. (2003) The effects of Mycobacterium vaccae on allergen-induced airway responses in atopic asthma. European Respiratory Journal, 21, (2), 287-293. (doi:10.1183/09031936.03.00042103).
Bjermer, Leif, Bisgaard, Hans, Bousquet, Jean, Fabbri, Leonardo M., Greening, Andrew P., Haahtela, Tari, Holgate, Stephen T., Picado, Cesar, Menten, Joris, Dass, S. Balachandra, Leff, Jonathan A. and Polos, Peter G. (2003) Montelukast and fluticasone compared with salmeterol and fluticasone in protecting against asthma exacerbation in adults: one year, double blind, randomised, comparative trial. British Medical Journal, 327, (7420), 891. (doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7420.891).
Brightling, C.E., Symon, F.A., Holgate, S.T., Wardlaw, A.J., Pavord, I.D. and Bradding, P. (2003) Interleukin-4 and -13 expression is co-localized to mast cells within the airway smooth muscle in asthma. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 33, (12), 1711-1716. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2003.01827.x).
Kurukulaaratchy, R.J., Matthews, S., Holgate, S.T. and Arshad, S.H. (2003) Predicting persistent disease among children who wheeze during early life. European Respiratory Journal, 22, (5), 767-771.
Hamilton, L.M., Torres-Lozano, C., Puddicombe, S.M., Richter, A., Kimber, I., Dearman, R.J., Vrugt, B., Aalbers, R., Holgate, S.T., Djukanovic, R., Wilson, S.J. and Davies, D.E. (2003) The role of the epidermal growth factor receptor in sustaining neutrophil inflammation in severe asthma. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 33, (2), 233-240. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2003.01593.x).
Powell, R., Ren, J., Lewith, G., Barclay, W., Holgate, S. and Almond, J. (2003) Identification of novel expressed sequences, up-regulated in the leucocytes of chronic fatigue syndrome patients. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 33, (10), 1450-1456. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2003.01745.x).
Leir, Shih-Hsing, Holgate, Stephen T. and Lackie, Peter M. (2003) Inflammatory cytokines can enhance CD44-mediated airway epithelial cell adhesion independently of CD44 expression. American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 285, (6), L1305-L1311.
Holgate, S.T., Davies, D.E., Murphy, G., Powell, R.M. and Holloway, J.W. (2003) Editorial. ADAM 33: just another asthma gene or a breakthrough in understanding the origins of bronchial hyperresponsiveness? Thorax, 58, (6), 466-469. (doi:10.1136/thorax.58.6.466).
Sharma, S., Lackie, P.M. and Holgate, S.T. (2003) Uneasy breather: the implications of dust mite allergens. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 33, (2), 163-165. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2003.01605.x).
Coward, William R., Okayama, Yoshimichi, Sagara, Hironori, Wilson, Susan J., Holgate, Stephen T. and Church, Martin K. (2002) NF-κB and TNF-α: a positive autocrine loop in human lung mast cells? Journal of Immunology, 169, (9), 5287-5293.
Yuyama, Noriko, Davies, Donna E., Akaiwa, Mina, Matsui, Keiko, Hamasaki, Yuhei, Suminami, Yoshinori, Yoshida, Ning Lu, Maeda, Miyako, Pandit, Anita, Lordan, James L., Kamogawa, Yumiko, Arima, Kazuhiko, Nagumo, Fumio, Sugimachi, Mitsuhiko, Berger, Ann, Richards, Ivan, Roberds, Steven L., Yamashita, Tetsuji, Kishi, Fumio, Kato, Hiroshi, Arai, Ken-Ichi, Ohshima, Koichi, Tadano, Jutaro, Hamasaki, Ken-Ichi, Miyatake, Shoichiro, Sugita, Yuji, Holgate, Stephen T. and Izuhara, Kenji (2002) Analysis of novel disease-related genes in bronchial asthma. Cytokine, 19, (6), 287-296. (doi:10.1006/cyto.2002.1972).
Hansel, T.T., Sterk, P.J., Holgate, S.T. and Barnes, P.J. (2002) The trials and tribulations of anti-IL-5 em leader. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 109, (3), 575-576.
Lewith, G.T., Watkins, A.D., Hyland, M.E., Shaw, S., Broomfield, J.A., Dolan, G. and Holgate, S.T. (2002) Use of ultramolecular potencies of allergen to treat asthmatic people allergic to house dust mite: double blind randomised controlled clinical trial. British Medical Journal, 324, (7336), 520-[5pp]. (doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7336.520).
Seymour, Michelle L., Gilby, Natalie, Bardin, Phillip G., Fraenkel, David J., Sanderson, Gwendolyn, Penrose, John F., Holgate, Stephen T., Johnston, Sebastian L and Sampson, Anthony P. (2002) Rhinovirus infection increases 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 in bronchial biopsy specimens from nonatopic subjects. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 185, (4), 540-544. (doi:10.1086/338570).
Howat, William J., Holgate, Stephen T. and Lackie, Peter M. (2002) TGF-β isoform release and activation during in vitro bronchial epithelial wound repair. American Journal of Physiology: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 282, (1), L115-L123.
Lordan, James L., Bucchieri, Fabio, Richter, Audrey, Konstantinidis, Athanassias, Holloway, John W., Thornber, Matthew, Puddicombe, Sarah M., Buchanan, Diana, Wilson, Susan J., Djukanović, Ratko, Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2002) Cooperative effects of Th2 cytokines and allergen on normal and asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells. Journal of Immunology, 169, (1), 407-414.
Polosa, Riccardo, Puddicombe, Sarah M., Krishna, M. Thirumala, Tuck, Angela B., Howarth, Peter H., Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2002) Expression of c-erbB receptors and ligands in the bronchial epithelium of asthmatic subjects. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 109, (1), 75-81. (doi:10.1067/mai.2002.120274).
Babu, K. S., Woodcock, D., Smith, S. E., Heminsley, A. M., Little, L., Staniforth, J. N., Holgate, S. T. and Conway, J. H. (2002) Pumactant abolishes early asthmatic response in patients with allergic asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 165, (Supplement), p.A216.
Holgate, Stephen T. (2002) Airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma: current concepts. Molecular Biotechnology, 22, (2), 179-189.
Van Eerdewegh, Paul, Little, Randall D., Dupuis, Josée, Del Mastro, Richard G., Falls, Kathy, Simon, Jason, Torrey, Dana, Pandit, Sunil, McKenny, Joyce, Braunschweiger, Karen, Walsh, Alison, Liu, Ziying, Hayward, Brooke, Folz, Colleen, Manning, Susan P., Bawa, Alicia, Saracino, Lisa, Thackston, Michelle, Benchekroun, Youssef, Capparell, Neva, Wang, Mei, Adair, Ron, Feng, Yun, Dubois, JoAnn, FitzGerald, Michael G., Huang, Hui, Gibson, René, Allen, Kristina M., Pedan, Alex, Danzig, Melvyn R., Umland, Shelby P., Egan, Robert W., Cuss, Francis M., Rorke, Steuart, Clough, Joanne B., Holloway, John W., Holgate, Stephen T. and Keith, Tim P. (2002) Association of the ADAM33 gene with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Nature, 418, (6896), 426-430. (doi:10.1038/nature00878).
Andrews, Allison-Lynn, Holloway, John W., Puddicombe, Sarah M., Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2002) Kinetic analysis of the interleukin-13 receptor complex. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277, (48), 46073-46078. (doi:10.1074/jbc.M209560200).
Papi, Alberto, Papadopoulos, Nikolaos, Stanciu, Luminita A., Bellettato, Cinzia M., Pinamonti, Silvano, Degitz, Klaus, Holgate, Stephen T. and Johnston, Sebastian L. (2002) Reducing agents inhibit rhinovirus-induced up-regulation of the rhinovirus receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in respiratory epithelial cells. FASEB Journal, 16, (14), 1934-1936. (doi:10.1096/fj.02-0118fje).
Löwhagen, O., Wever, A.M.J., Lusuardi, M., Moscato, G., De Backer, W.A., Gandola, L., Donner, C.F., Ahlstedt, S., Larsson, L. and Holgate, S.T. (2002) The inflammatory marker serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) compared with PEF as a tool to decide inhaled corticosteroid dose in asthmatic patients. Respiratory Medicine, 96, (2), 95-101. (doi:10.1053/rmed.2001.1218).
Prosperini, Gaetano, Rajakulasingam, Kajakulasingam, Cacciola, Rossella R., Spicuzza, Lucia, Rorke, Steuart, Holgate, Stephen T., Di Maria, Giuseppe U. and Polosa, Riccardo (2002) Changes in sputum counts and airway hyperresponsiveness after budesonide: monitoring anti-inflammatory response on the basis of surrogate markers of airway inflammation. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 110, (6), 855-861. (doi:10.1067/mai.2002.130050).
Brunekreef, B. and Holgate, S.T. (2002) Air pollution and health. Lancet, 360, (9341), 1233-1242. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11274-8).
Cho, S.H., Stanciu, L.A., Begishivili, T., Bates, P.J., Holgate, S.T. and Johnston, S.L. (2002) Peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cell type 1 and type 2 cytokine production in atopic asthmatic and normal subjects. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 32, (3), 427-433. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2002.01281.x).
Edwards, A., Stevens, M., Holgate, S., Iikura, Y., Åberg, N., König, P., Reinhardt, D., Stenius-Aarniala, B., Warner, J., Weinberg, E., Callaghan, B. and Howell, J. (2002) Letter to the editor: Inhaled sodium cromoglycate in children with asthma. Thorax, 57, (3), 282-282.
Holgate, Stephen T. (2002) Asthma: more than an inflammatory disease. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2, (1), 27-29.
Dent, Gordon, Hosking, Lisa A., Lordan, James L., Steel, Mark D., Cruikshank, William W., Center, David M., Ellis, Jonathan H., Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E. and Djukanovic, Ratko (2002) Differential roles of IL-16 and CD28/B7 costimulation in the generation of T-lymphocyte chemotactic activity in the bronchial mucosa of mild and moderate asthmatic individuals. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 110, (6), 906-914. (doi:10.1067/mai.2002.130049).
Papadopoulos, N.G., Stanciu, L.A., Papi, A., Holgate, S.T. and Johnston, S.L. (2002) Rhinovirus-induced alterations on peripheral blood mononuclear cell phenotype and costimulatory molecule expression in normal and atopic asthmatic subjects. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 32, (4), 537-542. (doi:10.1046/j.0954-7894.2002.01313.x).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2002) Adenosine: a key effector molecule of asthma or just another mediator. American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 282, (2), L167-L168. (doi:10.1152/ajplung.00386.2001).
Ritz, Stacey A., Stampfli, Martin R., Davies, Donna E., Holgate, Stephen T. and Jordana, Manel (2002) On the generation of allergic airway diseases: from GM-CSF to Kyoto. Trends in Immunology, 23, (8), 396-402. (doi:10.1016/S1471-4906(02)02278-0).
Richter, Audrey, O'Donnell, Rory A., Powell, Robert M., Sanders, Michael W., Holgate, Stephen T., Djukanovic', Ratko and Davies, Donna E. (2002) Autocrine ligands for the epidermal growth factor receptor mediate interleukin-8 release from bronchial epithelial cells in response to cigarette smoke. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 27, (1), 85-90.
Brightling, Christopher E., Bradding, Peter, Symon, Fiona A., Holgate, Stephen T., Wardlaw, Andrew J. and Pavord, Ian D. (2002) Mast-cell infiltration of airway smooth muscle in asthma. New England Journal of Medicine, 346, (22), 1699-1705.
Xu, J., Benyon, R.C., Leir, S.H., Zhang, S., Holgate, S.T. and Lackie, P.M. (2002) Matrix metalloproteinase-2 from bronchial epithelial cells induces the proliferation of subepithelial fibroblasts. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 32, (6), 881-888. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2745.2002.01386.x).
Babu, K.S. and Holgate, S.T. (2002) Newer therapies for asthma: a focus on anti-IgE. The Indian Journal of Chest Diseases & Allied Sciences, 44, (2), 107-115.
Holgate, S.T. (2002) Considerations on third generation antihistamines. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 32, (2), p.179. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2002.01339.x).
Holgate, S.T. and Salvi, S.S. (2002) Mast cell tryptase as a proinflamatory mediator in late-phase asthmatic response. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 2, (2), 105-106.
Rorke, S., Jennison, S., Jeffs, J.A., Sampson, A.P., Arshad, H. and Holgate, S.T. (2002) Role of cysteinyl leukotrienes in adenosine 5'-monophosphate induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. Thorax, 57, (4), 323-327.
Howat, William J., Barabas, Tony, Holmes, James A., Holgate, Stephen T. and Lackie, Peter M. (2002) Distribution of basement membrane pores in bronchus revealed by microscopy following epithelial removal. Journal of Structural Biology, 139, (3), 137-145. (doi:10.1016/S1047-8477(02)00589-0).
Corne, Jonathan M., Marshall, Clare, Smith, Sandra, Schreiber, Jacquie, Sanderson, Gwendolyn, Holgate, Stephen T. and Johnston, Sebastian L. (2002) Frequency, severity, and duration of rhinovirus infections in asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals: a longitudinal cohort study. The Lancet, 359, (9309), 831-834. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07953-9).
Bruton, Anne, Conway, Joy H. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2002) Inspiratory muscle dysfunction after prolonged periods of mechanical ventilation; two case studies. Physiotherapy, 88, (3), 131 - 137. (doi:10.1016/S0031-9406(05)60546-9).
Bucchieri, Fabio, Puddicombe, Sarah M., Lordan, James L., Richter, Audrey, Buchanan, Diane, Wilson, Susan J., Ward, Jon, Zummo, Giovanni, Howarth, Peter H., Djukanovic, Ratko, Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2002) Asthmatic bronchial epithelium is more susceptible to oxidant-induced apoptosis. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 27, (2), 179-185.
Babu, K.S. and Holgate, S.T. (2002) The role of anti-IgE therapies in the treatment of asthma. Hospital Medicine, 63, (8), 483-486.
Krishna, M.T., Hatzivlassiou, P., Salvi, S.S. and Holgate, S.T. (2002) Current and future asthma therapies. Practitioner, 246, (1641), 820-825.
Rhodes, Helen L., Thomas, Peter, Sporik, Richard, Holgate, Stephen T. and Cogswell, Jeremy J. (2002) A birth cohort study of subjects at risk of atopy: twenty-two-year follow-up of wheeze and atopic status. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 165, (2), 176-180. (doi:10.1164/rccm2104032).
Lordan, J.L. and Holgate, S.T. (2002) H1-antihistamines in asthma. Clinical Sllergy and Immunology, 17, 221-248.
Wallin, A.T., Cioppa, G.D., Holgate, S. and Wilson, S. (2002) The effects of regular inhaled formoterol and budesonide on preformed Th-2 cytokines in mild asthmatics. Respiratory Medicine, 96, (12), 1021-1025. (doi:10.1053/rmed.2002.1388).
Holgate, Stephen T. (2002) Adenosine provocation: a new test for allergic type airway inflammation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 165, (3), 317-318.
Dahlén, Sven-Erik, Malmstrom, Kerstin, Nizankowska, Ewa, Dahlén, Barbro, Kuna, Piotr, Kowalski, Marek, Lumry, William R., Picado, César, Stevenson, Donald D., Bousquet, Jean, Pauwels, Romain, Holgate, Stephen T., Shahane, Aditi, Zhang, Ji, Reiss, Theodore F. and Szczeklik, Andrew (2002) Improvement of aspirin-intolerant asthma by montelukast, a leukotriene antagonist. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 165, (1), 9-14.
Zhang, J., Yu, C., Holgate, S.T. and Reiss, T.F. (2002) Variability and lack of predictive ability of asthma end-points in clinical trials. European Respiratory Journal, 20, (5), 1102-1109.
Davies, D.E. and Holgate, S.T. (2002) Asthma: the importance of epithelial mesenchymal communication in pathogenesis. Inflammation and the airway epithelium in asthma. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 34, (12), 1520-1526. (doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(02)00048-1).
Papadopoulos, N.G., Stanciu, L.A., Papi, A., Holgate, S.T. and Johnston, S.L. (2002) A defective type 1 response to rhinovirus in atopic asthma. Thorax, 57, (4), 328-332.
Rorke, S. and Holgate, S.T. (2002) Targeting adenosine receptors: novel therapeutic targets in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Journal of Respiratory Medicine, 1, (2), 99-105.
Seymour, Michelle L., Rak, Sabina, Aberg, Daniel, Riise, Gert, Penrose, John F., Kanaoka, Yoshihide, Austen, K. Frank, Holgate, Stephen T. and Sampson, Anthony P. (2001) Leukotriene and prostanoid pathway enzymes in bronchial biopsies of seasonal allergic asthmatics. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 164, (11), 2051-2056.
Wilson, Susan J., Wallin, Annika, Della-Cioppa, Giovanni, Sandstrom, Thomas and Holgate, Stephen T. (2001) Effects of budesonide and formoterol on NF-κB, adhesion molecules, and cytokines in asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 164, (6), 1047-1052.
Redington, A.E., Meng, Q.H., Springall, D.R., Evans, T.J., Creminon, C., Maclouf, J., Holgate, S.T., Howarth, P.H. and Polak, J.M. (2001) Increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 in the airway epithelium of asthmatic subjects and regulation by corticosteroid treatment. Thorax, 56, (5), 351-357. (doi:10.1136/thorax.56.5.351).
Howat, William J., Holmes, James A., Holgate, Stephen T. and Lackie, Peter M. (2001) Basement membrane pores in human bronchial epithelium: a conduit for infiltrating cells? American Journal of Pathology, 158, (2), 673-680.
Redington, Anthony E., Roche, William R., Madden, Jacqueline, Frew, Anthony J., Djukanovic, Ratko, Holgate, Stephen T. and Howarth, Peter H. (2001) Basic fibroblast growth factor in asthma: measurement in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid basally and following allergen challenge. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 107, (2), 384-387.
Lewith, George T., Kenyon, Julian N., Broomfield, Jackie, Prescott, Philip, Goddard, Jonathan and Holgate, Stephen T. (2001) Is electrodermal testing as effective as skin prick tests for diagnosing allergies? A double blind, randomised block design study. British Medical Journal, 322, (7279), 131-134. (doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7279.131).
Holgate, S.T., Lackie, P.M., Howarth, P.H., Roche, W.R., Puddicombe, S.M., Richter, A., Wilson, S.J., Holloway, J.W. and Davies, D.E. (2001) Invited lecture: activation of the epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit in the pathogenesis of asthma. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 124, (1-3), 253-258. (doi:10.1159/000053726).
Babu, K. Suresh, Holgate, Stephen T. and Arshad, S. Hasan (2001) Omalizumab, a novel anti-IgE therapy in allergic disorders. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 1, (6), 1049-1058. (doi:10.1517/14712598.1.6.1049).
Edwards, A., Holgate, S., Howell, J., Warner, J., Stevens, M., Åberg, N., Callaghan, B., Ikura, Y., König, P., Reinhardt, D., Stenius-Aarniala, B. and Weinberg, E. (2001) Letter to the editor: Sodium cromoglycate in childhood asthma. Thorax, 56, (4), 331-332.
Salvi, Sundeep S., Krishna, Mamudipudi T., Sampson, Anthony P. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2001) The anti-inflammatory effects of leukotriene-modifying drugs and their use in asthma. Chest, 119, (5), 1533-1546.
Holgate, S.T. (2001) Therapeutic options for persistent asthma. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, (20), 2637-2639.
Salvi, Sundeep S. and Holgate, Stephen (2001) Anti-IgE antibody for the treatment of allergic asthma. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 1, (2), 100-101.
Papadopoulos, N.G., Papi, A., Meyer, J., Stanciu, L.A., Salvi, S., Holgate, S.T. and Johnston, S.L. (2001) Rhinovirus infection up-regulates eotaxin and eotaxin-2 expression in bronchial epithelial cells. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 31, (7), 1060-1066. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2001.01112.x).
Anderson, David F., Zhang, Shaoli, Bradding, Peter, McGill, James I., Holgate, Stephen T. and Roche, William R. (2001) The relative contribution of mast cell subsets to conjunctival TH2-like cytokines. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 42, (5), 995-1001.
Richter, Audrey, Puddicombe, Sarah M., Lordan, James L., Bucchieri, Fabio, Wilson, Susan J., Djukanovic, Ratko, Dent, Gordon, Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2001) The contribution of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 to the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit in asthma. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 25, (3), 385-391.
Dow, L., Fowler, L., Phelps, L., Waters, K., Coggon, D., Kinmonth, A.L. and Holgate, S.T. (2001) Prevalence of untreated asthma in a population sample of 6000 older adults in Bristol, UK. Thorax, 56, (6), 472-476. (doi:10.1136/thorax.56.6.472).
Rhodes, Helen L., Sporik, Richard, Thomas, Peter, Holgate, Stephen T. and Cogswell, Jeremy J. (2001) Early life risk factors for adult asthma: a birth cohort study of subjects at risk. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 108, (5), 720-725. (doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119151).
Papi, Alberto, Papadopoulos, Nikolaos, Stanciu, Luminita A., Degitz, Klaus, Holgate, Stephen T. and Johnston, Sebastian L. (2001) Effect of desloratadine and loratadine on rhinovirus-induced intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upregulation and promoter activation in respiratory epithelial cells. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 108, (2), 221-228. (doi:10.1067/mai.2001.116861).
Holgate, Stephen (2001) Mechanisms of allergy and adult asthma. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1, (1), 47-50.
Holloway, Judith A., Holgate, Stephen T. and Semper, Amanda E. (2001) Expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor on peripheral blood dendritic cells: differential binding of IgE in atopic asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 107, (6), 1009-1018. (doi:10.1067/mai.2001.115039).
Mullings, Rebecca E., Wilson, Susan J., Puddicombe, Sarah M., Lordan, James L., Bucchieri, Fabio, Djukanovic´, Ratko, Howarth, Peter H., Harper, Steven, Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2001) Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT-6) expression and function in asthmatic bronchial epithelium. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 108, (5), 832-838. (doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119554).
Lordan, James L., Davies, Donna E., Wilson, Susan J., Dent, Gordon, Corkhill, Andrea, Jaffar, Zeina, Roberts, Kevan, Djukanovic, Ratko and Holgate, Stephen T. (2001) The role of CD28-B7 costimulation in allergen-induced cytokine release by bronchial mucosa from patients with moderately severe asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 108, (6), 976-981. (doi:10.1067/mai.2001.119740).
Krishna, Mamidipudi Thirumala, Chauhan, Anoop, Little, Louise, Sampson, Karen, Hawksworth, Richard, Mant, Tim, Djukanovic, Ratko, Lee, Tak and Holgate, Stephen (2001) Inhibition of mast cell tryptase by inhaled APC 366 attenuates allergen-induced late-phase airway obstruction in asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 107, (6), 1039-1045. (doi:10.1067/mai.2001.115631).
Holgate, S., Bousquet, J., Wenzel, S., Fox, H., Liu, J. and Castellsague, J. (2001) Efficacy of omalizumab, an anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, in patients with allergic asthma at high risk of serious asthma-related morbidity and mortality. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 17, (4), 233-240.
Salvi, Sundeep S., Babu, K. Suresh and Holgate, Stephen T. (2001) Is asthma really due to a polarized T cell response toward a helper T cell type 2 phenotype? American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 164, (8), 1343-1346.
Persiani, S., D'Amato, M., Makovec, F., Arshad, S.H., Holgate, S.T. and Rovati, L.C. (2001) Pharmacokinetics of andolast after administration of single escalating doses by inhalation in mild asthmatic patients. Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition, 22, (2), 73-81. (doi:10.1002/bdd.260).
Hamilton, L.M., Davies, D.E., Wilson, S.J., Kimber, I., Dearman, R.J. and Holgate, S.T. (2001) The bronchial epithelium in asthma--much more than a passive barrier. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, 56, (1), 48-54.
Holloway, J.W., Lonjou, C., Beghe, B., Peng, Q., Gaunt, T.R., Gomes, I., Hall, I.P., Dewar, J.C., Wilkinson, J., Thomas, N.S., Holgate, S.T. and Morton, N.E. (2001) Linkage analysis of the 5q31-33 candidate region for asthma in 240 UK families. Genes and Immunity, 2, (1), 20-24.
Babu, K.S., Arshad, S.H. and Holgate, S.T. (2001) Anti-IgE treatment: an update. Allergy, 56, (12), 1121-1128. (doi:10.1034/j.1398-9995.2001.00019.x).
Salvi, Sundeep S. and Holgate, Stephen (2001) Long-term effects of inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic children. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 1, (2), 99.
Jesenik, Friedrich, Springall, David R., Redington, Anthony E., Doré, Caroline J., Abrams, Don-Carlos, Holgate, Stephen T., Howarth, Peter H. and Polak, Julia M. (2000) Validation of endobronchial biopsy specimens for nerve quantitation by computer-assisted image analysis. Journal of Pathology, 192, (4), 545-548. (doi:10.1002/1096-9896(200012)192:4<545::AID-PATH755>3.0.CO;2-V).
Wilson, S.J., Shute, J.K., Holgate, S.T., Howarth, P.H. and Bradding, P. (2000) Localization of interleukin (IL) -4 but not IL-5 to human mast cell secretory granules by immunoelectron microscopy. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 30, (4), 493-500. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2000.00756.x). (PMID:10718846).
Vrugt, B, Wilson, Susan J., Bron, A, Shute, J, Holgate, Stephen T., Djukanovic, Ratko and Aalbers, R (2000) Low-dose methotrexate treatment in severe glucocorticoid-dependent asthma: effect on mucosal inflammation and in vitro sensitivity to glucocorticoids of mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation. European Respiratory Journal, 15, (3), 478-485. (PMID:10759440).
Holgate, Stephen T., Davies, Donna E., Lackie, Peter M., Wilson, Susan J., Puddicombe, Sarah M. and Lordan, James L. (2000) Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the pathogenesis of asthma. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 105, (2), part 1, 193-204. (doi:10.1016/S0091-6749(00)90066-6 ). (PMID:10669837).
Salvi, Sundeep S., Nordenhall, Charlotta, Blomberg, Anders, Rudell, Bertil, Pourazar, Jamshid, Kelly, Frank J., Wilson, Susan J., Sandström, Thomas, Holgate, Stephen T. and Frew, Anthony J. (2000) Acute exposure to diesel exhaust increases IL-8 and GRO-alpha production in healthy human airways. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 161, (2 ), part 1, 550-557. (PMID:10673199).
Bacon, Annette S., Ahluwalia, Poonam, Irani, Anne-Marie, Schwartz, Lawrence B., Holgate, Stephen T., Church, Martin K. and McGill, James I. (2000) Tear and conjunctival changes during the allergen-induced early-and late-phase responses. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 106, (5), 948-954. (doi:10.1067/mai.2000.110930).
Bardin, P.G., Fraenkel, D.J.G., VanSchalkwyk, E.M., Holgate, S.T. and Johnston, S.L. (2000) Peak expiratory flow changes during experimental rhinovirus infection. European Respiratory Journal, 16, (5), 980-985.
Bjermer, L., Bisgaard, H., Bousquet, J., Fabbri, L.M., Greening, A., Haahtela, T., Holgate, S.T., Picado, C. and Leff, J.A. (2000) Montelukast or salmeterol combined with an inhaled steroid in adult asthma: design and rationale of a randomized, double-blind comparative study (the IMPACT Investigation of Montelukast as a Partner Agent for Complementary Therapy-trial). Respiratory Medicine, 94, (6), 612-621. (doi:10.1053/rmed.2000.0806).
Leckie, Margaret J., ten Brinke, Anneke, Khan, Jamey, Diamant, Zuzana, O'Connor, Brian J., Walls, Christine M., Mathur, Ashwini K., Cowley, Hugh C., Chung, K. Fan, Djukanovic, Ratko, Hansel, Trevor T., Holgate, Stephen T., Sterk, Peter J. and Barnes, Peter J. (2000) Effects of an interleukin-5 blocking monoclonal antibody on eosinophils, airway hyper-responsiveness, and the late asthmatic response. Lancet, 356, (9248), 2144-2148. ( doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03496-6).
Holgate, S.T. (2000) The role of mast cells and basophils in inflammation. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 30, (supplement 1), 28-32.
Holgate, S.T. (2000) Inflammatory and structural changes in the airways of patients with asthma. Respiratory Medicine, 94, (Supplement 4), S3-S6. (doi:10.1016/S0954-6111(00)80133-X).
Asher, I., Boner, A., Chuchalin, A., Custovic, A., Dagli, E., Haus, M., Hemmo-Lotem, M., Holgate, S.T., Holt, P.G., Host, A., Iikura, I., Johansson, S.G., Kowalski, M.L., Naspitz, C.K., Odhiambo, J., Vichyanond, P., Volovitz, B., Wahn, U., Warner, J.O., Weiss, K. and Zhong, N.S. (2000) Prevention of allergy and asthma: interim report. Allergy, 55, (11), 1069-1088. (doi:10.1034/j.1398-9995.2000.00001.x).
Withers, N.J., Low, J.L., Holgate, S.T. and Clough, J.B. (2000) Smoking habits in a cohort of U.K. adolescents. Respiratory Medicine, 94, (4), 391-396. (doi:10.1053/rmed.1999.0746).
Sampson, A.P., Siddiqui, S., Buchanan, D., Howarth, P.H., Holgate, S.T., Holloway, J.W. and Sayers, I. (2000) Variant LTC4 synthase allele modifies cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis in eosinophils and predicts clinical response to zafirlukast. Thorax, 55, (Suppl 2), S28-S31.
Babu, K.S. and Holgate, S.T. (2000) Potential and novel therapies for asthma. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 48, (11), 1096-1102.
Salvi, S.S., Babu, K.S. and Holgate, S.T. (2000) Glucocorticoids enhance IgE synthesis. Are we heading towards new paradigms. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 30, (11), 1499-1505. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2000.00990.x).
Vrugt, B., Wilson, S., Bron, A., Holgate, S.T., Djukanovic, R. and Aalbers, R. (2000) Bronchial angiogenesis in severe glucocorticoid-dependent asthma. European Respiratory Journal, 15, (6), 1014-1021.
Puddicombe, S.M., Polosa, R., Richter, A., Krishna, M.T., Howarth, P.H., Holgate, S.T. and Davies, D.E. (2000) Involvement of the epidermal growth factor receptor in epithelial repair in asthma. FASEB Journal, 14, (10), 1362-1374.
Fleming, J.S., Sauret, V., Conway, J.H., Holgate, S.T., Bailey, A.G. and Martonen, T.B. (2000) Evaluation of the accuracy and precision of lung aerosol deposition measurements from single-photon emission computed tomography using simulation. Journal of Aerosol Medicine, 13, (3), 187-198.
Linaker, C.H., Coggon, D., Holgate, S.T., Clough, J., Josephs, L., Chauhan, A.J. and Inskip, H.M. (2000) Personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and risk of airflow obstruction in asthmatic children with upper respiratory infection. Thorax, 55, (11), 930-933.
Polosa, Riccardo, Prosperini, Gaetano, Tomaselli, Valerio, Howarth, Peter H., Holgate, Stephen T. and Davies, Donna E. (2000) Expression of c-erbB receptors and ligands in human nasal epithelium. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 106, (6), 1124-1131. (doi:10.1067/mai.2000.110931).
Holgate, S.T. (2000) Epithelial damage and response. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 30, (supplement 1), 37-41.
Linaker, Catherine H., Chauhan, Anoop J., Inskip, Hazel M., Holgate, Stephen T. and Coggon, David (2000) Personal exposures of children to nitrogen dioxide relative to concentrations in outdoor air. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57, (7), 472-476.
Lewith, George and Holgate, Stephen (2000) CAM research and development. Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery, 6, (1), 19-24. (doi:10.1054/ctnm.1999.0440).
Thomas, N. Simon, Wilkinson, Jane, Lonjou, Christine, Morton, Newton E. and Holgate, Stephen T. (2000) Linkage analysis of markers on chromosome 11q13 with asthma and atopy in a United Kingdom population. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 162, (4), 1268-1272.
Wright, Sarah M., Hockey, Peter M., Enhorning, Goran, Strong, Peter, Reid, Kenneth B., Holgate, Stephen T., Djukanovic, Ratko and Postle, Anthony D. (2000) Altered airway surfactant phospholipid composition and reduced lung function in asthma. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89, (4), 1283-1292.
Redington, Anthony E., Wilson, John W., Walls, Andrew F., Madden, Jacqueline, Djukanovic, Ratko, Holgate, Stephen T. and Howarth, Peter H. (2000) Persistent airway T-lymphocyte activation in chronic corticosteroid-treated symptomatic asthma. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 85, (6), 501-507.
Thomas, N.S., Wilkinson, J., Lio, P., Doull, I., Morton, N.E. and Holgate, S.T. (2000) [Genetic factors involved in asthma and atopy. Studies in British families]. Revue des Maladies Respiratoires, 17, (1 Pt 2), 177-182.
Compton, S.J., Cairns, J.A., Holgate, S.T. and Walls, A.F. (2000) Human mast cell tryptase stimulates the release of an IL-8-dependent neutrophil chemotactic activity from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 121, (1), 31-36. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2249.2000.01271.x).
Bryan, Shannon A., O'Connor, Brian J., Matti, Salah, Leckie, Margaret J., Kanabar, Varsha, Khan, Jamey, Warrington, Steven J., Renzetti, Louis, Rames, Alexis, Bock, JuergenA., Boyce, Malcolm J., Hansel, Trevor T., Holgate, Stephen T. and Barnes, Peter J. (2000) Effects of recombinant human interleukin-12 on eosinophils, airway hyper-responsiveness, and the late asthmatic response. Lancet, 356, (9248), 2149-2153. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03497-8).
Holgate, S.T. (2000) The bronchial epithelial origins of asthma. Chemical Immunology, 78, 62-71. (doi;10.1159/000058817).
Holgate, Stephen T., Lackie, Peter, Wilson, Susan, Roche, William and Davies, Donna (2000) Bronchial epithelium as a key regulator of airway allergen sensitization and remodeling in asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 162, (3), S113-S117.
Wilson, Susan J., Leone, Barbara A., Anderson, Donald, Manning, Anthony and Holgate, Stephen T. (1999) Immunohistochemical analysis of the activation of NF-kappaB and expression of associated cytokines and adhesion molecules in human models of allergic inflammation. Journal of Pathology, 189, (2), 265-272. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(199910)189:2<265::AID-PATH415>3.0.CO;2-#). (PMID:10547585).
Roberts, J.A., Bradding, P., Britten, K.M., Walls, A.F., Wilson, S., Gratziou, C., Holgate, S.T. and Howarth, P.H. (1999) The long-acting beta2-agonist salmeterol xinafoate: effects on airway inflammation in asthma. European Respiratory Journal, 14, (2), 275-282. (PMID:10515396).
Holloway, J. W., Beghé, B. and Holgate, S. T. (1999) The genetic basis of atopic asthma. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 29, (8), 1023-1032. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.1999.00599.x). (PMID:10457104).
Vrugt, B., Wilson, S.J., Underwood, J., Bron, A., de Bruyn, R., Bradding, P., Holgate, S.T., Djukanovic, R. and Aalbers, R. (1999) Mucosal inflammation in severe glucocorticoid-dependent asthma. European Respiratory Journal, 13, (6), 1245-1252. (PMID:10445597).
Kraft, Monica, Martin, Richard J., Wilson, Susan J., Djukanovic, Ratko and Holgate, Stephen T. (1999) Lymphocyte and eosinophil influx into alveolar tissue in nocturnal asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 159, (1), 228-234. (PMID:9872843).
Wallin, Annika, Sandström, Thomas, Söderberg, Margaetha, Howarth, Peter H., Lundbäck, Bo, Della-Cioppa, Giovanni, Wilson, Susan J., Judd, Mary, Djukanović, Ratko, Holgate, Stephen T., Lindberg, Anne, Larssen, Lars and Melander, Bo (1999) The effects of regular inhaled formoterol, budesonide, and placebo on mucosal inflammation and clinical indices in mild asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 159, (1), 79-86. (PMID:9872822).
Hodges, E., Dasmahapatra, J., Smith, J.L., Quin, C.T., Lanham, S.A., Krishna, M.T., Holgate, Stephen T. and Frew, A.J. (1998) T cell receptor (TCR) Vbeta gene usage in bronchoalveolar lavage and peripheral blood T cells from asthmatic and normal subjects. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 112, (3), 363-374. (doi:10.1046/j.1365-2249.1998.00611.x). (PMID:9649203).
Vrugt, B., Wilson, S.J., van Velzen, E., Bron, A., Shute, J.K., Holgate, S.T., Djukanovic, R. and Aalbers, R. (1997) Effects of high dose intravenous immunoglobulin in two severe corticosteroid insensitive asthmatic patients. Thorax, 52, (7), 662-664. (doi:10.1136/thx.52.7.662). (PMID:8096001).
Corne, J., Djukanovic, R., Thomas, L., Warner, J.O., Botta, L., Grandordy, B., Gygax, D., Heusser, C., Patalano, F., Richardson, W., Kilchherr, E., Staehelin, T., Davis, F., Gordon, W., Sun, L., Liou, R., Wang, G., Chang, T.W. and Holgate, S.T. (1997) The effect of intravenous administration of a chimeric anti-IgE antibody on serum IgE levels in atopic subjects: efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 99, (5), 879-887. (doi:10.1172/JCI119252).
Kraft, M., Djukanovic, R., Wilson, S.J., Holgate, S.T. and Martin, R.J. (1996) Alveolar tissue inflammation in asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 154, (5), 1505-1510. (PMID:8912772).
Holloway, J.W., Doull, I., Begishvili, B., Beasley, R., Holgate, S.T. and Howell, W. M. (1996) Lack of evidence of a significant association between HLA-DR, DQ and DP genotypes and atopy in families with HDM allergy. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 26, (10), 1142-1149. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.1996.tb00500.x). (PMID:8911699).
Johnston, Sebastian L., Pattemore, Philip K., Sanderson, Gwendolyn, Smith, Sandra, Campbell, Michael J., Josephs, Lynn K., Cunningham, Adam, Robinson, B. Stephen, Myint, Steven H., Ward , Michael E., Tyrrell, David A.J. and Holgate, Stephen T. (1996) The relationship between upper respiratory infections and hospital admissions for asthma: a time-trend analysis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 154, (3), part 1, 654-660. (doi:10.1164/ajrccm.154.3.8810601). (PMID:8810601).
Finnerty, J.P., Lee, C., Wilson, S.J., Madden, J., Djukanovic, R. and Holgate, S.T. (1996) Effects of theophylline on inflammatory cells and cytokines in asthmatic subjects: a placebo-controlled parallel group study. European Respiratory Journal, 9, (8), 1672-1677. (PMID:8866593).
Tunon-de-Lara, J.M., Redington, A.E., Bradding, P., Church, M.K., Hartley, J.A., Semper, A.E. and Holgate, S.T. (1996) Dendritic cells in normal and asthmatic airways: expression of the α subunit of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI-α). Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 26, (6), 648-655. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.1996.tb00591.x). (PMID:8809422).
Bradding, P., Feather, I.H., Wilson, S.J., Holgate, S.T. and Howarth, P.H. (1995) Cytokine immunoreactivity in seasonal rhinitis: regulation by a topical corticosteroid. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 151, (6), 1900-1906. (PMID:7767538).
Djukanović, R., Finnerty, J.P., Lee, C., Wilson, S.J., Madden, J. and Holgate, S.T. (1995) The effects of theophylline on mucosal inflammation in asthmatic airways: biopsy results. European Respiratory Journal, 8, (5), 831-833. (PMID:7656958).
Fraenkel , D.J., Bardin, P.G., Sanderson, G., Lampe, F., Johnston, S.L. and Holgate, S.T. (1995) Lower airways inflammation during rhinovirus colds in normal and in asthmatic subjects. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 151, (3), part 1, 879-886. (doi:10.1164/ajrccm/151.3_Pt_1.879). (PMID:7881686).
Howarth, P.H., Bradding, P., Feather, I., Wilson, S.J., Church, M.K. and Holgate, S.T. (1995) Mucosal cytokine expression in allergic rhinitis. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 107, (1-3), 390-391. (doi:10.1159/000237048). (PMID:7613187).
Djukanović, Ratko, Howarth, Peter, Vrugt, Bart, Wilson, Susan, Semper, Amanda, Bradding, Peter, Aalbers, Rene and Holgate, Stephen (1995) Determinants of asthma severity. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 107, (1-3), 389. (doi:10.1159/000237047). (PMID:7613186).
Bradding, P., Roberts, J.A., Britten, K.M., Montefort, S., Djukanovic, R., Mueller, R., Heusser, C.H., Howarth, P.H. and Holgate, S.T. (1994) Interleukin-4, -5, and -6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in normal and asthmatic airways: evidence for the human mast cell as a source of these cytokines. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 10, (5), 471-480. (doi:10.1165/ajrcmb.10.5.8179909 ).
Montefort, S., Gratziou, C., Goulding, D., Polosa, R., Haskard, D.O., Howarth, P.H., Holgate, S.T. and Carroll, M.P. (1994) Bronchial biopsy evidence for leukocyte infiltration and upregulation of leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecules 6 hours after local allergen challenge of sensitized asthmatic airways. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 93, (4), 1411-1421. (doi:10.1172/JCI117118). (PMID:7512980).
Bradding, P., Feather, I.H., Wilson, S.J., Bardin, P.G., Heusser, C.H., Holgate, S.T. and Howarth, P.H. (1993) Immunolocalization of cytokines in the nasal mucosa of normal and perennial rhinitic subjects. The mast cell as a source of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 in human allergic mucosal inflammation. Journal of Immunology, 151, (7), 3853-3865. (PMID:8376806).
Montefort, S, Feather, I H, Wilson, Susan J., Haskard, D O, Lee, T H, Holgate, Stephen T. and Howarth, Peter H. (1992) The expression of leukocyte-endothelial adhesion molecules is increased in perennial allergic rhinitis. American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology, 7, (4), 393-398. (PMID:1382478).
Morland, C M, Wilson, Susan J., Holgate, Stephen T. and Roche, William R. (1992) Selective eosinophil leukocyte recruitment by transendothelial migration and not by leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 6, (5), 557-566. (PMID:1316135).
Djukanović, R., Lai, C.K., Wilson, J.W., Britten, K.M., Wilson, S.J., Roche, W.R., Howarth, P.H. and Holgate, S.T. (1992) Bronchial mucosal manifestations of atopy: a comparison of markers of inflammation between atopic asthmatics, atopic nonasthmatics and healthy controls. European Respiratory Journal, 5, (5), 538-544. (PMID:1612155).
Djukanović, Ratko, Wilson, J W, Britten, K M, Wilson, Susan J., Walls, Andrew F., Roche, William R., Howarth, Peter H. and Holgate, Stephen T. (1992) Effect of an inhaled corticosteroid on airway inflammation and symptoms in asthma. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 145, (3), 669-674. (PMID:1546849).
Josephs, Lynn K., Gregg, I., Mullee, M.A., Campbell, M.J. and Holgate, S.T. (1992) A longitudinal study of baseline FEV1 and bronchial responsiveness in patients with asthma. European Respiratory Journal, 5, (1), 32-39. (PMID:1577146).
Lai, C.K.W., Djukanović, R., Wilson, J.W., Wilson, S.J., Britten, K.M., Howarth, P.H. and Holgate, S.T. (1992) Effect of inhaled platelet-activating factor on bronchial inflammation in atopic non-asthmatic subjects. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 99, (1), 84-90. (doi:10.1159/000236339). (PMID:1483069).
Howarth, P.H., Wilson, J., Djukanovic, R., Wilson, S.J., Britten, K., Walls, A.F., Roche, W.R. and Holgate, S.T. (1991) Airway inflammation and atopic asthma: a comparative bronchoscopic investigation. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology, 94, (1-4), 266-269. (doi:10.1159/000235379). (PMID:1937887).
Djukanović, R., Wilson, J.W., Britten, K.M., Wilson, S.J., Walls, A.F., Roche, W.R., Howarth, P.H. and Holgate, S.T. (1990) Quantitation of mast cells and eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa of symptomatic atopic asthmatics and healthy control subjects using immunohistochemistry. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 142, (4), 863-871. (PMID:2024838).
Josephs, Lynn K., Gregg, I. and Holgate, S.T. (1990) Does nonspecific bronchial responsiveness indicate the severity of asthma? European Respiratory Journal, 3, (2), 220-227. (PMID:2178967).
Josephs, Lynn K., Gregg, I., Mullee, M.A. and Holgate, S.T. (1989) Nonspecific bronchial reactivity and its relationship to the clinical expression of asthma: a longitudinal study. American Review Respiratory Disease, 140, (2), 350-357. (doi:10.1164/ajrccm/140.2.350 ). (PMID:2669579).

Book Section

Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J., Holgate, Stephen T. and Holloway, John (2009) Genetics of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In, Panwankar, Ruby, Holgate, Stephen T. and Rosenwasser, Lanny J. (eds.) Allergy Frontiers: Epigenetics , Allergens and Risk Factors. Tokyo, Japan, Springer , 161-188.

Conference or Workshop Item

Bruton, A. and Holgate, S.T. (2005) End tidal CO2 and sensitivity to CO2 measures in patients with asthma versus healthy controls. At European Respiratory Society Annual Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 17 - 21 Sep 2005. (Submitted).
Bruton, A. and Holgate, S.T. (2005) Use of the Nijmegen questionnaire to detect hyperventilation in patients with asthma. At European Respiratory Society Annual Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 17 - 21 Sep 2005. (Submitted).

Monograph

Holgate, Stephen T., Devlin, Robert B., Wilson, Susan J. and Frew, Anthony J. (2003) Health effects of acute exposure to air pollution. Part II: Healthy subjects exposed to concentrated ambient particles. Boston, US, Health Effect Institute (Research Reports Health Effects Institute 112).
 

Research

Research Interests

The Pathophysiology of asthma across the lifecourse

The role of the epithelium in asthma. My research has focused on the causes of human asthma and its treatment. After establishing the key role that mast cells and other key effector cells play in triggering the acute allergic inflammatory response in asthma, I have focused my attention upon the mechanisms of disease chronicity and variability across the lifecourse. Using airway biopsies and primary cell cultures, we have established that asthma is primarily a disease of the lung epithelium that originates during fetal lung development. The disordered epithelium increases susceptibility to injury and altered repair after birth. This new concept was captured by describing sustained activation of the epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU) in asthma. There is a dynamic communication between the epithelium and underlying mesenchyme that is established during the development of the fetal lung. We describe how varied activation of the EMTU connects the origins of asthma to its progression over time. This involves increased epithelial susceptibility to oxidant injury, impaired barrier function and reduced innate immunity. It also embraces altered mesenchymal susceptibility to promote airway remodelling such as the enhanced secretion of the metalloprotease enzyme, ADAM33, and a tendency for mesenchymal progenitor cells to adopt a contractile muscle-type phenotype.

The link between the epithelium, inflammation and remodeling. A key question that has arisen from this work is whether the “set point” for a chronic wound response by the asthmatic epithelium upon environmental injury is fundamentally altered. We have now shown that gene transcription factors involved in the differentiation of airway and alveolar epithelium in fetal lung (e.g. TTF-1, spdef, Foxa2) are also involved in asthma where their differential expression strongly promoted a mucus-secreting phenotype as functionally confirmed in the airways of mice by conditional expression or deletion of the TTF-1 gene. Moreover, the reduced epithelial TTF-1 expression in asthma not only increased mucus secretion, but also the capacity of the airways to express allergic-type inflammatory and tissue remodelling profiles in response to allergen exposure. These experiments provide strong additional support for the view that, through the EMTU, the airway epithelium plays a crucial role in orchestrating multiple cellular events of asthma.

While remodelling of the airways in asthma could occur secondary to chronic inflammation, anti-inflammatory drugs (such as corticosteroids) have limited effect on this component. We now propose that distortion of a hypersensitive and chronically damaged epithelium by repeated bronchoconstriction is also capable of driving remodelling, possibly as an initial protective response. We found that the the early asthmatic response provoked by inhaled allergen (inflammatory stimulus) or methacholine (non-inflammatory stimulus) produced similar increases in airway remodelling. As predicted, only allergen triggered eosinophil influx into the airways in association with the inflammatory response of the late asthmatic response. Prevention of methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction by prior administration of the inhaled2-agonist (salbutamol) completely inhibited the indices of remodelling. This indicates that repeated narrowing of asthmatic airways per se provides a sufficient stimulus for inducing “mechanotransductive” airway remodelling.

Mechanisms of the asthma exacerbation. A major cause of asthma morbidity and death is the exacerbation in which deterioration in disease control occurs over several days. Although allergen exposure is one cause of disease exacerbation, in real life this accounts for only a small proportion of events. On the basis of clinical anecdote many asthma exacerbations appeared to be precipitated by respiratory viral infections. To obtain concrete evidence for this, we first established novel PCR-based methods for the detection of common cold human rhinoviruses (RV). Viral detection was then applied to longitudinal cohort studies to reveal that detection of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal secretions was closely linked to asthma exacerbation and its seasonal variation both in children (>85%) and adults (>65%), with RV dominating.

We were the first to establish causality by controlled nasal infection of asthmatics with RV16 precipitating clinical and physiological features of exacerbation driven by mixed eosinophilic and lymphocyte inflammation of the lower airways. A key question was why asthmatic airways are so susceptible to usually innocuous common cold viruses? Controlled nasal infection with RV16 to revealed preferential infection of the asthmatic lower airway epithelium. In order to determine if viral responses of the asthmatic epithelium differed from that of normals, epithelial cell cultures infected with RV16 were developed. While epithelial cells from normal subjects could effectively inhibit viral replication and eliminate remaining virus through activation of programmed cell death (apoptosis), those derived from asthmatic airways not only enabled the virus to survive, but also facilitated viral replication leading to cytotoxic cell death, inflammatory mediator release and enhanced virus shedding. We have shown that this asthma-related defect was due to impaired signalling by the microsomal danger recognition receptor, toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), following interaction with viral double stranded RNA. The consequence of this was reduced (IFN)- mediated anti-viral defense. This defect in IFN production could in large part explained by enhanced epithelial production of TGF-β and represents yet a further consequence of EMTU activation in asthma. Of great significance was our finding that full anti-viral defense could be restored to the asthmatic epithelium by adding back a low concentration of IFNwhereas under natural conditions of virus infection, the defective local IFN induction was compensated by a large systemic innate TLR/IFN immune response and a weaker adaptive immune response.

In order to translate these findings into the clinic we first showed that inhaled IFN-1a could activate the airway anti-viral pathways in asthma. We have now completed a successful Phase 2 clinical trial showing that inhaled recombinant human IFN-1a given at the start of a common cold in patients with severe asthma could fully restore protection against viral-related exacerbations as well as reduce viral shedding (http://www.synairgen.com/).

Rethinking the cause and pathophysiology of asthma. These observations are leading to a fundamental re-evaluation of asthma pathogenesis. Rather than allergic inflammation being the prime abnormality, our work places the airway epithelium at the centre of disease pathogenesis by, serving as the orchestrator of inflammatory and remodelling responses over the lifecourse. The engagement of different causative molecular pathways leads to disease heterogeneity which is reflected in the variable response to therapeutics in accordance with the relative contribution of that pathway to the overall disease manifestation. This forms the basis for a more stratified or personalized approach to treatment which is especially important for the highly targeted new biologics.

Academic unit:  Clinical and Experimental Sciences

Proposed interaction

Proposed interaction between early life virus infection and allergen exposure in the induction of asthma in genetically susceptible children

Proposed interaction

Diagramatic representation

Diagramatic representation of the epithelial mesenchumal trphic unit in asthma drive by the release of epithelial derived growth factors

Diagramatic representation

Responsibilities

As an MRC Research Professor I oversee a large research team pursuing the mechanisms of asthma, identifying novel therapeutic targets and undertake experimental medicine and clinical trials in asthma.

Faculty of Medicine

Member, Faculty of Medicine’s Strategy Oversight Group, 2011-present

In addition: current responsibilities at a national level include:

MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

1. Chairman, MRC Population and Systems Medicine Board, 2007-present
2. Member, MRC Strategy Board, 2007-present
3. Chair of Grant Review Panel for Stratified Medicine, 2011
4. Chair of CFS/ME Expert Group
5. Chair of Disease Cohorts Oversight Group

GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS

1. Chair, Research Excellence Framework (REF) Main Panel A: Medicine, Health and Life Sciences, 2010-14
2. Chair (10 yrs), now Member of Department of Health Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP), 1990-present
3. Member, now Chairman of Department of Environment and Rural Affairs Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS), incorporated as a subpanel of COMEAP in 2008
4. Member, Food Standards Agency Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes, 2005-present
5. Chair, DEFRA Advisory Committee on Hazardous Substances, 2008-present
6. Member, DH/NIHR Standing Committee on Policy Commissioned Research, 2011-present

NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC ATIVITIES

1. Member, Council (until 1994), Secretary General (2007), President Elect (2010), Collegium International Allergologicum (CIA), 1990 – present
2. Member, Executive Board of World Allergy Organisation (WAO), 2007- present
3. Chairman, Merck International Respiratory Advisory Board, 1998-present.
4. Member of Council, Academy of Medical Sciences, 2010–present.
5. Member, Strategic Advisory Board of the NNUHT & Norwich Medical School Clinical Academic Initiative, 2011-present
6. Chair, Republic of Ireland HRCG and Charities Joint Research Board, 2011-present
7. Member, Advisory Board of the European Centre of Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter, 2011-present
8. Member of the University of East Anglia Strategic Group for the Development of Integrated Science 2011-present

Postgraduate Supervision

Currently Supervised

PhD - 2 students

Supervised to successful completion

MSc - 3 students
PhD - 31 students
DM - 29 Students

Teaching Responsibilities

Teaching is restricted to postgraduate activities both in the UK and overseas.

This takes the form of keynote lectures, plenary lectures and talks on specialist areas of asthma allergic diseases, pollution and translational medicine including participation in postgraduate courses.

Educational activities also extend to editorships of major texts in asthma, allergy and respiratory medicine. Examples include “Allergy” (4 editions) and “Middleton’s Allergy:Principles and Practice” (4 editions) (see below).
Editor of Clinical and Experimental Allergy (25 years to 2009) and current Associate Editor, Clinical Science.

Allergy

Allergy

Middleton's Allergy

Principles and Practice

Middleton's Allergy

Contact

Professor Stephen Holgate
Tel: (0)23 8079 6960
Fax: (0)23 8070 1771
Email: sth@southampton.ac.uk

Room Number: SGH/LF102/MP810