The University of Southampton

ELEC2213 Electrical Machines

Module Overview

- To introduce the students to fundamental concepts and principles of operation of various types of electrical machines. - To equip students with basic experimental and modelling skills for handling problems associated with electrical machines. - To give students an appreciation of design and operational problems in the electrical power industry. - To introduce the students to modern CAD environment in relation to design of electromechanical devices. - To increase the students’ confidence in using numerical techniques of solving large system of equations arising in modelling and simulation of electromechanical devices

Aims and Objectives

Module Aims

Appreciate the complexity of design of electromechanical devices, identify different types of electrical machines and compare and contrast their operation. Derive equations describing operation of machines, formulate relevant equivalent circuits and analyse simple problems related to operation of electrical machines. Appreciate and apply methods of solving large systems of equations; evaluate the role of CAD in engineering design.

Learning Outcomes

Knowledge and Understanding

Having successfully completed this module, you will be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • Theory of electromechanical energy conversion, the concepts of fundamental torque equation and rotating and oscillating fields
  • The principles of operation of electrical generators and motors; fundamental characteristics of various types of machines
  • Construction and design issues associated with electrical machines
  • Components of the CAD systems for Electromagnetics
Transferable and Generic Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Use electromagnetic CAD packages and write a technical report
Subject Specific Practical Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Work in a small team to conduct simple experiments on rotating electrical machines and transformers
  • Undertake virtual prototyping of electromagnetic devices
Subject Specific Intellectual and Research Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Tackle problems of analysis of performance and explain the shape of characteristics of actual machines
  • Apply equivalent circuits to performance prediction, interpret results and correlate them with theoretical predictions


Review of power circuits. (2 lectures) - Three-phase systems, star and delta connections. - Active, reactive, apparent, complex power, power diagrams, power factor. - Phasor diagrams. Complex impedance, impedance triangle. 3 phase transformers. (6 lectures) - Review of principles of operation, construction, review of equivalent circuit, open-circuit and short-circuit tests, regulation, three-phase connections, parallel operation, auto-transformer, introduction to 3rd harmonic phenomenon and unbalanced loading. Introduction to rotating machines. (3 hours) - Underlying concepts and features of rotating machines, fundamental torque equation, rotating field principle, air-gap mmf and permeance, 3-phase windings, winding factors. Synchronous machines. (4 lectures) - Generated EMF, output equation, armature reaction, phasor diagram, synchronous reactance, equivalent circuit, open and short-circuit characteristics, regulation, load angle, synchronous machine on infinite busbars, effects of saturation, salient-pole machine, synchronising, synchronous motor, V curves, power factor correction. Polyphase induction motors. (5 lectures) - Basic theory and construction of squirrel-cage and wound-rotor motors, equivalent circuit, measurement of equivalent circuit parameters, analysis of machine equations, speed/torque curves, circle diagram, starting performance, speed control, single-phase induction motor, deep bar effect in squirrel-cage induction motor. Direct current machine. (4 lectures) - Review of construction, basic equations and steady-state characteristics, windings, field form and armature reaction, commutation and use of interpoles, starting and speed control. Single-phase ac motors. (2 lectures) - Outline of shaded-pole, universal, permanent magnet, and reluctance machines with applications. Introduction to hierarchical design and CAD. (1 lecture) Numerical solution of large systems of equations. (4 lectures) - The finite element method for virtual prototyping - Analysis of errors, matrix and vector norms, condition numbers. Comparison of methods. The CAD environment (2 lectures) - Pre- and post-processing, automatic and adaptive meshing, - Design Environment, optimisation, future trends. Case Studies: (3 lectures) - Wind turbines - Electrical and hybrid vehicles - Maglev and conventional trains

Learning and Teaching

Completion of assessment task15
Preparation for scheduled sessions18
Follow-up work18
Wider reading or practice41
Total study time150

Resources & Reading list

A E Fitzgerald, Charles Kingsley, Stephen D Umans (2002). Electric Machinery. 

K.T. Chau (2015). Electric Vehicle Machines and Drives – Design, Analysis and Application. 

K Karsai, D Kereny, L Kiss (1987). Studies in Electrical and Electronic Engineering 25, Large Power Transformers. 

Charles I Hubert (1991). Electric Machines, Theory, Operation, Application, Adjustment and Control. 

J. Weidauer, R. Messer (2014). Electrical Drives: Principles, Planning, Applications, Solutions. 

Hammond P & Sykulski J K (1994). Engineering Electromagnetism - Physical Processes and Computation. 

Denis O'Kelly (1991). Performance and Control of Electrical Machines. 

Sarma M S (1994). Electric Machines, Steady-state Theory and Dynamic Performance. 

Dino Zorbas (1989). Electric Machines, Principles, Applications, and Control Schematics. 

John Hindmarsh (1995). Electrical Machines and their Applications. 

Stephen J Chapman (2001). Electrical Machinery and Power System Fundamentals. 



MethodPercentage contribution
Coursework 20%
Exam 65%
Laboratory 15%


MethodPercentage contribution
Coursework marks carried forward 20%
Exam 80%

Repeat Information

Repeat type: Internal

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