Research Group: Centre for Vision and Cognition (CVC)

The Centre for Vision and Cognition seeks to conduct experimental research that elucidates the psychological processes underlying human vision and cognitive function, including memory and learning. Its members use experimental and computational modelling methods with a diverse range of research tools, including fMRI, haptic feedback control systems and both laboratory-based and perambulatory eye-tracking.

Currently Active: Yes

Group Overview

Its members use experimental and computational modelling methods with a diverse range of research tools, including fMRI, haptic feedback control systems and both laboratory-based and perambulatory eye-tracking.

The Laboratory is comprehensively networked: funded links have been created with other 5* Schools across the University (including the School of Electronics and Computer Science, the Institute for Sound and Vibration Research, and Biological Sciences). Close national and international collaborative links exist with key research centres including MPI Tubingen, Tianjin China, UCSD, UMASS, Utrecht, and Oklahoma. Research sponsors include BBSRC, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Transport, EPSRC, ESRC, Leverhulme, Microsoft, QinetiQ, the Epilepsy Research Foundation, the British Academy and the Royal Society.

The Visual Cognition Laboratory's research themes range from high-level cognition (for example perceptual expertise & reading and strategic regulation of accuracy in memory) to low-level processes in vision and learning (for example inter-sensory coordination, attentional dynamics, associative learning, and object perception).

CVC Seminars

View our video library.

Facilities and equipment

CVC group members

CVC group members

DPI Laboratory

The lab is equipped with two Dual Purkinje Image eye trackers, set up to allow simultaneous recording of both eyes. The trackers sample every millisecond, with 1 minarc spatial accuracy. These are interfaced with Cambridge Research Systems shutter goggles, which can be used to present different images to each of the two eyes.

We are currently undertaking research in this lab with adult, child, and dyslexic samples, with both reading and non-reading tasks.

EyeLink 2K Laboratory

The EyeLink2000 lab has both the monocular, tower-mounted camera and the desk-mounted binocular camera available, interfaced with the software provided by SR-Research (Experiment Builder and DataViewer). The system samples at up to 2000 Hz, with spatial accuracy of 0.25°.

Currently, research is being carried out with adult samples on reading and non-reading tasks. The reading research is looking at both English and Chinese readers.

Perambulatory Eye Trackers

We have two perambulatory eye trackers that are designed to allow the participants to move around in the real world whilst their eye movements are being recorded. Each tracker has two cameras, allowing the recording of both the participant's eye movements and the scene in their field of view. These cameras are mounted on the frame of glasses, with the lightweight recording equipment and power supplies carried in a rucksack on the participant's back as they are having their eye movements recorded.

We are planning research with these eye trackers to examine social interactions and scene perception.

Phantom Lab

The PHANTOM force-feedback device  enables users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. In combination with stereo shutter goggles, this equipment is used to investigate how we combine visual and touch information.


We have three mirror stereoscopes available. Stereoscopes allow the presentation of different images to each eye, and are used for research into binocular rivalry, stereopsis, and contrast perception.

You can see a BBC news report about some of CVC's work here.


Selected publications associated with this group from the University of Southampton's electronic library (e-prints):

Wong, J., Peterson, M. and Hillstrom, Anne (2007) Are changes in semantic and structural information sufficient for oculomotor capture? Journal of Vision, 7, (12), 1-10. (doi:10.1167/7.12.3). (PMID:17997645).
Hillstrom, Anne, Hope, Lorraine and Nee, Claire (2008) Applying psychological science to the CCTV review process: a review of cognitive and ergonomic literature. London, GB, The Stationary Office, 70pp.
Liang, F., Blythe, Hazel I., Zang, C., Bai, X., Yan, G. and Liversedge, Simon P. (2015) Positional character frequency and word spacing facilitate the acquisition of novel words during Chinese children’s reading. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 27, (5), 594-608. (doi:10.1080/20445911.2014.1000918).
Mestry, Natalie, Menneer, Tamaryn, Wenger, Michael J., Benikos, Nicholas, McCarthy, Rosaleen A. and Donnelly, Nick (2014) The role of configurality in the Thatcher illusion: an ERP study. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1-8. (doi:10.3758/s13423-014-0705-3). (PMID:25102929).
Hillstrom, Anne (2000) Repetition effects in visual search. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, (4), 800-817. (doi:10.3758/BF03206924). (PMID:10883586).
Blythe, Hazel I., Pagan, A. and Dodd, M. (2014) Beyond decoding: phonological processing during silent reading in beginning readers. Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition (In Press).
Shih, Shui-I, Meadmore, Katie and Liversedge, Simon P. (2012) Aging, eye movements, and object-location memory. PLoS ONE, 7, (3), e33485. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033485).
Godwin, H.J., Walenchok, S.C., Houpt, J.W., Hout, M.C. and Goldinger, S.D. (2015) Faster than the speed of rejection: object identification processes during visual search for multiple targets. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance (In Press).
Blythe, Hazel I. (2014) Developmental changes in eye movements and visual information encoding associated with learning to read. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 201-207. (doi:10.1177/0963721414530145).
Godwin, H.J., Reichle, E.D. and Menneer, T. (2014) Coarse-to-fine eye-movement behavior during visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, (5), 1244-1249. (doi:10.3758/s13423-014-0613-6).
Reichle, Erik D. and Drieghe, Denis (2015) Using E-Z reader to examine the consequences of fixation-location measurement error. Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition, 41, (1), 262-270. (doi:10.1037/a0037090).
Glautier, Steven, Elgueta, Tito and Nelson, James Byron (2013) Extinction produces context inhibition and multiple-context extinction reduces response recovery in human predictive learning. Learning & Behavior, 41 (doi:10.3758/s13420-013-0109-7). (PMID:23572235).
Stroud, M.J. , Menneer, T., Cave, K.R., Donnelly, N. and Rayner, K. (2011) Search for multiple targets of different colours: misguided eye movements reveal a reduction of colour selectivity. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, (6), 971-982.
Schroeder, S., Hyönä, J. and Liversedge, Simon P. (2015) Developmental eye-tracking research in reading: introduction to the special issue. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 500-510. (doi:10.1080/20445911.2015.1046877).
Blythe, Hazel I. and Joseph, Holly (2011) Children's eye movements during reading. In, Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements. Oxford, GB, Oxford University Press, 643-662.
Nikolova, M., Jainta, S., Blythe, Hazel I., Jones, M.O. and Liversedge, Simon P. (2015) Vergence responses to vertical binocular disparity during lexical identification. Vision Research, 106, 27-35. (doi:10.1016/j.visres.2014.10.034).
Narayanan, Ajit and Menneer, Tammy (2000) Quantum artificial neural networks: architectures and components. Information Sciences, 128, (3-4), 231-255. (doi:10.1016/S0020-0255(00)00055-4).
Jainta, S., Blythe, Hazel I., Nikolova, M., Jones, M.O. and Liversedge, Simon P. (2015) A comparative analysis of vertical and horizontal fixation disparity in sentence reading. Vision Research, 110, part A, 118-127. (doi:10.1016/j.visres.2015.03.008). (PMID:25839421).
Atchley, Paul, Kramer, Arthur and Hillstrom, Anne P. (2000) Contingent capture for onsets and offsets: attentional set for object transients. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, (2), 594-606. (PMID:10811165).
Mestry, Natalie, Donnelly, Nick, Menneer, Tamaryn and McCarthy, Rosaleen A. (2012) Discriminating Thatcherised from typical faces in a case of prosopagnosia. Neuropsychologia, 50, 3410-3418. (doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.09.034).
Kirkby, Julie, White, Sarah J. and Blythe, Hazel I. (2011) Binocular coordination during reading. In, Liversedge, Simon, Gilchrist, Iain and Everling, Stephan (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Eye Movements. Oxford, GB, Oxford University Press, 801-818. (Oxford Library of Psychology).
Hillstrom, Anne, Shapiro, K. and Spence, C. (2002) Attentional limitations in processing sequentially presented vibrotactile targets. Perception & Psychophysics, 64, (7), 1068-1082. (doi:10.3758/BF03194757). (PMID:12489662).
Shapiro, K., Hillstrom, Anne and Husain, M. (2000) Selective attention to objects and time. In, Rizzolatti, G. (ed.) Handbook of Neuropsychology. Paris, FR, Elsevier, 427-458.
Rayner, Keith, Schotter, Elizabeth R. and Drieghe, Denis (2014) Lack of semantic parafoveal preview benefit in reading revisited. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, (4), 1067-1072. (doi:10.3758/s13423-014-0582-9).
Hillstrom, Anne, Scholey, H., Liversedge, S. and Benson, V. (2012) The effect of the first glimpse at a scene on eye movements during search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, (2), 204-210. (doi:10.3758/s13423-011-0205-7). (PMID:22258819).
Au Yeung, Sheena, Kaakinen, J.K., Liversedge, Simon P. and Benson, Valerie (2015) Processing of written irony in Autism Spectrum Disorder: an eye-movement study. Autism Research (doi:10.1002/aur.1490). (PMID: 25962666 ).
Godwin, H.J., Menneer, T., Donnelly, N. and Cave, K.R. (2010) Dual-target search for high and low prevalence x-ray threat targets. Visual Cognition, 18, (10), 1439-1463. (doi:10.1080/13506285.2010.500605).
Godwin, H.J., Hout, M.C. and Menneer, T. (2014) Visual similarity is stronger than semantic similarity in guiding visual search for numbers. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, (3), 689-695. (doi:10.3758/s13423-013-0547-4). (PMID:24347113).
Menneer, Tamaryn, Cave, Kyle R. and Donnelly, Nick (2009) The cost of search for multiple targets: effects of practice and target similarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15, (2), 125-139. (doi:10.1037/a0015331).
Hillstrom, Anne, Husain, M., Shapiro, K. and Rorden, C. (2004) Spatiotemporal dynamics of attention in visual neglect: a case study. Cortex, 40, (3), 433-440. (doi:10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70137-0). (PMID:15259324).
Mestry, Natalie, Menneer, Tamaryn, Wenger, Michael, J. and Donnelly, Nick (2012) Identifying sources of configurality in three face processing tasks. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 456. (doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00456 ).
Joseph, H.S.S.L., Bremner, G., Liversedge, Simon P. and Nation, K. (2015) Working memory, reading ability and the effects of distance and typicality on anaphor resolution in children. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 27, (5), 622-639. (doi:10.1080/20445911.2015.1005095).
Hillstrom, Anne, Wakefield, H. and Scholey, H. (2013) The effect of transparency on recognition of overlapping objects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 19, (2), 158-170. (doi:10.1037/a0033367). (PMID:23795982).
Hillstrom, Anne and Chai, Y. (2006) Factors that guide or disrupt attentive visual processing. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, (4), 648-656. (doi:10.1016/j.chb.2005.12.003).
Blythe, Hazel I., Häikiö, Tuomo, Bertram, Raymond, Liversedge, Simon P. and Hyönä, Jukka (2011) Reading disappearing text: why do children refixate words? Vision Research, 51, (1), 84-92. (doi:10.1016/j.visres.2010.10.003).
Godwin, H.J., Liversedge, Simon P., Kirkby, Julie A., Boardman, M., Cornes, K. and Donnelly, Nick (2015) The influence of experience upon information-sampling and decision-making behaviour during risk assessment in military personnel. Visual Cognition, 23, (4), 415-431. (doi:10.1080/13506285.2015.1030488).
Hillstrom, Anne and Bernstein, I. (2002) Counterfeit detection for new and old currency designs. In, van Renesse, R. (ed.) Optical Security and Counterfeit Deterrence Techniques IV. Bellingham, US, Optical Society of America, 65-80. (Proceedings of SPIE, 4677). (doi:10.1117/12.462732).
Mitchell, Philippa, Mould, Richard, Dillon, James, Glautier, Steven, Andrianakis, Ioannis, James, Christopher, Pugh, Amanda, Holden-Dye, Lindy and O'Connor, Vincent, Hart, Anne C. (ed.) (2010) A differential role for neuropeptides in acute and chronic adaptive responses to alcohol: behavioural and genetic analysis in caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS ONE, 5, (5), e10422. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010422).
Shih, Shui-I, Meadmore, Katie and Liversedge, Simon P. (2012) Using eye movement measures to investigate effects of age on memory for objects in a scene. Memory, 20, (6), 629-637. (doi:10.1080/09658211.2012.692796).
Menneer, T, Donnelly, N, Godwin, H. J. and Cave, K. R. (2010) High or low target prevalence increases the dual-target cost in visual search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 16, (2), 133-144. (doi:10.1037/a0019569).
Glautier, Steven (2013) Revisiting the learning curve (once again). Frontiers in Psychology, 4, (982) (doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00982 ).
Kirkby, Julie A., Blythe, Hazel I., Benson, Valerie and Liversedge, Simon P. (2010) Binocular coordination during scanning of simple dot stimuli. Vision Research, 50, (2), 171-180. (doi:10.1016/j.visres.2009.11.008).
Reichle, Erik D., Liversedge, Simon P., Drieghe, Denis, Blythe, Hazel I., Joseph, Holly S.S.L, White, Sarah S.J. and Rayner, Keith (2013) Using E-Z Reader to examine the concurrent development of eye-movement control and reading skill. Developmental Review, 33, (2), 110-149. (doi:10.1016/j.dr.2013.03.001).
Soto-Faraco, S., Spence, C., Fairbank, K., Kingstone, A., Hillstrom, Anne and Shapiro, K. (2002) A crossmodal attentional blink between vision and touch. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, (4), 731-738. (doi:10.3758/BF03196328). (PMID:12613676).
Shapiro, K., Hillstrom, Anne and Husain, M. (2002) Control of visuotemporal attention by inferior parietal and superior temporal cortex. Current Biology, 12, (15), 1320-1325. (doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(02)01040-0). (PMID:12176361).
Menneer, Tamaryn, Wenger, Michael and Blaha, Leslie (2009) Multiple methods of modeling and detecting perceptual and cognitive configurality. At 9th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling, Manchester - ICCM, Manchester, GB, 24 - 26 Jul 2009.
Flowe, Heather D., Hope, Lorraine and Hillstrom, Anne P. (2013) Oculomotor examination of the weapon focus effect: does a gun automatically engage visual attention? PLoS One, 8, (12), e81011. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081011).
Liversedge, Simon P., Blythe, Hazel I. and Drieghe, Denis (2012) Beyond isolated word recognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35, (5), 31-32. (doi:10.1017/S0140525X12000210).
Sheppard, D., Duncan, J., Shapiro, K. and Hillstrom, Anne (2002) Objects and events in the attentional blink. Psychological Science, 13, (5), 410-415. (doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00473). (PMID:12219806).
Glautier, S., Redhead, E., Thorwart, A. and Lachnit, H. (2009) Reduced summation with common features in causal judgement. Experimental Psychology, 57, (4), 252-259. (doi:10.1027/1618-3169/a000030).
Kirkby, Julie A., Blythe, Hazel I., Drieghe, Denis, Benson, Valerie and Liversedge, Simon P. (2013) Investigating eye movement acquisition and analysis technologies as a causal factor in differential prevalence of crossed and uncrossed fixation disparity during reading and dot scanning. Behavior Research Methods, 45, 664-678. (doi:10.3758/s13428-012-0301-2). (PMID:23344736).
Bai, Xuejun, Liang, Feifei, Blythe, Hazel I., Zang, Chuanli, Yan, Guoli and Liversedge, Simon P. (2013) Interword spacing effects on the acquisition of new vocabulary for readers of Chinese as a second language. Journal of Research in Reading, 36, S4-S17.
Godwin, H.J., Menneer, T., Cave, K.R., Thaibsyah, M. and Donnelly, N. (2014) The effects of increasing target prevalence on information-processing during visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (doi:10.3758/s13423-014-0686-2).
Schotter, E.R., Blythe, Hazel I., Kirkby, Julie, Rayner, K., Holliman, N.S. and Liversedge, Simon P. (2012) Binocular coordination: reading stereoscopic sentences in depth. PLoS ONE, 7, (4), e35608. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035608). (PMID:22558174).
Kirkby, Julie, Blythe, Hazel I., Drieghe, Denis and Liversedge, Simon P. (2011) Reading text increases binocular disparity in dyslexic children. PLoS ONE, 6, (11), 1-7. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027105.t004).
Godwin, H.J., Menneer, T., Cave, K.R., Helman, S., Way, R.L. and Donnelly, N. (2010) The impact of Relative Prevalence on dual-target search for threat items from airport X-ray screening. Acta Psychologica, 134, (1), 79-84. (doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2009.12.009).
Blythe, Hazel I., Liang, F., Zang, C., Wang, J., Yan, G., Bai, X. and Liversedge, Simon P. (2012) Inserting spaces into Chinese text helps readers to learn new words: an eye movement study. Journal of Memory and Language, 67, (2), 241-254. (doi:10.1016/j.jml.2012.05.004).
Gu, J. and Liversedge, Simon P. (2015) Character order processing in Chinese reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance, 41, (4), 127-137. (doi:10.1037/a0038639).
Donnelly, N., Cave, K.R., Welland, M. and Menneer, T. (2006) Breast screen, chicken sexing, and the search for oil: challenges for visual cognition. In, Allen, M.R., Goffey, G.P., Morgan, R.K. and Walker, I.M. (eds.) The Deliberate Search for the Stratigraphic Trap. London, UK, Geological Society of London, 43-55. (GSL Special Publications, 254).
Pagan, A., Blythe, Hazel I. and Liversedge, Simon P. (2015) Parafoveal pre-processing of word initial trigrams during reading in adults and children. Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition (In Press).
Godwin, H.J., Holliman, N.S., Menneer, T., Liversedge, Simon P., Cave, K R. and Donnelly, Nick (2015) Assessing the benefits of stereoscopic displays to visual search: methodology and initial findings. In, Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, San Francisco, US, 09 - 11 Feb 2015. , 1-12. (In Press).
Liversedge, Simon P., Meadmore, Katie, Corck-Adelman, David, Shih, Shui-I and Pollatsek, Alexander (2011) Eye movements and memory for objects and their locations. Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 9, (1), 7-14.
Pagan, A., Paterson, K.B., Blythe, Hazel I. and Liversedge, Simon P. (2015) An inhibitory influence of transposed letter neighbors on eye movements during reading. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (doi:10.3758/s13423-015-0869-5).
Laishley, A.E., Kirkby, Julie and Liversedge, Simon P. (2014) Lexical processing in children and adults during word copying. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 27, (5), 578-593. (doi:10.1080/20445911.2014.991396).
Hermena, Ehab W., Drieghe, Denis, Hellmuth, Sam and Liversedge, Simon.P. (2015) Processing of Arabic diacritical marks: phonological–syntactic disambiguation of homographic verbs and visual crowding effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41, (2), 494-507. (doi:10.1037/xhp0000032).
Menneer, T., Stroud, M.J., Cave, K.R., Donnelly, N. and Rayner, K. (2008) Eye movements in search for multiple targets. In, Rayner, Keith, Shen, Deli, Bai, Xuejun and Yan, Guoli (eds.) Cognitive and Cultural Influences on Eye Movements. London, UK, Psychology Press.
Blythe, Hazel I., Holliman, N.S., Jainta, S., Tbaily, Lee and Liversedge, Simon P. (2012) Binocular coordination in response to two-dimensional, three-dimensional and stereoscopic visual stimuli. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics (doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2012.00926.x).
Cornes, K., Donnelly, N., Godwin, H.J. and Wenger, M.J. (2010) Perceptual and decisional factors influencing the discrimination of inversion in the Thatcher illusion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance., 37, (3), 645-668. (doi:10.1037/a0020985).
Kass, Jason, Harland, Beth and Donnelly, Nick (2015) Abstracting the set: Monet’s cathedrals and stable mental concepts from serial pictorial artworks. Art & Perception, 3, (2), 139-150. (doi:10.1163/22134913-00002030).
Hillstrom, Anne, Menneer, T., Donnelly, N. and Krokos, Mel (2008) Using gaze measures to diagnose what guides search in complex displays. Journal of Vision, 8, (6), 322. (doi:10.1167/8.6.322 ).
Liversedge, Simon P., Schroeder, S., Hyönä, J. and Rayner, K. (2015) Emerging issues in developmental eye-tracking research: insights from the workshop in Hannover, October 2013. Journal of Cognitive Psychology (In Press).
Hillstrom, Anne, Sauer, James and Hope, Lorraine (2011) Training methods for facial image comparison: a literature review. London, GB, The Stationary Office, 70pp.
Blythe, Hazel I., Johnson, R.L., Liversedge, Simon P. and Rayner, Keith (2014) Reading transposed text: effects of transposed letter distance and consonant-vowel status on eye movements. Attention Perception & Psychophysics, 76, (8), 2424-2440. (doi:10.3758/s13414-014-0707-2).
Yu, L., Reichle, Erik D., Jones, M.O. and Liversedge, Simon P. (2014) RadicalLocator: a software tool for identifying radicals in Chinese characters. Behavior Research Methods, 1-11. (doi:10.3758/s13428-014-0505-8).
Schoth, Daniel E., Godwin, Hayward J., Liversedge, Simon P. and Liossi, Christina (2015) Eye movements during visual search for emotional faces in individuals with chronic headache. European Journal of Pain, 19, (5), 722-732. (doi:10.1002/ejp.595). (PMID:25263515).
Jainta, S., Blythe, Hazel I. and Liversedge, Simon P. (2014) Binocular advantages in reading. Current Biology, 24, (5), 526-530. (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.01.014).
Godwin, H.J., Menneer, T., Riggs, C.A., Cave, K.R. and Donnelly, N. (2014) Perceptual failures in the selection and identification of low-prevalence targets in relative prevalence visual search. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics (doi:10.3758/s13414-014-0762-8).
Donnelly, N., Hadwin, J.A., Menneer, T. and Richards, H.J. (2010) The Use of Visual Search Paradigms to Understand Attentional Biases in Childhood Anxiety. In, Information Processing Biases and Anxiety: A Developmental Perspective. , John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Blythe, Hazel I., Liversedge, Simon P. and Findlay, J.M (2010) The effective fusional range for words in a natural viewing situation. Vision Research, 50, (16), 1559-1570. (doi:10.1016/j.visres.2010.05.011).
Glautier, Steven and Shih, Shui-l (2014) Relative prediction error and protection from attentional blink in human associative learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1-17. (doi:10.1080/17470218.2014.943250). (PMID:25203676).
Stroud, Michael J., Menneer, Tamaryn, Cave, Kyle R. and Donnelly, Nick (2012) Using the dual-target cost to explore the nature of search target representations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, (1), 113-122. (doi:10.1037/a0025887 ). (PMID:22004194).


Members of staff associated with this group: