The University of Southampton
µ-VIS: Multidisciplinary, Multiscale, Microtomographic Volume Imaging

# Featured publications

## Ni et al.

In situ synchrotron computed tomography study of nanoscale interlaminar reinforcement and thin-ply effects on damage progression in composite laminates | Composites Part B: Engineering, 2021

## ﻿﻿Newham et al.

Reptile-like physiology in Early Jurassic stem-mammals | Nature Communications, 2020

## A. Biguri et al.

Arbitrarily large iterative tomographic reconstruction on multiple GPUs using the TIGRE toolbox, 2019

## O.L. Katsamenis et al.

X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for Nondestructive Three-Dimensional X-Ray Histology | The American Journal of Pathology, 2019

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 Bull DJ, Smethurst JA, Meijer GJ, Sinclair I, Pierron F, Roose T, Powrie W and Bengough AG (2022), "Modelling of stress transfer in root-reinforced soils informed by four-dimensional X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation data", Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences., jan, 2022. Vol. 478(2257) The Royal Society. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Vegetation enhances soil shearing resistance through water uptake and root reinforcement. Analytical models for soils reinforced with roots rely on input parameters that are difficult to measure, leading to widely varying predictions of behaviour. The opaque heterogeneous nature of rooted soils results in complex soil–root interaction mechanisms that cannot easily be quantified. The authors measured, for the first time, the shear resistance and deformations of fallow, willow-rooted and gorse-rooted soils during direct shear using X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation. Both species caused an increase in shear zone thickness, both initially and as shear progressed. Shear zone thickness peaked at up to 35 mm, often close to the thickest roots and towards the centre of the column. Root extension during shear was 10–30% less than the tri-linear root profile assumed in a Waldron-type model, owing to root curvature. Root analogues used to explore the root–soil interface behaviour suggested that root lateral branches play an important role in anchoring the roots. The Waldron-type model was modified to incorporate non-uniform shear zone thickness and growth, and accurately predicted the observed, up to sevenfold, increase in shear resistance of root-reinforced soil. BibTeX: @article{Bull_2022, author = {Daniel J. Bull and Joel A. Smethurst and Gerrit J. Meijer and I. Sinclair and Fabrice Pierron and Tiina Roose and William Powrie and A. Glyn Bengough}, title = {Modelling of stress transfer in root-reinforced soils informed by four-dimensional X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation data}, journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences}, publisher = {The Royal Society}, year = {2022}, volume = {478}, number = {2257}, url = {https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspa.2021.0210}, doi = {10.1098/rspa.2021.0210} }  Kopp R, Ni X, Furtado C, Lee J, Kalfon-Cohen E, Uesugi K, Kinsella M, Mavrogordato MN, Sinclair I, Spearing SM, Camanho PP and Wardle BL (2022), "In Situ Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography of Progressive Damage in Canted Notched Cross-Ply Composites with Interlaminar Nanoreinforcement", In AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum., jan, 2022. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: In this study, the effects on 3D strengthening and toughening mechanisms of interlaminar nanoreinforcement (termed ‘nanostitch’ here, achieved by embedding highly dense forests of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in polymer-rich ply/ply interfaces) are studied qualitatively and quantitatively via 4D progressive damage in carbon (micro) fiber reinforced plastic/polymer (CFRP) composite laminates by implementing in situ synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) of delamination-prone cross-ply double edge-notched tension (DENT) configurations (scaled-down specimen geometry) via semi-automatic (human-driven) damage segmentation. A 20°-canted loading rig fixture was also designed, fabricated, and employed here to enable clear imaging of features that are typically blurred due to their alignment with the X-ray beam (e.g., 90° lamina-based features). SRCT here was performed at beamline 47XU (BL47XU) of the Super Photon ring-8 GeV (SPring-8) facility in Japan. Intermediate-thickness-ply laminates (2× thicker ply vs. thin-ply, similar to conventional aerospace-grade unidirectional plies) exhibit no change in DENT ultimate tensile strength for baseline vs. nanostitched configurations, explained mechanistically by an observed progressive damage mode transition from notch-blunting inter- and intra-laminar matrix damage-dominated (typical of thicker-ply laminates in literature) to brittle fiber breakage- and diffuse matrix damage-dominated (typical of thinner-ply laminates in literature). Thin-ply and thick-ply laminates have been tested similarly, showing significant strength increase in the nanostitched thick-ply (3× thicker ply vs. thin-ply) configuration, which will be the subject of future work. These findings contribute new CFRP failure insights, which can guide and inform mechanical enhancement approaches fundamental to eliciting synergistic latency in hybrid/hierarchical laminates, as well as advance currently limited modeling. BibTeX: @article{Kopp_2022, author = {Reed Kopp and Xinchen Ni and Carolina Furtado and Jeonyoon Lee and Estelle Kalfon-Cohen and Kentaro Uesugi and Mike Kinsella and Mark N. Mavrogordato and Ian Sinclair and S. M. Spearing and Pedro P. Camanho and Brian L. Wardle}, title = {In Situ Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography of Progressive Damage in Canted Notched Cross-Ply Composites with Interlaminar Nanoreinforcement}, booktitle = {AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum}, publisher = {American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics}, year = {2022}, url = {https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2022-0375}, doi = {10.2514/6.2022-0375} }  Newham E, Brown KR, Corfe IJ, Gill PG, Brewer P, Bayle P and Schneider P (2022), "16 Noninvasive 3D Methods for the Study of Dental Cementum", Dental Cementum in Anthropology. , pp. 258. Cambridge University Press. [BibTeX] BibTeX: @article{newham202216, author = {Newham, Elis and Brown, Kate Robson and Corfe, Ian J and Gill, Pamela G and Brewer, Philippa and Bayle, Priscilla and Schneider, Philipp}, title = {16 Noninvasive 3D Methods for the Study of Dental Cementum}, journal = {Dental Cementum in Anthropology}, publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, year = {2022}, pages = {258} }  You C, Sanchez A, Leering M, Glaser D, Furfari D, Fitzpatrick M, Wharton J and Reed P (2022), "The effects of surface pits and intermetallics on the competing failure modes in laser shock peened AA7075-T651: Experiments and modelling", International Journal of Fatigue., feb, 2022. Vol. 155, pp. 106568. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The effects of laser shock peening (LSP) on the fatigue life of AA7075-T651 were investigated. The combined influence of surface imperfections (i.e. pits and intermetallics), compressive residual stresses (CRS) and the applied stress on crack initiation sites (surface or subsurface) and the associated fatigue life were investigated. Critical surface imperfections were found to significantly reduce the benefits of LSP in life improvement, by promoting surface crack initiation despite the resisting effects of CRS. To facilitate quantifying the effects of LSP on fatigue life, a finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate residual stress distribution induced by LSP, as well as its redistribution caused by the formation of surface pits. Based on the FE results, a method identifying whether the specified surfaces pits and intermetallics are critical to lead to surface cracking at given stress conditions was proposed, based on the Smith-Watson-Topper method and the Murakami’s model respectively. The interaction between surface imperfections, CRS and the applied loads were taken into account in this method. In addition, a fatigue life assessment framework was proposed based on the prediction of crack initiation sites, which was validated to be reliable in efficiently evaluating the efficacy of the applied LSP in improving fatigue life. BibTeX: @article{You_2022, author = {C. You and A.G. Sanchez and M. Leering and D. Glaser and D. Furfari and M.E. Fitzpatrick and J. Wharton and P.A.S. Reed}, title = {The effects of surface pits and intermetallics on the competing failure modes in laser shock peened AA7075-T651: Experiments and modelling}, journal = {International Journal of Fatigue}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2022}, volume = {155}, pages = {106568}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142112321004205}, doi = {10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2021.106568} }  Barker CT, Hone DWE, Naish D, Cau A, Lockwood JAF, Foster B, Clarkin CE, Schneider P and Gostling NJ (2021), "New spinosaurids from the Wessex Formation (Early Cretaceous, UK) and the European origins of Spinosauridae", Scientific Reports., sep, 2021. Vol. 11(1) Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Spinosaurids are among the most distinctive and yet poorly-known of large-bodied theropod dinosaurs, a situation exacerbated by their mostly fragmentary fossil record and competing views regarding their palaeobiology. Here, we report two new Early Cretaceous spinosaurid specimens from the Wessex Formation (Barremian) of the Isle of Wight. Large-scale phylogenetic analyses using parsimony and Bayesian techniques recover the pair in a new clade within Baryonychinae that also includes the hypodigm of the African spinosaurid Suchomimus. Both specimens represent distinct and novel taxa, herein named Ceratosuchops inferodios gen. et sp. nov. and Riparovenator milnerae gen. et sp. nov. A palaeogeographic reconstruction suggests a European origin for Spinosauridae, with at least two dispersal events into Africa. These new fnds provide welcome information on poorly sampled areas of spinosaurid anatomy, suggest that sympatry was present and potentially common in baryonychines and spinosaurids as a whole, and contribute to updated palaeobiogeographic reconstructions for the clade. BibTeX: @article{Barker_2021, author = {Chris T. Barker and David W. E. Hone and Darren Naish and Andrea Cau and Jeremy A. F. Lockwood and Brian Foster and Claire E. Clarkin and Philipp Schneider and Neil J. Gostling}, title = {New spinosaurids from the Wessex Formation (Early Cretaceous, UK) and the European origins of Spinosauridae}, journal = {Scientific Reports}, publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC}, year = {2021}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-97870-8}, doi = {10.1038/s41598-021-97870-8} }  Breite C, Melnikov A, Turon A, de Morais A, Bourlot CL, Maire E, Schöberl E, Otero F, Mesquita F, Sinclair I, Costa J, Mayugo J, Guerrero J, Gorbatikh L, McCartney L, Hajikazemi M, Mehdikhani M, Mavrogordato M, Camanho P, Tavares R, Spearing S, Lomov S, Pimenta S, Paepegem WV and Swolfs Y (2021), "A synchrotron computed tomography dataset for validation of longitudinal tensile failure models based on fibre break and cluster development", Data in Brief., dec, 2021. Vol. 39, pp. 107590. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: We performed in-situ tensile tests on two carbon fibre/epoxy composites with continuous scanning using synchrotron computed tomography (CT). Both composites were cross-ply laminates, and two specimens were tested for each composite. The voxel size was sufficiently small to recognize individual fibres and fibre breaks. For each test, 16-19 volumes were reconstructed, cropped down to the 0° plies and analysed to track fibre break and cluster development. This dataset provides the last CT volume before failure for each of the four specimens as well as the individual fibre break locations in all reconstructed volumes. These data are then plotted against predictions from six state-of-the-art strength models. The target is that these data become a benchmark for the development of new models, inspiring researchers to set up refined experiments and develop improved models. BibTeX: @article{Breite_2021, author = {C. Breite and A. Melnikov and A. Turon and A.B. de Morais and C. Le Bourlot and E. Maire and E. Schöberl and F. Otero and F. Mesquita and I. Sinclair and J. Costa and J.A. Mayugo and J.M. Guerrero and L. Gorbatikh and L.N. McCartney and M. Hajikazemi and M. Mehdikhani and M.N. Mavrogordato and P.P. Camanho and R. Tavares and S.M. Spearing and S.V. Lomov and S. Pimenta and W. Van Paepegem and Y. Swolfs}, title = {A synchrotron computed tomography dataset for validation of longitudinal tensile failure models based on fibre break and cluster development}, journal = {Data in Brief}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2021}, volume = {39}, pages = {107590}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352340921008659}, doi = {10.1016/j.dib.2021.107590} }  Chen P, Wahib M, Wang X, Hirofuchi T, Ogawa H, Biguri A, Boardman R, Blumensath T and Matsuoka S (2021), "Scalable FBP decomposition for cone-beam CT reconstruction", In Proceedings of the International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis., nov, 2021. ACM. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) is a fundamental compute intense algorithm used in tomographic image reconstruction. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) devices use a cone-shaped X-ray beam, in comparison to the parallel beam used in older CT generations. Distributed image reconstruction of cone-beam datasets typically relies on dividing batches of images into different nodes. This simple input decomposition, however, introduces limits on input/output sizes and scalability.We propose a novel decomposition scheme and reconstruction algorithm for distributed FPB. This scheme enables arbitrarily large input/output sizes, eliminates the redundancy arising in the end-to-end pipeline and improves the scalability by replacing two communication collectives with only one segmented reduction. Finally, we implement the proposed decomposition scheme in a framework that is useful for all current-generation CT devices (7th gen). In our experiments using up to 1024 GPUs, our framework can construct 40963 volumes, for real-world datasets, in under 16 seconds (including I/O). BibTeX: @article{Chen_2021, author = {Peng Chen and Mohamed Wahib and Xiao Wang and Takahiro Hirofuchi and Hirotaka Ogawa and Ander Biguri and Richard Boardman and Thomas Blumensath and Satoshi Matsuoka}, title = {Scalable FBP decomposition for cone-beam CT reconstruction}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis}, publisher = {ACM}, year = {2021}, url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3458817.3476139}, doi = {10.1145/3458817.3476139} }  Corbera G, Iacono CL, Standish CD, Anagnostou E, Titschack J, Katsamenis O, Cacho I, Rooij DV, Huvenne VA and Foster GL (2021), "Glacio-eustatic variations and sapropel events as main controls on the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene evolution of the Cabliers Coral Mound Province (W Mediterranean)", Quaternary Science Reviews., feb, 2021. Vol. 253, pp. 106783. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Cold-water coral mounds are key hot-spots of deep ocean biodiversity and also important archives of past climatic conditions. Nonetheless, the paleo-oceanographic setting in which coral mounds developed in the Mediterranean Sea during the last 500 ka still needs to be properly understood. This study describes the coral deposits and corresponding ages of two on-mound gravity cores acquired from opposite sectors of the newly discovered Cabliers Coral Mound Province (CMP, Alboran Sea, W Mediterranean). U–Th data revealed Pleistocene-aged corals covering mound formation periods from >389 to 9.3 ka BP and from 13.7 to 0.3 ka BP in the southern and northern mounds respectively. The coral-rich deposits of the cores were mainly dominated by Desmophyllum pertusum, although in some sections concurrent with the Middle Pleistocene and the Holocene, other corals such as Dendrophyllia cornigera and Madrepora oculata also appeared as dominating species. Coral mound formation stages generally occurred during deglacials and temperate interstadial (3.5–4.1 δ18O‰) periods, whereas during interglacials (<3.5 δ18O‰) coral mound formation only occurred in the northern and shallower mound. We interpret this to indicate that the shoaling of the interface between Atlantic (AW) and Levantine Intermediate Waters (LIW) during interglacial periods prevented the corals in the southern CMP from acquiring sufficient food supply, thus causing periods of coral mound stagnation. Similarly, the interruption in LIW formation throughout sapropel events also coincides with coral mound stagnation phases. This suggests that sapropel-derived processes, which originated in the eastern Mediterranean, likely affected the entire Mediterranean basin and further supports the role of LIW as a conveyor belt facilitating cold-water coral growth in the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, we show that these coral mounds yield important insights into how local changes in oceanographic conditions can influence coral mound development. BibTeX: @article{Corbera_2021, author = {Guillem Corbera and Claudio Lo Iacono and Christopher D. Standish and Eleni Anagnostou and Jürgen Titschack and Orestis Katsamenis and Isabel Cacho and David Van Rooij and Veerle A.I. Huvenne and Gavin L. Foster}, title = {Glacio-eustatic variations and sapropel events as main controls on the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene evolution of the Cabliers Coral Mound Province (W Mediterranean)}, journal = {Quaternary Science Reviews}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2021}, volume = {253}, pages = {106783}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379120307459}, doi = {10.1016/j.quascirev.2020.106783} }  Edwards CA, Ogin SL, Jesson DA, Oldfield M, Livesey RL, James BJ and Boardman RP (2021), "Characterization and ballistic performance of thin pre-damaged resin-starved aramid-fiber composite panels", Textile Research Journal., may, 2021. , pp. 004051752110134. SAGE Publications. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Military personnel use protective armor systems that are frequently exposed to low-level damage, such as non-ballistic impact, wear-and-tear from everyday use, and damage during storage of equipment. The extent to which such low-level pre-damage could affect the performance of an armor system is unknown. In this work, low-level pre-damage has been introduced into a Kevlar/phenolic resin-starved composite panel using tensile loading. The tensile stress–strain behavior of this eight-layer material has been investigated and has been found to have two distinct regions; these have been understood in terms of the microstructure and damage within the composite panels investigated using micro-computed tomography and digital image correlation. Ballistic testing carried out on pristine (control) and pre-damaged panels did not indicate any difference in the V50 ballistic performance. However, an indication of a difference in response to ballistic impact was observed; the area of maximal local out-of-plane deformation for the pre-damaged panels was found to be twice that of the control panels, and the global out-of-plane deformation across the panel was also larger. BibTeX: @article{Edwards2021, author = {Edwards, Cerise A. and Ogin, Stephen L. and Jesson, David A. and Oldfield, Matthew and Livesey, Rebecca L. and James, Bryn J. and Boardman, Richard P.}, title = {Characterization and ballistic performance of thin pre-damaged resin-starved aramid-fiber composite panels}, journal = {Textile Research Journal}, publisher = {SAGE Publications}, year = {2021}, pages = {004051752110134}, url = {https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/00405175211013424}, doi = {10.1177/00405175211013424} }  Houx JL and Kramer D (2021), "OpenImpala: OPEN source IMage based PArallisable Linear Algebra solver", SoftwareX., jul, 2021. Vol. 15, pp. 100729. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Image-based modelling has emerged as a popular method within the field of lithium-ion battery modelling due to its ability to represent the heterogeneity of the porous electrodes. A common challenge from image-based modelling is the size of 3D tomography datasets, which can be of the order of several billion voxels. Previously, different approximation methods have been used to simplify the computational problem, but each of these come with associated limitations. Here we develop a data-driven, fully parallelisable, image-based modelling framework called OpenImpala. Micro X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used to obtain 3D microstructural data from samples non-destructively. These 3D datasets are then directly used as the computational domain for finite-differences based direct physical modelling (e.g. to solve the diffusion equation directly on the CT obtained datasets). OpenImpala then calculates the equivalent homogenised transport coefficients for the given microstructure. These coefficients are written into parameterised files for direct compatibility with two popular continuum battery models: PyBamm and DandeLiion, facilitating the link between different scales of computational battery modelling. OpenImpala has been shown to scale well with an increasing number of computational cores on distributed memory architectures, making it applicable to large datasets typical of modern tomography. BibTeX: @article{Houx2021, author = {James Le Houx and Denis Kramer}, title = {OpenImpala: OPEN source IMage based PArallisable Linear Algebra solver}, journal = {SoftwareX}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2021}, volume = {15}, pages = {100729}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352711021000662?via=ihub}, doi = {10.1016/j.softx.2021.100729} }  Kaishubayeva N, de León CP, Walsh FC and Arenas LF (2021), "Design, imaging and performance of 3D printed open-cell architectures for porous electrodes: quantification of surface area and permeability", Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology., may, 2021. Vol. 96(7), pp. 1818-1831. Wiley. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: BACKGROUND The development of new open-cell porous electrodes for electrochemical flow cells and reactors is demonstrated through the application of 3D printing. The properties of diverse architectures were investigated, including rectangular, circular, hexagonal and triangular cells with linear porosity grades of 10, 20 and 30 pores per inch (ppi). Specimens were digitally designed, then 3D printed in stainless steel via selective laser melting. After being examined using scanning electron microscopy, they were characterized in terms of volumetric surface area and porosity with the aid of X-ray computed tomography. Pressure drop measurements were performed over a range of mean linear velocity and Reynolds number, allowing the estimation of Darcy's friction factor and permeability. RESULTS Volumetric surface area estimated from tomography scans was ≤36% higher than the nominal values owing to surface roughness and post-processing algorithms. By contrast, volumetric porosity obtained by tomography agreed fully with measured values. Triangular architectures afforded additional surface area both digitally and according to tomography. The largest pressure drop was found in circular materials, the triangular ones showing the lowest. The 20 ppi triangular architecture had a volumetric surface area of ≈44.5 cm−1 and a permeability of 2.31 × 10−5 cm2. CONCLUSION Triangular architectures were preferred as a consequence of their favourable combination of high surface area and high permeability with low mass and reduced digital complexity. This provides a strategy to initiate the optimization of 3D printed porous electrodes for electrochemical flow cells and reactors in novel and niche applications. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry (SCI). BibTeX: @article{Kaishubayeva2021, author = {Nazira Kaishubayeva and Carlos Ponce de León and Frank C Walsh and Luis F Arenas}, title = {Design, imaging and performance of 3D printed open-cell architectures for porous electrodes: quantification of surface area and permeability}, journal = {Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology}, publisher = {Wiley}, year = {2021}, volume = {96}, number = {7}, pages = {1818--1831}, url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jctb.6754}, doi = {10.1002/jctb.6754} }  Kopp R, Joseph J, Ni X, Roy N and Wardle BL (2021), "Deep Learning Unlocks X-ray Microtomography Segmentation of Multiclass Microdamage in Heterogeneous Materials", Advanced Materials., nov, 2021. , pp. 2107817. Wiley. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] Abstract: Four-dimensional quantitative characterization of heterogeneous materials using in situ synchrotron radiation computed tomography can reveal 3D sub-micron features, particularly damage, evolving under load, leading to improved materials. However, dataset size and complexity increasingly require time-intensive and subjective semi-automatic segmentations. Here, we present the first deep learning (DL) convolutional neural network (CNN) segmentation of multiclass microscale damage in heterogeneous bulk materials, teaching on advanced aerospace-grade composite damage using ∼65,000 (trained) human-segmented tomograms. The trained CNN machine segments complex and sparse (<<1% of volume) composite damage classes to ∼99.99% agreement, unlocking both objectivity and efficiency, with nearly 100% of the human time eliminated, which traditional rule-based algorithms do not approach. The trained machine is found to perform as well or better than the human due to “machine-discovered” human segmentation error, with machine improvements manifesting primarily as new damage discovery and segmentation augmentation/extension in artifact-rich tomograms. Interrogating a high-level network hyperparametric space on two material configurations, we find DL to be a disruptive approach to quantitative structure-property characterization, enabling high-throughput knowledge creation (accelerated by 2 orders of magnitude) via generalizable, ultra-high-resolution feature segmentation. BibTeX: @article{Kopp_2021, author = {Reed Kopp and Joshua Joseph and Xinchen Ni and Nicholas Roy and Brian L. Wardle}, title = {Deep Learning Unlocks X-ray Microtomography Segmentation of Multiclass Microdamage in Heterogeneous Materials}, journal = {Advanced Materials}, publisher = {Wiley}, year = {2021}, pages = {2107817}, doi = {10.1002/adma.202107817} }  Kopp R, Joseph J and Wardle BL (2021), "Automated Segmentation ofIn SituX-ray Microtomography of Progressive Damage in Advanced Composites via Deep Learning", In AIAA Scitech 2021 Forum., jan, 2021. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{Kopp_2021, author = {Reed Kopp and Joshua Joseph and Brian L. Wardle}, title = {Automated Segmentation ofIn SituX-ray Microtomography of Progressive Damage in Advanced Composites via Deep Learning}, booktitle = {AIAA Scitech 2021 Forum}, publisher = {American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics}, year = {2021}, url = {https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2021-2024}, doi = {10.2514/6.2021-2024} }  Meilak EA, Gostling NJ, Palmer C and Heller MO (2021), "On the 3D Nature of the Magpie (Aves: Pica pica) Functional Hindlimb Anatomy During the Take-Off Jump", Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology., jun, 2021. Vol. 9 Frontiers Media SA. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Take-off is a critical phase of flight, and many birds jump to take to the air. Although the actuation of the hindlimb in terrestrial birds is not limited to the sagittal plane, and considerable non-sagittal plane motion has been observed during take-off jumps, how the spatial arrangement of hindlimb muscles in flying birds facilitates such jumps has received little attention. This study aims to ascertain the 3D hip muscle function in the magpie (Pica pica), a bird known to jump to take-off. A musculoskeletal model of the magpie hindlimb was developed using μCT scans (isotropic resolution of 18.2 μm) to derive bone surfaces, while the 3D muscle path definition was further informed by the literature. Function was robustly characterized by determining the 3D moment-generating capacity of 14 hip muscles over the functional joint range of motion during a take-off leap considering variations across the attachment areas and uncertainty in dynamic muscle geometry. Ratios of peak flexion-extension (FE) to internal-external rotation (IER) and abduction-adduction (ABD) moment-generating capacity were indicators of muscle function. Analyses of 972 variations of the 3D muscle paths showed that 11 of 14 muscles can act as either flexor or extensor, while all 14 muscles demonstrated the capacity to act as internal or external rotators of the hip with the mean ratios of peak FE to IER and ABD moment-generating capacity were 0.89 and 0.31, respectively. Moment-generating capacity in IER approaching levels in the FE moment-generating capacity determined here underline that the avian hip muscle function is not limited to the sagittal plane. Together with previous findings on the 3D nature of hindlimb kinematics, our results suggest that musculoskeletal models to develop a more detailed understanding of how birds orchestrate the use of muscles during a take-off jump cannot be restricted to the sagittal plane. BibTeX: @article{Meilak_2021, author = {E. A. Meilak and N. J. Gostling and C. Palmer and M. O. Heller}, title = {On the 3D Nature of the Magpie (Aves: Pica pica) Functional Hindlimb Anatomy During the Take-Off Jump}, journal = {Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology}, publisher = {Frontiers Media SA}, year = {2021}, volume = {9}, url = {https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275989/}, doi = {10.3389/fbioe.2021.676894} }  Ni X, Kopp R, Kalfon-Cohen E, Furtado C, Lee J, Arteiro A, Borstnar G, Mavrogordato MN, Helfen L, Sinclair I, Spearing SM, Camanho PP and Wardle BL (2021), "In situ synchrotron computed tomography study of nanoscale interlaminar reinforcement and thin-ply effects on damage progression in composite laminates", Composites Part B: Engineering., jan, 2021. , pp. 108623. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: In situ X-ray synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) of carbon fiber composite laminates reveals the first-ever qualitative and quantitative comparisons of 3D progressive damage effects introduced by two mechanical enhancement technologies: aligned nanoscale fiber interlaminar reinforcement and thin-ply layers. The technologies were studied individually and in combination, using aerospace-grade unidirectional prepreg standard-thickness prepreg (‘std-ply’) and thin-ply composite laminates. The relatively weak interlaminar regions of the laminates were reinforced with high densities of aligned carbon nanotubes (A-CNTs) in a hierarchical architecture termed ‘nanostitching’. Quasi-isotropic double edge-notched tension (DENT) laminates were tested and simultaneously 3D-imaged via SRCT at various load steps, revealing a progressive 3D network of damage micro-mechanisms that were segmented according to modality and extent. For load steps of 0%, 70%, 80%, and 90% of baseline ultimate tensile strength (UTS), intralaminar matrix cracking and fiber/matrix interfacial debonding are found to be the dominant damage mechanisms, common to all laminate types. For both std-ply and thin-ply, nanostitched laminates had qualitatively and quantitatively similar matrix damage modality and extent compared to the baseline laminates through 90% UTS, including relatively few delaminations, despite an ∼9% increase in std-ply nanostitched UTS over the std-ply baseline. Complementary finite element-based modeling of damage predicts greater delamination extent in std-ply vs. thin-ply laminates that manifests only between 90% and 100% UTS, offering an explanation for the observed positive nanostitch effect in the std-ply, which is known to be more susceptible to delamination formation and growth than the thin-ply laminates. Thin-ply, with and without nanostitch, intrinsically suppresses matrix damage, as expected from past work and evidenced here by 6.5X less overall matrix damage surface area vs. std-ply baseline laminates averaged over all load steps. These findings contribute new insights from high-resolution experimental mapping of composite damage states that can guide and inform mechanical enhancement approaches and improved damage models. BibTeX: @article{Ni2021, author = {Xinchen Ni and Reed Kopp and Estelle Kalfon-Cohen and Carolina Furtado and Jeonyoon Lee and Albertino Arteiro and Gregor Borstnar and Mark N. Mavrogordato and Lukas Helfen and Ian Sinclair and S. Mark Spearing and Pedro P. Camanho and Brian L. Wardle}, title = {In situ synchrotron computed tomography study of nanoscale interlaminar reinforcement and thin-ply effects on damage progression in composite laminates}, journal = {Composites Part B: Engineering}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2021}, pages = {108623}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359836821000202}, doi = {10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.108623} }  Petroselli C, Williams KA, Ghosh A, Fletcher DM, Ruiz SA, Dias TGS, Scotson CP and Roose T (2021), "Space and time-resolved monitoring of phosphorus release from a fertilizer pellet and its mobility in soil using microdialysis and X-ray computed tomography", Soil Science Society of America Journal., jan, 2021. Vol. 85(1), pp. 172-183. Wiley. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for crops. Precise spatiotemporal application of P fertilizer can improve plant P acquisition and reduce run-off losses of P. Optimizing application would benefit from understanding the dynamics of P release from a fertilizer pellet into bulk soil, which requires space- and time-resolved measurements of P concentration in soil solutions. In this study, we combined microdialysis and X-ray computed tomography to investigate P transport in soil. Microdialysis probes enabled repeated solute sampling from one location with minimal physical disturbance, and their small dimensions permitted spatially resolved monitoring. We observed a rapid initial release of P from the source, producing high dissolved P concentrations within the first 24 h, followed by a decrease in dissolved P over time compatible with adsorption onto soil particles. Soils with greater bulk density (i.e., reduced soil porosity) impeded the P pulse movement, which resulted in a less homogeneous distribution of total P in the soil column at the end of the experiment. The model fit to the data showed that the observed phenomena can be explained by diffusion and adsorption. The results showed that compared with conventional measurement techniques (e.g., suction cups), microdialysis measurements present a less invasive alternative. The time-resolved measurements ultimately highlighted rapid P dynamics that require more attention for improving P use efficiency. BibTeX: @article{Petroselli_2021, author = {Chiara Petroselli and Katherine A. Williams and Arpan Ghosh and Daniel McKay Fletcher and Siul A. Ruiz and Tiago Gerheim Souza Dias and Callum P. Scotson and Tiina Roose}, title = {Space and time-resolved monitoring of phosphorus release from a fertilizer pellet and its mobility in soil using microdialysis and X-ray computed tomography}, journal = {Soil Science Society of America Journal}, publisher = {Wiley}, year = {2021}, volume = {85}, number = {1}, pages = {172--183}, url = {https://acsess.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/saj2.20161}, doi = {10.1002/saj2.20161} }  Rankin KE, Hazell ZJ, Middleton AM and Mavrogordato MN (2021), "Micro-focus X-ray CT scanning of two rare wooden objects from the wreck of the London, and its application in heritage science and conservation", Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports., oct, 2021. Vol. 39, pp. 103158. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] Abstract: Two wooden objects, a tuning peg from a stringed musical instrument and a stopper from a smoking pipe, were recovered from the 1665 CE wreck of the London and selected for wood identification. So far, they are the only recoveries of these object types from this wreck. To preserve their integrity and completeness, destructive sampling was not desirable. Instead, micro-focus computed tomography (µ-CT) scanning was carried out. The objects were scanned both pre-conservation (waterlogged/saturated) and post-conservation (PEG impregnated; freeze-dried). Although the aim was to non-destructively explore the internal structure of the objects for wood identifications, information was also gained on their manufacturing characteristics and internal condition. 1 µm voxel resolution – sufficient for positive identifications of these wood types to genus level (as is standard for wood identifications) – was achieved. This study has established that the conservation treatment used here does not obscure the microscopic anatomical features of these wood types and therefore recommends that µ-CT scanning is best undertaken after conservation, when the objects are stable. BibTeX: @article{Rankin2021, author = {Kathryn E. Rankin and Zoë J. Hazell and Angela M. Middleton and Mark N. Mavrogordato}, title = {Micro-focus X-ray CT scanning of two rare wooden objects from the wreck of the London, and its application in heritage science and conservation}, journal = {Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2021}, volume = {39}, pages = {103158}, doi = {10.1016/j.jasrep.2021.103158} }  Rossides C, Pender SLF and Schneider P (2021), "3D cyclorama for digital unrolling and visualisation of deformed tubes", Scientific Reports., jul, 2021. Vol. 11(1) Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Colonic crypts are tubular glands that multiply through a symmetric branching process called crypt fission. During the early stages of colorectal cancer, the normal fission process is disturbed, leading to asymmetrical branching or budding. The challenging shapes of the budding crypts make it difficult to prepare paraffin sections for conventional histology, resulting in colonic cross sections with crypts that are only partially visible. To study crypt budding in situ and in three dimensions (3D), we employ X-ray micro-computed tomography to image intact colons, and a new method we developed (3D cyclorama) to digitally unroll them. Here, we present, verify and validate our ‘3D cyclorama’ method that digitally unrolls deformed tubes of non-uniform thickness. It employs principles from electrostatics to reform the tube into a series of onion-like surfaces, which are mapped onto planar panoramic views. This enables the study of features extending over several layers of the tube’s depth, demonstrated here by two case studies: (i) microvilli in the human placenta and (ii) 3D-printed adhesive films for drug delivery. Our 3D cyclorama method can provide novel insights into a wide spectrum of applications where digital unrolling or flattening is necessary, including long bones, teeth roots and ancient scrolls. BibTeX: @article{Rossides2021, author = {Charalambos Rossides and Sylvia L. F. Pender and Philipp Schneider}, title = {3D cyclorama for digital unrolling and visualisation of deformed tubes}, journal = {Scientific Reports}, publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC}, year = {2021}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-93184-x}, doi = {10.1038/s41598-021-93184-x} }  Schwab JA, Young MT, Herrera Y, Witmer LM, Walsh SA, Katsamenis OL and Brusatte SL (2021), "The braincase and inner ear of Metriorhynchus' cf. M.' brachyrhynchus – implications for aquatic sensory adaptations in crocodylomorphs", Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology., jun, 2021. , pp. e1912062. Informa UK Limited. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: During their long evolutionary history crocodylomorphs achieved a great diversity of body sizes, ecomorphotypes and inferred feeding ecologies. One unique group of crocodylomorphs are the thalattosuchians, which lived during the Jurassic and Cretaceous (ca. 191–125 Ma). They transitioned from shallow marine species, like teleosauroids, into fully pelagic forms with paddle shaped limbs and a vertically orientated tail fluke, the metriorhynchids. The osteological adaptations that allowed metriorhynchids to live in the water are generally well understood, but less is known about their neurosensory and endocranial systems, such as the brain, inner ears, sinuses and cranial nerves and how they relate to their aquatic lifestyle. Based on micro-computed tomography (μCT) data and three-dimensional models, we here describe the braincase and endocranial anatomy of a fully marine metriorhynchid, ‘Metriorhynchus’ cf. ‘M.’ brachyrhynchus (NHMUK PV OR 32617). We found several neuroanatomical features that likely helped this species function in its marine environment. These include a unique flexure in the brain endocast not seen in other thalattosuchians. Other features that have previously been seen in thalattosuchians include enlarged cerebral hemispheres, a hypertrophied venous sinus system, enlarged internal carotid arteries and foramina, and closed/absent lateral pharyngotympanic foramina. The specimen also possesses a pelagic metriorhynchid bony labyrinth morphology, with a compact and dorsoventrally short shape, thick semicircular canals, an enlarged vestibule and potentially a short cochlear duct. A review of character distribution confirms that some of these features evolved at the base of Thalattosuchia in semiaquatic species, long before metriorhynchids became pelagic, suggesting that endocranial anatomy helped allow metriorhynchoids colonize the ocean realm. BibTeX: @article{Schwab2021, author = {Julia A. Schwab and Mark T. Young and Yanina Herrera and Lawrence M. Witmer and Stig A. Walsh and Orestis L. Katsamenis and Stephen L. Brusatte}, title = {The braincase and inner ear of Metriorhynchus' cf. M.' brachyrhynchus – implications for aquatic sensory adaptations in crocodylomorphs}, journal = {Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology}, publisher = {Informa UK Limited}, year = {2021}, pages = {e1912062}, url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02724634.2021.1912062}, doi = {10.1080/02724634.2021.1912062} }  Xenikakis I, Tsongas K, Tzimtzimis EK, Katsamenis OL, Demiri E, Zacharis CK, Georgiou D, Kalogianni EP, Tzetzis D and Fatouros DG (2021), "Transdermal delivery of insulin across human skin in vitro with 3D printed hollow microneedles", Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology., oct, 2021. , pp. 102891. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: In the current study hollow microneedles (HMNs) were fabricated by means of vat polymerization method for the transdermal delivery of insulin. Two geometries of HMNs were designed in a Computer Aided Design (CAD) software namely, curved pyramid and syringe-like and fabricated with Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) method. Dimensions were determined and quality features were imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Volumetric characterization of HMNs and microchannels was performed by microfocus computed tomography (μCT) whereas mechanical characterization and skin penetration tests of the two geometries were carried out both experimentally and by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation. Diffusion studies of insulin across full thickness human skin were performed in vitro using Franz diffusion cells. Insulin samples were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results show that the transport might be affected by the shape of the microneedles. BibTeX: @article{Xenikakis_2021, author = {Iakovos Xenikakis and Konstantinos Tsongas and Emmanouil K. Tzimtzimis and Orestis L. Katsamenis and Efterpi Demiri and Constantinos K. Zacharis and Despoina Georgiou and Eleni P. Kalogianni and Dimitrios Tzetzis and Dimitrios G. Fatouros}, title = {Transdermal delivery of insulin across human skin in vitro with 3D printed hollow microneedles}, journal = {Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2021}, pages = {102891}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1773224721005712}, doi = {10.1016/j.jddst.2021.102891} }  Alvarez-Borges F, Ahmed S, Madhusudhan BN and Richards D (2020), "Investigation of pile penetration in calcareous soft rock using X-ray computed tomography", International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics., nov, 2020. , pp. 1-40. Thomas Telford Ltd.. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Penetration of open- and closed-ended model piles into intact chalk, a soft calcareous rock, was investigated using microfocus X-ray computed tomography (XCT). 3D images of the specimens showed that the piles crushed and densified the chalk in their path, creating a crushed chalk annulus around the shaft, a region of compressed destructured chalk below the tip, and fractures across cemented regions of the specimen. Laser-diffraction particle size analyses of the crushed chalk annulus after exhumation showed limited difference with laboratory-remoulded chalk, which suggested thorough de-cementation. Installation stresses and XCT-derived densities were paired using a simplified cylindrical cavity expansion solution to estimate effective radial stress-void ratio states at the pile tip during penetration. More complex numerical solutions could not be applied using the available data. This approach posed significant problems, as it could not suitably incorporate hardening and non-linear stiffness behaviours of Chalk during pile penetration, nor account for the creation of discontinuities. However, effective radial stress-void ratio estimates were found to converge with the reconstituted critical state line of the material at high stresses and low void ratios. This partially supported the use of a critical state framework to characterise pile penetration in Chalk, as proposed in recent literature. BibTeX: @article{AlvarezBorges2020, author = {Fernando Alvarez-Borges and Sharif Ahmed and Bangalore Narasimha Madhusudhan and David Richards}, title = {Investigation of pile penetration in calcareous soft rock using X-ray computed tomography}, journal = {International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics}, publisher = {Thomas Telford Ltd.}, year = {2020}, pages = {1--40}, url = {https://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/doi/abs/10.1680/jphmg.20.00031}, doi = {10.1680/jphmg.20.00031} }  Alves M and Pimenta S (2020), "The influence of 3D microstructural features on the elastic behaviour of tow-based discontinuous composites", Composite Structures., nov, 2020. Vol. 251, pp. 112484. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Tow-based discontinuous composites consist of carbon-fibre tows dispersed in a polymeric matrix, resulting in a complex microstructure with inherent 3D features such as tow waviness, non-uniform tow thickness, and fibre content variations; however, most models for these materials are based on 2D formulations, or in very computationally-expensive FE models. This work proposes a computationally-efficient microstructure generator able to recreate the 3D features of tow-based discontinuous composites, coupled with an analytical stiffness model able to quantify the effect of tow waviness on the modulus of these materials, for the first time in the literature. The features of the microstructures generated are validated against 3D measurements obtained through micro-CT scans and optical micrographs. The results of the stiffness model are successfully validated against experimental results from the literature, showing that tow waviness can trigger a knock-down of over 20% on the stiffness of tow-based discontinuous composites. It is also shown that current testing standards can lead to uncertainties over 20% on the measurement of the Young’s modulus of tow-based discontinuous composites, and alternatives to define suitable experimental campaigns are proposed. BibTeX: @article{Alves_2020, author = {Marco Alves and Soraia Pimenta}, title = {The influence of 3D microstructural features on the elastic behaviour of tow-based discontinuous composites}, journal = {Composite Structures}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2020}, volume = {251}, pages = {112484}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263822319334518}, doi = {10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112484} }  Biguri A, Towsyfyan H, Boardman R and Blumensath T (2020), "Numerically robust tetrahedron-based tomographic forward and backward projectors on parallel architectures", Ultramicroscopy., jul, 2020. Vol. 214, pp. 113016. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: X-ray tomographic reconstruction typically uses voxel basis functions to represent volumetric images. Due to the structure in voxel basis representations, efficient ray-tracing methods exist allowing fast, GPU accelerated implementations. Tetrahedral mesh basis functions are a valuable alternative to voxel based image representations as they provide flexible, inhomogeneous partitions which can be used to provide reconstructions with reduced numbers of elements or with arbitrarily fine object surface representations. We thus present a robust parallelizable ray-tracing method for volumetric tetrahedral domains developed specifically for Computed Tomography image reconstruction. Tomographic image reconstruction requires algorithms that are robust to numerical errors in floating point arithmetic whilst typical data sizes encountered in tomography require the algorithm to be parallelisable in GPUs which leads to additional constraints on algorithm choices. Based on these considerations, this article presents numerical solutions to the design of efficient ray-tracing algorithms for the projection and backprojection operations. Initial reconstruction results using CAD data to define a triangulation of the domain demonstrate the advantages of our method and contrast tetrahedral mesh based reconstructions to voxel based methods. BibTeX: @article{Biguri_2020, author = {Ander Biguri and Hossein Towsyfyan and Richard Boardman and Thomas Blumensath}, title = {Numerically robust tetrahedron-based tomographic forward and backward projectors on parallel architectures}, journal = {Ultramicroscopy}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2020}, volume = {214}, pages = {113016}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304399120300097}, doi = {10.1016/j.ultramic.2020.113016} }  Biguri A, Lindroos R, Bryll R, Towsyfyan H, Deyhle H, khalil Harrane IE, Boardman R, Mavrogordato M, Dosanjh M, Hancock S and Blumensath T (2020), "Arbitrarily large tomography with iterative algorithms on multiple GPUs using the TIGRE toolbox", Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing., dec, 2020. Vol. 146, pp. 52-63. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: 3D tomographic imaging requires the computation of solutions to very large inverse problems. In many applications, iterative algorithms provide superior results, however, memory limits in available computing hardware restrict the size of problems that can be solved. For this reason, iterative methods are not normally used to reconstruct typical data sets acquired with lab based CT systems. We thus use state of the art techniques such as dual buffering to develop an efficient strategy to compute the required operations for iterative reconstruction. This allows the iterative reconstruction of volumetric images of arbitrary size using any number of GPUs, each with arbitrarily small memory. Strategies for both the forward and backprojection operators are presented, along with two regularization approaches that are easily generalized to other projection types or regularizers. The proposed improvement also accelerates reconstruction of smaller images on single or multiple GPU systems, providing faster code for time-critical applications. The resulting algorithm has been added to the TIGRE toolbox, a repository for iterative reconstruction algorithms for general CT, but this memorysaving and problem-splitting strategy can be easily adapted for use with other GPU-based tomographic reconstruction code. BibTeX: @article{Biguri2020, author = {Ander Biguri and Reuben Lindroos and Robert Bryll and Hossein Towsyfyan and Hans Deyhle and Ibrahim El khalil Harrane and Richard Boardman and Mark Mavrogordato and Manjit Dosanjh and Steven Hancock and Thomas Blumensath}, title = {Arbitrarily large tomography with iterative algorithms on multiple GPUs using the TIGRE toolbox}, journal = {Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2020}, volume = {146}, pages = {52--63}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0743731520303336}, doi = {10.1016/j.jpdc.2020.07.004} }  Black C, Kanczler J, de Andrés M, White L, Savi F, Bas O, Saifzadeh S, Henkel J, Zannettino A, Gronthos S, Woodruff M, Hutmacher D and Oreffo R (2020), "Characterisation and evaluation of the regenerative capacity of Stro-4mathplus enriched bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells using bovine extracellular matrix hydrogel and a novel biocompatible melt electro-written medical-grade polycaprolactone scaffold", Biomaterials., jul, 2020. Vol. 247, pp. 119998. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Many skeletal tissue regenerative strategies centre around the multifunctional properties of bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSC) or mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC)/bone marrow derived skeletal stem cells (SSC). Specific identification of these particular stem cells has been inconclusive. However, enriching these heterogeneous bone marrow cell populations with characterised skeletal progenitor markers has been a contributing factor in successful skeletal bone regeneration and repair strategies. In the current studies we have isolated, characterised and enriched ovine bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (oBMSCs) using a specific antibody, Stro-4, examined their multipotential differentiation capacity and, in translational studies combined Stro-4+ oBMSCs with a bovine extracellular matrix (bECM) hydrogel and a biocompatible melt electro-written medical-grade polycaprolactone scaffold, and tested their bone regenerative capacity in a small in vivo, highly vascularised, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model and a preclinical, critical-sized ovine segmental tibial defect model. Proliferation rates and CFU-F formation were similar between unselected and Stro-4+ oBMSCs. Col1A1, Col2A1, mSOX-9, PPARG gene expression were upregulated in respective osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic culture conditions compared to basal conditions with no significant difference between Stro-4+ and unselected oBMSCs. In contrast, proteoglycan expression, alkaline phosphatase activity and adipogenesis were significantly upregulated in the Stro-4+ cells. Furthermore, with extended cultures, the oBMSCs had a predisposition to maintain a strong chondrogenic phenotype. In the CAM model Stro-4+ oBMSCs/bECM hydrogel was able to induce bone formation at a femur fracture site compared to bECM hydrogel and control blank defect alone. Translational studies in a critical-sized ovine tibial defect showed autograft samples contained significantly more bone, (4250.63 mm3, SD = 1485.57) than blank (1045.29 mm3, SD = 219.68) ECM-hydrogel (1152.58 mm3, SD = 191.95) and Stro-4+/ECM-hydrogel (1127.95 mm3, SD = 166.44) groups. Stro-4+ oBMSCs demonstrated a potential to aid bone repair in vitro and in a small in vivo bone defect model using select scaffolds. However, critically, translation to a large related preclinical model demonstrated the complexities of bringing small scale reported stem-cell material therapies to a clinically relevant model and thus facilitate progression to the clinic. BibTeX: @article{Black_2020, author = {C. Black and J.M. Kanczler and M.C. de Andrés and L.J. White and F.M. Savi and O. Bas and S. Saifzadeh and J. Henkel and A. Zannettino and S. Gronthos and M.A. Woodruff and D.W. Hutmacher and R.O.C. Oreffo}, title = {Characterisation and evaluation of the regenerative capacity of Stro-4mathplus enriched bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells using bovine extracellular matrix hydrogel and a novel biocompatible melt electro-written medical-grade polycaprolactone scaffold}, journal = {Biomaterials}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2020}, volume = {247}, pages = {119998}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142961220302441}, doi = {10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.119998} }  Bull DJ, Smethurst JA, Sinclair I, Pierron F, Roose T, Powrie W and Bengough AG (2020), "Mechanisms of root reinforcement in soils: an experimental methodology using four-dimensional X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation", Proceedings of the Royal Society A., may, 2020. Vol. 476(2237), pp. 20190838. The Royal Society Publishing. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Vegetation on railway or highway slopes can improve slope stability through the generation of soil pore water suctions by plant transpiration and mechanical soil reinforcement by the roots. To incorporate the enhanced shearing resistance and stiffness of root-reinforced soils in stability calculations, it is necessary to understand and quantify its effectiveness. This requires integrated and sophisticated experimental and multi-scale modelling approaches to develop an understanding of the processes at different length scales, from individual root–soil interaction through to full soil-profile or slope scale. One of the challenges with multi-scale models is ensuring that they sufficiently closely represent real behaviour. This requires calibration against detailed high-quality and data-rich experiments. This study presents a novel experimental methodology, which combines in situ direct shear loading of a willow root-reinforced soil with X-ray computed tomography to capture the three-dimensional chronology of soil and root deformation within the shear zone. Digital volume correlation (DVC) analysis was applied to the computed tomography dataset to obtain full-field three-dimensional displacement and strain information. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and discusses the challenges associated with DVC experiments on root-reinforced soils. BibTeX: @article{Bull2020, author = {Bull, D. J. and Smethurst, J. A. and Sinclair, I. and Pierron, F. and Roose, T. and Powrie, W. and Bengough, A. G.}, title = {Mechanisms of root reinforcement in soils: an experimental methodology using four-dimensional X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation}, journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society A}, publisher = {The Royal Society Publishing}, year = {2020}, volume = {476}, number = {2237}, pages = {20190838}, url = {https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspa.2019.0838}, doi = {10.1098/rspa.2019.0838} }  Callow B, Falcon-Suarez I, Marin-Moreno H, Bull JM and Ahmed S (2020), "Optimal X-ray micro-CT image based methods for porosity and permeability quantification in heterogeneous sandstones", Geophysical Journal International., jun, 2020. Oxford University Press (OUP). [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] Abstract: 3D X-ray micro-CT (XCT) is a non-destructive 3D imaging method, increasingly used for a wide range of applications in Earth Science. An optimal XCT image-processing workflow is derived here for accurate quantification of porosity and absolute permeability of heterogeneous sandstone samples using an assessment of key image acquisition and processing parameters: Image resolution, segmentation method, representative elementary volume (REV) size and fluid-simulation method. XCT image-based calculations obtained for heterogeneous sandstones are compared to two homogeneous standards (Berea sandstone and a sphere pack), as well as to the results from physical laboratory measurements. An optimal XCT methodology obtains porosity and permeability results within ± 2 per cent and vary by one order of magnitude around the direct physical measurements, respectively, achieved by incorporating the clay fraction and cement matrix (porous, impermeable components) to the pore-phase for porosity calculations and into the solid-phase for permeability calculations. Two Stokes-flow finite element modelling (FEM) simulation methods, using a voxelised grid (Avizo) and tetrahedral mesh (Comsol) produce comparable results, and similarly show that a lower resolution scan (∼5 µm) is unable to resolve the smallest intergranular pores, causing an underestimation of porosity by ∼3.5 per cent. Downsampling the image-resolution post-segmentation (numerical coarsening) and pore network modelling both allow achieving of a representative elementary volume (REV) size, whilst significantly reducing fluid simulation memory requirements. For the heterogeneous sandstones, REV size for permeability (≥ 1 cubic mm) is larger than for porosity (≥ 0.5 cubic mm) due to tortuosity of the fluid paths. This highlights that porosity should not be used as a reference REV for permeability calculations. The findings suggest that distinct image processing workflows for porosity and permeability would significantly enhance the accurate quantification of the two properties from XCT. BibTeX: @article{Callow2020, author = {Ben Callow and Ismael Falcon-Suarez and Hector Marin-Moreno and Jonathan M Bull and Sharif Ahmed}, title = {Optimal X-ray micro-CT image based methods for porosity and permeability quantification in heterogeneous sandstones}, journal = {Geophysical Journal International}, publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)}, year = {2020}, doi = {10.1093/gji/ggaa321} }  Currie HA, Martin NF, Garcia GE, Davis FM and Kemp PS (2020), "A mechanical approach to understanding the impact of the nematode Anguillicoloides crassus on the European eel swimbladder", Journal of Experimental Biology., jul, 2020. Vol. 223(17), pp. jeb219808. The Company of Biologists Ltd. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] Abstract: One of the most detrimental factors in the drastic decline of the critically endangered European eel (Anguilla anguilla) was the inadvertent introduction of the invasive nematode Anguillicoides crassus. Infection primarily impacts the swimbladder, a gas-filled organ that enables the eel to control its depth in the water. A reduction in swimbladder function may be fatal for eel undergoing their spawning migration to the Sargasso Sea, a journey of over 5000 km. Although the physiological damage caused by this invasive parasite is well-studied through the use of quantifiable gross pathological indices, providing a good measure of the swimbladder health status; they cannot separate the role of mechanical and morphological damage. Our study examined the appropriateness of three commonly-used indices as a measure of mechanical damage by performing uniaxial tensile tests on swimbladder specimens obtained from an infected eel population. When the test results were compared to the gross pathological indices it was found that thickness correlated most strongly with mechanical damage, both confirming and, more importantly, explaining the counterintuitive findings of earlier work. In a damaged swimbladder, the immune response leads to a trade-off; increasing wall thickness raises the pressure required for organ rupture but decreases strength. The results indicate that for moderate infection the mechanical integrity of the swimbladder can be maintained. For severe infection, however, a reduction in mechanical integrity may reach a tipping point, impacting the successful completion of their oceanic migration. BibTeX: @article{Currie2020, author = {Currie, Helen AL and Martin, Nicholas Flores and Garcia, Gerardo Espindola and Davis, Frances M and Kemp, Paul S}, title = {A mechanical approach to understanding the impact of the nematode Anguillicoloides crassus on the European eel swimbladder}, journal = {Journal of Experimental Biology}, publisher = {The Company of Biologists Ltd}, year = {2020}, volume = {223}, number = {17}, pages = {jeb219808}, doi = {10.1242/jeb.219808} }  Deyhle H, Towsyfyan H, Biguri A, Mavrogordato M, Boardman R and Blumensath T (2020), "Spatial resolution of a laboratory based X-Ray cone-beam laminography scanning system for various trajectories", NDT & E International., apr, 2020. Vol. 111, pp. 102222. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Computed laminography (CL), a long established NDT method, is ideal for the non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures, for which conventional computed tomography (CT) is less well suited. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of implementing raster CL on a Nikon Metrology custom build X-ray CT scanner without the need for specialised equipment. To provide a more principled way to demonstrate the widespread adoption of CL for defect characterization in plate-like structures, a test specimen was designed and manufactured from Polyoxymethylene (Delrin) that allows well defined features of different size and orientation to be characterized. The study highlights the relation between direction-dependent spatial resolution, feature geometry and scan trajectory. It demonstrates that high-resolution and high-speed in situ volume-imaging of plate-like structures with large aspect ratios is viable at levels that would be challenging via CT or alternative three-dimensional NDT methods. BibTeX: @article{Deyhle2020, author = {Hans Deyhle and Hossein Towsyfyan and Ander Biguri and Mark Mavrogordato and Richard Boardman and Thomas Blumensath}, title = {Spatial resolution of a laboratory based X-Ray cone-beam laminography scanning system for various trajectories}, journal = {NDT & E International}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2020}, volume = {111}, pages = {102222}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096386951930324X}, doi = {10.1016/j.ndteint.2020.102222} }  Fernée C, Zakrzewski S and Brown KR (2020), "Dimorphism in dental tissues: Sex differences in archaeological individuals for multiple tooth types", American Journal of Physical Anthropology., nov, 2020. Vol. 175(1), pp. 106-127. Wiley. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: ObjectivesDimorphism in the dentition has been observed in human populations worldwide. However, research has largely focused on traditional linear crown measurements. As imaging systems, such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), become increasingly more accessible, new dental measurements such as dental tissue size and proportions can be obtained. This research investigates the variation of dental tissues and proportions by sex in archaeological samples.Materials and MethodsUpper and lower first incisor to second premolar tooth rows were obtained from 30 individuals (n = 300), from 3 archaeological samples. The teeth were micro-CT scanned and surface area and volumetric measurements were obtained from the surface meshes extracted. Dental wear was also recorded and differences between sexes determined.ResultsEnamel and crown measurements were found to be larger in females. Conversely, dentine and root measurements were larger in males.DiscussionThe findings support the potential use of dental tissues to estimate sex of individuals from archaeological samples, while also indicating that individuals aged using current dental aging methods may be underaged or overaged due to sex differences in enamel thickness. BibTeX: @article{Fern_e_2020, author = {Christianne Fernée and Sonia Zakrzewski and Kate Robson Brown}, title = {Dimorphism in dental tissues: Sex differences in archaeological individuals for multiple tooth types}, journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology}, publisher = {Wiley}, year = {2020}, volume = {175}, number = {1}, pages = {106--127}, url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ajpa.24174}, doi = {10.1002/ajpa.24174} }  Fritz NK, Kopp R, Nason AK, Ni X, Lee J, Stein IY, Kalfon-Cohen E, Sinclair I, Spearing SM, Camanho PP and Wardle BL (2020), "New interlaminar features and void distributions in advanced aerospace-grade composites revealed via automated algorithms using micro-computed tomography", Composites Science and Technology., jun, 2020. Vol. 193, pp. 108132. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) is used to quantify morphology in AS4/8552 (autoclave) and IM7/M56 (Out-of-Autoclave, OoA) aerospace-grade advanced unidirectional-ply carbon fiber prepreg composites, revealing several previously unreported features. The micron-scale (1 μm voxel size) three-dimensional datasets combined with automated, objective algorithms, revealed the following previously unreported features of AS4/8552 and IM7/M56 laminates, respectively: all ply interfaces analyzed have misplaced microfibers at densities of 1–2 per mm2 of interface area that can contribute to the mean thickness of the interlaminar regions of 8.6 μm and 14.4 μm; all ply interfaces have elongated (aspect ratio > 10 and presumed to extend indefinitely) periodic resin pockets along the microfiber direction of the plies bounding the interlaminar region that we term tow-aligned resin pockets (TARPs), with typical thicknesses that are 2–3X greater than the average interlaminar thickness; overall void fractions are low at  0.002 vol% and  0.001 vol%, comprised primarily of newly-quantified "sub-microvoids" with an average volume of 26–31 μm3 that are equally pervasive in both materials, numbering  300 per mm3. The new interlaminar region and void tools were also utilized to analyze laminates with aligned carbon nanotubes (A-CNTs), termed "nanostitches", incorporated between plies to reinforce the interlaminar regions. The addition of A-CNTs increased the interlaminar thickness by 2.2 μm and 8.0 μm for the AS4/8552 and IM7/M56 systems, respectively, but did not affect the quantity or distribution of voids or TARPs. These newly-identified features are relevant to the mechanical performance of such composites, as they may have positive or negative effects on damage initiation and progression. BibTeX: @article{Fritz_2020, author = {Nathan K. Fritz and Reed Kopp and Abigail K. Nason and Xinchen Ni and Jeonyoon Lee and Itai Y. Stein and Estelle Kalfon-Cohen and I. Sinclair and S. Mark Spearing and Pedro P. Camanho and Brian L. Wardle}, title = {New interlaminar features and void distributions in advanced aerospace-grade composites revealed via automated algorithms using micro-computed tomography}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2020}, volume = {193}, pages = {108132}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353819323462}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108132} }  Dona KNUG, Du E, Carlsson LA, Fletcher DM and Boardman RP (2020), "Modeling of water wicking along fiber/matrix interface voids in unidirectional carbon/vinyl ester composites", Microfluidics and Nanofluidics., apr, 2020. Vol. 24(5) Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] Abstract: Void formation at the fiber/matrix (F/M) interface is known to be a primary structural defect in a composite material. It is a major factor that contributes to the water uptake in composite materials for underwater applications. We develop a mathematical model to describe the kinetics of water uptake in unidirectional fiber reinforced resin composites containing voids. By using a one-dimensional two-phase fluid flow model with parameters derived from Microcomputed X-ray tomography (µCT), we predict the water wicking process in carbon/vinylester (CF/VE) panels containing capillary voids at the F/M interphase. The capillary driven flow is impeded by viscous forces and the compressed air bubble, trapped between the two flow fronts. In particular, our calculation indicates that the effective contact angle at the F/M interface in CF/VE composite is 29.7 ± 0.1° for the equivalent capillary radius of 1.2 µm. The results are validated by comparing the simulated water absorption to the experimental data for CF/VE composite specimens of three different sizes immersed in sea water. BibTeX: @article{Galpayage_Dona_2020, author = {Kalpani N. U. Galpayage Dona and E. Du and Leif A. Carlsson and Daniel McKay Fletcher and Richard P. Boardman}, title = {Modeling of water wicking along fiber/matrix interface voids in unidirectional carbon/vinyl ester composites}, journal = {Microfluidics and Nanofluidics}, publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC}, year = {2020}, volume = {24}, number = {5}, doi = {10.1007/s10404-020-02332-8} }  Gioumouxouzis CI, Tzimtzimis E, Katsamenis OL, Dourou A, Markopoulou C, Bouropoulos N, Tzetzis D and Fatouros DG (2020), "Fabrication of an osmotic 3D printed solid dosage form for controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients", European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences., feb, 2020. Vol. 143, pp. 105176. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: In pharmaceutical formulations, pharmacokinetic behavior of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API's) is significantly affected by their dissolution profiles. In this project, we attempted to create personalized dosage forms with osmotic properties that exhibit different API release patterns via Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing. Specifically, cellulose acetate was employed to create an external shell of an osmotically active core containing Diltiazem (DIL) as model drug. By removing parts of the shell (upper surface, linear lateral segments) were created dosage forms that modify their shape at specific time frames under the effect of the gradually induced osmotic pressure. Hot-Melt Extrusion (HME) was employed to fabricate two different 3DP feeding filaments, for the creation of either the shell or the osmotic core (dual-extrusion printing). Printed formulations and filaments were characterized by means of (TGA, XRD, DSC) and inspected using microscopy (optical and electron). The mechanical properties of the filaments were assessed by means of micro- and macro mechanical testing, whereas micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) was employed to investigate the volumetric changes occurring during the hydration process. XRD indicated the amorphization of DIL inside HME filaments and printed dosage forms, whereas the incorporated NaCl (osmogen) retained its crystallinity. Mechanical properties’ testing confirmed the printability of produced filaments. Dissolution tests revealed that all formulations exhibited sustained release differing at the initiation time of the API dissolution (0, 120 and 360 min for the three different formulations). Finally, μCT uncovered the key structural changes associated with distinct phases of the release profile. The above results demonstrate the successful utilization of an FDM 3D printer in order to create osmotic 3D printed formulations exhibiting sustained and/or delayed release, that can be easily personalized containing API doses corresponding to each patient's specific needs. BibTeX: @article{Gioumouxouzis2020, author = {Christos I. Gioumouxouzis and Emmanouil Tzimtzimis and Orestis L. Katsamenis and Anthi Dourou and Catherine Markopoulou and Nikolaos Bouropoulos and Dimitrios Tzetzis and Dimitrios G. Fatouros}, title = {Fabrication of an osmotic 3D printed solid dosage form for controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients}, journal = {European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2020}, volume = {143}, pages = {105176}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092809871930449X}, doi = {10.1016/j.ejps.2019.105176} }  Houx JL, Osenberg M, Neumann M, Binder JR, Schmidt V, Manke I, Carraro T and Kramer D (2020), "Effect of Tomography Resolution on Calculation of Microstructural Properties for Lithium Ion Porous Electrodes", ECS Transactions., jul, 2020. Vol. 97(7), pp. 255-266. The Electrochemical Society. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: This work uses an open-source, data-driven, image-based modelling framework; OpenImpala. Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) electrode samples were imaged using micro-CT. Two scans were performed using the Zeiss 160 kVp Versa 510 at the University of Southampton. The two scans were both carried out on the same sample and using the same focal point, this is so they could be used as a direct comparison to see how porosity and tortuosity changed with spatial resolution. It is found that the Bruggeman correlation significantly underestimates the tortuosity compared to the OpenImpala calculated results. It is also found that there is a larger statistical variability in the 801 nm results, whereas the 400 nm results have a much smaller standard deviation. These results were compared to computer-generated images based on FIB/SEM tomographic data of a single Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) porous active particle and found to have the same trends. BibTeX: @article{Houx2020, author = {James Le Houx and Markus Osenberg and Matthias Neumann and Joachim R. Binder and Volker Schmidt and Ingo Manke and Thomas Carraro and Denis Kramer}, title = {Effect of Tomography Resolution on Calculation of Microstructural Properties for Lithium Ion Porous Electrodes}, journal = {ECS Transactions}, publisher = {The Electrochemical Society}, year = {2020}, volume = {97}, number = {7}, pages = {255--266}, url = {https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1149/09707.0255ecst/meta}, doi = {10.1149/09707.0255ecst} }  Laux T, Gan KW, Dulieu-Barton JM and Thomsen OT (2020), "Ply thickness and fibre orientation effects in multidirectional composite laminates subjected to combined tension/compression and shear", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing., jun, 2020. Vol. 133, pp. 105864. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The effects of laminate lay-up and multiaxial loading on the failure of multidirectional laminates can be significant. Thus, ply thickness and fibre orientation effects in quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy laminates subjected to combined tension-shear and compression-shear loading are investigated. Three laminate lay-ups with equivalent thickness and homogenised elastic properties, but with different ply thicknesses and ply orientation angles are studied using open-hole specimens. Combined tension/compression-shear loading is applied using a new Modified Arcan Fixture (MAF). A methodology for identifying the failure behaviour based on stereo Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is devised. The results show that ply thickness has a strong effect on the failure behaviour in combined tension-shear, whereas the effect is small in compression-shear loading. No significant effect of the relative fibre orientation angles is observed under either loading regime. The experimental approach provides a new tool to investigate composite laminates under the full tension/compression-shear loading regime. BibTeX: @article{Laux_2020, author = {Tobias Laux and Khong Wui Gan and Janice M. Dulieu-Barton and Ole T. Thomsen}, title = {Ply thickness and fibre orientation effects in multidirectional composite laminates subjected to combined tension/compression and shear}, journal = {Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2020}, volume = {133}, pages = {105864}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359835X20301020}, doi = {10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105864} }  Lewis RM and Pearson-Farr JE (2020), "Multiscale three-dimensional imaging of the placenta", Placenta., feb, 2020. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Placental function involves multiple different processes which operate at different scales from centimetres to nanometres. Everything that the placenta does from mediating blood flow to gene expression, occurs within a three-dimensional anatomical framework. This review outlines how multiscale three-dimensional imaging approaches can provide insight into placental structure and function. Three-dimensional imaging approaches include microCT, confocal, super resolution, light-sheet, and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy. Used together, these approaches allow three-dimensional imaging of the placenta across the scales at which different processes occur. Three-dimensional imaging illustrates the spatial relationships between structures and visualises structures that are not clearly apparent in two-dimensions. Understanding the three-dimensional structure of the placenta enables exploration of the relationship between structure and function, including through the development of computational models based on realistic geometries. Three-dimensional imaging approaches will enhance our understanding of placental function in health and disease. BibTeX: @article{Lewis_2020, author = {Rohan M. Lewis and Jennifer E. Pearson-Farr}, title = {Multiscale three-dimensional imaging of the placenta}, journal = {Placenta}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2020}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0143400420300345}, doi = {10.1016/j.placenta.2020.01.016} }  Liu K, Boardman R, Mavrogordato M, Loveridge FA and Powrie W (2020), "The importance of the heel effect in X-ray computed tomography imaging of soils", Environmental Geotechnics., oct, 2020. , pp. 1-16. Thomas Telford Ltd.. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Non-destructive and non-invasive X-ray computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used in environmental geotechnics research. As a result of recent advances in technology and image processing techniques, CT with rapid scanning now has the potential to track changes in soil structure or soil water conditions as they happen, rather than as previously on a specimen in (temporary) stasis. Gathering meaningful data in a short scan time requires compromises to be made on parameters such as exposure time, and / or the use of higher X-ray intensities and energies. Data processing and imaging processing - including the removal of any artefacts, which can cause errors in interpretation of soil structure or phase proportions - then become especially important. One such artefact is the heel effect. It has been recognised in medical imaging, owing to its association with high scan energies. However, it has not previously been identified in soil imaging, despite the trend towards using higher energies. This paper presents an investigation into the potential for the heel effect to affect the soil property determination. It is shown for the first time that a noticeable heel effect will be present in CT images of soils and derived phase proportion data, when certain types of X-ray reflection targets are used. A correction method for the heel effect is presented, use of which will prevent significant errors in derived soil parameters such as water content. BibTeX: @article{Liu2020, author = {Kui Liu and Richard Boardman and Mark Mavrogordato and Fleur A Loveridge and William Powrie}, title = {The importance of the heel effect in X-ray computed tomography imaging of soils}, journal = {Environmental Geotechnics}, publisher = {Thomas Telford Ltd.}, year = {2020}, pages = {1--16}, url = {https://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/doi/abs/10.1680/jenge.20.00048}, doi = {10.1680/jenge.20.00048} }  Marter A, Burson-Thomas C, Dickinson A, Rankin K, Mavrogordato M, Pierron F and Browne M (2020), "Measurement of Internal Implantation Strains in Analogue Bone Using DVC", Materials., sep, 2020. Vol. 13(18), pp. 4050. MDPI AG. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The survivorship of cementless orthopaedic implants may be related to their initial stability; insufficient press-fit can lead to excessive micromotion between the implant and bone, joint pain, and surgical revision. However, too much interference between implant and bone can produce excessive strains and damage the bone, which also compromises stability. An understanding of the nature and mechanisms of strain generation during implantation would therefore be valuable. Previous measurements of implantation strain have been limited to local discrete or surface measurements. In this work, we devise a Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) methodology to measure the implantation strain throughout the volume. A simplified implant model was implanted into analogue bone media using a customised loading rig, and a micro-CT protocol optimised to minimise artefacts due to the presence of the implant. The measured strains were interpreted by FE modelling of the displacement-controlled implantation, using a bilinear elastoplastic constitutive model for the analogue bone. The coefficient of friction between the implant and bone was determined using the experimental measurements of the reaction force. Large strains at the interface between the analogue bone and implant produced localised deterioration of the correlation coefficient, compromising the ability to measure strains in this region. Following correlation coefficient thresholding (removing strains with a coefficient less than 0.9), the observed strain patterns were similar between the DVC and FE. However, the magnitude of FE strains was approximately double those measured experimentally. This difference suggests the need for improvements in the interface failure model, for example, to account for localised buckling of the cellular analogue bone structure. A further recommendation from this work is that future DVC experiments involving similar geometries and structures should employ a subvolume size of 0.97 mm as a starting point. BibTeX: @article{Marter2020, author = {Alexander Marter and Charles Burson-Thomas and Alexander Dickinson and Kathryn Rankin and Mark Mavrogordato and Fabrice Pierron and Martin Browne}, title = {Measurement of Internal Implantation Strains in Analogue Bone Using DVC}, journal = {Materials}, publisher = {MDPI AG}, year = {2020}, volume = {13}, number = {18}, pages = {4050}, url = {https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/13/18/4050}, doi = {10.3390/ma13184050} }  Martulli L, Creemers T, Schöberl E, Hale N, Kerschbaum M, Lomov SV and Swolfs Y (2020), "A thick-walled sheet moulding compound automotive component: Manufacturing and performance", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing., jan, 2020. Vol. 128, pp. 105688. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Carbon Fibre Sheet Moulding Compounds (CF-SMCs) are lightweight materials very suitable for automotive parts. So far, their use was limited to thin components. This work presents a feasibility study on the compression moulding of a thick-walled SMC component, with a compound of randomly oriented chopped carbon fibre tapes. Bending tests were used to evaluate the effects of the manufacturing conditions on the mechanical performance. The choice of the charge pattern configuration played the paramount role in the final part performance, especially via the creation of weld surfaces, leading to a maximum strength difference of over 400%. The moulding temperature, pressure and cooling method showed no statistically significant influence on both strength and stiffness of the part. The results of this work can be used as a starting point in the design of manufacturing processes for thick SMC components. BibTeX: @article{Martulli2020, author = {L.M. Martulli and Thomas Creemers and Erich Schöberl and Nicholas Hale and Martin Kerschbaum and Stepan V. Lomov and Yentl Swolfs}, title = {A thick-walled sheet moulding compound automotive component: Manufacturing and performance}, journal = {Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2020}, volume = {128}, pages = {105688}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359835X19304373}, doi = {10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105688} }  Newham E, Gill PG, Brewer P, Benton MJ, Fernandez V, Gostling NJ, Haberthür D, Jernvall J, Kankaanpää T, Kallonen A, Navarro C, Pacureanu A, Richards K, Brown KR, Schneider P, Suhonen H, Tafforeau P, Williams KA, Zeller-Plumhoff B and Corfe IJ (2020), "Reptile-like physiology in Early Jurassic stem-mammals", Nature Communications., oct, 2020. Vol. 11(1) Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Despite considerable advances in knowledge of the anatomy, ecology and evolution of early mammals, far less is known about their physiology. Evidence is contradictory concerning the timing and fossil groups in which mammalian endothermy arose. To determine the state of metabolic evolution in two of the earliest stem-mammals, the Early Jurassic Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium, we use separate proxies for basal and maximum metabolic rate. Here we report, using synchrotron X-ray tomographic imaging of incremental tooth cementum, that they had maximum lifespans considerably longer than comparably sized living mammals, but similar to those of reptiles, and so they likely had reptilian-level basal metabolic rates. Measurements of femoral nutrient foramina show Morganucodon had blood flow rates intermediate between living mammals and reptiles, suggesting maximum metabolic rates increased evolutionarily before basal metabolic rates. Stem mammals lacked the elevated endothermic metabolism of living mammals, highlighting the mosaic nature of mammalian physiological evolution. BibTeX: @article{Newham2020, author = {Elis Newham and Pamela G. Gill and Philippa Brewer and Michael J. Benton and Vincent Fernandez and Neil J. Gostling and David Haberthür and Jukka Jernvall and Tuomas Kankaanpää and Aki Kallonen and Charles Navarro and Alexandra Pacureanu and Kelly Richards and Kate Robson Brown and Philipp Schneider and Heikki Suhonen and Paul Tafforeau and Katherine A. Williams and Berit Zeller-Plumhoff and Ian J. Corfe}, title = {Reptile-like physiology in Early Jurassic stem-mammals}, journal = {Nature Communications}, publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC}, year = {2020}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18898-4?fbclid=IwAR1s7WJ1dtyxrysFEAk3uXKA7_-n7KBNlsRHhlG1SwXccyekEgxiMw9gX6Q}, doi = {10.1038/s41467-020-18898-4} }  Newham E, Corfe IJ, Brown KR, Gostling NJ, Gill PG and Schneider P (2020), "Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray tomography reveals life history in primate cementum incrementation", Journal of the Royal Society Interface., nov, 2020. Vol. 17(172), pp. 20200538. The Royal Society. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Cementum is a mineralized dental tissue common to mammals that grows throughout life, following a seasonally appositional rhythm. Each year, one thick translucent increment and one thin opaque increment is deposited, offering a near-complete record of an animal's life history. Male and female mammals exhibit significant differences in oral health, due to the contrasting effects of female versus male sex hormones. Oestrogen and progesterone have a range of negative effects on oral health that extends to the periodontium and cementum growth interface. Here, we use synchrotron radiation-based X-ray tomography to image the cementum of a sample of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) teeth from individuals of known life history. We found that increased breeding history in females corresponds with increased increment tortuosity and less organized cementum structure, when compared to male and juvenile cementum. We quantified structural differences by measuring the greyscale ‘texture’ of cementum and comparing results using principal components analysis. Adult females and males occupy discrete regions of texture space with no overlap. Females with known pregnancy records also have significantly different cementum when compared with non-breeding and juvenile females. We conclude that several aspects of cementum structure and texture may reflect differences in sexual life history in primates. BibTeX: @article{Newham2020a, author = {Newham, Elis and Corfe, Ian J and Brown, Kate Robson and Gostling, Neil J and Gill, Pamela G and Schneider, Philipp}, title = {Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray tomography reveals life history in primate cementum incrementation}, journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface}, publisher = {The Royal Society}, year = {2020}, volume = {17}, number = {172}, pages = {20200538}, url = {https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rsif.2020.0538}, doi = {10.1098/rsif.2020.0538} }  Potter ME, Stewart DJ, Oakley AE, Boardman RP, Bradley T, Sazio PJA and Raja R (2020), "Combining Photocatalysis and Optical Fiber Technology toward Improved Microreactor Design for Hydrogen Generation with Metallic Nanoparticles", ACS Photonics., feb, 2020. Vol. 7(3), pp. 714-722. American Chemical Society (ACS). [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] Abstract: The use of solar energy to activate chemical pathways in a sustainable manner drives the development in photocatalysis. While catalyst optimization is a major theme in this pursuit, the development of novel photocatalytic reactors to enhance productivity is also imperative. In this work we combine, for the first time, microstructured optical fiber technology with photocatalysis, creating a photocatalytic microreactor coated with TiO2, decorated with palladium nanoparticles. In doing so, we create a system capable of effectively combining photons, liquids, and gases within a monolithic, highly confined, transparent silica geometry. We utilize a range of characterization techniques to selectively focus on the photocatalyst, that resides exclusively within the internal capillaries of this system. In doing so, we validate our design approach and demonstrate the ability to simultaneously control both nanoparticle size and metal content. Further, we justify our unique design, showing its activity in photocatalytic hydrogen generation from water. In doing so highlights the importance in developing light propagation properties from optical fibers and the significant potential of this technology in the expansive photocatalysis landscape. BibTeX: @article{Potter_2020, author = {Matthew E. Potter and Daniel J. Stewart and Alice E. Oakley and Richard P. Boardman and Tom Bradley and Pier J. A. Sazio and Robert Raja}, title = {Combining Photocatalysis and Optical Fiber Technology toward Improved Microreactor Design for Hydrogen Generation with Metallic Nanoparticles}, journal = {ACS Photonics}, publisher = {American Chemical Society (ACS)}, year = {2020}, volume = {7}, number = {3}, pages = {714--722}, doi = {10.1021/acsphotonics.9b01577} }  Potter ME, Stewart DJ, Oakley AE, Boardman RP, Bradley T, Sazio PJA and Raja R (2020), "Combining Photocatalysis and Optical Fiber Technology toward Improved Microreactor Design for Hydrogen Generation with Metallic Nanoparticles", ACS Photonics., feb, 2020. Vol. 7(3), pp. 714-722. American Chemical Society (ACS). [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The use of solar energy to activate chemical pathways in a sustainable manner drives the development in photocatalysis. While catalyst optimization is a major theme in this pursuit, the development of novel photocatalytic reactors to enhance productivity is also imperative. In this work we combine, for the first time, microstructured optical fiber technology with photocatalysis, creating a photocatalytic microreactor coated with TiO2, decorated with palladium nanoparticles. In doing so, we create a system capable of effectively combining photons, liquids, and gases within a monolithic, highly confined, transparent silica geometry. We utilize a range of characterization techniques to selectively focus on the photocatalyst, that resides exclusively within the internal capillaries of this system. In doing so, we validate our design approach and demonstrate the ability to simultaneously control both nanoparticle size and metal content. Further, we justify our unique design, showing its activity in photocatalytic hydrogen generation from water. In doing so highlights the importance in developing light propagation properties from optical fibers and the significant potential of this technology in the expansive photocatalysis landscape. BibTeX: @article{Potter2020, author = {Matthew E. Potter and Daniel J. Stewart and Alice E. Oakley and Richard P. Boardman and Tom Bradley and Pier J. A. Sazio and Robert Raja}, title = {Combining Photocatalysis and Optical Fiber Technology toward Improved Microreactor Design for Hydrogen Generation with Metallic Nanoparticles}, journal = {ACS Photonics}, publisher = {American Chemical Society (ACS)}, year = {2020}, volume = {7}, number = {3}, pages = {714--722}, url = {https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsphotonics.9b01577}, doi = {10.1021/acsphotonics.9b01577} }  Rankin K, Steer J, Paton J, Mavrogordato M, Marter A, Worsley P, Browne M and Dickinson A (2020), "Developing an Analogue Residual Limb for Comparative DVC Analysis of Transtibial Prosthetic Socket Designs", Materials., sep, 2020. Vol. 13(18), pp. 3955. MDPI AG. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Personalised prosthetic sockets are fabricated by expert clinicians in a skill- and experience-based process, with research providing tools to support evidence-based practice. We propose that digital volume correlation (DVC) may offer a deeper understanding of load transfer from prosthetic sockets into the residual limb, and tissue injury risk. This study’s aim was to develop a transtibial amputated limb analogue for volumetric strain estimation using DVC, evaluating its ability to distinguish between socket designs. A soft tissue analogue material was developed, comprising silicone elastomer and sand particles as fiducial markers for image correlation. The material was cast to form an analogue residual limb informed by an MRI scan of a person with transtibial amputation, for whom two polymer check sockets were produced by an expert prosthetist. The model was micro-CT scanned according to (i) an unloaded noise study protocol and (ii) a case study comparison between the two socket designs, loaded to represent two-legged stance. The scans were reconstructed to give 108 µm voxels. The DVC noise study indicated a 64 vx subvolume and 50% overlap, giving better than 0.32% strain sensitivity, and  3.5 mm spatial resolution of strain. Strain fields induced by the loaded sockets indicated tensile, compressive and shear strain magnitudes in the order of 10%, with a high signal:noise ratio enabling distinction between the two socket designs. DVC may not be applicable for socket design in the clinical setting, but does offer critical 3D strain information from which existing in vitro and in silico tools can be compared and validated to support the design and manufacture of prosthetic sockets, and enhance the biomechanical understanding of the load transfer between the limb and the prosthesis. BibTeX: @article{Rankin2020, author = {Kathryn Rankin and Joshua Steer and Joshua Paton and Mark Mavrogordato and Alexander Marter and Peter Worsley and Martin Browne and Alexander Dickinson}, title = {Developing an Analogue Residual Limb for Comparative DVC Analysis of Transtibial Prosthetic Socket Designs}, journal = {Materials}, publisher = {MDPI AG}, year = {2020}, volume = {13}, number = {18}, pages = {3955}, url = {https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/13/18/3955}, doi = {10.3390/ma13183955} }  Romei F and Grubišić AN (2020), "Validation of an additively manufactured resistojet through experimental and computational analysis", Acta Astronautica., feb, 2020. Vol. 167, pp. 14-22. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: This paper presents the first proof of concept validation of the STAR thruster prototype. The device contains an innovative multifunctional monolithic heat exchanger, enabled by metal additive manufacturing processes. A 316L stainless steel printed thruster is characterized through a combination of dry heating and wet firing tests. This includes verification testing with argon in both cold and hot firing mode, at a range of electrical power inputs. Thrust measurements range from 9.7 mN ± 0.16 mN–29.8 mN ± 0.16 mN, with a maximum measured specific impulse of 80.11 ± 1.49 s. Thrust performance is measured using a high-precision balance, and liquid-metal power transfer terminals to eliminate thermal drift. Highly coupled multiphysics computational models provide validation of the electro-thermal and thermo-fluidic characteristics of the prototype, including a prediction of the maximum propellant stagnation temperature and structural temperature, which were 649 °C and 854 °C. BibTeX: @article{Romei2020, author = {Romei, Federico and Grubišić, A. N.}, title = {Validation of an additively manufactured resistojet through experimental and computational analysis}, journal = {Acta Astronautica}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2020}, volume = {167}, pages = {14--22}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094576519313748}, doi = {10.1016/j.actaastro.2019.10.046} }  Schöberl E, Mavrogordato M, Sinclair I and Spearing S (2020), "Fibre direction strain measurement in a composite ply under pure bending using Digital Volume Correlation and Micro-focus Computed Tomography", Journal of Composite Materials. Vol. 54(14), pp. 1889-1912. SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: This paper presents an experimental demonstration and validation of high-resolution threedimensional experimental strain measurement using Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) on CarbonFibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRPs), via through-thickness strain analysis under a state of pure bending. To permit the application of DVC to displacements and/or strain measurements parallel to the fibre direction in well-aligned unidirectional (UD) materials at high volume fractions, a methodology was developed for the insertion of sparse populations of 400 nm BaTiO3 particles within the matrix to act as displacement trackers (i.e. fiducial markers). For this novel material system, measurement sensitivity and noise are considered, along with the spatial filtering intrinsic to established DVC data processing. In conjunction with Micro-focus Computed Tomography (µCT), the technique was applied to a simple standard specimen subjected to a four-point flexural test, which resulted in a linear strain distribution through the beam thickness. The high-resolution, fibre-level strain distributions (imaged at a voxel resolution of ∼0.64 µm) were compared against the classical beam theory (Euler-Bernoulli) in incrementally decreasing averaging schemes and different sub-set sizes. Different sampling and averaging strategies are reported, showing that DVC outputs can be obtained that are in very good agreement with the analytical solution. A practical lower limit for the spatial resolution of strain is discerned for the present materials and methods. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of DVC in measuring local strains parallel to the fibre direction, with corresponding potential for calibration and validation of micromechanical models predicting various fibre-dominated damage mechanisms. BibTeX: @article{Schoeberl2020, author = {Schöberl, Erich and Mavrogordato, MN and Sinclair, I and Spearing, SM}, title = {Fibre direction strain measurement in a composite ply under pure bending using Digital Volume Correlation and Micro-focus Computed Tomography}, journal = {Journal of Composite Materials}, publisher = {SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England}, year = {2020}, volume = {54}, number = {14}, pages = {1889--1912}, url = {https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/438944/1/4_pt_bending_paper_final_review_to_publish.pdf} }  Schöberl E, Breite C, Rosini S, Swolfs Y, Mavrogordato M, Sinclair I and Spearing S (2020), "A novel particle-filled carbon-fibre reinforced polymer model composite tailored for the application of digital volume correlation and computed tomography", Journal of Composite Materials., dec, 2020. , pp. 002199832096638. SAGE Publications. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: This paper presents the development of novel Carbon-Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates, tailored for the application of Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) and Computed Tomography (CT) to experimental mechanics analyses of these materials. Analogous to surface-based Digital Image Correlation (DIC), DVC is a relatively novel volumetric method that utilizes CT data to quantify internal three-dimensional (3D) displacements and implicit strain fields. The highly anisotropic and somewhat regular/self-similar microstructures found in well-aligned unidirectional (UD) materials at high fibre volume fractions are intrinsically challenging for DVC, especially along the fibre direction at microstructural length-scales on the order of a few fibre diameters. To permit the application of DVC to displacement and/or strain measurements parallel to the fibre orientation, the matrix was doped with a sparse population of sub-micrometre particles to act as displacement trackers (i.e. fiducial markers). Barium titanate particles (400 nm, ∼1.44 vol. %) were found to offer the most favourable compromise between contrast in CT images and the ability to obtain a homogeneous distribution in 3D space with sufficient particle compactness for local DVC analyses. This property combination was selected following an extensive Micro-focus Computed Tomography (µCT)-based qualitative assessment on a wide test matrix, that included 38 materials manufactured with a range of possible particle compositions, mean sizes and concentrations. By comparing the tensile behaviour of the particle-adapted material alongside its particle-free counterpart, we demonstrate through the application of in situ Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT) that the macro- and micromechanical responses of the newly developed CFRP are consistent with standard production materials indicating its suitability as a model system for mechanistic investigations. BibTeX: @article{Schoeberl2020a, author = {E Schöberl and C Breite and S Rosini and Y Swolfs and MN Mavrogordato and I Sinclair and SM Spearing}, title = {A novel particle-filled carbon-fibre reinforced polymer model composite tailored for the application of digital volume correlation and computed tomography}, journal = {Journal of Composite Materials}, publisher = {SAGE Publications}, year = {2020}, pages = {002199832096638}, url = {https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0021998320966388}, doi = {10.1177/0021998320966388} }  Scotson CP, Duncan SJ, Williams KA, Ruiz SA and Roose T (2020), "X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging of Solute Movement through Ridged and Flat Plant Systems", European Journal of Soil Science., may, 2020. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The aim of this investigation was to experimentally compare the movement of a solute through soils with two field-representative surface geometries: ridge and furrow surfaces vs. flat surfaces. XCT imaging was undertaken to trace the movement of a soluble iodinated contrast medium, here used as an XCT-visible analogue for field-applied solutes, through soil columns with either a ridge and furrow or flat soil surface geometry. In addition to the soil surface geometry, the experimental treatments included the presence or absence of plants and surface water ponding. Experimental results were compared to existing numerical simulations adapted to represent the present experimental column systems. Similar infiltration patterns were observed in imaging results and the numerical simulations for most treatments. The experimental results suggest that plant roots present a significant localised effect to reduce the infiltration depth of solutes particularly in planted ridges where the infiltration depth of the contrast medium was minimal. There is variability within the results since the number of replicates was limited to three due to the exploratory nature of the study (testing eight different treatments) and the cost and availability of XCT facilities capable of imaging such physically large samples. Discrepancies between the imaged infiltration depth of the solute and the numerical simulations are attributed to variation in plant root distribution and also spatial soil moisture, as measured using resistive soil moisture sensing. The results of this investigation elucidate the nature of solute movement through soil surface geometries - indicating that plant root water uptake can reduce solute infiltration depth but surface ponding can negate this. These results suggest that soil surface shape, plant age and the timing of solute application with anticipated rainfall could be important considerations for reducing solute leaching and improving solute application efficiency BibTeX: @article{Scotson2020, author = {Scotson, Callum P and Duncan, Simon J and Williams, Katherine A and Ruiz, Siul A and Roose, Tiina}, title = {X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging of Solute Movement through Ridged and Flat Plant Systems}, journal = {European Journal of Soil Science}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2020}, url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ejss.12985}, doi = {10.1111/ejss.12985} }  Sivarupan T, Mansori ME, Coniglio N and Dargusch M (2020), "Effect of process parameters on flexure strength and gas permeability of 3D printed sand molds", Journal of Manufacturing Processes., jun, 2020. Vol. 54, pp. 420-437. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: 3Dprintedsandmoldsforthecastingindustryplayavitalroleinmanufacturingintricatepartsusingacomputermodel. The possibility of producing fairly significant structural castings using a small job-box 3D sand moldprinterisanotheradvantagecomparedtothedirectmetal3Dprintingprocesses.Itisimportanttoidentifytherelationship betweentheprocessparametersandthepropertiesofthesandmoldtoproduceamoldwiththerequiredstrength,permeabilityandstiffness;toreducegasemissionsduringcastingandminimizethemassofcombustiblematerialsinthemold.Hence,itispossibletocreateanexcellentcastingbyimprovingthedesignofsuchmoldsforliquidalloyfillingandsolidification.Therelationshipbetweentheprintingparametersandthepropertiesofthemoldcanbeagreattoolforfoundrymen,primarilytooptimizethestrengthandpermeabilitypropertiesofthesemoldsandthereforetoprovideexactboundaryconditionsforthesolidificationsimulationprior toa casting trial. This paper reportson a studyof a basicoutline toquantify therole ofthe sandmoldprinting process parameters, particularly the recoater speed and print resolution, on the mold strength andpermeability,andtheirimpactsontheanisotropicbehavioroftheprintedsandmolds. BibTeX: @article{Sivarupan_2020, author = {Tharmalingam Sivarupan and Mohamed El Mansori and Nicolas Coniglio and Matthew Dargusch}, title = {Effect of process parameters on flexure strength and gas permeability of 3D printed sand molds}, journal = {Journal of Manufacturing Processes}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2020}, volume = {54}, pages = {420--437}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1526612520301237}, doi = {10.1016/j.jmapro.2020.02.043} }  Zdora M-C, Thibault P, Kuo W, Fernandez V, Deyhle H, Vila-Comamala J, Olbinado MP, Rack A, Lackie PM, Katsamenis OL, Lawson MJ, Kurtcuoglu V, Rau C, Pfeiffer F and Zanette I (2020), "X-ray phase tomography with near-field speckles for three-dimensional virtual histology", Optica., sep, 2020. Vol. 7(9), pp. 1221. The Optical Society. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: High-contrast, high-resolution imaging of biomedical specimens is indispensable for studying organ function and pathologies. Conventional histology, the gold standard for soft-tissue visualization, is limited by its anisotropic spatial resolution, elaborate sample preparation, and lack of quantitative image information. X-ray absorption or phase tomography have been identified as promising alternatives enabling non-destructive, distortion-free three-dimensional (3D) imaging. However, reaching sufficient contrast and resolution with a simple experimental procedure remains a major challenge. Here, we present a solution based on x-ray phase tomography through speckle-based imaging (SBI). We demonstrate on a mouse kidney that SBI delivers comprehensive 3D maps of hydrated, unstained soft tissue, revealing its microstructure and delivering quantitative tissue-density values at a density resolution of better than 2mg/cm3 and spatial resolution of better than 8 µm. We expect that SBI virtual histology will find widespread application in biomedicine and will open up new possibilities for research and histopathology. BibTeX: @article{Zdora2020, author = {Marie-Christine Zdora and Pierre Thibault and Willy Kuo and Vincent Fernandez and Hans Deyhle and Joan Vila-Comamala and Margie P. Olbinado and Alexander Rack and Peter M. Lackie and Orestis L. Katsamenis and Matthew J. Lawson and Vartan Kurtcuoglu and Christoph Rau and Franz Pfeiffer and Irene Zanette}, title = {X-ray phase tomography with near-field speckles for three-dimensional virtual histology}, journal = {Optica}, publisher = {The Optical Society}, year = {2020}, volume = {7}, number = {9}, pages = {1221}, url = {https://www.osapublishing.org/optica/abstract.cfm?uri=optica-7-9-1221}, doi = {10.1364/optica.399421} }  Zhang W, Ezard T, Searle-Barnes A, Brombacher A, Katsamenis O and Nixon M (2020), "Towards Understanding Speciation By Automated Extraction And Description Of 3d Foraminifera Stacks", In 2020 IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation (SSIAI)., mar, 2020. IEEE. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The sheer volume of 3D data restricts understanding of genetic speciation when analyzing specimens of planktonic foraminifera and so we develop an end-to-end computer vision system to solve and extend this. The observed fossils are planktonic foraminifera, which are single-celled organisms that live in vast numbers in the world's oceans. Each foram retains a complete record of its size and shape at each stage along its journey through life. In this study, a variety of individual foraminifera are analyzed to study the differences among them and compared with manually labelled ground truth. This is an approach which (i) automatically reconstructs individual chambers for each specimen from image sequences, (ii) uses a shape signature to describe different types of species. The automated analysis by computer vision gives insight that was hitherto unavailable in biological analysis: analyzing shape implies understanding spatial arrangement and this is new to the biological analysis of these specimens. By processing datasets of 3D samples containing 9GB of points, we show that speciation can indeed now be analyzed and that automated analysis from morphological features leads to new insight into the origins of life. BibTeX: @article{Zhang_2020, author = {Wenshu Zhang and Thomas Ezard and Alex Searle-Barnes and Anieke Brombacher and Orestis Katsamenis and Mark Nixon}, title = {Towards Understanding Speciation By Automated Extraction And Description Of 3d Foraminifera Stacks}, booktitle = {2020 IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation (SSIAI)}, publisher = {IEEE}, year = {2020}, url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9094611}, doi = {10.1109/SSIAI49293.2020.9094611} }  Zhang W, Ezard T, Searle-Barnes A, Brombacher A, Katsamenis O and Nixon M (2020), "Towards Understanding Speciation By Automated Extraction And Description Of 3d Foraminifera Stacks", In 2020 IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation (SSIAI)., mar, 2020. IEEE. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The sheer volume of 3D data restricts understanding of genetic speciation when analyzing specimens of planktonic foraminifera and so we develop an end-to-end computer vision system to solve and extend this. The observed fossils are planktonic foraminifera, which are single-celled organisms that live in vast numbers in the world's oceans. Each foram retains a complete record of its size and shape at each stage along its journey through life. In this study, a variety of individual foraminifera are analyzed to study the differences among them and compared with manually labelled ground truth. This is an approach which (i) automatically reconstructs individual chambers for each specimen from image sequences, (ii) uses a shape signature to describe different types of species. The automated analysis by computer vision gives insight that was hitherto unavailable in biological analysis: analyzing shape implies understanding spatial arrangement and this is new to the biological analysis of these specimens. By processing datasets of 3D samples containing 9GB of points, we show that speciation can indeed now be analyzed and that automated analysis from morphological features leads to new insight into the origins of life. BibTeX: @article{Zhang2020, author = {Wenshu Zhang and Thomas Ezard and Alex Searle-Barnes and Anieke Brombacher and Orestis Katsamenis and Mark Nixon}, title = {Towards Understanding Speciation By Automated Extraction And Description Of 3d Foraminifera Stacks}, booktitle = {2020 IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation (SSIAI)}, publisher = {IEEE}, year = {2020}, url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9094611}, doi = {10.1109/ssiai49293.2020.9094611} }  Biguri A, Lindroos R, Bryll R, Towsyfyan H, Deyhle H, Boardman R, Mavrogordato M, Dosanjh M, Hancock S and Blumensath T (2019), "Arbitrarily large iterative tomographic reconstruction on multiple GPUs using the TIGRE toolbox", arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.03748. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Tomographic image sizes keep increasing over time and while the GPUs that compute the tomographic reconstruction are also increasing in memory size, they are not doing so fast enough to reconstruct the largest datasets. This problem is often solved by reconstructing data in large clusters of GPUs with enough devices to fit the measured X-ray projections and reconstructed volume. Often this requires tens of GPUs, which is a very economically expensive solution. Access to singlenode machines designed to reconstruct using just one or a few GPUs is more common in the field, but current software does not allow iterative reconstruction of volumes that do not fit in those GPUs. In this work, we propose a strategy to execute efficiently the required operations for iterative reconstruction for arbitrarily large images with any number of GPUs with arbitrarily small memories in a single node. Strategies for both the forward and backprojection operators are presented, along with two regularization approaches that are easily generalized to other projection types or regularizers. The proposed improvement also accelerates reconstruction of smaller images on single or multiple GPUs, providing faster code for time-critical medical applications. The resulting algorithm has been added to the TIGRE toolbox, a repository for iterative reconstruction algorithms for general CT, but this memory-saving and problem-splitting strategy can be easily adapted for any other GPU-based CT code. BibTeX: @article{Biguri2019, author = {Biguri, Ander and Lindroos, Reuben and Bryll, Robert and Towsyfyan, Hossein and Deyhle, Hans and Boardman, Richard and Mavrogordato, Mark and Dosanjh, Manjit and Hancock, Steven and Blumensath, Thomas}, title = {Arbitrarily large iterative tomographic reconstruction on multiple GPUs using the TIGRE toolbox}, journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.03748}, year = {2019}, url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.03748.pdf} }  Biguri A, Towsyfyan H, Boardman R and Blumensath T (2019), "Numerically robust tetrahedron-based tomographic forward and backward projectors on parallel architectures", arXiv preprint arXiv:1908.06909. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: X-ray tomographic reconstruction typically uses voxel basis functions to represent volumetric images. Due to the structure in voxel basis representations, efficient ray-tracing methods exist allowing fast, GPU accelerated implementations. Tetrahedral mesh basis functions are a valuable alternative to voxel based image representations as they provide flexible, inhomogeneous partitionings which can be used to provide reconstructions with reduced numbers of lements or with arbitrarily fine object surface representations. We thus present a robust parallelizable ray-tracing method for volumetric tetrahedral domains developed specifically for Computed Tomography image reconstruction. Tomographic image reconstruction requires algorithms that are robust to numerical errors in floating point arithmetic whilst typical data sizes encountered in tomography require the algorithm to be parallelisable in GPUs which leads to additional constraints on algorithm choices. Based on these considerations, this article presents numerical solutions to the design of efficient ray-tracing algorithms for the projection and backprojection operations. Initial reconstruction results using CAD data to define a triangulation of the domain demonstrate the advantages of our method and contrast tetrahedral mesh based reconstructions to voxel based methods. BibTeX: @article{Biguri2019a, author = {Biguri, Ander and Towsyfyan, Hossein and Boardman, Richard and Blumensath, Thomas}, title = {Numerically robust tetrahedron-based tomographic forward and backward projectors on parallel architectures}, journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1908.06909}, year = {2019}, url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.06909.pdf} }  Chambi-Trowell SA, Whiteside DI and Benton MJ (2019), "Diversity in rhynchocephalian Clevosaurus skulls based on CT reconstruction of two Late Triassic species from Great Britain", Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. Vol. 64(1), pp. 41-64. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Clevosaurus was an early sphenodontian, known from many specimens and species from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. Here we describe and compare the cranial morphology of Clevosaurus hudsoni, the type species, and Clevosaurus cambrica, both from the UK, based on digital reconstructions from segmented CT scan data of two skulls. C. hudsoni has been described in some detail, but the CT data reveal new information on cranial anatomy, and C. cambrica is a newly described species for which the CT scans enable us to identify many previously undescribed bones, re-identify bones whose identity had previously been uncertain, and refine certain cranial elements. The near complete preservation of the left side of the skull of C. cambrica, and the preservation of much of the left side of the skull of C. hudsoni, provided us with the opportunity to fully reconstruct both species’ skulls in three dimensions. For the first time, coronoid bones are identified in Clevosaurus species from the British Isles. These two species show the diversity of morphology in the genus Clevosaurus. We provide evidence for two morphotypes of C. hudsoni based on study of the dentary dentition of the syntypes and other attributed specimens BibTeX: @article{Chambi-Trowell2019, author = {Chambi-Trowell, Sofia AV and Whiteside, David I and Benton, Michael J}, title = {Diversity in rhynchocephalian Clevosaurus skulls based on CT reconstruction of two Late Triassic species from Great Britain}, journal = {Acta Palaeontologica Polonica}, year = {2019}, volume = {64}, number = {1}, pages = {41--64}, url = {http://webaccess.igipz.pan.pl/archive/published/app64/app005692018.pdf}, doi = {10.4202/app.00569.2018} }  Chaudhuri S, Crump J, Reed PAS and Mellor BG (2019), "High-resolution 3D weld toe stress analysis and ACPD method for weld toe fatigue crack initiation", Welding in the World., aug, 2019. Vol. 63(6), pp. 1787-1800. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Weld toe fatigue crack initiation is highly dependent on the local weld toe stress-concentrating geometry including any inherent flaws. These flaws are responsible for premature fatigue crack initiation (FCI) and must be minimised to maximise the fatigue life of a welded joint. In this work, a data-rich methodology has been developed to capture the true weld toe geometry and resulting local weld toe stress-field and relate this to the FCI life of a steel arc-welded joint. To obtain FCI lives, interrupted fatigue test was performed on the welded joint monitored by a novel multi-probe array of alternating current potential drop (ACPD) probes across the weld toe. This setup enabled the FCI sites to be located and the FCI life to be determined and gave an indication of early fatigue crack propagation rates. To understand fully the local weld toe stress-field, high-resolution (5 μm) 3D linear-elastic finite element (FE) models were generated from X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) of each weld toe after fatigue testing. From these models, approximately 202 stress concentration factors (SCFs) were computed for every 1 mm of weld toe. These two novel methodologies successfully link to provide an assessment of the weld quality and this is correlated with the fatigue performance. BibTeX: @article{Chaudhuri2019, author = {S. Chaudhuri and J. Crump and P. A. S. Reed and B. G. Mellor}, title = {High-resolution 3D weld toe stress analysis and ACPD method for weld toe fatigue crack initiation}, journal = {Welding in the World}, publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC}, year = {2019}, volume = {63}, number = {6}, pages = {1787--1800}, url = {https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40194-019-00792-3}, doi = {10.1007/s40194-019-00792-3} }  Clark T, Burca G, Boardman R and Blumensath T (2019), "Correlative X-ray and neutron tomography of root systems using cadmium fiducial markers", Journal of microscopy. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The interactions between plant roots and soil are an area of active research, particularly in terms of water and nutrient uptake. Because noninvasive, in vivo studies are required, tomographic imaging appears an obvious method to use, but no one imaging modality is well suited to capture the complete system. X‐ray imaging gives clear insight to soil structure and composition; however, water is comparatively transparent to X‐rays and biological matter also displays poor contrast with respect to the pores between soil particles. Neutron imaging presents a complementary view where water and biological matter are better distinguished but the soil minerals are not imaged as clearly as they would be with X‐rays. BibTeX: @article{Clark2019, author = {Clark, Thomas and Burca, Genoveva and Boardman, Richard and Blumensath, Thomas}, title = {Correlative X-ray and neutron tomography of root systems using cadmium fiducial markers}, journal = {Journal of microscopy}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2019}, url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/jmi.12831}, doi = {10.1111/jmi.12831} }  Earl S, Rankin KE, Lewis R, Smith L and Rainforth WM (2019), "Verification of the use of Micro-CT scanning to assess the features of entire squat type defects", Wear. Vol. 438, pp. 203074. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Squats and studs are defects in railheads that share features, but have different causes. This paper examined four squat and stud samples from three different traffic environments to compare features using μ-CT X-ray scans, surface and subsurface inspection. μ-CT scanning has been used before as a non-destructive method to investigate rail defects, but not the entire defect. The scans were verified and allowed the identification of areas of interest when sectioning the samples further. The scan volumes were also used to create 3D models of the crack networks for the 3 samples that were scanned. All defects contain similar superficial features but the depth and severity of the subsurface damage varies. This work provides a visualisation of the 3D nature of studs in a way not seen before, as a 3D model the crack network from an in-service defect. The models of two of the defects showed the influence of hollow wheels initiating defects, as the crack seemed to initiate on the field side, grow down and towards the gauge side, before resurfacing as the longitudinal crack noted in all four defect samples. One sample is believed to have initiated due to contamination of the weld and the only squat sample, which failed in track, was believed to be ingot cast steel containing many inclusions. Three samples were studs and one was a squat. Each defect developed for different reasons, although the two metro samples were similar. One of the studs shows branching of cracks that, based on its changing angle of growth, could continue to grow into transverse defects, breaking the rail. The three defects that were scanned would all be classed as studs, but their crack morphology varies, possibly because they are all from different traffic environments. They also show slight differences to other studs in literature. BibTeX: @article{Earl2019, author = {Earl, Shaun and Rankin, Kathryn E and Lewis, Roger and Smith, Lindsey and Rainforth, W Mark}, title = {Verification of the use of Micro-CT scanning to assess the features of entire squat type defects}, journal = {Wear}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2019}, volume = {438}, pages = {203074}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043164819301553}, doi = {10.1016/j.wear.2019.203074} }  Fletcher DMM, Keyes SD, Daly KR, van Veelen A and Roose T (2019), "A multi image-based approach for modelling plant-fertiliser interaction", Rhizosphere. , pp. 100152. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Developing clinical tools that assess bone matrix quality could improve the assessment of a person’s fracture risk. To determine whether Raman spectroscopy (RS) has such potential, we acquired Raman spectra from human cortical bone using microscope- and fiber optic probe-based Raman systems and tested whether correlations between RS and fracture toughness properties were statistically significant. Calculated directly from intensities at wavenumbers identified by second derivative analysis, Amide I sub-peak ratio I1670/I1640, not I1670/I1690, was negatively correlated with Kinit (N = 58; R2 = 32.4%) and J-integral (R2 = 47.4%) when assessed by Raman micro-spectroscopy. Area ratios (A1670/A1690) determined from sub-band fitting did not correlate with fracture toughness. There were fewer correlations between RS and fracture toughness when spectra were acquired by probe RS. Nonetheless, the I1670/I1640 sub-peak ratio again negatively correlated with Kinit (N = 56; R2 = 25.6%) and J-integral (R2 = 39.0%). In best-fit general linear models, I1670/I1640, age, and volumetric bone mineral density explained 50.2% (microscope) and 49.4% (probe) of the variance in Kinit. I1670/I1640 and v1PO4/Amide I (microscope) or just I1670/I1640 (probe) were negative predictors of J-integral (adjusted-R2 = 54.9% or 37.9%, respectively). While Raman-derived matrix properties appear useful to the assessment of fracture resistance of bone, the acquisition strategy to resolve the Amide I band needs to be identified. BibTeX: @article{Fletcher2019, author = {Fletcher, Daniel M McKay and Keyes, Samuel D and Daly, Keith R and van Veelen, Arjen and Roose, Tiina}, title = {A multi image-based approach for modelling plant-fertiliser interaction}, journal = {Rhizosphere}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2019}, pages = {100152}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2452219819300357}, doi = {10.1016/j.rhisph.2019.100152} }  García-Rodríguez SM, Costa J, Rankin KE, Boardman RP, Singery V and Mayugo JA (2019), "Interleaving light veils to minimise the trade-off between mode-I interlaminar fracture toughness and in-plane properties", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. , pp. 105659. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Interleaving heavy micro-fibre veils, commonly used to improve interlaminar fracture toughness, severely compromises tensile and compressive properties. To reduce the trade-off, this study interleaved two different types of light (4 g/m2) co-polyamide veils into a thin-ply quasi-isotropic baseline laminate. Sub-micron resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography provided insight into the after-manufacturing state of the veil fibres as well as into the fracture process zone of mode-I interlaminar fracture toughness specimens. The veil fibre diameter was the key parameter in determining the tensile properties (the veil with thinner fibres avoided resin accumulation at the interfaces and left the baseline properties unaffected). Both veils decreased the compressive strength by up to 9%. Mode-I crack propagation was controlled by the adhesion between the veil fibres and resin. Veils fibres with the higher adhesion deflected crack propagation to the surrounding 0° plies, which improved mode-I initiation and propagation interlaminar fracture toughness (by 101% and 43%). BibTeX: @article{Garcia-Rodriguez2019, author = {García-Rodríguez, S. M. and Costa, J. and Rankin, K. E. and Boardman, R. P. and Singery, V. and Mayugo, J. A.}, title = {Interleaving light veils to minimise the trade-off between mode-I interlaminar fracture toughness and in-plane properties}, journal = {Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2019}, pages = {105659}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359835X19304087#f0085}, doi = {10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105659} }  Gioumouxouzis CI, Katsamenis OL and Fatouros DG (2019), "X-ray microfocus Computed Tomography: A powerful tool for structural and functional characterisation of 3D printed dosage forms", Journal of microscopy. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: One of the most promising advances in modern pharmaceutical technology is the introduction of three‐dimensional (3D) printing technology for the fabrication of drug products. 3D printed dosage forms have the potential to revolutionise pharmacotherapy as streamlined production of structurally complex formulations with optimal drug releasing properties is now made possible. 3D printed formulations are derived as part of a process where a ‘print‐head’ deposits, or sinters material under computer control to produce a drug carrier. However, this manufacturing route inherently generates objects that deviate from the ideal designed template for reasons specific to the 3D printing method used. This short opinion article discusses the potential of high‐resolution nondestructive 3D (volume) imaging by means of X‐ray microfocus Computed Tomography (μCT) as a Process Analytical Technology for the structural and functional characterisation of 3D printed dosage forms. BibTeX: @article{Gioumouxouzis2019, author = {Gioumouxouzis, Christos I. and Katsamenis, Orestis L. and Fatouros, Dimitrios G.}, title = {X-ray microfocus Computed Tomography: A powerful tool for structural and functional characterisation of 3D printed dosage forms}, journal = {Journal of microscopy}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2019}, url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jmi.12798}, doi = {10.1111/jmi.12798} }  Goggin P, Ho EML, Gnaegi H, Searle S, Oreffo ROC and Schneider P (2019), "Development of protocols for the first serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF SEM) studies of bone tissue", Bone. , pp. 115107. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: There is an unmet need for a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) technique to simultaneously image osteocytes and the matrix in which these cells reside. In serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF SEM), an ultramicrotome mounted within the vacuum chamber of a microscope repeatedly sections a resin embedded block of tissue. Backscattered electron scans of the block-face provide a stack of high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) images, which can be used to visualise and quantify cells and organelles in 3D. High-resolution 3D images of biological tissues from SBF SEM have been exploited considerably to date in the neuroscience field. However, non-brain samples, in particular hard biological tissues, have appeared more challenging to image by SBF SEM due to the difficulties of sectioning and rendering the samples conductive. We have developed and propose protocols for bone tissue preparation using SBF SEM, for imaging simultaneously soft and hard bone tissue components in 3D. We review the state of the art in high resolution imaging of osteocytes, the historical perspective of SBF SEM and we present first SBF SEM proof-of-concept studies for mouse and human tissue. The application of SBF SEM to hard tissues will facilitate qualitative and quantitative 3D studies of tissue microstructure and ultrastructure in bone development, ageing and pathologies such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. BibTeX: @article{Goggin2019, author = {Goggin, Patricia and Ho, Elaine M. L. and Gnaegi, Helmut and Searle, Stuart and Oreffo, Richard O. C. and Schneider, Philipp}, title = {Development of protocols for the first serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF SEM) studies of bone tissue}, journal = {Bone}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2019}, pages = {115107}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S8756328219304004#kwd0005}, doi = {10.1016/j.bone.2019.115107} }  Goring A, Sharma A, Javaheri B, Smith RC, Kanczler JM, Boyde A, Hesse E, Mahajan S, Olsen BR, Pitsillides AA, Schneider P, Oreffo RO and Clarkin CE (2019), "Regulation of the Bone Vascular Network is Sexually Dimorphic", Journal of Bone and Mineral Research., oct, 2019. Vol. 34(11), pp. 2117-2132. Wiley. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Osteoblast (OB) lineage cells are an important source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is critical for bone growth and repair. During bone development, pubertal differences in males and females exist, but little is known about whether VEGF signaling contributes to skeletal sexual dimorphism. We have found that in mice, conditional disruption of VEGF in osteocalcin‐expressing cells (OcnVEGFKO) exerts a divergent influence on morphological, cellular, and whole bone properties between sexes. Furthermore, we describe an underlying sexual divergence in VEGF signaling in OB cultures in vitro independent of circulating sex hormones. High‐resolution synchrotron computed tomography and backscattered scanning electron microscopy revealed, in males, extensive unmineralized osteoid encasing enlarged blood vessel canals and osteocyte lacunae in cortical bone after VEGF deletion, which contributed to increased porosity. VEGF was deleted in male and female long bone–derived OBs (OBVEGKO) in vitro and Raman spectroscopic analyses of mineral and matrix repertoires highlighted differences between male and female OBVEGFKO cells, with increased immature phosphate species prevalent in male OBVEGFKO cultures versus wild type (WT). Further sexual dimorphism was observed in bone marrow endothelial cell gene expression in vitro after VEGF deletion and in sclerostin protein expression, which was increased in male OcnVEGFKO bones versus WT. The impact of altered OB matrix composition after VEGF deletion on whole bone geometry was assessed between sexes, although significant differences between OcnVEGFKO and WT were identified only in females. Our results suggest that bone‐derived VEGF regulates matrix mineralization and vascularization distinctly in males and females, which results in divergent physical bone traits. BibTeX: @article{Goring_2019, author = {Alice Goring and Aikta Sharma and Behzad Javaheri and Rosanna CG Smith and Janos M Kanczler and Alan Boyde and Eric Hesse and Sumeet Mahajan and Bjorn R Olsen and Andrew A Pitsillides and Philipp Schneider and Richard OC Oreffo and Claire E Clarkin}, title = {Regulation of the Bone Vascular Network is Sexually Dimorphic}, journal = {Journal of Bone and Mineral Research}, publisher = {Wiley}, year = {2019}, volume = {34}, number = {11}, pages = {2117--2132}, url = {https://asbmr.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jbmr.3825}, doi = {10.1002/jbmr.3825} }  Goring A, Sharma A, Javaheri B, Smith RC, Kanczler JM, Boyde A, Hesse E, Mahajan S, Olsen BR, Pitsillides AA and others (2019), "Regulation of the bone vascular network is sexually dimorphic", Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] Abstract: Osteoblast (OB) lineage cells are an important source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is critical for bone growth and repair. During bone development, pubertal differences in males and females exist, but little is known about whether VEGF signaling contributes to skeletal sexual dimorphism. We have found that in mice, conditional disruption of VEGF in osteocalcin‐expressing cells (OcnVEGFKO) exerts a divergent influence on morphological, cellular, and whole bone properties between sexes. Furthermore, we describe an underlying sexual divergence in VEGF signaling in OB cultures in vitro independent of circulating sex hormones. High‐resolution synchrotron computed tomography and backscattered scanning electron microscopy revealed, in males, extensive unmineralized osteoid encasing enlarged blood vessel canals and osteocyte lacunae in cortical bone after VEGF deletion, which contributed to increased porosity. VEGF was deleted in male and female long bone–derived OBs (OBVEGKO) in vitro and Raman spectroscopic analyses of mineral and matrix repertoires highlighted differences between male and female OBVEGFKO cells, with increased immature phosphate species prevalent in male OBVEGFKO cultures versus wild type (WT). Further sexual dimorphism was observed in bone marrow endothelial cell gene expression in vitro after VEGF deletion and in sclerostin protein expression, which was increased in male OcnVEGFKO bones versus WT. The impact of altered OB matrix composition after VEGF deletion on whole bone geometry was assessed between sexes, although significant differences between OcnVEGFKO and WT were identified only in females. Our results suggest that bone‐derived VEGF regulates matrix mineralization and vascularization distinctly in males and females, which results in divergent physical bone traits. BibTeX: @article{Goring2019, author = {Goring, Alice and Sharma, Aikta and Javaheri, Behzad and Smith, Rosanna CG and Kanczler, Janos M and Boyde, Alan and Hesse, Eric and Mahajan, Sumeet and Olsen, Bjorn R and Pitsillides, Andrew A and others}, title = {Regulation of the bone vascular network is sexually dimorphic}, journal = {Journal of Bone and Mineral Research}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2019}, doi = {10.1002/jbmr.3825} }  Hodge RA, Voepel H, Leyland J, Sear DA and Ahmed S (2019), "X-ray computed tomography reveals that grain protrusion controls critical shear stress for entrainment of fluvial gravels", Geology., nov, 2019. Vol. 48(2), pp. 149-153. Geological Society of America. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The critical shear stress (τc) for grain entrainment is a poorly constrained control on bedload transport rates in rivers. Direct calculations of τc have been hindered by the inability to measure the geometry of in situ grains; i.e., the shape and location of each grain relative to surrounding grains and the bed surface. We present the first complete suite of three-dimensional (3-D) grain geometry parameters for 1055 water-worked grains, and use these to parameterize a new 3-D grain entrainment model and hence estimate τc. The 3-D data were collected using X-ray computed tomography scanning of sediment samples extracted from a prototype scale flume experiment. We find that (1) parameters including pivot angle and proportional grain exposure do not vary systematically with relative grain size; (2) τc is primarily controlled by grain protrusion, not pivot angle; and (3) larger grains experience larger forces as a result of projecting higher into the flow profile, producing equal mobility. We suggest that grain protrusion is a suitable proxy for assessing gravel-bed stability. BibTeX: @article{Hodge2019, author = {Rebecca A. Hodge and Hal Voepel and Julian Leyland and David A. Sear and Sharif Ahmed}, title = {X-ray computed tomography reveals that grain protrusion controls critical shear stress for entrainment of fluvial gravels}, journal = {Geology}, publisher = {Geological Society of America}, year = {2019}, volume = {48}, number = {2}, pages = {149--153}, url = {https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article/575925/Xray-computed-tomography-reveals-that-grain}, doi = {10.1130/G46883.1} }  Karavasili C, Andreadis DA, Katsamenis OL, Panteris E, Anastasiadou P, Kakazanis Z, Zoumpourlis V, Markopoulou CK, Koutsopoulos S, Vizirianakis IS and others (2019), "Synergistic anti-tumour potency of a self-assembling peptide hydrogel for the local co-delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin in the treatment of head and neck cancer", Molecular pharmaceutics. ACS Publications. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Combination therapy has been conferred with manifold assets leveraging the synergy of different agents to achieve a sufficient therapeutic outcome with lower administered drug doses and reduced side effects. The therapeutic potency of a self-assembling peptide hydrogel for the co-delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin was assessed against head and neck cancer cells. The dual loaded peptide hydrogel enabled control over the rate of drug release based on drug’s aqueous solubility. A significantly enhanced cell growth inhibitory effect was observed after treatment with the combination drug-loaded hydrogel formulations compared to the respective combination drug solution. The synergistic pharmacological effect of selected hydrogel formulations was further confirmed with enhanced apoptotic cell response, interference in cell cycle progression, and significantly altered apoptotic/anti-apoptotic gene expression profiles obtained in dose levels well below the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of both drugs. The in vivo antitumor efficacy of the drug-loaded peptide hydrogel formulation was confirmed in HSC-3 cell-xenografted severe combined immunodeficient mice and visualized with μCT imaging. Histological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay analyses of major organs were implemented to assess the safety of the topically administered hydrogel formulation. Overall, results demonstrated the therapeutic utility of the dual drug-loaded peptide hydrogel as a pertinent approach for the local treatment of head and neck cancer. BibTeX: @article{karavasili2019synergistic, author = {Karavasili, Christina and Andreadis, Dimitrios A and Katsamenis, Orestis L and Panteris, Emmanuel and Anastasiadou, Pinelopi and Kakazanis, Zacharias and Zoumpourlis, Vasilis and Markopoulou, Catherine K and Koutsopoulos, Sotirios and Vizirianakis, Ioannis S and others}, title = {Synergistic anti-tumour potency of a self-assembling peptide hydrogel for the local co-delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin in the treatment of head and neck cancer}, journal = {Molecular pharmaceutics}, publisher = {ACS Publications}, year = {2019}, url = {https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b01221}, doi = {10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b01221} }  Katsamenis OL, Olding M, Warner JA, Chatelet DS, Jones MG, Sgalla G, Smit B, Larkin OJ, Haig I, Richeldi L and others (2019), "X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for Nondestructive Three-Dimensional X-Ray Histology", The American journal of pathology., may, 2019. Vol. 189(8), pp. 1608-1620. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Historically, micro-computed tomography has been considered unsuitable for histological analysis of unstained formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) soft tissue biopsies due to a lack of image contrast between the tissue and the paraffin. However, we recently demonstrated that μCT can successfully resolve microstructural detail in routinely prepared tissue specimens. Here, we illustrate how μCT imaging of standard FFPE biopsies can be seamlessly integrated into conventional histology workflows, enabling non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) X-ray histology, the use and benefits of which we showcase for the exemplar of human lung biopsy specimens. This technology advancement was achieved through manufacturing a first-of-kind μCT scanner for X-ray histology and developing optimised imaging protocols, which do not require any additional sample preparation. 3D X-ray histology allows for non-destructive 3D imaging of tissue microstructure, resolving structural connectivity and heterogeneity of complex tissue networks, such as the vascular or the respiratory tract. We also demonstrate that 3D X-ray histology can yield consistent and reproducible image quality, enabling quantitative assessment of tissue’s 3D microstructures, which is inaccessible to conventional two-dimensional histology. Being non-destructive the technique does not interfere with histology workflows, permitting subsequent tissue characterisation by means of conventional light microscopy-based histology, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. 3D X-ray histology can be readily applied to a plethora of archival materials, yielding unprecedented opportunities in diagnosis and research of disease. BibTeX: @article{Katsamenis2019, author = {Katsamenis, Orestis L. and Olding, Michael and Warner, Jane A. and Chatelet, David S. and Jones, Mark G. and Sgalla, Giacomo and Smit, Bennie and Larkin, Oliver J. and Haig, Ian and Richeldi, Luca and others}, title = {X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for Nondestructive Three-Dimensional X-Ray Histology}, journal = {The American journal of pathology}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2019}, volume = {189}, number = {8}, pages = {1608--1620}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002944019302068?via%3Dihub}, doi = {10.1016/j.ajpath.2019.05.004} }  Laurent C, Ahmed S, Boardman R, Cook R, Dyke G, Palmer C, Schneider P and de Kat R (2019), "Imaging techniques for observing laminar geometry in the feather shaft cortex", Journal of microscopy. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Bird feather shafts are light, stiff, and strong, but the fine details of how their structure, mechanics and function relate to one another remains poorly understood. The missing piece in our understanding may be the various fibrous layers that make up the shaft's cortex. Detailed imaging techniques are needed to enable us to capture, analyse and quantify these layers before we can begin to unravel the relationship between their structure, mechanics and function. We show that Serial‐Block‐Face scanning electron microscopy, scanning confocal polarised microscopy and synchrotron‐based computed tomography are three suitable techniques to investigate layer thickness and fibre orientation in the feather cortex. These techniques and other are discussed in terms of their ability to resolve the fibrous laminar structure of the feather cortex, on sample preparation, and on throughput. Annotated images are presented for each and less suitable techniques are presented in the supplement. BibTeX: @article{Laurent2019, author = {Laurent, Christian and Ahmed, Sharif and Boardman, Richard and Cook, Richard and Dyke, Gareth and Palmer, Colin and Schneider, Philipp and de Kat, Roeland}, title = {Imaging techniques for observing laminar geometry in the feather shaft cortex}, journal = {Journal of microscopy}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2019}, url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jmi.12820}, doi = {10.1111/jmi.12820} }  Marter AD, Dickinson AS, Pierron F, Fong YK(K and Browne M (2019), "Characterising the compressive anisotropic properties of analogue bone using optical strain measurement", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine., jun, 2019. Vol. 233(9), pp. 954-960. SAGE Publications. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The validity of conclusions drawn from pre-clinical tests on orthopaedic devices depends upon accurate characterisation of the support materials: frequently, polymer foam analogues. These materials often display anisotropic mechanical behaviour, which may considerably influence computational modelling predictions and interpretation of experiments. Therefore, this study sought to characterise the anisotropic mechanical properties of a range of commonly used analogue bone materials, using non-contact multi-point optical extensometry method to account for the effects of machine compliance and uneven loading. Testing was conducted on commercially available ‘cellular’, ‘solid’ and ‘open-cell’ Sawbone blocks with a range of densities. Solid foams behaved largely isotropically. However, across the available density range of cellular foams, the average Young’s modulus was 23%–31% lower (p < 0.005) perpendicular to the foaming direction than parallel to it, indicating elongation of cells with foaming. The average Young’s modulus of open-celled foams was 25%–59% higher (p < 0.05) perpendicular to the foaming direction than parallel to it. This is thought to result from solid planes of material that were observed perpendicular to the foaming direction, stiffening the bulk material. The presented data represent a reference to help researchers design, model and interpret tests using these materials. BibTeX: @article{Marter_2019, author = {Marter, Alex D. and Dickinson, Alexander S. and Pierron, Fabrice and Fong, Yin Ki (Kiki) and Browne, Martin}, title = {Characterising the compressive anisotropic properties of analogue bone using optical strain measurement}, journal = {Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine}, publisher = {SAGE Publications}, year = {2019}, volume = {233}, number = {9}, pages = {954--960}, url = {https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0954411919855150}, doi = {10.1177/0954411919855150} }  Robinson SK, Ramsden JJ, Warner J, Lackie PM and Roose T (2019), "Correlative 3D Imaging and Microfluidic Modelling of Human Pulmonary Lymphatics using Immunohistochemistry and High-resolution μCT", Scientific reports. Vol. 9(1), pp. 6415. Nature Publishing Group. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Lung lymphatics maintain fluid homoeostasis by providing a drainage system that returns fluid, cells and metabolites to the circulatory system. The 3D structure of the human pulmonary lymphatic network is essential to lung function, but it is poorly characterised. Image-based 3D mathematical modelling of pulmonary lymphatic microfluidics has been limited by the lack of accurate and representative image geometries. This is due to the microstructural similarity of the lymphatics to the blood vessel network, the lack of lymphatic-specific biomarkers, the technical limitations associated with image resolution in 3D, and sectioning artefacts present in 2D techniques. We present a method that combines lymphatic specific (D240 antibody) immunohistochemistry (IHC), optimised high-resolution X-ray microfocus computed tomography (μCT) and finite-element mathematical modelling to assess the function of human peripheral lung tissue. The initial results identify lymphatic heterogeneity within and between lung tissue. Lymphatic vessel volume fraction and fractal dimension significantly decreases away from the lung pleural surface (p < 0.001, n = 25 and p < 0.01, n = 20, respectively). Microfluidic modelling successfully shows that in lung tissue the fluid derived from the blood vessels drains through the interstitium into the lymphatic vessel network and this drainage is different in the subpleural space compared to the intralobular space. When comparing lung tissue from health and disease, human pulmonary lymphatics were significantly different across five morphometric measures used in this study (p ≤ 0.0001). This proof of principle study establishes a new engineering technology and workflow for further studies of pulmonary lymphatics and demonstrates for the first time the combination of correlative μCT and IHC to enable 3D mathematical modelling of human lung microfluidics at micrometre resolution. BibTeX: @article{Robinson2019, author = {Robinson, Stephanie K and Ramsden, Jonathan J and Warner, Jane and Lackie, Peter M and Roose, Tiina}, title = {Correlative 3D Imaging and Microfluidic Modelling of Human Pulmonary Lymphatics using Immunohistochemistry and High-resolution μCT}, journal = {Scientific reports}, publisher = {Nature Publishing Group}, year = {2019}, volume = {9}, number = {1}, pages = {6415}, url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42794-7#Ack1}, doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-42794-7} }  Rosini S, Mavrogordato MN, Egorova O, Matthews ES, Jackson SE, Spearing SM and Sinclair I (2019), "In situ statistical measurement of local morphology in carbon-epoxy composites using synchrotron X-ray computed tomography", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. Vol. 125, pp. 105543. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] Abstract: Models are still deficient in accurately reproducing the mechanisms that trigger tensile failure in unidirectional composites, highlighting a lack of direct experimental evidence. In this study, emphasis is given to the identification of connections between local fibre misorientation, packing and Weibull strength distribution in causing tensile failure. Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT) and automated image processing techniques are adopted to segment individual fibres from loaded carbon fibre coupons. Subtle indications in the misorientation of local damaged sites are assessed in novel statistical detail for systematic differentiation from non-damaged sites. It is observed that the morphology of the surrounding environment of damaged sites statistically differs from that of non-damaged sites, even though locally damaged sites (containing single or coupled breaks) do not exhibit a peculiar fibre packing arrangement. For adjacent coupled breaks, the statistical nature of fibre separation distances is also reported. BibTeX: @article{Rosini2019, author = {Rosini, Sebastian and Mavrogordato, Mark N. and Egorova, Olga and Matthews, Emily S. and Jackson, Samuel E. and Spearing, S. Mark and Sinclair, Ian}, title = {In situ statistical measurement of local morphology in carbon-epoxy composites using synchrotron X-ray computed tomography}, journal = {Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2019}, volume = {125}, pages = {105543}, doi = {10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105543} }  Ryan CN, Fonda-Marsland E, Roberts GT, Lear A, Fletcher E, Giles L, Palmer MJ and Gibbon D (2019), "Experimental Validation of a 1-Newton Hydrogen Peroxide Thruster", Journal of Propulsion and Power., dec, 2019. , pp. 1-9. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The evolution of a 1 N monopropellant thruster using 87.5% concentration hydrogen peroxide is reported. The design of the thruster is described, along with the testing of the catalyst material. Thruster firings were completed at sea-level atmospheric conditions and in vacuum, with a vacuum specific impulse of 160 s and a characteristic velocity efficiency of greater than 95% achieved. The final thruster design demonstrated good overall performance, with initial lifetime testing suggesting that the catalyst offers good robustness. A case study suggests that the thruster would provide a level of performance comparable to that of a hydrazine-based propulsion system for a high-velocity-change, volume-constrained low-Earth-orbit spacecraft mission, but at lower cost. BibTeX: @article{Ryan2019, author = {Charles N. Ryan and Ewan Fonda-Marsland and Graham T. Roberts and Alan Lear and Edward Fletcher and Lee Giles and Matthew J. Palmer and David Gibbon}, title = {Experimental Validation of a 1-Newton Hydrogen Peroxide Thruster}, journal = {Journal of Propulsion and Power}, publisher = {American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA)}, year = {2019}, pages = {1--9}, url = {https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/full/10.2514/1.B37418}, doi = {10.2514/1.B37418} }  Sisodia S, Bull D, George A, Gamstedt EK, Mavrogordato M, Fullwood D and Spearing S (2019), "The effects of voids in quasi-static indentation of resin-infused reinforced polymers", Journal of Composite Materials. Vol. 53(28-30), pp. 4399-4410. SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The focus of this study is the influence of voids on the damage behaviour in quasi-static loading of resin-infused carbon fibre-reinforced polymers. Experimental results are presented for quasi-static loading in combination with high-resolution tomographic imaging and statistical analysis (homology of pores or voids and induced cracks). Three distinct mechanisms were observed to control delamination growth in the presence of sharp and blunt voids. Delamination cracks interact with the supporting yarns, especially in combination with air pockets trapped in the resin in the form of long, sharp voids. This resulted in crack growth that coalesces with delamination cracks from neighbouring yarn-voids during increased out-of-plane load–displacement, with almost no presence of intralaminar transverse cracks. This highlights the benefits and drawbacks of the supporting yarn during out-of-plane loading. BibTeX: @article{Sisodia2019, author = {Sisodia, SM and Bull, DJ and George, AR and Gamstedt, E Kristofer and Mavrogordato, MN and Fullwood, DT and Spearing, SM}, title = {The effects of voids in quasi-static indentation of resin-infused reinforced polymers}, journal = {Journal of Composite Materials}, publisher = {SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England}, year = {2019}, volume = {53}, number = {28-30}, pages = {4399--4410}, url = {https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0021998319858024}, doi = {10.1177/0021998319858024} }  Towsyfyan H, Biguri A, Boardman R and Blumensath T (2019), "Successes and challenges in non-destructive testing of aircraft composite structures", Chinese Journal of Aeronautics. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Composite materials are increasingly used in the aerospace industry. To fully realise the weight saving potential along with superior mechanical properties that composites offer in safety critical applications, reliable Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods are required to prevent catastrophic failures. This paper will review the state of the art in the field and point to highlight the success and challenges that different NDT methods are faced to evaluate the integrity of critical aerospace composites. The focus will be on advanced certificated NDT methods for damage detection and characterization in composite laminates for use in the aircraft primary and secondary structures. BibTeX: @article{Towsyfyan2019, author = {Towsyfyan, Hossein and Biguri, Ander and Boardman, Richard and Blumensath, Thomas}, title = {Successes and challenges in non-destructive testing of aircraft composite structures}, journal = {Chinese Journal of Aeronautics}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2019}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1000936119303474}, doi = {10.1016/j.cja.2019.09.017} }  Voepel H, Leyland J, Hodge R, Ahmed S and Sear D (2019), "Development of a vector-based 3D grain entrainment model with application to X-ray computed tomography (XCT) scanned riverbed sediment", Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Sediment transport equations typically produce transport rates that are biased by orders of magnitude. A causal component of this inaccuracy is the inability to represent complex grain‐scale interactions controlling entrainment. Grain‐scale incipient motion has long been modelled using geometric relationships based on simplified particle geometry and two‐dimensional (2D) force or moment balances. However, this approach neglects many complexities of real grains, including grain shape, cohesion and the angle of entrainment relative to flow direction. To better represent this complexity, we develop the first vector‐based, fully three‐dimensional (3D) grain rotation entrainment model that can be used to resolve any entrainment formulation in 3D, and which also includes the effect of matrix cohesion. To apply this model we use X‐ray computed tomography to quantify the 3D structure of water‐worked river grains. We compare our 3D model results with those derived from application of a 2D entrainment model. We find that the 2D approach produces estimates of dimensionless critical shear stress ( urn:x-wiley:mma:media:esp4608-math-0001) that are an order of magnitude lower than our 3D model. We demonstrate that it is more appropriate to use the c‐axis when calculating 2D projections, which increases values of urn:x-wiley:mma:media:esp4608-math-0002 to more closely match our 3D estimates. The 3D model reveals that the main controls on critical shear stress in our samples are projection of grains, cohesive effects from a fine‐grained matrix, and bearing angle for the plane of rotation (the lateral angle of departure from downstream flow that, in part, defines the grain's direction of pivot about an axis formed by two contact points in 3D). The structural precision of our 3D model demonstrates sources of geometric error inherent in 2D models. By improving flow properties to better replicate local hydraulics in our 3D model, entrainment modelling of scanned riverbed grains has the potential for benchmarking 2D model enhancements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. BibTeX: @article{Voepel2019, author = {Voepel, Hal and Leyland, Julian and Hodge, Rebecca and Ahmed, Sharif and Sear, David}, title = {Development of a vector-based 3D grain entrainment model with application to X-ray computed tomography (XCT) scanned riverbed sediment}, journal = {Earth Surface Processes and Landforms}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2019}, url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/esp.4608}, doi = {10.1002/esp.4608} }  Wood CE, O’Brien N, Denysov A and Blumensath T (2019), "Computed laminography of CFRP using an X-ray cone beam and robotic sample manipulator systems", IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science., mar, 2019. Vol. 66(3), pp. 655-663. IEEE. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) are of interest to the aerospace sector for meeting future CO 2 emission targets due to their weight reduction potential. However, the detection of structural and matrix defects is crucial for determining the performance and suitability of CFRPs in current and future generations of aircraft. Computed laminography (CL), a well-established nondestructive testing method, is well suited to the scanning of CFRP components with large aspect ratios, for which the conventional computed tomography (CT) is less suitable. Utilizing an existing Nikon Metrology custom build X-ray CT scanner, two lift-in lift-out robotic sample manipulator systems are used to extend the capability of the system and allow the exploration of atypical scanning geometries. Implementing raster and limited angle trajectories, reconstructions using the ASTRA Tomography Toolbox and the Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique algorithm are able to show structural defects in CFRPs, despite the reduced information inherent with CL systems. This paper reports on the system design and initial experiments that demonstrate benefits and drawbacks of different design options and scanning trajectory choices. BibTeX: @article{Wood2019, author = {Wood, Charles E and O’Brien, Neil and Denysov, Andriy and Blumensath, Thomas}, title = {Computed laminography of CFRP using an X-ray cone beam and robotic sample manipulator systems}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science}, publisher = {IEEE}, year = {2019}, volume = {66}, number = {3}, pages = {655--663}, url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8629274}, doi = {10.1109/TNS.2019.2895910} }  Allen T, Ahmed S, Hepples W, Reed PA, Sinclair I and Spearing M (2018), "A comparison of quasi-static indentation and low-velocity impact on composite overwrapped pressure vessels", Journal of Composite Materials. , pp. 0021998318774401. SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The equivalence of quasi-static indentation and low-velocity impact loading regimes has been assessed for composite overwrapped pressure vessels. Test specimens were assessed in detail in terms of the force–displacement response, and micro-focus computed tomography was used for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the associated damage to the constituent materials/interfaces. The results show that the force–displacement response follows an essentially similar pattern between the two loading regimes (within 10% for all cases). Quantitative assessment of the projected composite damage area and permanent deformation of the aluminium substrate as a function of peak indentor displacement also showed a high degree of equivalence between the loading regimes. It is concluded that quasi-static indentation represents a usable analogue for mechanistic assessment of low-velocity impact damage in the tested composite overwrapped pressure vessels. BibTeX: @article{Allen2018, author = {Allen, Trevor and Ahmed, Sharif and Hepples, Warren and Reed, Philippa A and Sinclair, Ian and Spearing, Mark}, title = {A comparison of quasi-static indentation and low-velocity impact on composite overwrapped pressure vessels}, journal = {Journal of Composite Materials}, publisher = {SAGE Publications Sage UK: London, England}, year = {2018}, pages = {0021998318774401}, url = {http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0021998318774401}, doi = {10.1177/0021998318774401} }  Arenas LF, Boardman RP, de León CP and Walsh FC (2018), "X-ray computed micro-tomography of reticulated vitreous carbon", Carbon. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The 3D structure of various grades of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) is studied by X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT). The settings required to estimate the bulk volumetric surface area, Ae, accurately are investigated and the results are compared to those obtained from scanning electron microscopy and from pressure drop measurements via the Ergun equation. A resolution in the order of 1.3 μm per voxel in μCT imaging is needed to determine the volumetric surface area, but its value is highly dependent on post-processing. In contrast, a resolution of 9.6 μm per voxel underestimated this characteristic by a factor of up to 0.64 due to an incomplete resolution of the cell struts. This latter resolution is, however, sufficient to establish the volumetric porosity and the relative density. Theoretical estimations of electrical resistivity using these properties are consistent with those reported in the literature. Cell volume and cell surface area distributions are then obtained from computational analysis of the digitally rendered structure of 100 ppi RVC. Both cases can be approximated by a gamma function. Suitable instrumental μCT conditions for performing metrological studies on bare and modified RVC are proposed. Opportunities for the modelling of decorated and coated digitally rendered RVC are discussed. BibTeX: @article{Arenas2018, author = {Arenas, L Fernando and Boardman, Richard P and de León, Carlos Ponce and Walsh, Frank C}, title = {X-ray computed micro-tomography of reticulated vitreous carbon}, journal = {Carbon}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2018}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008622318303397}, doi = {10.1016/j.carbon.2018.03.088} }  Blumensath T, O’Brien N and Wood CE (2018), "Calibration of robotic manipulator systems for cone beam tomography imaging", IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science., jul, 2018. Vol. 65(7), pp. 1384-1393. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Iterative reconstruction of tomographic data relies on the precise knowledge of the geometric properties of the scan system. Common tomography systems such as rotational tomography, C-arm systems, helical scanners or tomosynthesis scanners generally use motions described by few rotational or linear motion axis. We are interested in applications in nondestructive testing, where objects might have large aspect rations and complex shapes. For these problems, more complex scan trajectories are required which can be achieved with robotic manipulator systems that have several linear or rotational degrees of freedom. For the geometric calibration of our system, instead of using an approach that scans a calibrated phantom with markers at known relative position, we propose an approach that uses one (or several) markers with unknown relative positions. The fiducial marker is then moved by a known amount along one degree of freedom, thus tracing out a ”virtual” phantom. Using the assumed spacial locations of the markers together with the locations of the markers on the imaging plane, we use a nonlinear optimisation method to estimate the orientation of the linear and rotational manipulator axis, the detector and source location and the detector orientation BibTeX: @article{Blumensath, author = {Blumensath, Thomas and O’Brien, Neil and Wood, Charles E}, title = {Calibration of robotic manipulator systems for cone beam tomography imaging}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science}, publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)}, year = {2018}, volume = {65}, number = {7}, pages = {1384--1393}, url = {https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/415612/1/SphereCalibration.pdf}, doi = {10.1109/TNS.2018.2843807} }  Blumensath T, O’Brien N and Wood CE (2018), "Calibration of robotic manipulator systems for cone beam tomography imaging", IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science., July, 2018. Vol. 65(7), pp. 1384-1393. IEEE. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Image reconstruction of tomographic data relies on the precise knowledge of the geometric properties of the scan system. Common tomography systems, such as rotational tomography, C-arm systems, helical scanners, or tomosynthesis scanners, generally use motions described by a few rotational or linear motion axes. We are interested in applications in nondestructive testing, where objects might have large aspect ratios and complex shapes. For these problems, more complex scan trajectories are required, which can be achieved with robotic manipulator systems that have several linear or rotational degrees of freedom. For the geometric calibration of our system, instead of using an approach that scans a calibrated phantom with markers at a known relative position, we propose an approach that uses one (or several) markers with unknown relative positions. The fiducial marker is then moved by a known amount along one degree of freedom, thus tracing out a “virtual” phantom. Using the assumed spacial locations of the markers together with the locations of the markers on the imaging plane, we use a nonlinear optimization method to estimate the orientation of the linear and rotational manipulator axes, the detector and source location, and the detector orientation. BibTeX: @article{Blumensath2018, author = {Blumensath, Thomas and O’Brien, Neil and Wood, Charles E}, title = {Calibration of robotic manipulator systems for cone beam tomography imaging}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science}, publisher = {IEEE}, year = {2018}, volume = {65}, number = {7}, pages = {1384--1393}, url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8371648/}, doi = {10.1109/TNS.2018.2843807} }  Browne M, Shearwood-Porter N and Sinclair I (2018), "The role of microconstituents on the fatigue failure of bone cement", Procedia Engineering. Vol. 213, pp. 98-103. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Implant fixation via the use of acrylic bone cement is now a well-established practice in orthopaedics. Excellent long-term clinical results are evidenced in national joint registers based on over 5 decades of clinical experience. Increased life expectancies, patient BMI, together with the need to remain active in later life, are expected to put greater demands on the materials used in load bearing joint arthroplasty. Failure of bone cement and its interfaces with the implant and bone often leads to loosening, requiring revision surgery. This is a particularly invasive procedure, with lower long-term success rates compared to the primary procedure. To reduce the incidence of bone cement failure, it is necessary to understand the origins of failure in vivo. In the past, bulk failure of bone cement has been attributed to damage accumulation originating at pores. Advances in imaging technology now mean that we are able to observe cement microconstituents readily and identify crack-initiating defects more precisely as we attempt to understand origins of failure. The role of radiopacifier particles within the bone cement has not been examined extensively to date, and the present study demonstrates that this microconstituent could be in crack formation due in part to its ability to agglomerate and not bond with the surrounding matrix. To verify this hypothesis, explanted bone cement and laboratory tested bone cement are compared and correlations in failure mechanisms are discussed. BibTeX: @article{Browne_2018, author = {Martin Browne and Natalie Shearwood-Porter and Ian Sinclair}, title = {The role of microconstituents on the fatigue failure of bone cement}, journal = {Procedia Engineering}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2018}, volume = {213}, pages = {98--103}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705818302339}, doi = {10.1016/j.proeng.2018.02.011} }  Bull D, Spearing S and Sinclair I (2018), "Image-enhanced modelling of residual compressive after impact strength in laminated composites", Composite Structures., may, 2018. Vol. 192, pp. 20-27. Elsevier. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{Bull2018, author = {Bull, DJ and Spearing, SM and Sinclair, Ian}, title = {Image-enhanced modelling of residual compressive after impact strength in laminated composites}, journal = {Composite Structures}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2018}, volume = {192}, pages = {20--27}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263822317329100}, doi = {10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.02.047} }  Bunsell A, Gorbatikh L, Morton H, Pimenta S, Sinclair I, Spearing M, Swolfs Y and Thionnet A (2018), "Benchmarking of strength models for unidirectional composites under longitudinal tension", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Several modelling approaches are available in the literature to predict longitudinal tensile failure of fibre–reinforced polymers. However, a systematic, blind and unbiased comparison between the predictions from the different models and against experimental data has never been performed. This paper presents a benchmarking exercise performed for three different models from the literature: (i) an analytical hierarchical scaling law for composite fibre bundles, (ii) direct numerical simulations of composite fibre bundles, and (iii) a multiscale finite–element simulation method. The results show that there are significant discrepancies between the predictions of the different modelling approaches for fibre–break density evolution, cluster formation and ultimate strength, and that each of the three models presents unique advantages over the others. Blind model predictions are also compared against detailed computed–tomography experiments, showing that our understanding of the micromechanics of longitudinal tensile failure of composites needs to be developed further. BibTeX: @article{Bunsell2018, author = {Bunsell, Anthony and Gorbatikh, Larissa and Morton, Hannah and Pimenta, Soraia and Sinclair, Ian and Spearing, Mark and Swolfs, Yentl and Thionnet, Alain}, title = {Benchmarking of strength models for unidirectional composites under longitudinal tension}, journal = {Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2018}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359835X18301180}, doi = {10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.016} }  Callow B, Falcon-Suarez I, Ahmed S and Matter J (2018), "Assessing the carbon sequestration potential of basalt using X-ray micro-CT and rock mechanics", International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. Vol. 70, pp. 146-156. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Mineral carbonation in basaltic rock provides a permanent storage solution for the mitigation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. 3D X-ray micro-CT (XCT) image analysis is applied to a core sample from the main basaltic reservoir of the CarbFix site in Iceland, which obtained a connected porosity of 2.05–8.76%, a reactive surface area of 0.10–0.33 mm−1 and a larger vertical permeability (2.07 × 10−10 m2) compared to horizontal permeability (5.10 × 10−11 m2). The calculations suggest a CO2 storage capacity of 0.33 Gigatonnes at the CarbFix pilot site. The XCT results were compared to those obtained from a hydromechanical test applied to the same sample, during which permeability, electrical resistivity and volumetric deformation were measured under realistic reservoir pressure conditions. It was found that permeability is highly stress sensitive, dropping by two orders of magnitude for a −0.02% volumetric deformation change, equivalent to a mean pore diameter reduction of 5 μm. This pore contraction was insufficient to explain such a permeability reduction according to the XCT analysis, unless combined with the effects of clay swelling and secondary mineral pore clogging. The findings provide important benchmark data for the future upscaling and optimisation of CO2 storage in basalt formations. BibTeX: @article{Callow2018, author = {Callow, Ben and Falcon-Suarez, Ismael and Ahmed, Sharif and Matter, Juerg}, title = {Assessing the carbon sequestration potential of basalt using X-ray micro-CT and rock mechanics}, journal = {International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2018}, volume = {70}, pages = {146--156}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750583617306345}, doi = {10.1016/j.ijggc.2017.12.008} }  Cleal JK, Lofthouse EM, Sengers BG and Lewis RM (2018), "A systems perspective on placental amino acid transport.", The Journal of physiology., July, 2018. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Placental amino acid transfer is a complex process that is essential for fetal development. Impaired amino acid transfer causes fetal growth restriction, which may have lifelong health consequences. Trans-epithelial transfer of amino acids across the placental syncytiotrophoblast requires accumulative, exchange and facilitated transporters on the apical and basal membranes to work in concert. However, transporters alone do not determine amino acid transfer and factors that affect substrate availability, such as blood flow and metabolism may also become rate-limiting for transfer. In order to determine the rate-limiting processes, it is necessary to take a systems approach which recognises the interdependence of these processes. New technologies have the potential to deliver targeted interventions to the placenta and help poorly growing fetuses. While many factors are necessary for amino acid transfer, novel therapies need to target the rate-limiting factors if they are going to be effective. This review will outline the factors which determine amino acid transfer and describe how they become interdependent. It will also highlight the role of computational modelling as a tool to understand this process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. BibTeX: @article{Cleal2018, author = {Cleal, Jane K and Lofthouse, Emma M and Sengers, Bram G and Lewis, Rohan M}, title = {A systems perspective on placental amino acid transport.}, journal = {The Journal of physiology}, year = {2018}, url = {https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1113/JP274883}, doi = {10.1113/JP274883} }  Cooper L, Zeller-Plumhoff B, Clough G, Ganapathisubramani B and Roose T (2018), "Using High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography to Create an Image Based Model of a Lymph Node", Journal of theoretical biology. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Lymph nodes are an important part of the immune system. They filter the lymphatic fluid as it is transported from the tissues before being returned to the blood stream. The fluid flow through the nodes influences the behaviour of the immune cells that gather within the nodes and the structure of the node itself. Measuring the fluid flow in lymph nodes experimentally is challenging due to their small size and fragility. In this paper, we present high resolution X-ray computed tomography images of a murine lymph node. The impact of the resulting visualized structures on fluid transport are investigated using an image based model. The high contrast between different structures within the lymph node provided by phase contrast X-ray computed tomography reconstruction results in images that, when related to the permeability of the lymph node tissue, suggest an increased fluid velocity through the interstitial channels in the lymph node tissue. Fluid taking a direct path from the afferent to the efferent lymphatic vessel, through the centre of the node, moved faster than the fluid that flowed around the periphery of the lymph node. This is a possible mechanism for particles being moved into the cortex. BibTeX: @article{Cooper2018, author = {Cooper, LJ and Zeller-Plumhoff, Berit and Clough, GF and Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram and Roose, Tiina}, title = {Using High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography to Create an Image Based Model of a Lymph Node}, journal = {Journal of theoretical biology}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2018}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519318301899}, doi = {10.1016/j.jtbi.2018.04.021} }  Daly K and Roose T (2018), "Determination of macro-scale soil properties from pore-scale structures: model derivation", Proc. R. Soc. A. Vol. 474(2209), pp. 20170141. The Royal Society. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: In this paper, we use homogenization to derive a set of macro-scale poro-elastic equations for soils composed of rigid solid particles, air-filled pore space and a poro-elastic mixed phase. We consider the derivation in the limit of large deformation and show that by solving representative problems on the micro-scale we can parametrize the macro-scale equations. To validate the homogenization procedure, we compare the predictions of the homogenized equations with those of the full equations for a range of different geometries and material properties. We show that the results differ by ≲2% for all cases considered. The success of the homogenization scheme means that it can be used to determine the macro-scale poro-elastic properties of soils from the underlying structure. Hence, it will prove a valuable tool in both characterization and optimization. BibTeX: @article{Daly2018, author = {Daly, KR and Roose, Tiina}, title = {Determination of macro-scale soil properties from pore-scale structures: model derivation}, journal = {Proc. R. Soc. A}, publisher = {The Royal Society}, year = {2018}, volume = {474}, number = {2209}, pages = {20170141}, url = {http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/474/2209/20170141}, doi = {10.1098/rspa.2017.0141} }  Gao Y and Blumensath T (2018), "A Joint Row and Column Action Method for Cone-Beam Computed Tomography", IEEE Transactions on Computational Imaging., dec, 2018. Vol. 4(4), pp. 599-608. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The inversion of linear systems is fundamental in Computed Tomography (CT) reconstruction. Computational challenges arise when trying to invert large linear systems, as limited computing resources mean that only part of the system can be kept in computer memory at any one time. In linear tomographic inversion problems such as x-ray tomography, even a standard scan can produce millions of individual measurements and the reconstruction of x-ray attenuation profiles typically requires the estimation of a million attenuation coefficients. To deal with the large data sets encountered in real applications and to efficiently utilise modern graphics processing unit (GPU) based computing architectures, combinations of iterative reconstruction algorithms and parallel computing schemes are increasingly applied. Whilst different parallel methods have been proposed, individual computations currently need to access either the entire set of observations or estimated x-ray absorptions, which can be prohibitive in many realistic applications. We present a fully parallelizable CT image reconstruction algorithm where each computation node works on arbitrary partial subsets of the data and the reconstructed volume. We further develop a non-homogeneously randomised selection criteria which guarantees that sub-matrices of the system matrix are selected more frequently if they are dense, thus maximising information flow through the algorithm. We compare our algorithm with block alternating direction method of multipliers (block ADMM) and show that our method is significantly faster for CT reconstruction. BibTeX: @article{Gao_2018, author = {Yushan Gao and Thomas Blumensath}, title = {A Joint Row and Column Action Method for Cone-Beam Computed Tomography}, journal = {IEEE Transactions on Computational Imaging}, publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)}, year = {2018}, volume = {4}, number = {4}, pages = {599--608}, url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8412547}, doi = {10.1109/TCI.2018.2857446} }  Gioumouxouzis CI, Baklavaridis A, Katsamenis OL, Markopoulou CK, Bouropoulos N, Tzetzis D and Fatouros DG (2018), "A 3D printed bilayer oral solid dosage form combining metformin for prolonged and glimepiride for immediate drug delivery", European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences., July, 2018. Vol. 120, pp. 40-52. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Fused Deposition Modelling (a.k.a. FDM-3D printing) has been previously employed in the development of personalized medicines with unique properties and release behavior. In the present work, a bilayer dosage form containing two anti-diabetic drugs with different daily dosage regimens; i.e. metformin and glimepiride, was manufactured via FDM 3D printing, studied using a variety of techniques and characterized in vitro. Metformin and glimepiride were embedded in Eudragit® RL sustained release layer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) layer respectively. Incorporation of more than one API's into the formulation is desirable, as it increases patient compliance and reduces cost of treatment, especially when distinct dosages of API's can be adjusted individually in situ, in order to meet each patient's specific needs, a capability provided by 3D printing. A number of different preparation methods, which involved different plasticizers and extruders, were tested on manufacturing Eudragit® RL drug-loaded filaments for printing the sustained release layer. The properties of the produced filaments were assessed by means of mechanical and physicochemical characterization techniques and the filaments with the optimum properties were used for printing. Microfocus computed tomography (μCT) imaging-based actual/nominal comparison analysis showed a printing accuracy ranging between −100, +200 μm, while X-ray (XRD) diffractograms revealed the incorporation of the (initially crystalline) API's as amorphous dispersions into polymer matrices. Dissolution tests showed sufficient drug release for both drugs in desired time frames (75 min for glimepiride and 480 min for metformin). The results from the current study emphasize the potentiality of 3D printing technology for tailor-made solid dosage forms for combined pharmacotherapy, even at the cases when API's with different desirable release profiles are employed. BibTeX: @article{Gioumouxouzis2018, author = {Gioumouxouzis, Christos I and Baklavaridis, Apostolos and Katsamenis, Orestis L and Markopoulou, Catherine K and Bouropoulos, Nikolaos and Tzetzis, Dimitrios and Fatouros, Dimitrios G}, title = {A 3D printed bilayer oral solid dosage form combining metformin for prolonged and glimepiride for immediate drug delivery}, journal = {European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2018}, volume = {120}, pages = {40-52}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0928098718301799}, doi = {10.1016/j.ejps.2018.04.020} }  Gioumouxouzis CI, Chatzitaki A-T, Karavasili C, Katsamenis OL, Tzetzis D, Mystiridou E, Bouropoulos N and Fatouros DG (2018), "Controlled Release of 5-Fluorouracil from Alginate Beads Encapsulated in 3D Printed pH-Responsive Solid Dosage Forms.", AAPS PharmSciTech., June, 2018. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Three-dimensional printing is being steadily deployed as manufacturing technology for the development of personalized pharmaceutical dosage forms. In the present study, we developed a hollow pH-responsive 3D printed tablet encapsulating drug loaded non-coated and chitosan-coated alginate beads for the targeted colonic delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). A mixture of Eudragit® L100-55 and Eudragit® S100 was fabricated by means of hot-melt extrusion (HME) and the produced filaments were printed utilizing a fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer to form the pH-responsive layer of the tablet with the rest comprising of a water-insoluble poly-lactic acid (PLA) layer. The filaments and alginate particles were characterized for their physicochemical properties (thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction), their surface topography was visualized by scanning electron microscopy and the filaments' mechanical properties were assessed by instrumented indentation testing and tensile testing. The optimized filament formulation was 3D printed and the structural integrity of the hollow tablet in increasing pH media (pH 1.2 to pH 7.4) was assessed by means of time-lapsed microfocus computed tomography (μCT). In vitro release studies demonstrated controlled release of 5-FU from the alginate beads encapsulated within the hollow pH-sensitive tablet matrix at pH values corresponding to the colonic environment (pH 7.4). The present study highlights the potential of additive manufacturing in fabricating controlled-release dosage forms rendering them pertinent formulations for further in vivo evaluation. BibTeX: @article{Gioumouxouzis2018a, author = {Gioumouxouzis, Christos I and Chatzitaki, Aikaterini-Theodora and Karavasili, Christina and Katsamenis, Orestis L and Tzetzis, Dimitrios and Mystiridou, Emmanouela and Bouropoulos, Nikolaos and Fatouros, Dimitrios G}, title = {Controlled Release of 5-Fluorouracil from Alginate Beads Encapsulated in 3D Printed pH-Responsive Solid Dosage Forms.}, journal = {AAPS PharmSciTech}, year = {2018}, url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1208/s12249-018-1084-2}, doi = {10.1208/s12249-018-1084-2} }  Jiang R, Bull D, Evangelou A, Harte A, Pierron F, Sinclair I, Preuss M, Hu X and Reed P (2018), "Strain accumulation and fatigue crack initiation at pores and carbides in a SX superalloy at room temperature", International Journal of Fatigue. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Pores and carbides inherited from SX superalloy manufacturing processes usually act as stress concentrators and are preferential sites for fatigue crack initiation. In this study, pore & carbide size, morphology and distribution in a SX superalloy MD2 has been evaluated by X-ray CT. Strain accumulation and fatigue cracking behaviour in MD2, particularly around the pores and carbides, has been investigated by ex-situ SEM-DIC at room temperature along with image-based modelling of the observed MD2 defect populations obtained through X-ray CT imaging. The deformation structures have also been examined by electron channelling contrast imaging under controlled diffraction conditions. The results indicate that the pores & carbides with complicated three-dimensional features are the dominant fatigue crack initiation sites. Deformation is concentrated within intense slip bands and an enhanced strain accumulation around pores is captured by SEM-DIC. Dislocation motion is mainly confined to the γ matrix channels with some dislocation shear cutting of γ' precipitates also observed ahead of the crack tip. As the crack propagates, strain band density and dislocation density at the crack tip increases correspondingly. Image-based modelling using the observed defect populations in MD2 (micro)structure can effectively predict the stress concentrations and the resultant hot spot for subsequent fatigue crack initiation, which is consistent with the experimental observations. BibTeX: @article{Jiang2018, author = {Jiang, R and Bull, DJ and Evangelou, A and Harte, A and Pierron, F and Sinclair, I and Preuss, M and Hu, XT and Reed, PAS}, title = {Strain accumulation and fatigue crack initiation at pores and carbides in a SX superalloy at room temperature}, journal = {International Journal of Fatigue}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2018}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142112318301725}, doi = {10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2018.05.003} }  Kalfon-Cohen E, Kopp R, Furtado C, Ni X, Arteiro A, Borstnar G, Mavrogordato MN, Sinclair I, Spearing SM, Camanho PP and Wardle BL (2018), "Synergetic effects of thin plies and aligned carbon nanotube interlaminar reinforcement in composite laminates", Composites Science and Technology., sep, 2018. Vol. 166, pp. 160-168. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Thin-ply carbon fiber laminates have exhibited superior mechanical properties, including higher initiation and ultimate strength, when compared to standard thickness plies and enable greater flexibility in laminate design. However, the increased ply count in thin-ply laminates also increases the number of ply-ply interfaces, thereby increasing the number of relatively weak and delamination-prone interlaminar regions. In this study, we report the first experimental realization of aligned carbon nanotube interlaminar reinforcement of thin-ply unidirectional prepreg-based carbon fiber laminates, in a hierarchical architecture termed ‘nanostitching’. We synthesize a baseline effective standard thickness laminate using multiple thin-plies of the same orientation to create a ply block, and we find an ∼15% improvement in the interlaminar shear strength via short beam shear (SBS) testing for thin-ply nanostitched samples when compared to the baseline. This demonstrates a synergetic strength effect of nanostitching (∼5% increase) and thin-ply lamination (∼10% increase). Synchrotron-based computed tomography of post mortem SBS specimens suggests a different damage trajectory and mode of damage accumulation in nanostitched thin-ply laminates, notably the complete suppression of delaminations in the nanostitched region. Finite element predictions of damage progression highlight the complementary nature of positive thin-ply and nanostitching effects that are consistent with an ∼15% improvement in Modes I and II interlaminar fracture toughness due to the aligned carbon nanotubes at the thin-ply interfaces. BibTeX: @article{Kalfon_Cohen_2018, author = {Estelle Kalfon-Cohen and Reed Kopp and Carolina Furtado and Xinchen Ni and Albertino Arteiro and Gregor Borstnar and Mark N. Mavrogordato and Ian Sinclair and S. Mark Spearing and Pedro P. Camanho and Brian L. Wardle}, title = {Synergetic effects of thin plies and aligned carbon nanotube interlaminar reinforcement in composite laminates}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2018}, volume = {166}, pages = {160--168}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353817321978}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2018.01.007} }  Kalfon-Cohen E, Kopp R, Furtado C, Ni X, Arteiro A, Borstnar G, Mavrogordato MN, Sinclair I, Spearing SM, Camanho PP and others (2018), "Synergetic effects of thin plies and aligned carbon nanotube interlaminar reinforcement in composite laminates", Composites Science and Technology. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Thin-ply carbon fiber laminates have exhibited superior mechanical properties and damage resistance when compared to standard thickness plies and enable greater flexibility in laminate design. However, the increased ply count in thin-ply laminates also increases the number of ply-ply interfaces, thereby increasing the number of relatively weak and delamination-prone interlaminar regions. In this study, we report the first experimental realization of aligned carbon nanotube interlaminar reinforcement of thin-ply unidirectional prepreg-based carbon fiber laminates, in a hierarchical architecture termed ‘nanostitching’. We synthesize a baseline effective standard thickness laminate using multiple thin plies of the same orientation to create a ply block, and we find an  15% improvement in the interlaminar shear strength via short beam shear (SBS) testing for thin-ply nanostitched samples when compared to the baseline. This demonstrates a synergetic strength effect of nanostitching ( 5% increase) and thin-ply lamination ( 10% increase). Synchrotron-based computed tomography of post mortem SBS specimens suggests a different trajectory and mode of damage accumulation in nanostitched thin-ply laminates, notably the complete suppression of delaminations in the nanostitched region. Finite element predictions of damage progression highlight the complementary nature of positive thin-ply and nanostitching effects that are consistent with an  15% improvement in Mode I and II interlaminar fracture toughness due to the aligned carbon nanotubes at the thin-ply interfaces. BibTeX: @article{Kalfon-Cohen2018, author = {Kalfon-Cohen, Estelle and Kopp, Reed and Furtado, Carolina and Ni, Xinchen and Arteiro, Albertino and Borstnar, Gregor and Mavrogordato, Mark N and Sinclair, Ian and Spearing, S Mark and Camanho, Pedro P and others}, title = {Synergetic effects of thin plies and aligned carbon nanotube interlaminar reinforcement in composite laminates}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2018}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353817321978}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2018.01.007} }  Koebernick N, Daly KR, Keyes SD, Bengough AG, Brown LK, Cooper LJ, George TS, Hallett PD, Naveed M, Raffan A and others (2018), "Imaging microstructure of the barley rhizosphere: particle packing and root hair influences", New Phytologist. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Soil adjacent to roots has distinct structural and physical properties from bulk soil, affecting water and solute acquisition by plants. Detailed knowledge on how root activity and traits such as root hairs affect the 3D pore structure at a fine scale is scarce and often contradictory. Roots of hairless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv ‘Optic’) mutant (NRH) and its wildtype (WT) parent were grown in tubes of sieved (<250 μm) sandy loam soil under two different water regimes. The tubes were scanned with synchrotron based X‐ray CT to visualise pore structure at the soil‐root interface. Pore volume fraction and pore size distribution were analysed versus distance within 1 mm of the root surface. Less dense packing packing of particles at the root‐surface was hypothesised to cause the observed increased pore volume fraction immediately next to the epidermis. The pore size distribution was narrower due to a decreased fraction of larger pores. There were no statistically significant differences in pore structure between genotypes or moisture conditions. A model is proposed that describes the variation in porosity near roots taking into account soil compaction and the surface effect at the root surface. BibTeX: @article{Koebernick2018, author = {Koebernick, Nicolai and Daly, Keith R and Keyes, Samuel D and Bengough, Anthony G and Brown, Lawrie K and Cooper, Laura J and George, Timothy S and Hallett, Paul D and Naveed, Muhammad and Raffan, Annette and others}, title = {Imaging microstructure of the barley rhizosphere: particle packing and root hair influences}, journal = {New Phytologist}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2018}, url = {https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nph.15516}, doi = {10.1111/nph.15516} }  Koo H-K, Vasilescu DM, Booth S, Hsieh A, Katsamenis OL, Fishbane N, Elliott WM, Kirby M, Lackie P, Sinclair I, Warner JA, Cooper JD, Coxson HO, Paré PD, Hogg JC and Hackett T-L (2018), "Small airways disease in mild and moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study.", The Lancet. Respiratory medicine., August, 2018. Vol. 6(8), pp. 591-602. Elsevier BV. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The concept that small conducting airways less than 2 mm in diameter become the major site of airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is well established in the scientific literature, and the last generation of small conducting airways, terminal bronchioles, are known to be destroyed in patients with very severe COPD. We aimed to determine whether destruction of the terminal and transitional bronchioles (the first generation of respiratory airways) occurs before, or in parallel with, emphysematous tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional analysis, we applied a novel multiresolution CT imaging protocol to tissue samples obtained using a systematic uniform sampling method to obtain representative unbiased samples of the whole lung or lobe of smokers with normal lung function (controls) and patients with mild COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage 1), moderate COPD (GOLD 2), or very severe COPD (GOLD 4). Patients with GOLD 1 or GOLD 2 COPD and smokers with normal lung function had undergone lobectomy and pneumonectomy, and patients with GOLD 4 COPD had undergone lung transplantation. Lung tissue samples were used for stereological assessment of the number and morphology of terminal and transitional bronchioles, airspace size (mean linear intercept), and alveolar surface area. Of the 34 patients included in this study, ten were controls (smokers with normal lung function), ten patients had GOLD 1 COPD, eight had GOLD 2 COPD, and six had GOLD 4 COPD with centrilobular emphysema. The 34 lung specimens provided 262 lung samples. Compared with control smokers, the number of terminal bronchioles decreased by 40% in patients with GOLD 1 COPD (p=0·014) and 43% in patients with GOLD 2 COPD (p=0·036), the number of transitional bronchioles decreased by 56% in patients with GOLD 1 COPD (p=0·0001) and 59% in patients with GOLD 2 COPD (p=0·0001), and alveolar surface area decreased by 33% in patients with GOLD 1 COPD (p=0·019) and 45% in patients with GOLD 2 COPD (p=0·0021). These pathological changes were found to correlate with lung function decline. We also showed significant loss of terminal and transitional bronchioles in lung samples from patients with GOLD 1 or GOLD 2 COPD that had a normal alveolar surface area. Remaining small airways were found to have thickened walls and narrowed lumens, which become more obstructed with increasing COPD GOLD stage. These data show that small airways disease is a pathological feature in mild and moderate COPD. Importantly, this study emphasises that early intervention for disease modification might be required by patients with mild or moderate COPD. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. BibTeX: @article{Koo2018, author = {Koo, Hyun-Kyoung and Vasilescu, Dragoş M and Booth, Steven and Hsieh, Aileen and Katsamenis, Orestis L and Fishbane, Nick and Elliott, W Mark and Kirby, Miranda and Lackie, Peter and Sinclair, Ian and Warner, Jane A and Cooper, Joel D and Coxson, Harvey O and Paré, Peter D and Hogg, James C and Hackett, Tillie-Louise}, title = {Small airways disease in mild and moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study.}, journal = {The Lancet. Respiratory medicine}, publisher = {Elsevier BV}, year = {2018}, volume = {6}, number = {8}, pages = {591--602}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2213260018301966?via%3Dihub}, doi = {10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30196-6} }  Marter A, Dickinson A, Pierron F and Browne M (2018), "A Practical Procedure for Measuring the Stiffness of Foam like Materials", Experimental Techniques. , pp. 1-14. Springer. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Polymer foams are used extensively in everyday life, from disposable packaging and soft furnishings through to engineering applications such as core structural materials in the marine industry or bone analogue materials for orthopaedic device testing. In the engineering field it is important that the mechanical behaviour of these materials is characterised correctly, as computationally based predictions of structural performance rely heavily on accurate input data. Mechanical property data from standard physical tests such as uniaxial compression are subject to artefacts including non-uniformity of applied loading, test fixture-sample contact conditions, and test machine compliance. These are well-documented problems, which techniques such as extensometry and point tracking of marker pairs attempt to resolve. In particular, in addition to being non-contact, the use of individual marker pairs can reveal non-linear behaviours because of alignment issues. In the current work, a practical, accurate experimental methodology is introduced to investigate this issue. Uniaxial compression tests were conducted on cellular polyurethane foam blocks. Both faces of the foam specimens were monitored using point tracking on multiple marker pairs to account for misalignment. Sample deformation was simultaneously measured by test-machine crosshead displacement. The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio were calculated in both cases. To verify the measurements, digital volume correlation (DVC) was applied. DVC is a full-field non-contact strain measurement method that interrogates the interior structure of the foam to determine the physical response. Results demonstrated that misalignment effects could easily be followed during testing, which averaged out on both front and back surfaces to produce a single modulus value. Considerable differences were evident between crosshead displacement calculated modulus and point tracking, indicating that artefacts can lead to substantial errors, as evidenced in the published literature. BibTeX: @article{Marter2018, author = {Marter, AD and Dickinson, AS and Pierron, Fabrice and Browne, Martin}, title = {A Practical Procedure for Measuring the Stiffness of Foam like Materials}, journal = {Experimental Techniques}, publisher = {Springer}, year = {2018}, pages = {1--14}, url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40799-018-0247-0}, doi = {10.1007/s40799-018-0247-0} }  Martin-Silverstone E, Sykes D and Naish D (2018), "Does postcranial palaeoneurology provide insight into pterosaur behaviour and lifestyle? New data from the azhdarchoidVectidracoand the ornithocheiridsColoborhynchusandAnhanguera", Palaeontology., aug, 2018. Vol. 62(2), pp. 197-210. Wiley. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The postcranial palaeoneurology of fossil reptiles is understudied, and those studies that exist focus predominantly on crocodyliforms and dinosaurs. The intervertebral foramina of the spine house nerves that exit to innervate surrounding tissues and the extremities. In the heavily fused (and typically distorted or poorly preserved) pterosaurian sacrum, intervertebral foramina can be difficult to observe and are rarely identified. The Early Cretaceous azhdarchoid Vectidraco from the Isle of Wight, UK , exhibits large, paired foramina on each sacral vertebra, originally identified as pneumatic foramina. Micro‐computed tomography imaging reveals these communicate with the neural canal and are intervertebral foramina for sacral nerves. The sacral vertebrae of Vectidraco are fused, and intervertebral foramina occur dorsolaterally on the centra. We identified these structures in other pterosaur sacra, including those of the ornithocheiroids Anhanguera and Coloborhynchus . The sizes of the sacral and notarial neural canals are compared and considered within interpretations of palaeoecology and locomotion, following previous studies. The relatively large sacral neural canal of Vectidraco implies a sacral enlargement for innervation of the legs and lumbosacral plexus. When compared with Anhanguera , this supports indications that azhdarchoids were more hindlimb‐proficient than ornithocheiroids. Neural canal size in the Coloborhynchus notarium suggests that ornithocheirids spent less time on the ground, their brachial enlargement and small sacral region indicating enhanced innervation of the wings and poor innervation of the sacrum and legs. This is the first study focusing on pterosaur postcranial palaeoneurology; more studies on other taxa are needed to reveal patterns across Pterosauria as a whole. BibTeX: @article{Martin_Silverstone_2018, author = {Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone and Daniel Sykes and Darren Naish}, editor = {Laura Porro}, title = {Does postcranial palaeoneurology provide insight into pterosaur behaviour and lifestyle? New data from the azhdarchoidVectidracoand the ornithocheiridsColoborhynchusandAnhanguera}, journal = {Palaeontology}, publisher = {Wiley}, year = {2018}, volume = {62}, number = {2}, pages = {197--210}, url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/pala.12390}, doi = {10.1111/pala.12390} }  Martin-Silverstone E, Sykes D and Naish D (2018), "Does postcranial palaeoneurology provide insight into pterosaur behaviour and lifestyle? New data from the azhdarchoid Vectidraco and the ornithocheirids Coloborhynchus and Anhanguera", Palaeontology., aug, 2018. Wiley. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The postcranial palaeoneurology of fossil reptiles is understudied, and those studies that exist focus predominantly on crocodyliforms and dinosaurs. The intervertebral foramina of the spine house nerves that exit to innervate surrounding tissues and the extremities. In the heavily fused (and typically distorted or poorly preserved) pterosaurian sacrum, intervertebral foramina can be difficult to observe and are rarely identified. The Early Cretaceous azhdarchoid Vectidraco from the Isle of Wight, UK, exhibits large, paired foramina on each sacral vertebra, originally identified as pneumatic foramina. Micro‐computed tomography imaging reveals these communicate with the neural canal and are intervertebral foramina for sacral nerves. The sacral vertebrae of Vectidraco are fused, and intervertebral foramina occur dorsolaterally on the centra. We identified these structures in other pterosaur sacra, including those of the ornithocheiroids Anhanguera and Coloborhynchus. The sizes of the sacral and notarial neural canals are compared and considered within interpretations of palaeoecology and locomotion, following previous studies. The relatively large sacral neural canal of Vectidraco implies a sacral enlargement for innervation of the legs and lumbosacral plexus. When compared with Anhanguera, this supports indications that azhdarchoids were more hindlimb‐proficient than ornithocheiroids. Neural canal size in the Coloborhynchus notarium suggests that ornithocheirids spent less time on the ground, their brachial enlargement and small sacral region indicating enhanced innervation of the wings and poor innervation of the sacrum and legs. This is the first study focusing on pterosaur postcranial palaeoneurology; more studies on other taxa are needed to reveal patterns across Pterosauria as a whole. BibTeX: @article{Martin-Silverstone, author = {Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone and Daniel Sykes and Darren Naish}, editor = {Laura Porro}, title = {Does postcranial palaeoneurology provide insight into pterosaur behaviour and lifestyle? New data from the azhdarchoid Vectidraco and the ornithocheirids Coloborhynchus and Anhanguera}, journal = {Palaeontology}, publisher = {Wiley}, year = {2018}, url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/pala.12390}, doi = {10.1111/pala.12390} }  Moreno-Jiménez I, Lanham SA, Kanczler JM, Hulsart-Billstrom G, Evans ND and Oreffo ROC (2018), "Remodelling of human bone on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chicken egg: De novo bone formation and resorption", Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine., aug, 2018. Vol. 12(8), pp. 1877-1890. Wiley. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{Moreno-Jimenez2018, author = {Inés Moreno-Jiménez and Stuart A. Lanham and Janos M. Kanczler and Gry Hulsart-Billstrom and Nicholas D. Evans and Richard O. C. Oreffo}, title = {Remodelling of human bone on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chicken egg: De novo bone formation and resorption}, journal = {Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine}, publisher = {Wiley}, year = {2018}, volume = {12}, number = {8}, pages = {1877-1890}, url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/term.2711}, doi = {10.1002/term.2711} }  Mosayyebi A, Yue QY, Somani BK, Zhang X, Manes C and Carugo D (2018), "Particle accumulation in ureteric stents is governed by fluid dynamics: in-vitro study using a ‘stent-on-chip’model", Journal of Endourology. (ja) [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Objective To investigate the correlation between fluid dynamic processes and deposition of encrusting particles in ureteric stents. Materials and Methods Microfluidic models (referred to as ‘stent-on-chip’ or SOC) were developed to replicate relevant hydrodynamic regions of a stented ureter, including drainage holes and the cavity formed by a ureteric obstruction. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations were performed to determine the wall shear stress (WSS) field over the solid surfaces of the model, and the computational flow field was validated experimentally. Artificial urine was conveyed through the SOCs to measure the temporal evolution of encrustation via optical microscopy. Results It was revealed that drainage holes located well downstream of the obstruction had almost stagnant flow and low WSS (average 0.01 Pa, at 1 mL/min), and thus suffered from higher encrustation rates. On the contrary, higher levels of WSS in holes proximal to the obstruction (average  0.04 Pa, at 1 mL/min) resulted in lower encrustation rates in these regions. The cavity located nearby the obstruction was characterised by high levels of encrustation, due to the low WSS (average 1.6 × 10-4 Pa, at 1 mL/min) and the presence of flow vortices. Increasing the drainage flow rate from 1 to 10 mL/min resulted in significantly lower deposition of encrusting crystals. Conclusion The present study demonstrated an inverse correlation between deposition of encrusting bodies and the local WSS in a stented ureter model. Critical regions with low WSS and susceptible to encrustation were identified, including ‘inactive’ side holes (i.e., with minimal or absent flow exchange between stent and ureter) and the cavity formed by a ureteric occlusion. Findings from this study can open new avenues for improving the stent’s design via fluid dynamic optimisation. BibTeX: @article{Mosayyebi2018, author = {Mosayyebi, Ali and Yue, Qi Yann and Somani, Bhaskar K. and Zhang, Xunli and Manes, Costantino and Carugo, Dario}, title = {Particle accumulation in ureteric stents is governed by fluid dynamics: in-vitro study using a ‘stent-on-chip’model}, journal = {Journal of Endourology}, year = {2018}, number = {ja}, url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Dario_Carugo2/publication/324770879_Particle_Accumulation_in_Ureteral_Stents_Is_Governed_by_Fluid_Dynamics_In_Vitro_Study_Using_a_Stent-on-Chip_Model/links/5c02c8bc299bf1a3c159be2c/Particle-Accumulation-in-Ureteral-Stents-Is-Governed-by-Fluid-Dynamics-In-Vitro-Study-Using-a-Stent-on-Chip-Model.pdf}, doi = {10.1089/end.2017.0946} }  Navarro CA, Martin-Silverstone E and Stubbs TL (2018), "Morphometric assessment of pterosaur jaw disparity", Royal Society Open Science. Vol. 5(4), pp. 172130. The Royal Society. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Pterosaurs were a successful group of Mesozoic flying reptiles. They were the first vertebrate group to achieve powered flight and varied enormously in morphology and ecology, occupying a variety of niches and developing specialized feeding strategies. Ecomorphological principles suggest this variation should be reflected by great morphological diversity in the lower jaw, given that the mandible served as the primary apparatus for prey acquisition. Here we present the first study of mandibular shape disparity in pterosaurs and aim to characterize major aspects of variation. We use a combination of geometric morphometric approaches, incorporating both outline analysis using elliptical Fourier analysis and semi-landmark approaches. Our results show that morphological convergence is prevalent and many pterosaurs, belonging to diverse dietary groups and subclades, overlap in morphospace and possessed relatively simple 'rod-shaped' jaws. There is no clear trend of size distributions in pterosaur mandibular morphospace, and larger forms are widely distributed. Additionally, there is limited functional signal within pterosaur lower jaw morphospace. Instead, the development of a large anterior ventral crest represents the major component of disparity. This suggests that a socio-sexual trait was a key driver for innovation in pterosaur lower jaw shape. BibTeX: @article{Navarro2018, author = {Navarro, Charlie A and Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth and Stubbs, Thomas L}, title = {Morphometric assessment of pterosaur jaw disparity}, journal = {Royal Society Open Science}, publisher = {The Royal Society}, year = {2018}, volume = {5}, number = {4}, pages = {172130}, url = {http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/5/4/172130}, doi = {10.1098/rsos.172130} }  Sahoo SK, Madhusudhan B, Mar\in-Moreno H, North LJ, Ahmed S, Falcon-Suarez IH, Minshull TA and Best AI (2018), "Laboratory Insights Into the Effect of Sediment-Hosted Methane Hydrate Morphology on Elastic Wave Velocity From Time-Lapse 4-D Synchrotron X-Ray Computed Tomography", Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. Vol. 19(11), pp. 4502-4521. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: A better understanding of the effect of methane hydrate morphology and saturation on elastic wave velocity of hydrate‐bearing sediments is needed for improved seafloor hydrate resource and geohazard assessment. We conducted X‐ray synchrotron time‐lapse 4‐D imaging of methane hydrate evolution in Leighton Buzzard sand and compared the results to analogous hydrate formation and dissociation experiments in Berea sandstone, on which we measured ultrasonic P and S wave velocities and electrical resistivity. The imaging experiment showed that initially hydrate envelops gas bubbles and methane escapes from these bubbles via rupture of hydrate shells, leading to smaller bubbles. This process leads to a transition from pore‐floating to pore‐bridging hydrate morphology. Finally, pore‐bridging hydrate coalesces with that from adjacent pores creating an interpore hydrate framework that interlocks the sand grains. We also observed isolated pockets of gas within hydrate. We observed distinct changes in gradient of P and S wave velocities increase with hydrate saturation. Informed by a theoretical model of idealized hydrate morphology and its influence on elastic wave velocity, we were able to link velocity changes to hydrate morphology progression from initial pore‐floating, then pore‐bridging, to an interpore hydrate framework. The latter observation is the first evidence of this type of hydrate morphology and its measurable effect on velocity. We found anomalously low S wave velocity compared to the effective medium model, probably caused by the presence of a water film between hydrate and mineral grains. BibTeX: @article{Sahoo2018, author = {Sahoo, Sourav K and Madhusudhan, BN and Mar\in-Moreno, Hector and North, Laurence J and Ahmed, Sharif and Falcon-Suarez, Ismael Himar and Minshull, Tim A and Best, Angus I}, title = {Laboratory Insights Into the Effect of Sediment-Hosted Methane Hydrate Morphology on Elastic Wave Velocity From Time-Lapse 4-D Synchrotron X-Ray Computed Tomography}, journal = {Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2018}, volume = {19}, number = {11}, pages = {4502--4521}, url = {https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/2018GC007710}, doi = {10.1029/2018GC007710} }  Sivarupan T, El Mansori M, Daly K, Mavrogordato MN and Pierron F (2018), "Characterisation of 3D printed sand moulds using micro-focus X-ray computed tomography", Rapid Prototyping Journal. Emerald Publishing Limited. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Purpose Micro-focus X-ray computed tomography (CT) can be used to quantitatively evaluate the packing density, pore connectivity and provide the basis for specimen derived simulations of gas permeability of sand mould. This non-destructive experiment or following simulations can be done on any section of any size sand mould just before casting to validate the required properties. This paper aims to describe the challenges of this method and use it to simulate the gas permeability of 3D printed sand moulds for a range of controlling parameters. The permeability simulations are compared against experimental results using traditional measurement techniques. It suggests that a minimum volume of only 700 × 700 × 700 µm3 is required to obtain, a reliable and most representative than the value obtained by the traditional measurement technique, the simulated permeability of a specimen. Design/methodology/approach X-ray tomography images were used to reconstruct 3D models to simulate them for gas permeability of the 3D printed sand mould specimens, and the results were compared with the experimental result of the same. Findings The influence of printing parameters, especially the re-coater speed, on the pore connectivity of the 3D printed sand mould and related permeability has been identified. Characterisation of these sand moulds using X-ray CT and its suitability, compared to the traditional means, are also studied. While density and 3PB strength are a measure of the quality of the moulds, the pore connectivity from the tomographic images precisely relates to the permeability. The main conclusions of the present study are provided below. A minimum required sample size of 700 × 700 × 700 µm3 is required to provide representative permeability results. This was obtained from sand specimens with an average sand grain size of 140 µm, using the tomographic volume images to define a 3D mesh to run permeability calculations. Z-direction permeability is always lower than that in the X-/Y-directions due to the lower values of X-(120/140 µm) and Y-(101.6 µm) resolutions of the furan droplets. The anisotropic permeability of the 3D printed sand mould is mainly due to, the only adjustable, X-directional resolution of the furan droplets; the Y-directional resolution is a fixed distance, 102.6 µm, between the printhead nozzles and the Z-directional one is usually, 280 µm, twice the size of an average sand grain.A non-destructive and most representative permeability value can be obtained, using the computer simulation, on the reconstructed 3D X-ray tomography images obtained on a specific location of a 3D printed sand mould. This saves time and effort on printing a separate specimen for the traditional test which may not be the most representative to the printed mould. Originality/value The experimental result is compared with the computer simulated results. BibTeX: @article{Sivarupan2018, author = {Sivarupan, Tharmalingam and El Mansori, Mohamed and Daly, Keith and Mavrogordato, Mark Noel and Pierron, Fabrice}, title = {Characterisation of 3D printed sand moulds using micro-focus X-ray computed tomography}, journal = {Rapid Prototyping Journal}, publisher = {Emerald Publishing Limited}, year = {2018}, url = {https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/RPJ-04-2018-0091}, doi = {10.1108/RPJ-04-2018-0091} }  Tourell MC, Pop I-A, Brown LJ, Brown RC and Pileio G (2018), "Singlet-assisted diffusion-NMR (SAD-NMR): redefining the limits when measuring tortuosity in porous media", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. Royal Society of Chemistry. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Long-lived singlet order is exploited in diffusion NMR experiments to successfully measure the tortuosity of randomly packed spheres with diameters ranging from 500 to 1000 μm. The pore spaces in such packings have characteristic length scales well beyond the length scale limit set by spin relaxation in conventional NMR-diffusion experiments. Diffusion times of up to 240 s were used to obtain the restricted diffusion coefficient as a function of diffusion time in the long-time diffusion regime. Experimental results were validated with numerical simulations and data from X-ray micro-computed tomography. BibTeX: @article{Tourell2018, author = {Tourell, Monique C and Pop, Ionut-Alexandru and Brown, Lynda J and Brown, Richard CD and Pileio, Giuseppe}, title = {Singlet-assisted diffusion-NMR (SAD-NMR): redefining the limits when measuring tortuosity in porous media}, journal = {Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics}, publisher = {Royal Society of Chemistry}, year = {2018}, url = {http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2018/cp/c8cp00145f}, doi = {10.1039/C8CP00145F} }  Van Veelen A, Tourell MC, Koebernick N, Pileio G and Roose T (2018), "Correlative visualization of root mucilage degradation using X-ray CT and NMRI", Frontiers in Environmental Science. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Root exudates are a crucial component of the rhizosphere. Often, they take a form of a gel exuded by the plant roots and are thought to influence the soil aggregation, root penetration into soil, soil nutrient availability, immobilization of toxic cations, and microbial activity amongst other things. In addition, the capacity of exudates to store water makes the plants potentially less susceptive to drought. Major components of root exudates are high molecular weight organic compounds consisting of predominantly polysaccharides and proteins, which makes it challenging to visualize using current rhizosphere visualization techniques, such as X-ray computed tomography (CT). In this contribution, we use correlative X-ray CT (resolution  20 μm) in combination with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, resolution  120 μm) to set up groundwork to enable in situ visualization of mucilage in soil. This multimodal approach is necessary because mucilage density closely matches that of water. We use chia seeds as mucilage analog, because it has been found to have a similar consistency to root mucilage. Moreover, to understand mucilage development in time, a series of samples made by chia seeds placed in different porous media were prepared. Structurally and chemically, mucilage breaks down toward a water-like substance over a course of 2 weeks. Depending on its relative concentration, these changes were found to be less dominant when seeds were mixed in porous media. Having set up the groundwork for correlative imaging of chia seeds in water and an artificial soil (Nafion and sand/beads) this enables us to expand this imaging to deal with plant root exudates under natural conditions. BibTeX: @article{VanVeelen2018, author = {Van Veelen, Arjen and Tourell, Monique C and Koebernick, Nicolai and Pileio, Giuseppe and Roose, Tiina}, title = {Correlative visualization of root mucilage degradation using X-ray CT and NMRI}, journal = {Frontiers in Environmental Science}, year = {2018}, url = {https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2018.00032/full}, doi = {10.3389/fenvs.2018.00032} }  Zhang N, Thompson CE, Townend IH, Rankin KE, Paterson DM and Manning AJ (2018), "Nondestructive 3D Imaging and Quantification of Hydrated Biofilm-Sediment Aggregates Using X-ray Microcomputed Tomography", Environmental Science & Technology. Vol. 52(22), pp. 13306-13313. ACS Publications. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Biofilm-sediment aggregate (BSA) contains a high water content, either within internal pores and channels or bound by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) forming a highly hydrated biofilm matrix. Desiccation of BSAs alters the biofilm morphology and thus the physical characteristics of porous media, such as the binding matrix within BSA and internal pore geometry. Observing BSAs in their naturally hydrated form is essential but hampered due to the lack of techniques for imaging and discerning hydrated materials. Generally, imagery techniques (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and focused ion beam nanotomography (FIB-nt)) involve the desiccation of BSAs (freeze-drying or acetone dehydration) or prevent differentiation between BSA components such as inorganic particles and pore water (confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM)). Here, we propose a novel methodology that simultaneously achieves the 3D visualization and quantification of BSAs and their components in their hydrated form at a submicron resolution using X-ray microcomputed tomography (μ-CT). It enables the high-resolution detection of comparable morphology of multiphase components within a hydrated aggregate: each single inorganic particle and the hydrated biofilm matrix. This allows the estimation of aggregate density and the illustration of biofilm-sediment binding matrix. This information provides valuable insights into investigations of the transport of BSAs and aggregate-associated sediment particles, contaminants (such as microplastics), organic carbon, and their impacts on aquatic biogeochemical cycling. BibTeX: @article{Zhang2018, author = {Zhang, Naiyu and Thompson, Charlotte EL and Townend, Ian H and Rankin, Kathryn E and Paterson, David M and Manning, Andrew J}, title = {Nondestructive 3D Imaging and Quantification of Hydrated Biofilm-Sediment Aggregates Using X-ray Microcomputed Tomography}, journal = {Environmental Science & Technology}, publisher = {ACS Publications}, year = {2018}, volume = {52}, number = {22}, pages = {13306--13313}, url = {https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.8b03997}, doi = {10.1021/acs.est.8b03997} }  Arenas LF, de León CP, Boardman RP and Walsh FC (2017), "Editors' Choice—Electrodeposition of Platinum on Titanium Felt in a Rectangular Channel Flow Cell", Journal of The Electrochemical Society. Vol. 164(2), pp. D57-D66. The Electrochemical Society. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{Arenas2017, author = {Arenas, Luis F and de León, Carlos Ponce and Boardman, Richard P and Walsh, Frank C}, title = {Editors' Choice—Electrodeposition of Platinum on Titanium Felt in a Rectangular Channel Flow Cell}, journal = {Journal of The Electrochemical Society}, publisher = {The Electrochemical Society}, year = {2017}, volume = {164}, number = {2}, pages = {D57--D66}, url = {http://jes.ecsdl.org/content/164/2/D57.short}, doi = {10.1149/2.0651702jes} }  Arenas LF, de León CP, Boardman RP and Walsh FC (2017), "Characterisation of platinum electrodeposits on a titanium micromesh stack in a rectangular channel flow cell", Electrochimica Acta. Vol. 247, pp. 994-1005. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Platinised titanium mesh is a common electrode material in industrial electrolytic cells and Ce-based redox flow batteries. In this work, the electrodeposition of platinum on a stack of titanium micromeshes is performed from a flowing alkaline solution in a rectangular channel, divided flow cell. The morphology and distribution of the resulting platinum deposits are studied by SEM, EDS mapping and X-ray computed tomography. The active surface area of the electrode was assessed from the charge transfer current for the reduction of Ce(IV) ions and compared to that of planar and expanded metal mesh electrodes. The surface area was estimated by hydrogen electrosorption relative to that at a planar Pt/Ti electrode. As expected from the potential drop within the electrode channel, the individual micromesh near the cell separator showed a higher platinum content. Pt/Ti micromesh offers an extended surface area and enhanced mass transport compared to planar electrodes and conventional expanded metal mesh anodes. The applications for these and alternative electrode structures are discussed. BibTeX: @article{Arenas2017a, author = {Arenas, Luis F and de León, Carlos Ponce and Boardman, Richard P and Walsh, Frank C}, title = {Characterisation of platinum electrodeposits on a titanium micromesh stack in a rectangular channel flow cell}, journal = {Electrochimica Acta}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2017}, volume = {247}, pages = {994-1005}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013468617314469}, doi = {doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2017.07.029} }  Barker CT, Naish D, Newham E, Katsamenis OL and Dyke G (2017), "Complex neuroanatomy in the rostrum of the Isle of Wight theropod Neovenator salerii", Scientific Reports. Vol. 7(1), pp. 3749. Nature Publishing Group. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The discovery of large, complex, internal canals within the rostra of fossil reptiles has been linked with an enhanced tactile function utilised in an aquatic context, so far in pliosaurids, the Cretaceous theropod Spinosaurus, and the related spinosaurid Baryonyx. Here, we report the presence of a complex network of large, laterally situated, anastomosing channels, discovered via micro-focus computed tomography (μCT), in the premaxilla and maxilla of Neovenator, a mid-sized allosauroid theropod from the Early Cretaceous of the UK. We identify these channels as neurovascular canals, that include parts of the trigeminal nerve; many branches of this complex terminate on the external surfaces of the premaxilla and maxilla where they are associated with foramina. Neovenator is universally regarded as a ‘typical’ terrestrial, predatory theropod, and there are no indications that it was aquatic, amphibious, or unusual with respect to the ecology or behaviour predicted for allosauroids. Accordingly, we propose that enlarged neurovascular facial canals shouldn’t be used to exclusively support a model of aquatic foraging in theropods and argue instead that an enhanced degree of facial sensitivity may have been linked with any number of alternative behavioural adaptations, among them defleshing behaviour, nest selection/maintenance or social interaction. BibTeX: @article{barker2017complex, author = {Barker, Chris Tijani and Naish, Darren and Newham, Elis and Katsamenis, Orestis L and Dyke, Gareth}, title = {Complex neuroanatomy in the rostrum of the Isle of Wight theropod Neovenator salerii}, journal = {Scientific Reports}, publisher = {Nature Publishing Group}, year = {2017}, volume = {7}, number = {1}, pages = {3749}, url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-03671-3}, doi = {10.1038/s41598-017-03671-3} }  Bele E, Goel A, Pickering E, Borstnar G, Katsamenis O, Pierron F, Danas K and Deshpande V (2017), "Deformation mechanisms of idealised cermets under multi-axial loading", Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The response of idealised cermets comprising approximately 60% by volume steel spheres in a Sn/Pb solder matrix is investigated under a range of axisymmetric compressive stress states. Digital volume correlation (DVC) analysis of X-ray micro-computed tomography scans (μ-CT), and the measured macroscopic stress-strain curves of the specimens revealed two deformation mechanisms. At low triaxialities the deformation is granular in nature, with dilation occurring within shear bands. Under higher imposed hydrostatic pressures, the deformation mechanism transitions to a more homogeneous incompressible mode. However, DVC analyses revealed that under all triaxialities there are regions with local dilatory and compaction responses, with the magnitude of dilation and the number of zones wherein dilation occurs decreasing with increasing triaxiality. Two numerical models are presented in order to clarify these mechanisms: (i) a periodic unit cell model comprising nearly rigid spherical particles in a porous metal matrix and (ii) a discrete element model comprising a large random aggregate of spheres connected by non-linear normal and tangential “springs”. The periodic unit cell model captured the measured stress-strain response with reasonable accuracy but under-predicted the observed dilation at the lower triaxialities, because the kinematic constraints imposed by the skeleton of rigid particles were not accurately accounted for in this model. By contrast, the discrete element model captured the kinematics and predicted both the overall levels of dilation and the simultaneous presence of both local compaction and dilatory regions with the specimens. However, the levels of dilation in this model are dependent on the assumed contact law between the spheres. Moreover, since the matrix is not explicitly included in the analysis, this model cannot be used to predict the stress-strain responses. These analyses have revealed that the complete constitutive response of cermets depends both on the kinematic constraints imposed by the particle aggregate skeleton, and the constraints imposed by the metal matrix filling the interstitial spaces in that skeleton. BibTeX: @article{Bele2017, author = {Bele, E and Goel, A and Pickering, EG and Borstnar, G and Katsamenis, OL and Pierron, F and Danas, K and Deshpande, VS}, title = {Deformation mechanisms of idealised cermets under multi-axial loading}, journal = {Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2017}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022509616308146}, doi = {10.1016/j.jmps.2017.01.002} }  Bottaro E, Mosayyebi A, Carugo D and Nastruzzi C (2017), "Analysis of the Diffusion Process by pH Indicator in Microfluidic Chips for Liposome Production", Micromachines. Vol. 8(7), pp. 209. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: In recent years, the development of nano- and micro-particles has attracted considerable interest from researchers and enterprises, because of the potential utility of such particles as drug delivery vehicles. Amongst the different techniques employed for the production of nanoparticles, microfluidic-based methods have proven to be the most effective for controlling particle size and dispersity, and for achieving high encapsulation efficiency of bioactive compounds. In this study, we specifically focus on the production of liposomes, spherical vesicles formed by a lipid bilayer encapsulating an aqueous core. The formation of liposomes in microfluidic devices is often governed by diffusive mass transfer of chemical species at the liquid interface between a solvent (i.e., alcohol) and a non-solvent (i.e., water). In this work, we developed a new approach for the analysis of mixing processes within microfluidic devices. The method relies on the use of a pH indicator, and we demonstrate its utility by characterizing the transfer of ethanol and water within two different microfluidic architectures. Our approach represents an effective route to experimentally characterize diffusion and advection processes governing the formation of vesicular/micellar systems in microfluidics, and can also be employed to validate the results of numerical modelling. BibTeX: @article{Bottaro2017, author = {Bottaro, Elisabetta and Mosayyebi, Ali and Carugo, Dario and Nastruzzi, Claudio}, title = {Analysis of the Diffusion Process by pH Indicator in Microfluidic Chips for Liposome Production}, journal = {Micromachines}, publisher = {Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute}, year = {2017}, volume = {8}, number = {7}, pages = {209}, url = {http://www.mdpi.com/2072-666X/8/7/209/htm}, doi = {10.3390/mi8070209} }  Corni I, Symonds N, Birrell CE, Katsamenis OL, Wasenczuk A and Vincent D (2017), "Characterization and mapping of rolling contact fatigue in rail-axle bearings", Engineering Failure Analysis. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: This paper presents a new stage of on-going research to fully characterize the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) damage observed in rail axle Compact Tapered roller Bearing Units (CTBUs). The bearings examined in this work have been removed from service, following the identification of degradation using on-board condition monitoring techniques. The running surfaces of the bearings were examined and the damage fully characterized using a mixture of metallographic, surface profilometry and high-resolution micro-Computed Tomography (μ-CT) techniques. In this manner the RCF was categorised by initiation mechanism: sub-surface or surface. This work has led to an increased understanding of the propagation of sub-surface and surface initiated RCF and its implications for life and condition of the bearing once failure has initiated. It was determined that the sub-surface initiated RCF damage was the first to occur in service and produced large craters on the bearing running surface. Once material had been lost in this primary manner, further secondary surface-initiating RCF grew from the edges of the large craters. It was deemed that the deep primary sub-surface RCF craters were more life limiting than the secondary surface damage. Therefore maps of the damage were created allowing the two mechanisms to be examined separately, both visually and by quantitative parameters such as volume loss, area, depth, roughness etc. BibTeX: @article{Corni2017, author = {Corni, Ilaria and Symonds, Nicola and Birrell, Christopher E and Katsamenis, Orestis L and Wasenczuk, Adam and Vincent, David}, title = {Characterization and mapping of rolling contact fatigue in rail-axle bearings}, journal = {Engineering Failure Analysis}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2017}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1350630716308615}, doi = {10.1016/j.engfailanal.2017.04.012} }  Farbstein R and Davies W (2017), "Palaeolithic ceramic technology: The artistic origins and impacts of a technological innovation", Quaternary International. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: This paper analyses the assemblages of Upper Palaeolithic ceramic figurines and figurine fragments from Czech Republic (“Pavlovian”) and Croatia, which are some of the first iterations of this material and technological innovation in Europe. Using chaîne opératoire methodology, this paper compares both the technologies and gestures involved in the manufacture of these artefacts as well as the impact of these new materials on art and society in each context. These analyses reveal how the introduction of this innovative material and the associated technologies used to make ceramic art proved to be an important catalyst for more experimentation and play in the production of art, which led to innovations in artistic expression. Furthermore, this research highlights the need to study Palaeolithic ceramic artefacts using quantitative and nuanced analytical methodologies that move beyond the traditional focus on the most iconographically-striking Palaeolithic art. BibTeX: @article{Farbstein2017, author = {Farbstein, Rebecca and Davies, William}, title = {Palaeolithic ceramic technology: The artistic origins and impacts of a technological innovation}, journal = {Quaternary International}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2017}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618216303500}, doi = {10.1016/j.quaint.2016.11.012} }  Garcea S, Sinclair I, Spearing S and Withers P (2017), "Mapping fibre failure in situ in carbon fibre reinforced polymers by fast synchrotron X-ray computed tomography", Composites Science and Technology. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Fast, in situ synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been used to capture damage evolution, particularly fibre failures, before final fracture (within 99.9% of the ultimate tensile stress) in cross-ply carbon fibre/epoxy coupons under continuous monotonic tensile loading for the first time. It is noteworthy that fewer than 8% of the fibres in the 0° plies have fractured at 99.9% of the failure load. The majority of fibre breaks appear as isolated events, although some instances of multiple adjacent breaks (clusters) do occur at intermediate and high stress levels. Contrary to conventional wisdom, a cluster of failed fibres always occurred in a burst as a singular failure event: clusters were never seen to accumulate additional broken fibres as load increased suggesting low-level stress concentration local to fibre breaks. Several instances of multiple fractures along individual fibres were observed, providing an estimation of the critical stress transfer length between the fibre and matrix. The factors affecting fibre failure appear to be complex, with distinct sample-to-sample variability being identified for the length-scale tested. This highlights the need for improved understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to final failure, particularly criteria controlling the arrest or otherwise of clustered fracture events. BibTeX: @article{Garcea2017, author = {Garcea, SC and Sinclair, I and Spearing, SM and Withers, PJ}, title = {Mapping fibre failure in situ in carbon fibre reinforced polymers by fast synchrotron X-ray computed tomography}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2017}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353817300957}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2017.06.006} }  Gioumouxouzis CI, Katsamenis OL, Bouropoulos N and Fatouros DG (2017), "3D printed oral solid dosage forms containing hydrochlorothiazide for controlled drug delivery", Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. Vol. 40, pp. 164-171. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: 3D printing has been recently employed in the design and fabrication of medicine, aiming to improve their properties and release behavior. In the current work an oral solid dosage form was created by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using a custom built filament comprised of a water soluble polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), mannitol and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) as model drug and further co-formulated via Hot-Melt Extrusion (HME). This composition was printed as the inner part of a three-compartment hollow cylinder dosage form using a dual extrusion 3D FDM printer, whereas the outer parts of the formulation consisted of water-insoluble polylactic acid (PLA). The produced formulations were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Release studies were performed in pH 1.2 and 6.8 whereas time-lapsed X-ray microfocus Computed Tomography (4D-CT), was employed to visualize volumetric and morphological changes of the formulations during the dissolution procedure. The results showed that HCTZ was incorporated in the amorphous state. Dissolution studies demonstrated that HCTZ exhibited zero-order kinetics whereas 4D-CT revealed a bi-directional smooth and homogenous reduction of PVA further corroborating the dissolution studies. The results showed that FDM printing might be used to ‘fine tune’ the release of drug molecules. BibTeX: @article{Gioumouxouzis2017, author = {Gioumouxouzis, Christos I and Katsamenis, Orestis L and Bouropoulos, Nikolaos and Fatouros, Dimitrios G}, title = {3D printed oral solid dosage forms containing hydrochlorothiazide for controlled drug delivery}, journal = {Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2017}, volume = {40}, pages = {164-171}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1773224717302721}, doi = {10.1016/j.jddst.2017.06.008} }  Griffith S, Thompson C and others (2017), "The Use of Laser Scanning for Visualization and Quantification of Abrasion on Water-Submerged Bone", Human Remains: Another Dimension: The Application of Imaging to the Study of Human Remains., In Human Remains: Another Dimension. , pp. 103. Academic Press. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: This chapter discusses the potential of laser scanning for quantitatively recording sediment abrasion on submerged bone in experimental and actualistic taphonomy studies. A series of flume based experiments were conducted to allow incremental abrasion on bone to be recorded over fixed time periods. Using a Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison (M3C2) plugin for CloudCompare© software, point clouds of the pre and post-abrasion surfaces of bone were compared. This methodology allowed erosion depths and locations, and incremental volume changes to be effectively measured. Through this approach it was possible to understand differences in bone abrasion rates as they relate to specific taphonomic variables; with duration of bombardment (time), and sediment grain morphology and size being identified as having notable influences on abrasion propagation. This preliminary study has shown that laser scanning can be used to accurately record abrasion on submerged bone at a resolution not possible through gross morphological assessment. It is suggested that this quantitative approach may lead to an improved assessment of the accuracy, and hence the propriety, of using abrasion recorded on bone for decoding aquatic taphonomic pathways BibTeX: @article{Griffith2017, author = {Griffith, Samuel and Thompson, Charlotte and others}, title = {The Use of Laser Scanning for Visualization and Quantification of Abrasion on Water-Submerged Bone}, booktitle = {Human Remains: Another Dimension}, journal = {Human Remains: Another Dimension: The Application of Imaging to the Study of Human Remains}, publisher = {Academic Press}, year = {2017}, pages = {103}, url = {https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=lAVQCwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA103&dq=%CE%BC-VIS+southampton+-movies&ots=ZtCxGFkRh5&sig=lL2LZ-9dmp_GWyYT33r9oDSp6as#v=onepage&q=%CE%BC-VIS%20southampton%20-movies&f=false}, doi = {10.1016/b978-0-12-804602-9.00009-6} }  Jenkins T, Katsamenis O, Andriotis O, Coutts L, Carter B, Dunlop D, Oreffo R, Cooper C, Harvey N, Thurner P and others (2017), "The inferomedial femoral neck is compromised by age but not disease: Fracture toughness and the multifactorial mechanisms comprising reference point microindentation", Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The influence of ageing on the fracture mechanics of cortical bone tissue is well documented, though little is known about if and how related material properties are further affected in two of the most prominent musculoskeletal diseases, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (OA). The femoral neck, in close proximity to the most pertinent osteoporotic fracture site and near the hip joint affected by osteoarthritis, is a site of particular interest for investigation. We have recently shown that Reference Point micro-Indentation (RPI) detects differences between cortical bone from the femoral neck of healthy, osteoporotic fractured and osteoarthritic hip replacement patients. RPI is a new technique with potential for in vivo bone quality assessment. However, interpretation of RPI results is limited because the specific changes in bone properties with pathology are not well understood and, further, because it is not conclusive what properties are being assessed by RPI. Here, we investigate whether the differences previously detected between healthy and diseased cortical bone from the femoral neck might reflect changes in fracture toughness. Together with this, we investigate, which additional properties are reflected in RPI measures. RPI (using the Biodent device) and fracture toughness tests were conducted on samples from the inferomedial neck of bone resected from donors with: OA (41 samples from 15 donors), osteoporosis (48 samples from 14 donors) and non age-matched cadaveric controls (37 samples from 10 donoros) with no history of bone disease. Further, a subset of indented samples were imaged using micro-computed tomography (3 osteoporotic and 4 control samples each from different donors) as well as fluorescence microscopy in combination with serial sectioning after basic fuchsin staining (7 osteoporotic and 5 control samples from 5 osteoporotic and 5 control donors). In this study, the bulk indentation and fracture resistance properties of the inferomedial femoral neck in osteoporotic fracture, severe OA and control bone were comparable (p > 0.05 for fracture properties and <10% difference for indentation) but fracture toughness reduced with advancing age (7.0% per decade, r = −0.36, p = 0.029). Further, RPI properties (in particular, the indentation distance increase, IDI) showed partial correlation with fracture toughness (r = −0.40, p = 0.023) or derived elastic modulus (r = −0.40, p = 0.023). Multimodal indent imaging revealed evidence of toughening mechanisms (i.e. crack deflection, bridging and microcracking), elastoplastic response (in terms of the non-conical imprint shape and presence of pile-up) and correlation of RPI with damage extent (up to r = 0.79, p = 0.034) and indent size (up to r = 0.82, p < 0.001). Therefore, crack resistance, deformation resistance and, additionally, micro-structure (porosity: r = 0.93, p = 0.002 as well as pore proximity: r = −0.55, p = 0.027 for correlation with IDI) are all contributory to RPI. Consequently, it becomes clear that RPI measures represent a multitude of properties, various aspects of bone quality, but are not necessarily strongly correlated to a single mechanical property. In addition, osteoporosis or osteoarthritis do not seem to further influence fracture toughness of the inferomedial femoral neck beyond natural ageing. Since bone is highly heterogeneous, whether this finding can be extended to the whole femoral neck or whether it also holds true for other femoral neck quadrants or other material properties remains to be shown. BibTeX: @article{Jenkins2017, author = {Jenkins, T and Katsamenis, OL and Andriotis, OG and Coutts, LV and Carter, B and Dunlop, DG and Oreffo, ROC and Cooper, C and Harvey, NC and Thurner, PJ and others}, title = {The inferomedial femoral neck is compromised by age but not disease: Fracture toughness and the multifactorial mechanisms comprising reference point microindentation}, journal = {Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2017}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1751616117302825}, doi = {doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.06.036} }  Karavasili C, Komnenou A, Katsamenis OL, Charalampidou G, Kofidou E, Andreadis D, Koutsopoulos S and Fatouros DG (2017), "Self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogels for controlled ocular delivery of timolol maleate", ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering. ACS Publications. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The self-assembling peptides Ac-(RADA)4-CONH2 and Ac-(IEIK)3I-CONH2, which form hydrogels in physiological conditions, were evaluated as carriers for ocular delivery of the β-blocker timolol maleate. Electron microscopy studies revealed that hydrogels contain nanofibers, whereas rheological studies showed that the Ac-(IEIK)3I-CONH2 self-assembles in a stiffer hydrogel compared with the Ac-(RADA)4-CONH2 peptide. The in vitro release and ex vivo permeation studies demonstrated controlled release and transport of the drug through the cornea, which depended on the self-assembling peptide sequence. In vivo studies in rabbits showed significant increase in the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) after administration of the drug through the Ac-(RADA)4-CONH2 hydrogel compared to drug solution, whereas a sustained reduction of intraocular pressure for up to 24 h after instillation was achieved for both drug-loaded hydrogels. Histological studies revealed good ocular tolerability upon application of the formulations, suggesting that self-assembling peptide hydrogels are promising systems for sustained ocular drug delivery. BibTeX: @article{Karavasili2017, author = {Karavasili, Christina and Komnenou, Anastasia and Katsamenis, Orestis L and Charalampidou, Glykeria and Kofidou, Evangelia and Andreadis, Dimitrios and Koutsopoulos, Sotirios and Fatouros, Dimitrios G}, title = {Self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogels for controlled ocular delivery of timolol maleate}, journal = {ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering}, publisher = {ACS Publications}, year = {2017}, url = {http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.7b00706}, doi = {10.1021/acsbiomaterials.7b00706} }  Keyes SD, Gostling NJ, Cheung JH, Roose T, Sinclair I and Marchant A (2017), "The Application of Contrast Media for In Vivo Feature Enhancement in X-Ray Computed Tomography of Soil-Grown Plant Roots", Microscopy and Microanalysis. Vol. 23(3), pp. 1-15. Cambridge University Press. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The use of in vivo X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) to study plant root systems has become routine, but is often hampered by poor contrast between roots, soil, soil water, and soil organic matter. In clinical radiology, imaging of poorly contrasting regions is frequently aided by the use of radio-opaque contrast media. In this study, we present evidence for the utility of iodinated contrast media (ICM) in the study of plant root systems using μCT. Different dilutions of an ionic and nonionic ICM (Gastrografin 370 and Niopam 300) were perfused into the aerial vasculature of juvenile pea plants via a leaf flap (Pisum sativum). The root systems were imaged via μCT, and a variety of image-processing approaches used to quantify and compare the magnitude of the contrast enhancement between different regions. Though the treatment did not appear to significantly aid extraction of full root system architectures from the surrounding soil, it did allow the xylem and phloem units of seminal roots and the vascular morphology within rhizobial nodules to be clearly visualized. The nonionic, low-osmolality contrast agent Niopam appeared to be well tolerated by the plant, whereas Gastrografin showed evidence of toxicity. In summary, the use of iodine-based contrast media allows usually poorly contrasting root structures to be visualized nondestructively using X-ray μCT. In particular, the vascular structures of roots and rhizobial nodules can be clearly visualized in situ. BibTeX: @article{Keyes2017, author = {Keyes, Samuel D and Gostling, Neil J and Cheung, Jessica H and Roose, Tiina and Sinclair, Ian and Marchant, Alan}, title = {The Application of Contrast Media for In Vivo Feature Enhancement in X-Ray Computed Tomography of Soil-Grown Plant Roots}, journal = {Microscopy and Microanalysis}, publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, year = {2017}, volume = {23}, number = {3}, pages = {1--15}, url = {https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/microscopy-and-microanalysis/article/div-classtitlethe-application-of-contrast-media-for-span-classitalicin-vivospan-feature-enhancement-in-x-ray-computed-tomography-of-soil-grown-plant-rootsdiv/687B548A192FB0CAAAAA673673F0D795}, doi = {10.1017/S1431927617000319} }  Koebernick N, Daly KR, Keyes SD, George TS, Brown LK, Raffan A, Cooper LJ, Naveed M, Bengough AG, Sinclair I and others (2017), "High-resolution synchrotron imaging shows that root hairs influence rhizosphere soil structure formation", New Phytologist. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Summary In this paper, we provide direct evidence of the importance of root hairs on pore structure development at the root–soil interface during the early stage of crop establishment. This was achieved by use of high-resolution (c. 5 μm) synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) to visualise both the structure of root hairs and the soil pore structure in plant–soil microcosms. Two contrasting genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), with and without root hairs, were grown for 8 d in microcosms packed with sandy loam soil at 1.2 g cm−3 dry bulk density. Root hairs were visualised within air-filled pore spaces, but not in the fine-textured soil regions. We found that the genotype with root hairs significantly altered the porosity and connectivity of the detectable pore space (> 5 μm) in the rhizosphere, as compared with the no-hair mutants. Both genotypes showed decreasing pore space between 0.8 and 0.1 mm from the root surface. Interestingly the root-hair-bearing genotype had a significantly greater soil pore volume-fraction at the root–soil interface. Effects of pore structure on diffusion and permeability were estimated to be functionally insignificant under saturated conditions when simulated using image-based modelling. BibTeX: @article{Koebernick2017, author = {Koebernick, Nicolai and Daly, Keith R and Keyes, Samuel D and George, Timothy S and Brown, Lawrie K and Raffan, Annette and Cooper, Laura J and Naveed, Muhammad and Bengough, Anthony G and Sinclair, Ian and others}, title = {High-resolution synchrotron imaging shows that root hairs influence rhizosphere soil structure formation}, journal = {New Phytologist}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2017}, url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.14705/full}, doi = {10.1111/nph.14705} }  Marter A, Pierron F, Dickinson A and Browne M (2017), "Experimental methodologies for the accurate measurement of modulus values of analogue bone", Bone Joint J. Vol. 99(SUPP 2), pp. 76-76. British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Polymer foams have been used extensively in the testing and development of orthopaedic devices and for verification of computational models. Their use is often preferred over cadaver and animal models due to being relatively inexpensive and their consistent material properties. Successful validation of such models requires accurate material/mechanical data. The assumed range of compressive moduli, provided in the sawbones technical sheet, is 16 MPa to 1.15 GPa depending on the density of foam. In this investigation, we apply two non-contact measurement techniques (digital volume correlation (DVC) and optical surface extensometry) to assess the validity of these reported values. It is thought that such non-contact methods remove mechanical extensometer errors (slippage, misalignment) and restrict the effect of test-machine end-artifacts (friction, non-uniform loading, platen flexibility). This is because measurement is taken directly from the sample, and hence material property assessment should be more accurate. Use of DVC is advantageous as full field strain measurement is possible, however test time and cost is significantly higher than extensometry. Hence, the study also sought to assess the viability of optical extensometry for characterising porous materials. Testing was conducted on five 20 mm cubic samples of 0.32g/cc (20 pcf) solid rigid polyurethane foam (SAWBONESTM). The strain behaviour was characterised by incremental loading via an in situ loading rig. Loading was performed in 0.1 mm increments for 8 load steps with scans between loading steps. Full field strain measurement was performed on one sample by micro focus tomography (muvis centre, Southampton) and subsequent DVC (DaVis, Lavision). Calculation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was then preformed through use of the virtual fields method. These results were subsequently corroborated by use of optical extensometry (MatchID). To account for heterogeneities, axial strain measurements were averaged from six points on the front and rear surfaces. A computationally derived correction factor was then applied to account for through volume strain variations. In each test compressive displacement was applied to 900N (∼2MPa) to remain within the linear elastic region. Significant variability of individual strain measurements were observed from extensometry measurements on the same sample, indicating non-uniform loading did occur in all samples. However by averaging across multiple points linear loading profiles were identified. For all non-contact methods the calculated elastic moduli were found to range between 331–428 MPa whilst the approximated modulus based on cross head displacement was ∼210 MPa. The optical-extensometry gave a considerably higher modulus (p = 0.047) than the DVC results as only surface measurements were made. However, following computational based correction values converged within 6% of one another. Both the DVC and point-tracking results (p = 0.001) indicated substantially higher compressive modulus (137%) than the manufacturer provided properties. This study demonstrates that methods of measuring displacement data on of cellular foams must be carefully considered, as artefacts can lead to significant errors of up to 137%, and such errors may falsely influence the design and validation of tested devices. BibTeX: @article{Marter2017, author = {Marter, A and Pierron, F and Dickinson, A and Browne, M}, title = {Experimental methodologies for the accurate measurement of modulus values of analogue bone}, journal = {Bone Joint J}, publisher = {British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery}, year = {2017}, volume = {99}, number = {SUPP 2}, pages = {76--76}, url = {http://www.bjjprocs.boneandjoint.org.uk/content/99-B/SUPP_2/76} }  Mbuya TO, Sinclair I, Soady KA and Reed PA (2017), "Application of X-Ray Microtomography to Evaluate Complex Microstructure and Predict the Lower Bound Fatigue Potential of Cast Al--7 (0.7) Si--4Cu--3Ni--Mg Alloys", Advanced Engineering Materials. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The 3D architecture of intermetallics and porosity in two multicomponentcast Al–7(0.7)Si–4Cu–3Ni–Mg alloys is characterized using conventionalmicroscopy and X-ray microtomography. The two alloys are found to containintermetallic phases such as Al3Ni, Al3(NiCu)2,Al9FeNi, and Al5Cu2Mg8Si6that have complex networked morphology in 3D. The results also show thatHIPping does not significantly affect the volume fraction, size, and shapedistribution of the intermetallic phases in both alloys. A novel techniquesimilar to serial sectioning that circumvents quantification difficultiesassociated with interconnected particles is used to quantify the intermetallics.The largest particle size distribution is then correlated to fatigue performanceusing extreme value analysis to predict the maximum particle size in asample of S-N fatigue specimens and subsequently, the lower bound fatiguelife. The predictions are found to correlate well with fatigue data. The effectof HIPping on porosity characteristics is also characterized. Large poreclusters with complex morphology are observed in the unHIPped versions ofboth alloys, but more significant in the low Si (Al–0.7Si–4Cu–3Ni–Mg) alloy.However, these are significantly reduced after HIPping. The differencesbetween 2D and 3D pore morphology and size distribution is discussed interms of the appropriate pore size parameter for fatigue life prediction. BibTeX: @article{mbuya2017application, author = {Mbuya, Thomas O and Sinclair, Ian and Soady, Katherine A and Reed, Philippa AS}, title = {Application of X-Ray Microtomography to Evaluate Complex Microstructure and Predict the Lower Bound Fatigue Potential of Cast Al--7 (0.7) Si--4Cu--3Ni--Mg Alloys}, journal = {Advanced Engineering Materials}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2017}, url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adem.201700218/full}, doi = {10.1002/adem.201700218} }  Nobakhti S, Katsamenis O, Zaarour N, Limbert G and Thurner PJ (2017), "Elastic modulus varies along the bovine femur", Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. Vol. 71, pp. 279-285. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Bone is a heterogeneous material and its mechanical properties vary within the body. Variations in the mechanical response of different bone samples taken from the body cannot be fully explained by only looking at local compositional information at the tissue level. Due to different states of the stress within bones, one might expect that mechanical properties change over the length of a bone; this has not been a matter of systematic research in previous studies. In this study, the distribution of the tissue elastic modulus along the bovine femur is investigated using three-point bending tests. Two bovine femora were split to seven and eight blocks from proximal to distal metaphysis, respectively and twenty beam shaped bone samples were extracted and tested from each block. Based on our findings, the longitudinal elastic modulus follows a gradient pattern along the bovine femur as it increases along the bone from the proximal metaphysis to mid-diaphysis and then decreases toward the distal metaphysis again. Considering long bones to be subjected to bending loads, this mechanism alters the bone structure to support load in the regions where it is needed; similar as outlined by Wolff's law. In another part of this study, microfocus X-ray computed tomography (μCT) was found unable to predict the same trend of changes for the elastic modulus via image-based or density-based elastic moduli calculations. This is insofar important as conventional finite element models of bone are often directly shaped from μCT data. Based on our findings, it seems that current computed tomography based finite element models generated in this manner may not adequately capture the local variation of material behavior of bone tissue, but this may be improved by considering the changes of the elastic modulus along the femur. BibTeX: @article{Nobakhti2017, author = {Nobakhti, Sabah and Katsamenis, Orestis and Zaarour, Nizar and Limbert, Georges and Thurner, Philipp J}, title = {Elastic modulus varies along the bovine femur}, journal = {Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2017}, volume = {71}, pages = {279--285}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S175161611730142X}, doi = {10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.03.021} }  Núñez JA, Goring A, Hesse E, Thurner PJ, Schneider P and Clarkin CE (2017), "Simultaneous visualisation of calcified bone microstructure and intracortical vasculature using synchrotron X-ray phase contrast-enhanced tomography", Scientific Reports., October, 2017. Vol. 7(13289) [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: 3D imaging of the bone vasculature is of key importance in the understanding of skeletal disease. As blood vessels in bone are deeply encased in the calcified matrix, imaging techniques that are applicable to soft tissues are generally difficult or impossible to apply to the skeleton. While canals in cortical bone can readily be identified and characterised in X-ray computed tomographic data in 3D, the soft tissue comprising blood vessels that are putatively contained within the canal structures does not provide sufficient image contrast necessary for image segmentation. Here, we report an approach that allows for rapid, simultaneous visualisation of calcified bone tissue and the vasculature within the calcified bone matrix. Using synchrotron X-ray phase contrast-enhanced tomography we show exemplar data with intracortical capillaries uncovered at sub-micrometre level without the need for any staining or contrast agent. Using the tibiofibular junction of 15 week-old C57BL/6 mice post mortem, we show the bone cortical porosity simultaneously along with the soft tissue comprising the vasculature. Validation with histology confirms that we can resolve individual capillaries. This imaging approach could be easily applied to other skeletal sites and transgenic models, and could improve our understanding of the role the vasculature plays in bone disease. BibTeX: @article{Nunez2017, author = {Núñez, Juan A and Goring, Alice and Hesse, Eric and Thurner, Philipp J and Schneider, Philipp and Clarkin, Claire E}, title = {Simultaneous visualisation of calcified bone microstructure and intracortical vasculature using synchrotron X-ray phase contrast-enhanced tomography}, journal = {Scientific Reports}, year = {2017}, volume = {7}, number = {13289}, url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-13632-5}, doi = {10.1038/s41598-017-13632-5} }  O’Brien A, Whiteside DI and Marshall JE (2017), "Anatomical study of two previously undescribed specimens of Clevosaurus hudsoni (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia) from Cromhall Quarry, UK, aided by computed tomography, yields additional information on the skeleton and hitherto undescribed bones", Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society., dec, 2017. Vol. 183(1), pp. 163-195. Oxford University Press (OUP). [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: We investigate two well-preserved and previously undescribed specimens of Clevosaurus hudsoni from a Late Triassic fissure deposit at Cromhall Quarry, SW Britain. For the first time computed tomography (CT) scans of British Triassic fissure specimens have been successfully digitally segmented. Visualisation software was used to isolate bone from matrix and to separate individual bones from each other, revealing hidden cranial and postcranial elements. The CT data, together with stereoscopic microscope analysis, have enabled a full evaluation of the specimens including previously poorly known or undescribed elements of the type species of the clevosaur clade. We present detailed descriptions of the cervical vertebrae including the atlas-axis complex. Little studied bones such as the gastralia and epipodials are detailed here and a gap in the lower temporal bar is confirmed. Sclerotic ossicles are presented for the first time for C. hudsoni. A fully fused scapulocoracoid and unfused astragalus and calcaneum provide new insights into clevosaur ontogeny. The CT scans provide key information on post mortem movement and taphonomy of the specimen, revealing fragmentation of part of the skull by the right arm, which has been thrust into the right side of the skull displacing both cranial and jaw bones. BibTeX: @article{O’Brien2017, author = {O’Brien, Aileen and Whiteside, David I and Marshall, John EA}, title = {Anatomical study of two previously undescribed specimens of Clevosaurus hudsoni (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia) from Cromhall Quarry, UK, aided by computed tomography, yields additional information on the skeleton and hitherto undescribed bones}, journal = {Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society}, publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)}, year = {2017}, volume = {183}, number = {1}, pages = {163--195}, url = {https://academic.oup.com/zoolinnean/article/183/1/163/4744334}, doi = {10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx087} }  Romei F, Grubišić A and Gibbon D (2017), "Manufacturing of a high-temperature resistojet heat exchanger by selective laser melting", Acta Astronautica. Elsevier. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{Romei2017, author = {Romei, F and Grubišić, AN and Gibbon, D}, title = {Manufacturing of a high-temperature resistojet heat exchanger by selective laser melting}, journal = {Acta Astronautica}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2017}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094576517300632}, doi = {10.1016/j.actaastro.2017.05.020} }  Wollatz L, Johnston SJ, Lackie PM and Cox SJ (2017), "3D Histopathology—a Lung Tissue Segmentation Workflow for Microfocus X-ray-Computed Tomography Scans", Journal of Digital Imaging. , pp. 1-10. Springer. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Lung histopathology is currently based on the analysis of 2D sections of tissue samples. The use of microfocus X-ray-computed tomography imaging of unstained soft tissue can provide high-resolution 3D image datasets in the range of 2–10 μm without affecting the current diagnostic workflow. Important details of structural features such as the tubular networks of airways and blood vessels are contained in these datasets but are difficult and time-consuming to identify by manual image segmentation. Providing 3D structures permits a better understanding of tissue functions and structural interrelationships. It also provides a more complete picture of heterogeneous samples. In addition, 3D analysis of tissue structure provides the potential for an entirely new level of quantitative measurements of this structure that have previously been based only on extrapolation from 2D sections. In this paper, a workflow for segmenting such 3D images semi-automatically has been created using and extending the ImageJ open-source software and key steps of the workflow have been integrated into a new ImageJ plug-in called LungJ. Results indicate an improved workflow with a modular organization of steps facilitating the optimization for different sample and scan properties with expert input as required. This allows for incremental and independent optimization of algorithms leading to faster segmentation. Representation of the tubular networks in samples of human lung, building on those segmentations, has been demonstrated using this approach. BibTeX: @article{Wollatz2017, author = {Wollatz, Lasse and Johnston, Steven J and Lackie, Peter M and Cox, Simon J}, title = {3D Histopathology—a Lung Tissue Segmentation Workflow for Microfocus X-ray-Computed Tomography Scans}, journal = {Journal of Digital Imaging}, publisher = {Springer}, year = {2017}, pages = {1--10}, url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10278-017-9966-5}, doi = {10.1007/s10278-017-9966-5} }  Woods C, Fernee C, Browne M, Zakrzewski S and Dickinson A (2017), "The potential of statistical shape modelling for geometric morphometric analysis of human teeth in archaeological research", PloS one., dec, 2017. Vol. 12(12), pp. e0186754. Public Library of Science. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: This paper introduces statistical shape modelling (SSM) for use in osteoarchaeology research. SSM is a full field, multi-material analytical technique, and is presented as a supplementary geometric morphometric (GM) tool. Lower mandibular canines from two archaeological populations and one modern population were sampled, digitised using micro-CT, aligned, registered to a baseline and statistically modelled using principal component analysis (PCA). Sample material properties were incorporated as a binary enamel/dentin parameter. Results were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using anatomical landmarks. Finally, the technique’s application was demonstrated for inter-sample comparison through analysis of the principal component (PC) weights. It was found that SSM could provide high detail qualitative and quantitative insight with respect to archaeological inter- and intra-sample variability. This technique has value for archaeological, biomechanical and forensic applications including identification, finite element analysis (FEA) and reconstruction from partial datasets. BibTeX: @article{Woods2017, author = {Woods, Christopher and Fernee, Christianne and Browne, Martin and Zakrzewski, Sonia and Dickinson, Alexander}, editor = {Alistair Robert Evans}, title = {The potential of statistical shape modelling for geometric morphometric analysis of human teeth in archaeological research}, journal = {PloS one}, publisher = {Public Library of Science}, year = {2017}, volume = {12}, number = {12}, pages = {e0186754}, url = {http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0186754}, doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0186754} }  Yusuf SM, Chen Y, Boardman R, Yang S and Gao N (2017), "Investigation on Porosity and Microhardness of 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting", Metals. Vol. 7(2), pp. 64. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: This study investigates the porosity and microhardness of 316L stainless steel samples fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). The porosity content was measured using the Archimedes method and the advanced X-ray computed tomography (XCT) scan. High densification level (≥99%) with a low average porosity content ( 0.82%) were obtained from the Archimedes method. The highest porosity content in the XCT-scanned sample was  0.61. However, the pores in the SLM samples for both cases (optical microscopy and XCT) were not uniformly distributed. The higher average microhardness values in the SLM samples compared to the wrought manufactured counterpart are attributed to the fine microstructures from the localised melting and rapid solidification rate of the SLM process BibTeX: @article{Yusuf2017, author = {Yusuf, Shahir Mohd and Chen, Yifei and Boardman, Richard and Yang, Shoufeng and Gao, Nong}, title = {Investigation on Porosity and Microhardness of 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting}, journal = {Metals}, publisher = {Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute}, year = {2017}, volume = {7}, number = {2}, pages = {64}, url = {http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4701/7/2/64}, doi = {10.3390/met7020064} }  Zeller-Plumhoff B, Mead JL, Tan D, Roose T, Clough GF, Boardman RP and Schneider P (2017), "Soft tissue 3D imaging in the lab through optimised propagation-based phase contrast computed tomography", Optics Express., dec, 2017. Vol. 25(26), pp. 33451. The Optical Society. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Tomographic phase contrast imaging using hard X-rays is instrumental in revealing and understanding the three-dimensional (3D) anatomic structure of biological tissues. However, phase contrast imaging is often limited to synchrotron radiation sources to which access is limited and highly competitive. Therefore, it is critical to enable high-quality phase contrast tomography using lab-based X-ray sources. We present a lab-based soft tissue 3D imaging approach through optimised in-line phase contrast computed tomography, building upon and going beyond previous work of Bidola et al. [Opt Express 23(23), 30000-30013 (2015)]. Murine soleus muscle was used as a test specimen to systemically optimise source-to-sample and sample-to-detector distances, exposure time and the critical ratio used for Paganin phase retrieval before tomographic reconstruction. Larger propagation distances combined with longer exposure times resulted in improved image quality. Whilst the contrast-to-noise ratio of lab-based phase contrast imaging was found to be lower than that of synchrotron-based imaging, important microscopic soft tissue features, such as nerves, could well be distinguished in 3D from surrounding tissue for both imaging modalities. This shows that lab-based X-ray sources present a viable alternative to synchrotron radiation sources for tomographic phase contrast imaging of soft tissues. BibTeX: @article{Zeller_Plumhoff_2017, author = {Berit Zeller-Plumhoff and Joshua L. Mead and Deck Tan and Tiina Roose and Geraldine F. Clough and Richard P. Boardman and Philipp Schneider}, title = {Soft tissue 3D imaging in the lab through optimised propagation-based phase contrast computed tomography}, journal = {Optics Express}, publisher = {The Optical Society}, year = {2017}, volume = {25}, number = {26}, pages = {33451}, url = {https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-25-26-33451}, doi = {10.1364/OE.25.033451} }  Zeller-Plumhoff B, Roose T, Katsamenis OL, Mavrogordato MN, Torrens C, Schneider P and Clough GF (2017), "Phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography of muscle spindles in the mouse soleus muscle", Journal of Anatomy., mar, 2017. Vol. 230(6), pp. 859-865. Wiley. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Muscle spindles are skeletal muscle sensory organs involved in the sensation of position and movement of the body. We have explored the capability of phase contrast computed tomography to visualise muscle spindles in murine skeletal muscle. In particular, we have validated the visualisation of nerve fibres through phase contrast computed tomography using light microscopy on stained histological sections. We further present the first three‐dimensional visualisation of muscle spindles in mouse soleus skeletal muscle in conjunction with the neurovascular bundle associated with it. BibTeX: @article{Zeller_Plumhoff_2017, author = {B. Zeller-Plumhoff and T. Roose and O. L. Katsamenis and M. N. Mavrogordato and C. Torrens and P. Schneider and G. F. Clough}, title = {Phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography of muscle spindles in the mouse soleus muscle}, journal = {Journal of Anatomy}, publisher = {Wiley}, year = {2017}, volume = {230}, number = {6}, pages = {859--865}, url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joa.12606}, doi = {10.1111/joa.12606} }  Zeller-Plumhoff B, Daly KR, Clough GF, Schneider P and Roose T (2017), "Investigation of microvascular morphological measures for skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation by image-based modelling in three dimensions", Journal of The Royal Society Interface., oct, 2017. Vol. 14(135), pp. 20170635. The Royal Society. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The supply of oxygen in sufficient quantity is vital for the correct functioning of all organs in the human body, especially for skeletal muscle during exercise. Traditionally, microvascular oxygen supply capability is assessed by the analysis of morphological measures on transverse cross-sections of muscle, e.g. capillary density or capillary-to-fibre ratio. In this work, we investigate the relationship between microvascular structure and muscle tissue oxygenation in mice. Phase contrast imaging was performed using synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to visualize red blood cells (RBCs) within the microvasculature in mouse soleus muscle. Image-based mathematical modelling of the oxygen diffusion from the RBCs into the muscle tissue was subsequently performed, as well as a morphometric analysis of the microvasculature. The mean tissue oxygenation was then compared with the morphological measures of the microvasculature. RBC volume fraction and spacing (mean distance of any point in tissue to the closest RBC) emerged as the best predictors for muscle tissue oxygenation, followed by length density (summed RBC length over muscle volume). The two-dimensional measures of capillary density and capillary-to-fibre ratio ranked last. We, therefore, conclude that, in order to assess the states of health of muscle tissue, it is advisable to rely on three-dimensional morphological measures rather than on the traditional two-dimensional measures. BibTeX: @article{Zeller_Plumhoff_2017, author = {B. Zeller-Plumhoff and K. R. Daly and G. F. Clough and P. Schneider and T. Roose}, title = {Investigation of microvascular morphological measures for skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation by image-based modelling in three dimensions}, journal = {Journal of The Royal Society Interface}, publisher = {The Royal Society}, year = {2017}, volume = {14}, number = {135}, pages = {20170635}, url = {https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29021164/}, doi = {10.1098/rsif.2017.0635} }  Zeller-Plumhoff B, Roose T, Clough G and Schneider P (2017), "Image-based modelling of skeletal muscle oxygenation", Journal of The Royal Society Interface. Vol. 14(127), pp. 20160992. The Royal Society. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The supply of oxygen in sufficient quantity is vital for the correct functioning of all organs in the human body, in particular for skeletal muscle during exercise. Disease is often associated with both an inhibition of the microvascular supply capability and is thought to relate to changes in the structure of blood vessel networks. Different methods exist to investigate the influence of the microvascular structure on tissue oxygenation, varying over a range of application areas, i.e. biological in vivo and in vitro experiments, imaging and mathematical modelling. Ideally, all of these methods should be combined within the same framework in order to fully understand the processes involved. This review discusses the mathematical models of skeletal muscle oxygenation currently available that are based upon images taken of the muscle microvasculature in vivo and ex vivo. Imaging systems suitable for capturing the blood vessel networks are discussed and respective contrasting methods presented. The review further informs the association between anatomical characteristics in health and disease. With this review we give the reader a tool to understand and establish the workflow of developing an image-based model of skeletal muscle oxygenation. Finally, we give an outlook for improvements needed for measurements and imaging techniques to adequately investigate the microvascular capability for oxygen exchange. BibTeX: @article{Zeller-Plumhoff2017, author = {Zeller-Plumhoff, Berit and Roose, Tiina and Clough, GF and Schneider, Philipp}, title = {Image-based modelling of skeletal muscle oxygenation}, journal = {Journal of The Royal Society Interface}, publisher = {The Royal Society}, year = {2017}, volume = {14}, number = {127}, pages = {20160992}, url = {http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/14/127/20160992}, doi = {10.1098/rsif.2016.0992} }  Zeller-Plumhoff B, Roose T, Mavrogordato M, Katsamenis O, Torrens C, Schneider P and Clough G (2017), "Phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography of muscle spindles in the mouse soleus muscle", Journal of Anatomy. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Muscle spindles are skeletal muscle sensory organs involved in the sensation of position and movement of the body. We have explored the capability of phase contrast computed tomography to visualise muscle spindles in murine skeletal muscle. In particular, we have validated the visualisation of nerve fibres through phase contrast computed tomography using light microscopy on stained histological sections. We further present the first 3D visualisation of muscle spindles in mouse soleus skeletal muscle in conjunction with the neurovascular bundle associated with it. BibTeX: @article{Zeller-Plumhoff2017a, author = {Zeller-Plumhoff, Berit and Roose, Tiina and Mavrogordato, Mark and Katsamenis, Orestis and Torrens, Christopher and Schneider, Philipp and Clough, Geraldine}, title = {Phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography of muscle spindles in the mouse soleus muscle}, journal = {Journal of Anatomy}, year = {2017}, url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/joa.12606/full}, doi = {10.1111/joa.12606} }  Zeller-Plumhoff B, Roose T, Katsamenis O, Mavrogordato M, Torrens C, Schneider P and Clough G (2017), "Phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography of muscle spindles in the mouse soleus muscle", Journal of Anatomy. Vol. 230(6), pp. 859-865. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Muscle spindles are skeletal muscle sensory organs involved in the sensation of position and movement of the body. We have explored the capability of phase contrast computed tomography to visualise muscle spindles in murine skeletal muscle. In particular, we have validated the visualisation of nerve fibres through phase contrast computed tomography using light microscopy on stained histological sections. We further present the first three-dimensional visualisation of muscle spindles in mouse soleus skeletal muscle in conjunction with the neurovascular bundle associated with it. BibTeX: @article{Zeller-Plumhoff2017b, author = {Zeller-Plumhoff, Berit and Roose, Tiina and Katsamenis, OL and Mavrogordato, MN and Torrens, Christopher and Schneider, Philipp and Clough, GF}, title = {Phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography of muscle spindles in the mouse soleus muscle}, journal = {Journal of Anatomy}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2017}, volume = {230}, number = {6}, pages = {859--865}, url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/joa.12606/full}, doi = {10.1111/joa.12606} }  Ahmed S, Klassen TN, Keyes S, Daly M, Jones DL, Mavrogordato M, Sinclair I and Roose T (2016), "Imaging the interaction of roots and phosphate fertiliser granules using 4D X-ray tomography", Plant and Soil. Vol. 401(1-2), pp. 125-134. Springer. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{ahmed2016imaging, author = {Ahmed, Sharif and Klassen, Trudy Naugler and Keyes, Samuel and Daly, Michael and Jones, David L and Mavrogordato, Mark and Sinclair, Ian and Roose, Tiina}, title = {Imaging the interaction of roots and phosphate fertiliser granules using 4D X-ray tomography}, journal = {Plant and Soil}, publisher = {Springer}, year = {2016}, volume = {401}, number = {1-2}, pages = {125--134}, url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11104-015-2425-5}, doi = {10.1007/s11104-015-2425-5} }  Apps JR, Hutchinson JC, Arthurs OJ, Virasami A, Joshi A, Zeller-Plumhoff B, Moulding D, Jacques TS, Sebire NJ and Martinez-Barbera JP (2016), "Imaging Invasion: Micro-CT imaging of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma highlights cell type specific spatial relationships of tissue invasion", Acta neuropathologica communications. Vol. 4(1), pp. 1. BioMed Central. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Tissue invasion and infiltration by brain tumours poses a clinical challenge, with destruction of structures leading to morbidity. We assessed whether micro-CT could be used to map tumour invasion in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP), and whether it could delineate ACPs and their intrinsic components from surrounding tissue.Three anonymised archival frozen ACP samples were fixed, iodinated and imaged using a micro-CT scanner prior to the use of standard histological processing and immunohistochemical techniques.We demonstrate that micro-CT imaging can non-destructively give detailed 3D structural information of tumours in volumes with isotropic voxel sizes of 4-6 microns, which can be correlated with traditional histology and immunohistochemistry.Such information complements classical histology by facilitating virtual slicing of the tissue in any plane and providing unique detail of the three dimensional relationships of tissue compartments. BibTeX: @article{apps2016imaging, author = {Apps, John R and Hutchinson, J Ciaran and Arthurs, Owen J and Virasami, Alex and Joshi, Abhijit and Zeller-Plumhoff, Berit and Moulding, Dale and Jacques, Thomas S and Sebire, Neil J and Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro}, title = {Imaging Invasion: Micro-CT imaging of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma highlights cell type specific spatial relationships of tissue invasion}, journal = {Acta neuropathologica communications}, publisher = {BioMed Central}, year = {2016}, volume = {4}, number = {1}, pages = {1}, url = {http://actaneurocomms.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40478-016-0321-8}, doi = {10.1186/s40478-016-0321-8} }  Arenas Martinez L, Ponce De Leon Albarran C, Boardman R and Walsh F (2016), "Data for Electrodeposition of platinum on titanium felt in a rectangular channel flow cell", University of Southampton. University of Southampton. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Highly porous platinised titanium substrates are attractive electrode materials for industrial electrochemical processing and electrochemical energy storage. The electrodeposition of platinum on titanium felt was carried out in a divided, rectangular channel flow cell from an alkaline bath without additives. The morphology and spatial distribution of the platinum deposits in the porous material were analysed using SEM and EDS microscopy in addition to X-ray computed tomography (CT). The electroplated surface area was estimated from the charge transfer current ratio for Ce(IV) reduction and related to a theoretical electrosorbed hydrogen monolayer surface area. The platinised titanium felt showed a significant enhancement of active surface area in comparison to conventional electrode materials. Although platinum was present throughout the porous electrode, CT revealed heterogeneous deposits accumulating in regions near the membrane (during electrodeposition), as a result of the potential distribution in the felt material and flowing electrolyte. Uniform platinum coatings are possible on thin titanium felt under 200 µm thick, by either potentiostatic or galvanostatic electrodeposition. Data for the paper Arenas Martinez, Luis, Ponce De Leon Albarran, Carlos, Boardman, Richard and Walsh, Frank (2016) Electrodeposition of platinum on titanium felt in a rectangular channel flow cell. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 164, (2), D1-D10. (doi:10.1149/2.0651702jes) BibTeX: @article{ArenasMartinez2016, author = {Arenas Martinez, Luis and Ponce De Leon Albarran, Carlos and Boardman, Richard and Walsh, Frank}, title = {Data for Electrodeposition of platinum on titanium felt in a rectangular channel flow cell}, journal = {University of Southampton}, publisher = {University of Southampton}, year = {2016}, url = {https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/403805/}, doi = {10.5258/SOTON/403805} }  Borstnar G, Mavrogordato M, Yang Q, Sinclair I and Spearing S (2016), "Crack path simulation in a particle-toughened interlayer within a polymer composite laminate", Composites Science and Technology., sep, 2016. Vol. 133, pp. 89-96. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Crack path simulation in a particle-toughened interlayer within a polymer composite laminate BibTeX: @article{Borstnar2016, author = {Borstnar, Gregor and Mavrogordato, MN and Yang, QD and Sinclair, Ian and Spearing, SM}, title = {Crack path simulation in a particle-toughened interlayer within a polymer composite laminate}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2016}, volume = {133}, pages = {89--96}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353816308053}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2016.07.024} }  Borstnar G, Gillard F, Mavrogordato M, Sinclair I and Spearing S (2016), "Three-dimensional deformation mapping of Mode I interlaminar crack extension in particle-toughened interlayers", Acta Materialia. Vol. 103, pp. 63-70. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: This paper presents the first use of Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs) to quantify the strain fields ahead of a Mode I delamination. DVC is a relatively novel tool that can be used to measure displacements and strains occurring inside materials under load. In conjunction with Computed Tomography (CT), the technique has been applied to porous materials, with results providing strain data for validation of Finite Element (FE) models. However, the application of the technique to laminated materials has been limited, with studies often requiring fiducial markings required for volume correlation. In this work, crack propagation steps were captured at a 325 nm voxel resolution using Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT). The material systems investigated featured different crack bridging mechanisms such as; particle-bridges, resin ligaments, and fibre-bridges. An assessment of noise and sub-volume size on the strain measurement determined that the optimal sub-volume size was 150 voxels with 50% overlap. This provided a spatial resolution of 48.8 μm for strain and a corresponding strain resolution ranging between 220 and 690 με for the repeated reference scans. A rigid body translation study confirmed that specimen movements perpendicular to the fibre orientation support the ‘real’ physical displacements. However, along the fibre direction, the correlation was poor, with correct displacements being detected only within the particle-toughened interlayers. The study demonstrates that strain measurements can be made perpendicular to the fibre direction across the interlayer, which could be used to validate future FE models of these poorly understood particle-toughened interlayers. BibTeX: @article{BorstnarGillardMavrogordatoEtAl2016, author = {Borstnar, G and Gillard, F and Mavrogordato, MN and Sinclair, I and Spearing, SM}, title = {Three-dimensional deformation mapping of Mode I interlaminar crack extension in particle-toughened interlayers}, journal = {Acta Materialia}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2016}, volume = {103}, pages = {63--70}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135964541530001X}, doi = {10.1016/j.actamat.2015.09.059} }  Garcea S, Sinclair I and Spearing S (2016), "Fibre failure assessment in carbon fibre reinforced polymers under fatigue loading by synchrotron X-ray computed tomography", Composites Science and Technology. Vol. 133, pp. 157-164. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: In situ fatigue experiments using synchrotron X-ray computed tomography are used to assess the underpinning micromechanisms of fibre failure in double edge notch carbon/epoxy coupons. Observations showed fibre breaks along the 0° ply splits, associated with the presence and failure of bridging fibres, as well as fibres failed in the bulk composite within the 0° plies. A tendency for cluster formation, with multiple adjacent breaks in the bulk composite was observed when higher peak loads were applied, exceeding 70% of the ultimate tensile stress. Ex situ fatigue tests were used to assess the accumulation and distribution of fibre breaks for different loading conditions, varying peak load and number of cycles. A direct comparison with the quasi-static case for an equivalent peak load, considering the same material system and geometry, has shown that fatigue produces a significantly higher number of fibre breaks. This supports the hypothesis that fibre breaks are indeed caused by the load cycling. BibTeX: @article{GarceaSinclairSpearing2016, author = {Garcea, SC and Sinclair, Ian and Spearing, SM}, title = {Fibre failure assessment in carbon fibre reinforced polymers under fatigue loading by synchrotron X-ray computed tomography}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2016}, volume = {133}, pages = {157--164}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353816308442}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2016.07.030} }  Goggin P, Zygalakis K, Oreffo R and Schneider P (2016), "High-resolution 3D imaging of osteocytes and computational modelling in mechanobiology: Insights on bone development, ageing, health and disease", European cells & materials. Vol. 30, pp. 264-295. AO RESEARCH INSTITUTE DAVOS-ARI CLAVADELERSTRASSE 8, DAVOS, CH 7270, SWITZERLAND. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Osteocytes are involved in mechanosensation and mechanotransduction in bone and hence, are key to bone adaptation in response to development, ageing and disease. Thus, detailed knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the osteocyte network (ON) and the surrounding lacuno-canalicular network (LCN) is essential. Enhanced understanding of the ON&LCN will contribute to a better understanding of bone mechanics on cellular and sub-cellular scales, for instance through improved computational models of bone mechanotransduction. Until now, the location of the ON within the hard bone matrix and the sub-µm dimensions of the ON&LCN have posed significant challenges for 3D imaging. This review identifies relevant microstructural phenotypes of the ON&LCN in health and disease and summarises how light microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray imaging techniques have been used in studies of osteocyte anatomy, pathology and mechanobiology to date. In this review, we assess the requirements for ON&LCN imaging and examine the state of the art in the fields of imaging and computational modelling as well as recent advances in high-resolution 3D imaging. Suggestions for future investigations using volume electron microscopy are indicated and we present new data on the ON&LCN using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy. A correlative approach using these high-resolution 3D imaging techniques in conjunction with in silico modelling in bone mechanobiology will increase understanding of osteocyte function and, ultimately, lead to improved pathways for diagnosis and treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis. BibTeX: @article{Goggin2016, author = {Goggin, PM and Zygalakis, KC and Oreffo, ROC and Schneider, Philipp}, title = {High-resolution 3D imaging of osteocytes and computational modelling in mechanobiology: Insights on bone development, ageing, health and disease}, journal = {European cells & materials}, publisher = {AO RESEARCH INSTITUTE DAVOS-ARI CLAVADELERSTRASSE 8, DAVOS, CH 7270, SWITZERLAND}, year = {2016}, volume = {30}, pages = {264--295}, url = {http://www.ecmjournal.org/journal/papers/vol031/pdf/v031a18.pdf}, doi = {10.22203/eCM.v031a18} }  Goggin P, Zygalakis K, Oreffo R and Schneider P (2016), "High-resolution 3D imaging of osteocytes and computational modelling in mechanobiology: insights on bone development, ageing, health and disease", Eur Cell Mater. Vol. 31, pp. 264-295. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Osteocytes are involved in mechanosensation and mechanotransduction in bone and hence, are key to bone adaptation in response to development, ageing and disease. Thus, detailed knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the osteocyte network (ON) and the surrounding lacuno-canalicular network (LCN) is essential. Enhanced understanding of the ON&LCN will contribute to a better understanding of bone mechanics on cellular and sub-cellular scales, for instance through improved computational models of bone chanotransduction. Until now, the location of the ON within the hard bone matrix and the sub-µm dimensions of the ON&LCN have posed significant challenges for 3D imaging. This review identifies relevant microstructural phenotypes of the ON&LCN in health and disease and summarises how light microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray imaging techniques have been used in studies of osteocyte anatomy, pathology and mechanobiology to date. In this review, we assess the requirements for ON&LCN imaging and examine the state of the art in the fields of imaging and computational modelling as well as recent advances in high-resolution 3D imaging. Suggestions for future investigations using volume electron microscopy are indicated and we present new data on the ON&LCN using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy. A correlative approach using these high-resolution 3D imaging techniques in conjunction with in silico modelling in bone mechanobiology will increase understanding of osteocyte function and, ultimately, lead to improved pathways for diagnosis and treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis. BibTeX: @article{Goggin2016a, author = {Goggin, PM and Zygalakis, KC and Oreffo, ROC and Schneider, Philipp}, title = {High-resolution 3D imaging of osteocytes and computational modelling in mechanobiology: insights on bone development, ageing, health and disease}, journal = {Eur Cell Mater}, year = {2016}, volume = {31}, pages = {264--295}, url = {https://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/files/28561750/v031a18.pdf}, doi = {10.22203/eCM.v031a18} }  Jenkins T, Coutts LV, D'Angelo S, Dunlop DG, Oreffo RO, Cooper C, Harvey NC and Thurner PJ (2016), "Site-Dependent Reference Point Microindentation Complements Clinical Measures for Improved Fracture Risk Assessment at the Human Femoral Neck", Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. Vol. 31(1), pp. 196-203. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: In contrast to traditional approaches to fracture risk assessment using clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD), a new technique, reference point microindentation (RPI), permits direct assessment of bone quality; in vivo tibial RPI measurements appear to discriminate patients with a fragility fracture from controls. However, it is unclear how this relates to the site of the most clinically devastating fracture, the femoral neck, and whether RPI provides information complementary to that from existing assessments. Femoral neck samples were collected at surgery after low-trauma hip fracture (n = 46; 17 male; aged 83 [interquartile range 77–87] years) and compared, using RPI (Biodent Hfc), with 16 cadaveric control samples, free from bone disease (7 male; aged 65 [IQR 61–74] years). A subset of fracture patients returned for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment (Hologic Discovery) and, for the controls, a micro-computed tomography setup (HMX, Nikon) was used to replicate DXA scans. The indentation depth was greater in femoral neck samples from osteoporotic fracture patients than controls (p < 0.001), which persisted with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and height (p < 0.001) but was site-dependent, being less pronounced in the inferomedial region. RPI demonstrated good discrimination between fracture and controls using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.79 to 0.89), and a model combining RPI to clinical risk factors or BMD performed better than the individual components (AUC = 0.88 to 0.99). In conclusion, RPI at the femoral neck discriminated fracture cases from controls independent of BMD and traditional risk factors but dependent on location. The clinical RPI device may, therefore, supplement risk assessment and requires testing in prospective cohorts and comparison between the clinically accessible tibia and the femoral neck. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. BibTeX: @article{Jenkins2016, author = {Jenkins, Thomas and Coutts, Louise V and D'Angelo, Stefania and Dunlop, Douglas G and Oreffo, Richard OC and Cooper, Cyrus and Harvey, Nicholas C and Thurner, Phillipp J}, title = {Site-Dependent Reference Point Microindentation Complements Clinical Measures for Improved Fracture Risk Assessment at the Human Femoral Neck}, journal = {Journal of Bone and Mineral Research}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2016}, volume = {31}, number = {1}, pages = {196--203}, url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbmr.2605/full}, doi = {10.1002/jbmr.2605} }  Jones MG, Fabre A, Schneider P, Cinetto F, Sgalla G, Mavrogordato M, Jogai S, Alzetani A, Marshall BG, O’Reilly KM and others (2016), "Three-dimensional characterization of fibroblast foci in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis", JCI insight. Vol. 1(5) NIH Public Access. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the fibroblast focus is a key histological feature representing active fibroproliferation. On standard 2D pathologic examination, fibroblast foci are considered small, distinct lesions, although they have been proposed to form a highly interconnected reticulum as the leading edge of a “wave” of fibrosis. Here, we characterized fibroblast focus morphology and interrelationships in 3D using an integrated micro-CT and histological methodology. In 3D, fibroblast foci were morphologically complex structures, with large variations in shape and volume (range, 1.3 × 104 to 9.9 × 107 μm3). Within each tissue sample numerous multiform foci were present, ranging from a minimum of 0.9 per mm3 of lung tissue to a maximum of 11.1 per mm3 of lung tissue. Each focus was an independent structure, and no interconnections were observed. Together, our data indicate that in 3D fibroblast foci form a constellation of heterogeneous structures with large variations in shape and volume, suggesting previously unrecognized plasticity. No evidence of interconnectivity was identified, consistent with the concept that foci represent discrete sites of lung injury and repair. BibTeX: @article{Jones2016, author = {Jones, Mark G and Fabre, Aurélie and Schneider, Philipp and Cinetto, Francesco and Sgalla, Giacomo and Mavrogordato, Mark and Jogai, Sanjay and Alzetani, Aiman and Marshall, Ben G and O’Reilly, Katherine MA and others}, title = {Three-dimensional characterization of fibroblast foci in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis}, journal = {JCI insight}, publisher = {NIH Public Access}, year = {2016}, volume = {1}, number = {5}, url = {https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/86375}, doi = {10.1172/jci.insight.86375} }  Keyes S, Gillard F, Soper N, Mavrogordato M, Sinclair I and Roose T (2016), "Mapping soil deformation around plant roots using in vivo 4D X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation", Journal of Biomechanics. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The mechanical impedance of soils inhibits the growth of plant roots, often being the most significant physical limitation to root system development. Non-invasive imaging techniques have recently been used to investigate the development of root system architecture over time, but the relationship with soil deformation is usually neglected. Correlative mapping approaches parameterised using 2D and 3D image data have recently gained prominence for quantifying physical deformation in composite materials including fibre-reinforced polymers and trabecular bone. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) are computational techniques which use the inherent material texture of surfaces and volumes, captured using imaging techniques, to map full-field deformation components in samples during physical loading. Here we develop an experimental assay and methodology for four-dimensional, in vivo X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) and apply a Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) approach to the data to quantify deformation. The method is validated for a field-derived soil under conditions of uniaxial compression, and a calibration study is used to quantify thresholds of displacement and strain measurement. The validated and calibrated approach is then demonstrated for an in vivo test case in which an extending maize root in field-derived soil was imaged hourly using XCT over a growth period of 19 h. This allowed full-field soil deformation data and 3D root tip dynamics to be quantified in parallel for the first time. This fusion of methods paves the way for comparative studies of contrasting soils and plant genotypes, improving our understanding of the fundamental mechanical processes which influence root system development. BibTeX: @article{KeyesGillardSoperEtAl2016, author = {Keyes, SD and Gillard, F and Soper, N and Mavrogordato, MN and Sinclair, I and Roose, T}, title = {Mapping soil deformation around plant roots using in vivo 4D X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation}, journal = {Journal of Biomechanics}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2016}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002192901630495X}, doi = {10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.04.023} }  Kotoula E (2016), "SEMIAUTOMATIC FRAGMENTS MATCHING AND VIRTUAL RECONSTRUCTION: A CASE STUDY ON CERAMICS.", International Journal of Conservation Science. Vol. 7(1) [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Artefacts' reconstruction is a fundamental part of conservation and one of the most common remedial conservation activities with great contribution to archaeological research. The manual procedure for fragments' matching is a painstaking, time- and space-consuming operation. As a result the development of working methodologies for digital refitting of fragments is of fundamental importance for archaeological research and conservation practice. This study presents a comparative analysis of manual and digital reconstruction, which has never been explored even if computer scientists have achieved many developments in the field of digital refitting. Results indicate the parallels between manual and digital processes in terms of durability, integrity and practicality. Also, in order to provide methodological directions to conservators, three different semi-automatic fragments matching approaches based on their effectiveness in managing the project and alignment of fragments were used A combined strategy, making use of different pieces of software, is recommended. In addition, the modelling techniques for digital restoration were described along with the uses of the virtually restored artefact. Faenza maiolica, black-glazed, Gnathian and coarse ware ceramics were used as case studies. Copyright of International Journal of Conservation Science is the property of Alexandru Ioan Cuza University and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. BibTeX: @article{Kotoula2016, author = {Kotoula, Eleni}, title = {SEMIAUTOMATIC FRAGMENTS MATCHING AND VIRTUAL RECONSTRUCTION: A CASE STUDY ON CERAMICS.}, journal = {International Journal of Conservation Science}, year = {2016}, volume = {7}, number = {1}, url = {http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/abstract?site=eds&scope=site&jrnl=2067533X&AN=113480299&h=ntXYUKr%2bgqTJlo0H4DSIS1H7Nci9IpG7v8xAe45zaG4v7qgkPdzz7QSlqAApRaOwCJDry0f8DFxIYxD81Fk7Zg%3d%3d&crl=c&resultLocal=ErrCrlNoResults&resultNs=Ehost&crlhashurl=login.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26profile%3dehost%26scope%3dsite%26authtype%3dcrawler%26jrnl%3d2067533X%26AN%3d113480299} }  Kotoula E and others (2016), "Semiautomatic fragments matching and virtual reconstruction: a case study on ceramics", international journal of conservation science. Vol. 7(1), pp. 71-86. Universitatea" Alexandru Ioan Cuza" din Iasi. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Artefacts’ reconstruction is a fundamental part of conservation and one of the most common remedial conservation activities with great contribution to archaeological research. The manual procedure for fragments’ matching is a painstaking, time- and space-consuming operation. As a result the development of working methodologies for digital refitting of fragments is of fundamental importance for archaeological research and conservation practice. This study presents a comparative analysis of manual and digital reconstruction, which has never been explored even if computer scientists have achieved many developments in the field of digital refitting. Results indicate the parallels between manual and digital processes in terms of durability, integrity and practicality. Also, in order to provide methodological directions to conservators, three different semi-automatic fragments matching approaches based on their effectiveness in managing the project and alignment of fragments were used A combined strategy, making use of different pieces of software, is recommended. In addition, the modelling techniques for digital restoration were described along with the uses of the virtually restored artefact. Faenza maiolica, black-glazed, Gnathian and coarse ware ceramics were used as case studies. BibTeX: @article{kotoula2016semiautomatic, author = {Kotoula, Eleni and others}, title = {Semiautomatic fragments matching and virtual reconstruction: a case study on ceramics}, journal = {international journal of conservation science}, publisher = {Universitatea" Alexandru Ioan Cuza" din Iasi}, year = {2016}, volume = {7}, number = {1}, pages = {71--86}, url = {http://www.ijcs.uaic.ro/public/IJCS-16-06_Kotoula.pdf} }  Miles J, Mavrogordato M, Sinclair I, Hinton D, Boardman R and Earl G (2016), "The use of computed tomography for the study of archaeological coins", Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. Vol. 6, pp. 35-41. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Computed tomography enables non-destructive three-dimensional densitometric information of the internal structure and external geometry of many archaeological artefacts to be acquired. This paper uses work completed by the μ-VIS X-ray Imaging Centre at the University of Southampton to illustrate how computed tomography can be used to accurately record surface and sub-surface data of intact coin hoards contained within pots. An examination of coin placement, coin identification and segmentation and extraction of individual coins for use within a virtual environment are presented. Computed tomography used in this way will enable numismatists to identify otherwise hidden coins, and to visualise, share and archive coin data. BibTeX: @article{Miles2016, author = {Miles, James and Mavrogordato, Mark and Sinclair, Ian and Hinton, David and Boardman, Richard and Earl, Graeme}, title = {The use of computed tomography for the study of archaeological coins}, journal = {Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2016}, volume = {6}, pages = {35--41}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352409X1630013X} }  Niehaus WL, Howlin RP, Johnston DA, Bull DJ, Jones GL, Calton E, Mavrogordato MN, Clarke SC, Thurner PJ, Faust SN and others (2016), "Development of X-ray micro-focus computed tomography to image and quantify biofilms in central venous catheter models in vitro", Microbiology. Vol. 162(9), pp. 1629-1640. Microbiology Society. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Bacterial infections of central venous catheters (CVCs) cause much morbidity and mortality, and are usually diagnosed by concordant culture of blood and catheter tip. However, studies suggest that culture often fails to detect biofilm bacteria. This study optimizes X-ray micro-focus computed tomography (X-ray µCT) for the quantification and determination of distribution and heterogeneity of biofilms in in vitro CVC model systems. Bacterial culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to detect Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilms grown on catheters in vitro in both flow and static biofilm models. Alongside this, X-ray µCT techniques were developed in order to detect biofilms inside CVCs. Various contrast agent stains were evaluated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to further optimize these methods. Catheter material and biofilm were segmented using a semi-automated matlab script and quantified using the Avizo Fire software package. X-ray µCT was capable of distinguishing between the degree of biofilm formation across different segments of a CVC flow model. EDS screening of single- and dual-compound contrast stains identified 10 nm gold and silver nitrate as the optimum contrast agent for X-ray µCT. This optimized method was then demonstrated to be capable of quantifying biofilms in an in vitro static biofilm formation model, with a strong correlation between biofilm detection via SEM and culture. X-ray µCT has good potential as a direct, non-invasive, non-destructive technology to image biofilms in CVCs, as well as other in vivo medical components in which biofilms accumulate in concealed areas. BibTeX: @article{Niehaus2016, author = {Niehaus, Wilmari L and Howlin, Robert P and Johnston, David A and Bull, Daniel J and Jones, Gareth L and Calton, Elizabeth and Mavrogordato, Mark N and Clarke, Stuart C and Thurner, Philipp J and Faust, Saul N and others}, title = {Development of X-ray micro-focus computed tomography to image and quantify biofilms in central venous catheter models in vitro}, journal = {Microbiology}, publisher = {Microbiology Society}, year = {2016}, volume = {162}, number = {9}, pages = {1629--1640}, url = {http://mic.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000334#tab2}, doi = {10.1099/mic.0.000334} }  O’Brien NS, Boardman RP, Sinclair I and Blumensath T (2016), "Recent Advances in X-ray Cone-beam Computed Laminography", Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology., Oct, 2016. Vol. 24(5), pp. 691-707. IOS Press. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: X-ray computed tomography is an established volume imaging technique used routinely in medical diagnosis, industrial non-destructive testing, and a wide range of scientific fields. Traditionally, computed tomography uses scanning geometries with a single axis of rotation together with reconstruction algorithms specifically designed for this setup. Recently there has however been increasing interest in more complex scanning geometries. These include so called X-ray computed laminography systems capable of imaging specimens with large lateral dimensions or large aspect ratios, neither of which are well suited to conventional CT scanning procedures. Developments throughout this field have thus been rapid, including the introduction of novel system trajectories, the application and refinement of various reconstruction methods, and the use of recently developed computational hardware and software techniques to accelerate reconstruction times. Here we examine the advances made in the last several years and consider their impact on the state of the art. BibTeX: @article{o2016recent, author = {O’Brien, Neil S and Boardman, Richard P and Sinclair, Ian and Blumensath, Thomas}, title = {Recent Advances in X-ray Cone-beam Computed Laminography}, journal = {Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology}, publisher = {IOS Press}, year = {2016}, volume = {24}, number = {5}, pages = {691--707}, url = {http://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-x-ray-science-and-technology/xst581}, doi = {10.3233/xst-160581} }  O'Brien N, Mavrogordato M, Boardman R, Sinclair I, Hawker S and Blumensath T (2016), "Comparing cone beam laminographic system trajectories for composite NDT", Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: We compare the quality of reconstruction obtainable using various laminographic system trajectories that have been described in the literature, with reference to detecting defects in composite materials in engineering. We start by describing a laminar phantom representing a simplified model of composite panel, which models certain defects that may arise in such materials, such as voids, resin rich areas, and delamination, and additionally features both blind and through holes along multiple axes. We simulate ideal cone-beam projections of this phantom with the different laminographic trajectories, applying both Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT) and Conjugate Gradient Least Squares (CGLS) reconstruction algorithms. We compare the quality of the reconstructions with a view towards optimising the scan parameters for defect detectability in composite NDT applications. BibTeX: @article{ObrienMavrogordatoBoardmanEtAl2016, author = {O'Brien, Neil and Mavrogordato, Mark and Boardman, Richard and Sinclair, Ian and Hawker, Sam and Blumensath, Thomas}, title = {Comparing cone beam laminographic system trajectories for composite NDT}, journal = {Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2016}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214657116300132}, doi = {10.1016/j.csndt.2016.05.004} }  Sisodia S, Garcea S, George A, Fullwood D, Spearing S and Gamstedt E (2016), "High-resolution computed tomography in resin infused woven carbon fibre composites with voids", Composites Science and Technology. Elsevier. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{SisodiaGarceaGeorgeEtAl2016, author = {Sisodia, SM and Garcea, SC and George, AR and Fullwood, DT and Spearing, SM and Gamstedt, EK}, title = {High-resolution computed tomography in resin infused woven carbon fibre composites with voids}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2016}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353816303542}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2016.05.010} }  Spearing SM and Sinclair I (2016), "The micro-mechanics of strength, durability and damage tolerance in composites: new insights from high resolution computed tomography", IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering., In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Vol. 139(1), pp. 012007. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Recent work, led by the authors, on impact damage resistance, particle toughening and tensile fibre failure is reviewed in order to illustrate the use of high-resolution X-ray tomography to observe and quantify damage mechanisms in carbon fibre composite laminates. Using synchrotron and micro-focus X-ray sources resolutions of less than 1 μm have been routinely achieved. This enables individual broken fibres and the micromechanisms of particle toughening to be observed and quantified. The data for fibre failure, cluster formation and overall tensile strength are compared with model predictions. This allows strategies for future model development to be identified. The overall implications for using such high-resolution 3-D measurements to inform a "data-rich mechanics" approach to materials evaluation and modeling is discussed. BibTeX: @article{SpearingSinclair2016, author = {Spearing, S Mark and Sinclair, Ian}, title = {The micro-mechanics of strength, durability and damage tolerance in composites: new insights from high resolution computed tomography}, booktitle = {IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering}, journal = {IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering}, year = {2016}, volume = {139}, number = {1}, pages = {012007}, url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/139/1/012007/meta}, doi = {10.1088/1757-899X/139/1/012007} }  Vaezi M, Black C, Gibbs DM, Oreffo RO, Brady M, Moshrefi-Torbati M and Yang S (2016), "Characterization of New PEEK/HA Composites with 3D HA Network Fabricated by Extrusion Freeforming", Molecules. Vol. 21(6), pp. 687. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Addition of bioactive materials such as calcium phosphates or Bioglass, and incorporation of porosity into polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been identified as an effective approach to improve bone-implant interfaces and osseointegration of PEEK-based devices. In this paper, a novel production technique based on the extrusion freeforming method is proposed that yields a bioactive PEEK/hydroxyapatite (PEEK/HA) composite with a unique configuration in which the bioactive phase (i.e., HA) distribution is computer-controlled within a PEEK matrix. The 100% interconnectivity of the HA network in the biocomposite confers an advantage over alternative forms of other microstructural configurations. Moreover, the technique can be employed to produce porous PEEK structures with controlled pore size and distribution, facilitating greater cellular infiltration and biological integration of PEEK composites within patient tissue. The results of unconfined, uniaxial compressive tests on these new PEEK/HA biocomposites with 40% HA under both static and cyclic mode were promising, showing the composites possess yield and compressive strength within the range of human cortical bone suitable for load bearing applications. In addition, preliminary evidence supporting initial biological safety of the new technique developed is demonstrated in this paper. Sufficient cell attachment, sustained viability in contact with the sample over a seven-day period, evidence of cell bridging and matrix deposition all confirmed excellent biocompatibility. BibTeX: @article{Vaezi2016, author = {Vaezi, Mohammad and Black, Cameron and Gibbs, David MR and Oreffo, Richard OC and Brady, Mark and Moshrefi-Torbati, Mohamed and Yang, Shoufeng}, title = {Characterization of New PEEK/HA Composites with 3D HA Network Fabricated by Extrusion Freeforming}, journal = {Molecules}, publisher = {Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute}, year = {2016}, volume = {21}, number = {6}, pages = {687}, url = {http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/21/6/687/htm}, doi = {10.3390/molecules21060687} }  Ahmed S, Klassen TN, Keyes S, Daly M, Jones DL, Mavrogordato MN, Sinclair I and Roose T (2015), "Imaging the interaction of roots and phosphate fertiliser granules using 4D X-ray tomography", Plant and Soil., March, 2015. , pp. 1-10. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Plant root system architecture adapts to the prevailing soil environment and the distribution of nutrients. Many species respond to localised regions of high nutrient supply, found in the vicinity of fertiliser granules, by elevating branching density in these areas. However, observation of these adaptations are frequently limited to plants cultured in idealised materials (e.g. hydrogels) which have a structure-less, homogenous matrix, or rhizotrons, which are spatially limited and provide only 2D data that are not fully quantitative. Methods In this study, in vivo, time resolved, non-destructive, micro-focus X-ray CT imaging (\muCT) in 3D was used to visualise, quantify and assess root/fertiliser interactions of wheat plants in an agricultural soil during the entire plant life cycle. Two contrasting fertilisers [Triple superphosphate (TSP) and struvite (Crystal Green?)] were applied according to 3 different treatments, each providing an equivalent of 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 (struvite only, TSP only and a 50:50 mixture) to each plant. \muCT scans (60 \mum spatial resolution) of the plant roots were obtained over 14 weeks. Results This is the first time that in situ root/soil/fertiliser interactions have been visualised in 3D from plant germination through to maturity. Results show that lateral roots tend to pass within a few millimetres of the phosphorus (P) source. At this length scale, roots are able to access the P diffusing from the granule. Conclusions Quantitative analysis of root/fertiliser interactions has shown that rooting density correlates with granule volume-loss for a slow release, struvite fertiliser. BibTeX: @article{AhmedKlassenKeyesEtAl2015, author = {Sharif Ahmed and Trudy Naugler Klassen and Samuel Keyes and Michael Daly and David L. Jones and Mark N. Mavrogordato and Ian Sinclair and Tiina Roose}, title = {Imaging the interaction of roots and phosphate fertiliser granules using 4D X-ray tomography}, journal = {Plant and Soil}, year = {2015}, pages = {1--10}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/374594/} }  Bah M, Shi J, Browne M, Suchier Y, Lefebvre F, Young P, King L, Dunlop DG and Heller MO (2015), "Exploring inter-subject anatomic variability using a population of patient-specific femurs and a statistical shape and intensity model", Medical Engineering & Physics., September, 2015. Vol. 37(10), pp. 995-1007. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: This paper is motivated by the need to accurately and efficiently measure key periosteal and endosteal parameters of the femur, known to critically influence hip biomechanics following arthroplasty. The proposed approach uses statistical shape and intensity models (SSIMs) to represent the variability across a wide range of patients, in terms of femoral shape and bone density. The approach feasibility is demonstrated by using a training dataset of computer tomography scans from British subjects aged 25-106 years (75 male and 34 female). For each gender, a thousand new virtual femur geometries were generated using a subset of principal components required to capture 95% of the variance in both female and male training datasets. Significant differences were found in basic anatomic parameters between females and males: anteversion, CCD angle, femur and neck lengths, head offsets and radius, cortical thickness, densities in both Gruen and neck zones. The measured anteversion for female subjects was found to be twice as high as that for male subjects: 13 ± 6.4? vs. 6.3 ± 7.8? using the training datasets compared to 12.96 ± 6.68 vs. 5.83 ± 9.2 using the thousand virtual femurs. No significant differences were found in canal flare indexes. The proposed methodology is a valuable tool for automatically generating a large specific population of femurs, targeting specific patients, supporting implant design and femoral reconstructive surgery. BibTeX: @article{BahShiBrowneEtAl2015, author = {Mamadou Bah and Junfen Shi and Martin Browne and Yanneck Suchier and Fabien Lefebvre and Philippe Young and Leonard King and Doug G. Dunlop and Markus O. Heller}, title = {Exploring inter-subject anatomic variability using a population of patient-specific femurs and a statistical shape and intensity model}, journal = {Medical Engineering & Physics}, year = {2015}, volume = {37}, number = {10}, pages = {995--1007}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/381765/} }  Bah M, Shi J, Heller MO, Suchier Y, Lefebvre F, Young P, King L, Dunlop DG, Boettcher M, Draper E and Browne M (2015), "Inter-subject variability effects on the primary stability of a short cementless femoral stem", Journal of Biomechanics., February, 2015. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: This paper is concerned with the primary stability of the Furlong Evolution? cementless short stem across a spectrum of patient morphology. A computational tool is developed that automatically selects and positions the most suitable stem from an implant system made of a total of 48 collarless stems to best match a 3D model based on a library of CT femur scans (75males and 34 females). Finite Element contact models of reconstructed hips, subjected to physiologically-based boundary constraints and peak loads of walking mode, were simulated using a coefficient of friction of 0.4 and an interference-fit of 50 \mum. Maximum and average implant micromotions across the subpopulation were predicted to be 100±7 \mum and 7±5 \mum with ranges [15 \mum, 350 \mum] and [1 \mum, 25 \mum], respectively. The computed percentage of implant area with micromotions greater than reported critical values of 50 \mum, 100 \mum and 150 \mum never exceeded 14%, 8% and 7%, respectively. To explore the possible correlations between anatomy and implant performance, response surface models for micromotion metrics were constructed. Detailed morphological analyses were conducted and a clear nonlinear decreasing trend was observed between implant average micromotion and both the metaphyseal canal flare indices and average densities in Gruen zones The present study demonstrates that the primary stability and tolerance of the short stem to variability in patient anatomy were high, reducing the need for patient stratification. In addition, the developed tool could be utilised to support implant design and planning of femoral reconstructive surgery. BibTeX: @article{BahShiHellerEtAl2015, author = {M.T. Bah and Junfen Shi and Markus O. Heller and Yanneck Suchier and Fabien Lefebvre and Philippe Young and Leonard King and Douglas G. Dunlop and Mick Boettcher and Edward Draper and Martin Browne}, title = {Inter-subject variability effects on the primary stability of a short cementless femoral stem}, journal = {Journal of Biomechanics}, year = {2015}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/374445/} }  Bele E and Deshpande VS (2015), "The Compressive Response of Idealized Cermetlike Materials", Journal of Applied Mechanics. Vol. 82(4), pp. 041009. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Metals reinforced with a high volume fraction of hard particles, e.g., cermets, have properties that are more akin to those of granular media than conventional composites. Here, the mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of this class of materials are investigated through the fabrication and testing of idealized cermets, comprising steel spheres in a Sn/Pb solder matrix. These materials have a similar contrast in the properties of constituent phases compared to commercial cermets; however, the simpler microstructure allows an easier interpretation of their properties. A combination of X-ray tomography and multiaxial strain measurements revealed that deformation at large strains occurs by the development of shear bands similar to granular media, with the material dilating under hydrostatic pressure within these shear bands. Predictions of finite element models with a random arrangement of inclusions were in excellent agreement with the experimental results of idealized cermets. These calculations showed that at large inclusion volume fractions, composites with a random arrangement of inclusions are significantly stronger compared to their periodic counterparts, due to the development of a network of force chains through the percolated particles. BibTeX: @article{Bele2015, author = {Bele, Eral and Deshpande, Vikram S}, title = {The Compressive Response of Idealized Cermetlike Materials}, journal = {Journal of Applied Mechanics}, publisher = {American Society of Mechanical Engineers}, year = {2015}, volume = {82}, number = {4}, pages = {041009}, url = {https://appliedmechanics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleID=2119547}, doi = {10.1115/1.4029782} }  Blumensath T and Boardman R (2015), "Non-convexly constrained image reconstruction from nonlinear tomographic X-ray measurements", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences., jun, 2015. Vol. 373(2043), pp. 20140393. The Royal Society. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The use of polychromatic X-ray sources in tomographic X-ray measurements leads to nonlinear X-ray transmission effects. As these nonlinearities are not normally taken into account in tomographic reconstruction, artefacts occur, which can be particularly severe when imaging objects with multiple materials of widely varying X-ray attenuation properties. In these settings, reconstruction algorithms based on a nonlinear X-ray transmission model become valuable. We here study the use of one such model and develop algorithms that impose additional non-convex constraints on the reconstruction. This allows us to reconstruct volumetric data even when limited measurements are available. We propose a nonlinear conjugate gradient iterative hard thresholding algorithm and show how many prior modelling assumptions can be imposed using a range of non-convex constraints. BibTeX: @article{Blumensath_2015, author = {Thomas Blumensath and Richard Boardman}, title = {Non-convexly constrained image reconstruction from nonlinear tomographic X-ray measurements}, journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences}, publisher = {The Royal Society}, year = {2015}, volume = {373}, number = {2043}, pages = {20140393}, url = {https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsta.2014.0393}, doi = {10.1098/rsta.2014.0393} }  Borstnar G, Mavrogordato M, Helfen L, Sinclair I and Spearing S (2015), "Interlaminar fracture micro-mechanisms in toughened carbon fibre reinforced plastics investigated via synchrotron radiation computed tomography and laminography", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing., April, 2015. Vol. 71, pp. 176-183. Elselvier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT) and Synchrotron Radiation Computed Laminography (SRCL) permit 3D non-destructive evaluation of fracture micro-mechanisms at high spatial resolutions. Two types of particle-toughened Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites were loaded to allow crack growth in Modes I and II to be isolated and observed in standard and non-standard specimen geometries. Both materials failed in complex and distinct failure modes, showing that interlaminar fracture in these materials involves a process zone rather than a singular crack tip. The work indicates that incorporating particle/resin, fibre/interlayer and neat resin failure is essential within models for material response, since the competition between these mechanisms to provide the energetically favourable crack path influences the macro-scale toughness. The work uniquely combines the strengths of SRCT and SRCL to compare failure micro- mechanisms between two specimen geometries, whilst assessing any edge effects and providing powerful insight into the complex micro-mechanical behaviour of these materials. BibTeX: @article{BorstnarMavrogordatoHelfenEtAl2015, author = {G. Borstnar and M.N. Mavrogordato and L. Helfen and I. Sinclair and S.M. Spearing}, title = {Interlaminar fracture micro-mechanisms in toughened carbon fibre reinforced plastics investigated via synchrotron radiation computed tomography and laminography}, journal = {Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing}, publisher = {Elselvier}, year = {2015}, volume = {71}, pages = {176--183}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/382932/} }  Bull D, Spearing S and Sinclair I (2015), "Investigation of the response to low velocity impact and quasi-static indentation loading of particle-toughened carbon-fibre composite materials", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing., July, 2015. Vol. 74, pp. 38-46. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: This work investigates damage caused by low velocity impact and quasi-static indentation loading in four different particle-toughened composite systems, and one untoughened system. For impact tests, a range of energies were used between 25 and 50 J. For QSI, coupons were interrupted at increasing loading point displacement levels from 2 to 5 mm to allow for monitoring of damage initiation and propagation. In both loading cases, non-destructive inspection techniques were used, consisting of ultrasonic C-scan and X-ray micro-focus computed tomography. These techniques are complemented with instrumentation to capture force?displacement data, whereby load-drops are associated with observed damage modes. Key results from this work highlight particular issues regarding strain-rate sensitivity of delamination development and an earlier onset of fibre fracture associated with particle-toughened systems. These issues, in addition to observations on the role of micro-scale events on damage morphology, are discussed with a focus on material development and material testing practices. BibTeX: @article{BullSpearingSinclair2015, author = {D.J. Bull and S.M. Spearing and I. Sinclair}, title = {Investigation of the response to low velocity impact and quasi-static indentation loading of particle-toughened carbon-fibre composite materials}, journal = {Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2015}, volume = {74}, pages = {38--46}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/376364/} }  Georgiadis M, Guizar-Sicairos M, Zwahlen A, TrÃ¼ssel AJ, Bunk O, MÃ¼ller R and Schneider P (2015), "3D scanning SAXS: A novel method for the assessment of bone ultrastructure orientation", Bone. Vol. 71, pp. 42 - 52. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Abstract The arrangement and orientation of the ultrastructure plays an important role for the mechanical properties of inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials, such as polymers, wood, or bone. However, there is a lack of techniques to spatially resolve and quantify the material's ultrastructure orientation in a macroscopic context. In this study, a new method is presented, which allows deriving the ultrastructural 3D orientation in a quantitative and spatially resolved manner. The proposed 3D scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (3D sSAXS) method was demonstrated on a thin trabecular bone specimen of a human vertebra. A micro-focus X-ray beam from a synchrotron radiation source was used to raster scan the sample for different rotation angles. Furthermore, a mathematical framework was developed, validated and employed to describe the relation between the SAXS\ data for the different rotation angles and the local 3D orientation and degree of orientation (DO) of the bone ultrastructure. The resulting local 3D orientation was visualized by a 3D orientation map using vector fields. Finally, by applying the proposed 3D scanning SAXS\ method on consecutive bone sections, a 3D map of the local orientation of a complete trabecular element could be reconstructed for the first time. The obtained 3D orientation map provided information on the bone ultrastructure organization and revealed links between trabecular bone microarchitecture and local bone ultrastructure. More specifically, we observed that trabecular bone ultrastructure is organized in orientation domains of tens of micrometers in size. In addition, it was observed that domains with a high DO\ were more likely to be found near the surface of the trabecular structure, and domains with lower DO\ (or transition zones) were located in-between the domains with high DO. The method reproducibility was validated by comparing the results obtained when scanning the sample under different sample tilt angles. 3D orientation maps such as the ones created using 3D scanning SAXS\ will help to quantify and understand structureâ€“function relationships between bone ultrastructure and bone mechanics. Beyond that, the proposed method can also be used in other research fields such as material sciences, with the aim to locally determine the 3D orientation of material components. BibTeX: @article{GeorgiadisGuizar-SicairosZwahlenEtAl2015, author = {Marios Georgiadis and Manuel Guizar-Sicairos and Alexander Zwahlen and Andreas J. TrÃ¼ssel and Oliver Bunk and Ralph MÃ¼ller and Philipp Schneider}, title = {3D scanning SAXS: A novel method for the assessment of bone ultrastructure orientation}, journal = {Bone}, year = {2015}, volume = {71}, pages = {42 - 52}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S8756328214003676}, doi = {10.1016/j.bone.2014.10.002} }  Hale R, Boardman R, Mavrogordato M, Sinclair I, Tolhurst T and Solan M (2015), "High-resolution computed tomography reconstructions of invertebrate burrow systems", kkey., September, 2015. Vol. 2, pp. 150052. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: The architecture of biogenic structures can be highly influential in determining species contributions to major soil and sediment processes, but detailed 3-D characterisations are rare and descriptors of form and complexity are lacking. Here we provide replicate high-resolution micro-focus computed tomography (mu-CT) data for the complete burrow systems of three co-occurring, but functionally contrasting, sediment-dwelling inter-tidal invertebrates assembled alone, and in combination, in representative model aquaria. These data (≤2,000 raw image slices aquarium(-1), isotropic voxel resolution, 81mum) provide reference models that can be used for the development of novel structural analysis routines that will be of value within the fields of ecology, pedology, geomorphology, palaeobiology, ichnology and mechanical engineering. We also envisage opportunity for those investigating transport networks, vascular systems, plant rooting systems, neuron connectivity patterns, or those developing image analysis or statistics related to pattern or shape recognition. The dataset will allow investigators to develop or test novel methodology and ideas without the need to generate a complete three-dimensional computation of exemplar architecture. BibTeX: @article{HaleBoardmanMavrogordatoEtAl2015, author = {R. Hale and R.P. Boardman and M.N. Mavrogordato and I. Sinclair and T.J. Tolhurst and M. Solan}, title = {High-resolution computed tomography reconstructions of invertebrate burrow systems}, journal = {kkey}, year = {2015}, volume = {2}, pages = {150052}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/383282/} }  He B, Katsamenis O, Mellor B and Reed P (2015), "3-D analysis of fatigue crack behaviour in a shot peened steam turbine blade material", Materials Science and Engineering: A. Vol. 642, pp. 91 - 103. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Abstract Serial mechanical sectioning and high resolution X-ray tomography have been used to study the three-dimensional morphology of small fatigue cracks growing in a 12 Cr tempered martensitic steam turbine blade material. A range of surface conditions has been studied, namely polished and shot peened (with varying levels of intensity). In the polished (unpeened) condition, inclusions (alumina and manganese sulphide) played an important role in initiating and controlling early fatigue crack behaviour. When fatigue cracks initiated from an alumina stringer, the crack morphology was normally dominated by single stringers, which were always in the centre of the fatigue crack, indicating its primary role in initiation. Manganese sulphide inclusion groups however seemed to dominate and affect the crack path along both the surface and depth crack growth directions. The more intensely shot peened condition did not however evidence inclusion or stringer affected fatigue crack initiation or growth behaviour; sub-surface crack coalescence being clearly observed by both serial sectioning and computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques at a depth of about 150â€“180 Î¼m. These sub-surface crack coalescences can be linked to both the extent of the compressive residual stress as well as the depth of the plastic deformation arising from the intense shot peening process. Shot peening appears to provide a different defect population that initiates fatigue cracks and competes with the underlying metallurgical defect populations. The most beneficial shot peening process would in this case appear to â€œdeactivateâ€� the original metallurgical defect population and substitute a known defect distribution from the shot peening process from which fatigue cracks grow rather slowly in the strain hardened surface layer which also contains compressive residual stresses. A benefit to fatigue life in bending, even under Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) conditions, has been observed in these tests if a sufficiently severe shot peening condition is applied in a constrained notch configuration. BibTeX: @article{HeKatsamenisMellorEtAl2015, author = {B.Y. He and O.L. Katsamenis and B.G. Mellor and P.A.S. Reed}, title = {3-D analysis of fatigue crack behaviour in a shot peened steam turbine blade material}, journal = {Materials Science and Engineering: A}, year = {2015}, volume = {642}, pages = {91 - 103}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921509315301362}, doi = {10.1016/j.msea.2015.06.082} }  Katsamenis OL, Jenkins T and Thurner PJ (2015), "Toughness and damage susceptibility in human cortical bone is proportional to mechanical inhomogeneity at the osteonal-level", Bone. Vol. 76, pp. 158 - 168. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Abstract Limitations associated with current clinical fracture risk assessment tools highlight the need for increased understanding of the fracture mechanisms of the bone and, ideally, a means of assessing this in vivo. Being a multi-layered hierarchical structure, the overall properties of the bone are dictated by its structural and compositional properties over multiple length scales. In this study, we investigate the osteonal-, micro- and tissue-level mechanical behaviour of cortical bone tissue samples from young and elderly donors through atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever-based nanoindentation, reference point microindentation (RPI) and fracture toughness experiments respectively. We demonstrate that bone's fracture toughness and crack growth resistance at the tissue-level are significantly correlated to damage susceptibility at the micro-level, and mechanical inhomogeneity between lamellae and interlamellar areas at the osteonal-level. In more detail, reduced nanoelasticity inhomogeneity of lamellar/interlamellar layers within the osteons correlated to increased indentation depth at the micro-level and an overall reduction in crack-growth toughness and fracture toughness of the tissue. Our data also suggest that deterioration of bone's mechanical properties is expressed concurrently at these three levels, and that mechanical inhomogeneity between the principal structural units of the cortical tissue holds a key role on bone's toughness behaviour. We hypothesise that the reduction in nanoelasticity inhomogeneity is â€“ at least to some extent â€“ responsible for the inability of the microstructure to effectively adapt to the applied load, e.g. by redistributing strains, in a non-catastrophic manner preventing damage formation and propagation. Our hypothesis is further supported by synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRÎ¼CT) data, which show that failure of tougher bone specimens is governed by increased deflection of the crack path and broadly spread damage around the crack-tip. In contrast, shorter and more direct crack paths as well as less-distributed damage were evidenced during failure of the weaker specimens. Overall, this multi-scale study highlights the importance of elasticity inhomogeneity within the osteon to the damage susceptibility and consequently to the fracture resistance of the tissue. BibTeX: @article{KatsamenisJenkinsThurner2015, author = {Orestis L. Katsamenis and Thomas Jenkins and Philipp J. Thurner}, title = {Toughness and damage susceptibility in human cortical bone is proportional to mechanical inhomogeneity at the osteonal-level}, journal = {Bone}, year = {2015}, volume = {76}, pages = {158 - 168}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S8756328215001064}, doi = {10.1016/j.bone.2015.03.020} }  Liebi M, Georgiadis M, Menzel A, Schneider P, Kohlbrecher J, Bunk O and Guizar-Sicairos M (2015), "Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography", Nature., nov, 2015. Vol. 527(7578), pp. 349-352. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The mechanical properties of many materials are based on the macroscopic arrangement and orientation of their nanostructure. This nanostructure can be ordered over a range of length scales. In biology, the principle of hierarchical ordering is often used to maximize functionality, such as strength and robustness of the material, while minimizing weight and energy cost. Methods for nanoscale imaging provide direct visual access to the ultrastructure (nanoscale structure that is too small to be imaged using light microscopy), but the field of view is limited and does not easily allow a full correlative study of changes in the ultrastructure over a macroscopic sample. Other methods of probing ultrastructure ordering, such as small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons, can be applied to macroscopic samples; however, these scattering methods remain constrained to two-dimensional specimens1,2,3,4 or to isotropically oriented ultrastructures5,6,7. These constraints limit the use of these methods for studying nanostructures with more complex orientation patterns, which are abundant in nature and materials science. Here, we introduce an imaging method that combines small-angle scattering with tensor tomography to probe nanoscale structures in three-dimensional macroscopic samples in a non-destructive way. We demonstrate the method by measuring the main orientation and the degree of orientation of nanoscale mineralized collagen fibrils in a human trabecula bone sample with a spatial resolution of 25 micrometres. Symmetries within the sample, such as the cylindrical symmetry commonly observed for mineralized collagen fibrils in bone8,9,10, allow for tractable sampling requirements and numerical efficiency. Small-angle scattering tensor tomography is applicable to both biological and materials science specimens, and may be useful for understanding and characterizing smart or bio-inspired materials. Moreover, because the method is non-destructive, it is appropriate for in situ measurements and allows, for example, the role of ultrastructure in the mechanical response of a biological tissue or manufactured material to be studied. BibTeX: @article{Liebi_2015, author = {Marianne Liebi and Marios Georgiadis and Andreas Menzel and Philipp Schneider and Joachim Kohlbrecher and Oliver Bunk and Manuel Guizar-Sicairos}, title = {Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography}, journal = {Nature}, publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC}, year = {2015}, volume = {527}, number = {7578}, pages = {349--352}, url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/nature16056}, doi = {10.1038/nature16056} }  Rmaile A, Carugo D, Capretto L, Wharton J, Thurner P, Aspiras M, Ward M, De Jager M and Stoodley P (2015), "An experimental and computational study of the hydrodynamics of high-velocity water microdrops for interproximal tooth cleaning", journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials. Vol. 46, pp. 148-157. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The flow field and local hydrodynamics of high-velocity water microdrops impacting the interproximal (IP) space of typodont teeth were studied experimentally and computationally. Fourteen-day old Streptococcus mutans biofilms in the IP space were treated by a prototype AirFloss delivering 115 µL of water at a maximum exit-velocity of 60 m s−1 in a 33-ms burst. Using high-speed imaging, footage was generated showing the details of the burst, and demonstrating the removal mechanism of the biofilms. Footage was also generated to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of the biofilms when impacted by an air-only burst, which was compared to the water burst. Image analysis demonstrated the importance of fluid forces on the removal pattern of interdental biofilms. X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (µ-CT) was used to obtain 3D images of the typodont and the IP spaces. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to study the effect of changing the nozzle position and design on the hydrodynamics within the IP space. Results confirmed our previous data regarding the wall shear stress generated by high-velocity water drops which dictated the efficacy of biofilm detachment. Finally, we showed how CFD models could be used to optimize water drop or burst design towards a more effective biofilm removal performance. BibTeX: @article{Rmaile2015, author = {Rmaile, A and Carugo, D and Capretto, L and Wharton, JA and Thurner, PJ and Aspiras, M and Ward, M and De Jager, M and Stoodley, Paul}, title = {An experimental and computational study of the hydrodynamics of high-velocity water microdrops for interproximal tooth cleaning}, journal = {journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2015}, volume = {46}, pages = {148--157}, url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1751616115000533}, doi = {10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.02.010} }  Scott M, Boardman RP, Byatt D, Reed PA and Cox SJ (2015), "Introducing research data", University of Southampton 2015, Third edition. University of Southampton. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @article{ScottBoardmanByattEtAl2015, author = {Scott, Mark and Boardman, Richard P and Byatt, Dorothy and Reed, Philippa AS and Cox, Simon J}, title = {Introducing research data}, journal = {University of Southampton 2015, Third edition}, publisher = {University of Southampton}, year = {2015}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/383918} }  Scott M, Boardman R, Reed P and Cox S (2015), "Heterogeneous Data Centre CodePlex Repository", University of Southampton. University of Southampton. [BibTeX] [DOI] BibTeX: @article{ScottBoardmanReedEtAl2015, author = {Scott, Mark and Boardman, Richard and Reed, Philippa and Cox, Simon}, title = {Heterogeneous Data Centre CodePlex Repository}, journal = {University of Southampton}, publisher = {University of Southampton}, year = {2015}, doi = {10.5258/SOTON/377029} }  Scott A, Vasilescu D, Seal K, Keyes S, Mavrogordato M, Hogg J, Sinclair I, Warner J, Hackett T and Lackie P (2015), "Three dimensional imaging of paraffin embedded human lung tissue samples by micro-computed tomography", PLoS ONE., June, 2015. , pp. 1-10. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Background: understanding the three-dimensional (3-D) micro-architecture of lung tissue can provide insights into the pathology of lung disease. Micro computed tomography (mu CT) has previously been used to elucidate lung 3D histology and morphometry in fixed samples that have been stained with contrast agents or air inflated and dried. However, non-destructive microstructural 3D imaging of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues would facilitate retrospective analysis of extensive tissue archives of lung FFPE lung samples with linked clinical data. Methods: FFPE human lung tissue samples (n = 4) were scanned using a Nikon metrology mu CT scanner. Semi-automatic techniques were used to segment the 3D structure of airways and blood vessels. Airspace size (mean linear intercept, Lm) was measured on mu CT images and on matched histological sections from the same FFPE samples imaged by light microscopy to validate mu CT imaging. Results: the mu CT imaging protocol provided contrast between tissue and paraffin in FFPE samples (15mm x 7mm). Resolution (voxel size 6.7 mu m) in the reconstructed images was sufficient for semi-automatic image segmentation of airways and blood vessels as well as quantitative airspace analysis. The scans were also used to scout for regions of interest, enabling time-efficient preparation of conventional histological sections. The Lm measurements from mu CT images were not significantly different to those from matched histological sections. Conclusion: we demonstrated how non-destructive imaging of routinely prepared FFPE samples by laboratory mu CT can be used to visualize and assess the 3D morphology of the lung including by morphometric analysis. BibTeX: @article{ScottVasilescuSealEtAl2015, author = {A.E. Scott and D.M. Vasilescu and K.A.D. Seal and S.D. Keyes and M.N. Mavrogordato and J.C. Hogg and I. Sinclair and J.A. Warner and T.L. Hackett and P.M. Lackie}, title = {Three dimensional imaging of paraffin embedded human lung tissue samples by micro-computed tomography}, journal = {PLoS ONE}, year = {2015}, pages = {1--10}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/381745/} }  Swolfs Y, Morton H, Scott A, Gorbatikh L, Reed P, Sinclair I, Spearing S and Verpoest I (2015), "Synchrotron radiation computed tomography for experimental validation of a tensile strength model for unidirectional fibre-reinforced composites", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. Vol. 77, pp. 106 - 113. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Abstract Synchrotron radiation computed tomography has been used to analyse fibre break accumulation in unidirectional composites loaded in tension. The data are compared to model predictions. The model only slightly overestimated the composite failure strain, but predictions of fibre break density were too high, which can be mainly attributed to errors in the Weibull distribution. Both the number and percentage of interacting fibre break clusters were under-predicted by the model. This was attributed to an underestimation of stress concentrations in the model. While the experimental observations revealed mainly co-planar clusters, the model predicted mainly diffuse clusters. The experiments showed that the clusters did grow any further after their formation, while the model predicted a gradual development. Both local and dynamic stress concentrations were hypothesised to be key features for further exploration. The discrepancies identified, inform suggestions for directions advancing the state-of-the-art strength models of UD\ composites. BibTeX: @article{SwolfsMortonScottEtAl2015, author = {Y. Swolfs and H. Morton and A.E. Scott and L. Gorbatikh and P.A.S. Reed and I. Sinclair and S.M. Spearing and I. Verpoest}, title = {Synchrotron radiation computed tomography for experimental validation of a tensile strength model for unidirectional fibre-reinforced composites}, journal = {Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing}, year = {2015}, volume = {77}, pages = {106 - 113}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359835X15002171}, doi = {10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.06.018} }  Thatje S, Marsh L, Roterman CN, Mavrogordato MN and Linse K (2015), "Adaptations to hydrothermal vent life in Kiwa tyleri, a new species of yeti crab from the East Scotia Ridge, Antarctica", PLoS One. Vol. 10(6), pp. e0127621. Public Library of Science. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean are the physiologically most isolated chemosynthetic environments known. Here, we describe Kiwa tyleri sp. nov., the first species of yeti crab known from the Southern Ocean. Kiwa tyleri belongs to the family Kiwaidae and is the visually dominant macrofauna of two known vent sites situated on the northern and southern segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR). The species is known to depend on primary productivity by chemosynthetic bacteria and resides at the warm-eurythermal vent environment for most of its life; its short-range distribution away from vents (few metres) is physiologically constrained by the stable, cold waters of the surrounding Southern Ocean. Kiwa tylerihas been shown to present differential life history adaptations in response to this contrasting thermal environment. Morphological adaptations specific to life in warm-eurythermal waters, as found on – or in close proximity of – vent chimneys, are discussed in comparison with adaptations seen in the other two known members of the family (K. hirsuta, K. puravida), which show a preference for low temperature chemosynthetic environments. BibTeX: @article{Thatje2015, author = {Thatje, Sven and Marsh, Leigh and Roterman, Christopher Nicolai and Mavrogordato, Mark N and Linse, Katrin}, title = {Adaptations to hydrothermal vent life in Kiwa tyleri, a new species of yeti crab from the East Scotia Ridge, Antarctica}, journal = {PLoS One}, publisher = {Public Library of Science}, year = {2015}, volume = {10}, number = {6}, pages = {e0127621}, url = {http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0127621}, doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0127621} }  Zwahlen A, Christen D, Ruffoni D, Schneider P, Schmölz W and Müller R (2015), "Inverse Finite Element Modeling for Characterization of Local Elastic Properties in Image-Guided Failure Assessment of Human Trabecular Bone", Journal of biomechanical engineering. Vol. 137(1), pp. 011012. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. [BibTeX] BibTeX: @article{ZwahlenChristenRuffoniEtAl2015, author = {Zwahlen, Alexander and Christen, David and Ruffoni, Davide and Schneider, Philipp and Schmölz, Werner and Müller, Ralph}, title = {Inverse Finite Element Modeling for Characterization of Local Elastic Properties in Image-Guided Failure Assessment of Human Trabecular Bone}, journal = {Journal of biomechanical engineering}, publisher = {American Society of Mechanical Engineers}, year = {2015}, volume = {137}, number = {1}, pages = {011012} }  Bull D, Scott A, Spearing S and Sinclair I (2014), "The influence of toughening-particles in CFRPs on low velocity impact damage resistance performance", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing., March, 2014. Vol. 58, pp. 47-55. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: The role of particle-toughening for increasing impact damage resistance in carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites was investigated. Five carbon fibre reinforced systems consisting of four particle-toughened matrices and one system containing no toughening particles were subjected to low velocity impacts ranging from 25 J to 50 J to establish the impact damage resistance of each material system. Synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) enabled a novel approach for damage assessment and quantification. Toughening mechanisms were detected in the particle-toughened systems consisting of particle?resin debonding, crack-deflection and crack-bridging. Quantification of the bridging behaviour, increase in crack path length and roughness was undertaken. Out of the three toughening mechanisms measured, particle systems exhibited a larger extent of bridging suggesting a significant contribution of this toughening mechanism compared to the system with no particles BibTeX: @article{BullScottSpearingEtAl2014, author = {Bull, DJ and Scott, AE and Spearing, SM and Sinclair, I}, title = {The influence of toughening-particles in CFRPs on low velocity impact damage resistance performance}, journal = {Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2014}, volume = {58}, pages = {47--55}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/361039/} }  Bull D, Spearing S and Sinclair I (2014), "Observations of damage development from compression-after-impact experiments using ex situ micro-focus computed tomography", Composites Science and Technology., June, 2014. Vol. 97, pp. 106-114. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: The development of damage mechanisms leading up to compression-after-impact (CAI) failure is studied in particle-toughened and untoughened systems. Microfocus computed tomography (\muCT) enabled non-destructive monitoring of the internal damage development in three-dimensions (3D) by taking scans after impact, after an application of near failure compression loads and after coupon failure. In combination with \muCT work, mechanical CAI testing and ultrasonic C-scans were conducted to determine the effect of the projected damage area on residual CAI strength and to complement the observations made from \muCT scans. The important role of the undamaged ?cone? of material immediately under the impact site for out-of-plane sublaminate stability is identified. The implication of delamination growth into this region is discussed. It was found that where particle-toughened systems suppressed delamination growth into this region, greater residual CAI strength was maintained on a like-for-like projected damage area BibTeX: @article{BullSpearingSinclair2014, author = {D.J. Bull and S.M. Spearing and I. Sinclair}, title = {Observations of damage development from compression-after-impact experiments using ex situ micro-focus computed tomography}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, year = {2014}, volume = {97}, pages = {106--114}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/364958/} }  Carriero A, Doube M, Vogt M, Busse B, Zustin J, Levchuk A, Schneider P, Müller R and Shefelbine S (2014), "Altered lacunar and vascular porosity in osteogenesis imperfecta mouse bone as revealed by synchrotron tomography contributes to bone fragility", Bone., April, 2014. Vol. 61, pp. 116-124. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease) is caused by mutations in the collagen genes and results in skeletal fragility. Changes in bone porosity at the tissue level indicate changes in bone metabolism and alter bone mechanical integrity. We investigated the cortical bone tissue porosity of a mouse model of the disease, oim, in comparison to a wild type (WT-C57BL/6), and examined the influence of canal architecture on bone mechanical performance. High-resolution 3D representations of the posterior tibial and the lateral humeral mid-diaphysis of the bones were acquired for both mouse groups using synchrotron radiation-based computed tomography at a nominal resolution of 700 nm. Volumetric morphometric indices were determined for cortical bone, canal network and osteocyte lacunae. The influence of canal porosity architecture on bone mechanics was investigated using microarchitectural finite element (\muFE) models of the cortical bone. Bright-field microscopy of stained sections was used to determine if canals were vascular. Although total cortical porosity was comparable between oim and WT bone, oim bone had more numerous and more branched canals (p < 0.001), and more osteocyte lacunae per unit volume compared to WT (p < 0.001). Lacunae in oim were more spherical in shape compared to the ellipsoidal WT lacunae (p < 0.001). Histology revealed blood vessels in all WT and oim canals. \muFE models of cortical bone revealed that small and branched canals, typical of oim bone, increase the risk of bone failure. These results portray a state of compromised bone quality in oim bone at the tissue level, which contributes to its deficient mechanical properties. BibTeX: @article{CarrieroDoubeVogtEtAl2014, author = {A. Carriero and M. Doube and M. Vogt and B. Busse and J. Zustin and A. Levchuk and P. Schneider and R. Müller and S.J. Shefelbine}, title = {Altered lacunar and vascular porosity in osteogenesis imperfecta mouse bone as revealed by synchrotron tomography contributes to bone fragility}, journal = {Bone}, year = {2014}, volume = {61}, pages = {116--124}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/381909/} }  Daly KR and Roose T (2014), "Multiscale modelling of hydraulic conductivity in vuggy porous media", Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences / The Royal Society., February, 2014. Vol. 470(2162) [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Flow in both saturated and non-saturated vuggy porous media, i.e. soil, is inherently multiscale. The complex microporous structure of the soil aggregates and the wider vugs provides a multitude of flow pathways and has received significant attention from the X-ray computed tomography (CT) community with a constant drive to image at higher resolution. Using multiscale homogenization, we derive averaged equations to study the effects of the microscale structure on the macroscopic flow. The averaged model captures the underlying geometry through a series of cell problems and is verified through direct comparison to numerical simulations of the full structure. These methods offer significant reductions in computation time and allow us to perform three-dimensional calculations with complex geometries on a desktop PC. The results show that the surface roughness of the aggregate has a significantly greater effect on the flow than the microstructure within the aggregate. Hence, this is the region in which the resolution of X-ray CT for image-based modelling has the greatest impact. BibTeX: @article{DalyRoose2014, author = {Daly, K. R. and Roose, T.}, title = {Multiscale modelling of hydraulic conductivity in vuggy porous media}, journal = {Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences / The Royal Society}, year = {2014}, volume = {470}, number = {2162}, note = {PMID: 24511248 PMCID: PMC3896057}, url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3896057/}, doi = {10.1098/rspa.2013.0383} }  Donaldson F, Ruffoni D, Schneider P, Levchuk A, Zwahlen A, Pankaj P and MÃ¼ller R (2014), "Modeling microdamage behavior of cortical bone", Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. Vol. 13(6), pp. 1227-1242. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{DonaldsonRuffoniSchneiderEtAl2014, author = {Donaldson, Finn and Ruffoni, Davide and Schneider, Philipp and Levchuk, Alina and Zwahlen, Alexander and Pankaj, Pankaj and MÃ¼ller, Ralph}, title = {Modeling microdamage behavior of cortical bone}, journal = {Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology}, publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg}, year = {2014}, volume = {13}, number = {6}, pages = {1227-1242}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10237-014-0568-6}, doi = {10.1007/s10237-014-0568-6} }  Fessel G, Li Y, Diederich V, Guizar-Sicairos M, Schneider P, Sell DR, Monnier VM and Snedeker JG (2014), "Advanced glycation end-products reduce collagen molecular sliding to affect collagen fibril damage mechanisms but not stiffness", PloS one. Vol. 9(11), pp. e110948. Public Library of Science. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{FesselLiDiederichEtAl2014, author = {Fessel, Gion and Li, Yufei and Diederich, Vincent and Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel and Schneider, Philipp and Sell, David R and Monnier, Vincent M and Snedeker, Jess G}, title = {Advanced glycation end-products reduce collagen molecular sliding to affect collagen fibril damage mechanisms but not stiffness}, journal = {PloS one}, publisher = {Public Library of Science}, year = {2014}, volume = {9}, number = {11}, pages = {e110948}, url = {http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0110948}, doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0110948} }  Foffa D, Cuff AR, Sassoon J, Rayfield EJ, Mavrogordato MN and Benton MJ (2014), "Functional anatomy and feeding biomechanics of a giant Upper Jurassic pliosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from Weymouth Bay, Dorset, UK", Journal of anatomy. Vol. 225(2), pp. 209-219. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Pliosaurs were among the largest predators in Mesozoic seas, and yet their functional anatomy and feeding biomechanics are poorly understood. A new, well-preserved pliosaur from the Kimmeridgian of Weymouth Bay (UK) revealed cranial adaptations related to feeding. Digital modelling of computed tomography scans allowed reconstruction of missing, distorted regions of the skull and of the adductor musculature, which indicated high bite forces. Size-corrected beam theory modelling showed that the snout was poorly optimised against bending and torsional stresses compared with other aquatic and terrestrial predators, suggesting that pliosaurs did not twist or shake their prey during feeding and that seizing was better performed with post-symphyseal bites. Finite element analysis identified biting-induced stress patterns in both the rostrum and lower jaws, highlighting weak areas in the rostral maxillary-premaxillary contact and the caudal mandibular symphysis. A comparatively weak skull coupled with musculature that was able to produce high forces, is explained as a trade-off between agility, hydrodynamics and strength. In the Kimmeridgian ecosystem, we conclude that Late Jurassic pliosaurs were generalist predators at the top of the food chain, able to prey on reptiles and fishes up to half their own length. BibTeX: @article{FoffaCuffSassoonEtAl2014, author = {Foffa, Davide and Cuff, Andrew R and Sassoon, Judyth and Rayfield, Emily J and Mavrogordato, Mark N and Benton, Michael J}, title = {Functional anatomy and feeding biomechanics of a giant Upper Jurassic pliosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from Weymouth Bay, Dorset, UK}, journal = {Journal of anatomy}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2014}, volume = {225}, number = {2}, pages = {209--219}, url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/joa.12200/full}, doi = {10.1111/joa.12200} }  Foffa D, Sassoon J, Cuff AR, Mavrogordato MN and Benton MJ (2014), "Complex rostral neurovascular system in a giant pliosaur", Naturwissenschaften., April, 2014. Vol. 101(5), pp. 453-456. Springer. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Pliosaurs were a long-lived, ubiquitous group of Mesozoic marine predators attaining large body sizes (up to 12 m). Despite much being known about their ecology and behaviour, the mechanisms they adopted for prey detection have been poorly investigated and represent a mystery to date. Complex neurovascular systems in many vertebrate rostra have evolved for prey detection. However, information on the occurrence of such systems in fossil taxa is extremely limited because of poor preservation potential. The neurovascular complex from the snout of an exceptionally well-preserved pliosaur from the Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic, c. 170 Myr ago) of Weymouth Bay (Dorset, UK) is described here for the first time. Using computed tomography (CT) scans, the extensive bifurcating neurovascular channels could be traced through the rostrum to both the teeth and the foramina on the dorsal and lateral surface of the snout. The structures on the surface of the skull and the high concentrations of peripheral rami suggest that this could be a sensory system, perhaps similar to crocodile pressure receptors or shark electroreceptors. BibTeX: @article{FoffaSassoonCuffEtAl2014, author = {Foffa, Davide and Sassoon, Judyth and Cuff, Andrew R. and Mavrogordato, Mark N. and Benton, Michael J.}, title = {Complex rostral neurovascular system in a giant pliosaur}, journal = {Naturwissenschaften}, publisher = {Springer}, year = {2014}, volume = {101}, number = {5}, pages = {453--456}, url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00114-014-1173-3}, doi = {10.1007/s00114-014-1173-3} }  Garcea S, Mavrogordato M, Scott A, Sinclair I and Spearing S (2014), "Fatigue micromechanism characterisation in carbon fibre reinforced polymers using synchrotron radiation computed tomography", Composites Science and Technology. Vol. 99, pp. 23-30. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: In situ synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) has been used to evaluate fatigue damage micromechanisms in [90/0]s carbon fibre reinforced epoxy double-edge notched specimens. Interactions between cracks and toughening particles have been identified within the epoxy, particularly: particles de-bonding ahead of the main crack tip, creating a preferential damage path, and the bridging of cracks by un-failed ligaments. The critical mechanism of fatigue crack growth appears to be the degradation of bridging ligaments in the crack wake. Damage has been quantified in terms of crack opening and shear displacements, and the results have been compared with corresponding damage occurring due to quasi-static loading of the same materials. The removal of bridging ligaments in fatigue loading results in higher, more uniform crack opening (and shear) displacements and less serrated crack fronts. These observations have potential implications for material development, damage resistant and damage tolerant structural design approaches. BibTeX: @article{GarceaMavrogordatoScottEtAl2014, author = {Garcea, SC and Mavrogordato, MN and Scott, AE and Sinclair, I and Spearing, SM}, title = {Fatigue micromechanism characterisation in carbon fibre reinforced polymers using synchrotron radiation computed tomography}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2014}, volume = {99}, pages = {23--30}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353814001456}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2014.05.006} }  Gillard F, Boardman R, Mavrogordato M, Hollis D, Sinclair I, Pierron F and Browne M (2014), "The application of digital volume correlation (DVC) to study the microstructural behaviour of trabecular bone during compression", Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials., January, 2014. Vol. 29, pp. 480-499. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) has emerged recently as an innovative approach to full volume (i.e. internal) displacement and strain field measurement in materials and structures, particularly in conjunction with high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT). As a relatively novel technique certain aspects of precision, accuracy and the breadth of application are yet to be fully established. This study has applied DVC to volume images of porcine trabecular bone assessing the effect of noise and sub-volume size on strain measurement. Strain resolutions ranging between 70 to 800 \mu\epsilon were obtained for the optimum sub-volume size of 64 voxels with a 50 % overlap for metrological studies conducted. These values allowed the mechanical behaviour of porcine trabecular bone during compression to be investigated. During compression a crushed layer formed adjacent to the boundary plate which increased in thickness as the specimen was further deformed. The structure of the crushed layer was altered to such an extent that it confounded the correlation method. While investigating this factor, it was found that for reliable strain calculations a correlation coefficient of 0.90 or above was required between the sub-volumes in the reference and the deformed volumes. Good agreements between the results and published bone strain failures were obtained. Using the full field strain measurements, the Poisson's ratio was identified for each compression step using a dedicated inverse method called the virtual fields method (VFM). It was found that for a given region outside of the crushed zone the Poisson's ratio decreased from 0.32 to 0.21 between the first and the final compression steps, which was hypothesised to be due to the bone geometry and its resulting deformation behaviour. This study demonstrates that volumetric strain measurement can be obtained successfully using DVC, making it a useful tool for quantitatively investigating the micro-mechanical behaviour of macroscale bone specimens. BibTeX: @article{GillardBoardmanMavrogordatoEtAl2014, author = {F. Gillard and R. Boardman and M. Mavrogordato and D. Hollis and I. Sinclair and F. Pierron and M. Browne}, title = {The application of digital volume correlation (DVC) to study the microstructural behaviour of trabecular bone during compression}, journal = {Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2014}, volume = {29}, pages = {480--499}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/361390/}, doi = {10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.09.014} }  Hale R, Mavrogordato M, Tolhurst T and Solan M (2014), "Characterizations of how species mediate ecosystem properties require more comprehensive functional effect descriptors", Scientific reports. Vol. 4, pp. 6463. Nature Publishing Group. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The importance of individual species in mediating ecosystem process and functioning is generally accepted, but categorical descriptors that summarize species-specific contributions to ecosystems tend to reference a limited number of biological traits and underestimate the importance of how organisms interact with their environment. Here, we show how three functionally contrasting sediment-dwelling marine invertebrates affect fluid and particle transport - important processes in mediating nutrient cycling - and use high-resolution reconstructions of burrow geometry to determine the extent and nature of biogenic modification. We find that individual functional effect descriptors fall short of being able to adequately characterize how species mediate the stocks and flows of important ecosystem properties and that, in contrary to common practice and understanding, they are not substitutable with one another because they emphasize different aspects of species activity and behavior. When information derived from these metrics is combined with knowledge of how species behave and modify their environment, however, detailed mechanistic information emerges that increases the likelihood that a species functional standing will be appropriately summarized. Our study provides evidence that more comprehensive functional effect descriptors are required if they are to be of value to those tasked with projecting how altered biodiversity will influence future ecosystems. BibTeX: @article{Hale2014, author = {Hale, Rachel and Mavrogordato, MN and Tolhurst, TJ and Solan, Martin}, title = {Characterizations of how species mediate ecosystem properties require more comprehensive functional effect descriptors}, journal = {Scientific reports}, publisher = {Nature Publishing Group}, year = {2014}, volume = {4}, pages = {6463}, url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/srep06463}, doi = {10.1038/srep06463} }  Koo H-K (2014), "Micro-CT analysis of paraffin embedded lung tissue : is small airway obstruction an early feature of COPD", UBC Theses and Dissertations. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Rationale: Airflow obstruction, the hallmark characteristic of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has long been attributed to a combination of small airways disease and emphysematous destruction, however, the relative role of each pathological feature has not been well understood. McDonough et al., recently reported a significant reduction in terminal bronchiolar number in end-stage COPD compared to healthy controls. Further, the study reported that the loss of terminal bronchioles occurred in regions of lung with and without emphysema, posing the question, which pathological event occurs first? Hypothesis: Narrowing and obliteration of small airways precedes emphysematous destruction in COPD. Methods: Lung samples obtained from patients undergoing surgical treatment for lung cancer were formalin inflated, sliced and sampled prior to paraffin embedding (FFPE). A Nikon Metrology micro-CT scanner was used to scan these FFPE cores, and volumetric data sets were examined to determine the number of terminal bronchioles/ml (TB/ml) and presence of emphysema using mean linear intercept (Lm). Semi-automatic segmentation enabled 3D reconstruction of the airways to characterize structure and calibre, and scout for regions of interest that were sectioned and stained with Movatâ€™s Pentachrome, for analysis of airway morphology. Results: Using a novel combination of multidetector-CT, micro-CT and histology, this study demonstrates that micro-CT scans of FFPE cores provide adequate contrast to determine Lm values that were validated by histology. We report that the number of terminal bronchioles/ml is significantly decreased from 6.2 TB/ml in the controls, to 4.6 TB/ml in mild/moderate COPD patients. When the number of TB/ml is compared to Lm we demonstrate that terminal bronchioles are destroyed in tissues where no emphysema is present. These lesions were confirmed by histology, using the micro-CT images to precisely locate the airway lesions, enabling efficient sectioning of the FFPE cores for further characterization. Conclusions: Treatment of COPD has traditionally focused on patients with severe disease and no current pharmacological therapies have been shown to affect long term, lung function decline. Our findings suggest that irreversible pathological events occur in the early stages of disease and emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and intervention to modify the progression of this debilitating respiratory disorder. BibTeX: @article{Koo2014, author = {Koo, Hyun-Kyoung}, title = {Micro-CT analysis of paraffin embedded lung tissue : is small airway obstruction an early feature of COPD}, journal = {UBC Theses and Dissertations}, year = {2014}, note = {Graduate}, url = {http://circle.ubc.ca/handle/2429/46314} }  Laurent CM, Palmer C, Boardman RP, Dyke G and Cook RB (2014), "Nanomechanical properties of bird feather rachises: exploring naturally occurring fibre reinforced laminar composites", Journal of The Royal Society Interface. Vol. 11(101), pp. 20140961. The Royal Society. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Flight feathers have evolved under selective pressures to be sufficiently light and strong enough to cope with the stresses of flight. The feather shaft (rachis) must resist these stresses and is fundamental to this mode of locomotion. Relatively little work has been done on rachis morphology, especially from a mechanical perspective and never at the nanoscale. Nano-indentation is a cornerstone technique in materials testing. Here we use this technique to make use of differentially oriented fibres and their resulting mechanical anisotropy. The rachis is established as a multi-layered fibrous composite material with varying laminar properties in three feathers of birds with markedly different flight styles; the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor), the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the partridge (Perdix perdix). These birds were chosen not just because they are from different clades and have different flight styles, but because they have feathers large enough to gain meaningful results from nano-indentation. Results from our initial datasets indicate that the proportions and orientation of the laminae are not fixed and may vary either in order to cope with the stresses of flight particular to the bird or with phylogenetic lineage. BibTeX: @article{LaurentPalmerBoardmanEtAl2014a, author = {Laurent, Christian M and Palmer, Colin and Boardman, Richard P and Dyke, Gareth and Cook, Richard B}, title = {Nanomechanical properties of bird feather rachises: exploring naturally occurring fibre reinforced laminar composites}, journal = {Journal of The Royal Society Interface}, publisher = {The Royal Society}, year = {2014}, volume = {11}, number = {101}, pages = {20140961}, url = {http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/11/101/20140961.short}, doi = {10.1098/rsif.2014.0961} }  Mays S, Mavrogordato M, Lambert J and Sofaer J (2014), "The Prevalence and Health Implications of Concha Bullosa in a Population from Mediaeval England", International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. Vol. 24(5), pp. 614-622. Wiley Online Library. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Concha bullosa is hypertrophy of the middle nasal concha attributable to its pneumatisation. It is considered tobe the most common anatomical variant of the ostiomeatal complex, but it has been little studied in skeletal popu-lations. It is uncertain whether the prevalence of concha bullosa varies in different world populations. Some havesuggested that it predisposes to sinusitis, but this is controversial. The aim of the current work is to assess theprevalence of concha bullosa in a pre-modern population and to investigate whether it is associated with maxil-lary sinusitis. Results showed that concha bullosa was present in 17 out of 45 individuals, a prevalence of 38%.There was no evidence of an association with sinusitis. This adds to a growing body of evidence that calls intoquestion concha bullosa as a signiﬁcant risk factor for sinus disease. BibTeX: @article{MaysMavrogordatoLambertEtAl2014, author = {Mays, S and Mavrogordato, M and Lambert, J and Sofaer, J}, title = {The Prevalence and Health Implications of Concha Bullosa in a Population from Mediaeval England}, journal = {International Journal of Osteoarchaeology}, publisher = {Wiley Online Library}, year = {2014}, volume = {24}, number = {5}, pages = {614--622}, url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oa.2246/full}, doi = {10.1002/oa.2246} }  Morgeneyer TF, Taillandier-Thomas T, Helfen L, Baumbach T, Sinclair I, Roux S and Hild F (2014), "In situ 3-D observation of early strain localization during failure of thin Al alloy (2198) sheet", Acta Materialia. Vol. 69, pp. 78-91. Elsevier. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{morgeneyer2014situ, author = {Morgeneyer, Thilo F and Taillandier-Thomas, Thibault and Helfen, Lukas and Baumbach, Tilo and Sinclair, Ian and Roux, Stéphane and Hild, François}, title = {In situ 3-D observation of early strain localization during failure of thin Al alloy (2198) sheet}, journal = {Acta Materialia}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2014}, volume = {69}, pages = {78--91}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359645414000500}, doi = {10.1016/j.actamat.2014.01.033} }  Rmaile A, Carugo D, Capretto L, Aspiras M, De Jager M, Ward M and Stoodley P (2014), "Removal of interproximal dental biofilms by high-velocity water microdrops", Journal of dental research. Vol. 93(1), pp. 68-73. SAGE Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The influence of the impact of a high-velocity water microdrop on the detachment of Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms from the interproximal (IP) space of teeth in a training typodont was studied experimentally and computationally. Twelve-day-old S. mutans biofilms in the IP space were exposed to a prototype AirFloss delivering 115 µL water at a maximum exit velocity of 60 m/sec in a 30-msec burst. Using confocal microscopy and image analysis, we obtained quantitative measurements of the percentage removal of biofilms from different locations in the IP space. The 3D geometry of the typodont and the IP spaces was obtained by micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) imaging. We performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to calculate the wall shear stress (τw) distribution caused by the drops on the tooth surface. A qualitative agreement and a quantitative relationship between experiments and simulations were achieved. The wall shear stress (τw) generated by the prototype AirFloss and its spatial distribution on the teeth surface played a key role in dictating the efficacy of biofilm removal in the IP space. BibTeX: @article{Rmaile2014, author = {Rmaile, Amir and Carugo, Dario and Capretto, Lorenzo and Aspiras, Marcelo and De Jager, Marko and Ward, Marilyn and Stoodley, Paul}, title = {Removal of interproximal dental biofilms by high-velocity water microdrops}, journal = {Journal of dental research}, publisher = {SAGE Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA}, year = {2014}, volume = {93}, number = {1}, pages = {68--73}, url = {http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0022034513510945}, doi = {10.1177/0022034513510945} }  Scott A, Sinclair I, Spearing S, Mavrogordato M and Hepples W (2014), "Influence of voids on damage mechanisms in carbon/epoxy composites determined via high resolution computed tomography", Composites Science and Technology. Vol. 90, pp. 147 - 153. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Abstract A multi-scale computed tomography (CT) technique has been used to determine the material structure and damage mechanisms in hydrostatically loaded composite circumferential structures. Acoustic emission sensing was used to locate macroscopically regions of high damage under load to inform the computed tomography. The resultant images allow direct three-dimensional analysis of voids, fibre breaks and cracking, for which a high level of confidence can be placed in the results when compared to other indirect and/or surface-based methods. Ex situ analysis of loaded samples revealed matrix cracking in the longitudinally wound plies, whilst fibre breaks were observed in the circumferentially wound plies. The matrix cracking within the longitudinally wound plies is shown to interact directly with intralaminar voids. The correlation of voids with fibre breaks in the circumferentially wound plies is less distinct. A three-dimensional tessellation technique was used to analyse the spatial distribution of the voids and to compare with single fibre break locations. Whilst there was no first order correlation between fibre break densities and void volume fractions or void dimensions, a distinct correlation was found between voids and nearest neighbouring fibre breaks, where 2.6–5 times more fibre breaks occurred immediately adjacent to a void than would be expected for randomly distributed breaks. BibTeX: @article{ScottSinclairSpearingEtAl2014, author = {A.E. Scott and I. Sinclair and S.M. Spearing and M.N. Mavrogordato and W. Hepples}, title = {Influence of voids on damage mechanisms in carbon/epoxy composites determined via high resolution computed tomography}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, year = {2014}, volume = {90}, pages = {147 - 153}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353813004405}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2013.11.004} }  Aarvold A, Smith JO, Tayton ER, Jones AMH, Dawson JI, Lanham S, Briscoe A, Dunlop DG and Oreffo ROC (2013), "A tissue engineering strategy for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head", The Surgeon., December, 2013. Vol. 11(6), pp. 319-325. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Skeletal stem cells (SSCs) and impaction bone grafting (IBG) can be combined to produce a mechanically stable living bone composite. This novel strategy has been translated to the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Surgical technique, clinical follow-up and retrieval analysis data of this translational case series is presented. SSCs and milled allograft were impacted into necrotic bone in five femoral heads of four patients. Cell viability was confirmed by parallel in vitro culture of the cell-graft constructs. Patient follow-up was by serial clinical and radiological examination. Tissue engineered bone was retrieved from two retrieved femoral heads and was analysed by histology, microcomputed tomography (Î¼CT) and mechanical testing. Three patients remain asymptomatic at 22- to 44-month follow-up. One patient (both hips) required total hip replacement due to widespread residual necrosis. Retrieved tissue engineered bone demonstrated a mature trabecular micro-architecture histologically and on Î¼CT. Bone density and axial compression strength were comparable to trabecular bone. Clinical follow-up shows this to be an effective new treatment for focal early stage avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Unique retrieval analysis of clinically translated tissue engineered bone has demonstrated regeneration of tissue that is both structurally and functionally analogous to normal trabecular bone. BibTeX: @article{AarvoldSmithTaytonEtAl2013, author = {Aarvold, A. and Smith, J. O. and Tayton, E. R. and Jones, A. M. H. and Dawson, J. I. and Lanham, S. and Briscoe, A. and Dunlop, D. G. and Oreffo, R. O. C.}, title = {A tissue engineering strategy for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head}, journal = {The Surgeon}, year = {2013}, volume = {11}, number = {6}, pages = {319--325}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1479666X13000334}, doi = {10.1016/j.surge.2013.02.008} }  Beale G, Hitchcock S, Pagi H and Boardman RP (2013), "Supporting data management for 3D and raster data: lessons learned from the DataPool project", Archiving., April, 2013. Vol. 9 [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Research institutions, funding bodies and researchers themselves are becoming increasingly aware of the need to manage imaging and 3D data. At an institutional level data management policies are playing an increasingly significant role laying down plans for the provision of infrastructure, policy and guidance. Drawing upon the preliminary results of the University of Southamptonâ€™s JISC funded DataPool project, this paper will gauge the extent to which institutional policy development might be supplemented or even enhanced by an increased awareness of localised responses to the challenges of imaging and 3D data management. The paper will review approaches to data management that have been adopted by individuals and research groups and will propose that in many cases these developments might be pivotal in defining the form of institutional data management policy should take BibTeX: @article{BealeHitchcockPagiEtAl2013, author = {Beale, Gareth and Hitchcock, Steve and Pagi, Hembo and Boardman, Richard P.}, title = {Supporting data management for 3D and raster data: lessons learned from the DataPool project}, journal = {Archiving}, year = {2013}, volume = {9}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/351376/} }  Bull D, Helfen L, Sinclair I, Spearing S and Baumbach T (2013), "A comparison of multi-scale 3D X-ray tomographic inspection techniques for assessing carbon fibre composite impact damage", Composites Science and Technology. Vol. 75, pp. 55 - 61. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Tomographic imaging using both laboratory sources and synchrotron radiation (SR) was performed to achieve a multi-scale damage assessment of carbon fibre composites subjected to impact damage, allowing various internal damage modes to be studied in three-dimensions. The focus of this study is the comparison of different tomographic methods, identifying their capabilities and limitations, and their use in a complementary manner for creating an overall 3D damage assessment at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Overall, microfocus laboratory computed tomography (?CT) offers efficient routine assessment of damage at mesoscopic and macroscopic levels in engineering-scale test coupons and relatively high spatial resolutions on trimmed-down samples; whilst synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) and computed laminography (SRCL) offer scans with the highest image quality, particularly given the short acquisition times, allowing damage micromechanisms to be studied in detail. BibTeX: @article{BullHelfenSinclairEtAl2013, author = {D.J. Bull and L. Helfen and I. Sinclair and S.M. Spearing and T. Baumbach}, title = {A comparison of multi-scale 3D X-ray tomographic inspection techniques for assessing carbon fibre composite impact damage}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, year = {2013}, volume = {75}, pages = {55 - 61}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353812004137}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2012.12.006} }  Bull D, Sinclair I and Spearing S (2013), "Partial volume correction for approximating crack opening displacements in CFRP\ material obtained from micro-focus X-ray CT\ scans", Composites Science and Technology. Vol. 81, pp. 9 - 16. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a partial volume correction technique that applies a measurement weighting based on grey scale intensity values, allowing crack opening displacements (CODs) to be better estimated in micro-focus computed tomography (?CT) scans. These were tested on 3D data obtained from two separate ?CT scanners on particle toughened and non-particle toughened carbon fibre material subjected to low velocity impact. Direct comparisons of COD\ estimations were made with higher resolution measurements obtained using synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) scans taken at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). In this study, partial volume correction is reported to improve the accuracy of these measurements to within 20% of SRCT\ measurements, whereas measurements based on counting interconnected voxels representing a detectable crack are reported to consistently overestimate crack openings by up to 500%. Scatter in estimations was dependent on material type, noise, and artefacts associated with ?CT volumes. BibTeX: @article{BullSinclairSpearing2013, author = {D.J. Bull and I. Sinclair and S.M. Spearing}, title = {Partial volume correction for approximating crack opening displacements in CFRP\ material obtained from micro-focus X-ray CT\ scans}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, year = {2013}, volume = {81}, pages = {9 - 16}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353813001280}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2013.03.017} }  Bull D, Spearing S, Sinclair I and Helfen L (2013), "Three-dimensional assessment of low velocity impact damage in particle toughened composite laminates using micro-focus X-ray computed tomography and synchrotron radiation laminography", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. Vol. 52, pp. 62 - 69. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Abstract Results are presented studying the contribution of particle toughening to impact damage resistance in carbon fibre reinforced polymer materials. Micro-focus X-ray computed tomography and synchrotron radiation computed laminography were used to provide a novel, multiscale approach for assessing impact damage. Thin (1 mm thick) composite plates containing either untoughened or particle-toughened resin systems were subjected to low velocity impact. Damage was assessed three-dimensionally at voxel resolutions of 0.7 ?m and 4.3 ?m using SRCL\ and ?CT respectively; the former being an innovative approach to the laterally extended geometry of CFRP\ plates. Observations and measurements taken from ?CT scans captured the full extent of impact damage on both material systems revealing an interconnected network of intra- and inter-laminar cracks. These lower resolution images reveal that the particle-toughened system suppresses delaminations with little effect on intralaminar damage. The higher resolution images reveal that the particles contribute to toughening by crack deflection and bridging. BibTeX: @article{BullSpearingSinclairEtAl2013, author = {D.J. Bull and S.M. Spearing and I. Sinclair and L. Helfen}, title = {Three-dimensional assessment of low velocity impact damage in particle toughened composite laminates using micro-focus X-ray computed tomography and synchrotron radiation laminography}, journal = {Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing}, year = {2013}, volume = {52}, pages = {62 - 69}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359835X13001371}, doi = {10.1016/j.compositesa.2013.05.003} }  Katsamenis OL, Jenkins T, Quinci F, Michopoulou S, Sinclair I and Thurner PJ (2013), "A novel videography method for generating crack-extension resistance curves in small bone samples", PloS one., feb, 2013. Vol. 8(2), pp. e55641. Public Library of Science. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Assessment of bone quality is an emerging solution for quantifying the effects of bone pathology or treatment. Perhaps one of the most important parameters characterising bone quality is the toughness behaviour of bone. Particularly, fracture toughness, is becoming a popular means for evaluating bone quality. The method is moving from a single value approach that models bone as a linear-elastic material (using the stress intensity factor, K) towards full crack extension resistance curves (R-curves) using a non-linear model (the strain energy release rate in J-R curves). However, for explanted human bone or small animal bones, there are difficulties in measuring crack-extension resistance curves due to size constraints at the millimetre and sub-millimetre scale. This research proposes a novel “whitening front tracking” method that uses videography to generate full fracture resistance curves in small bone samples where crack propagation cannot typically be observed. Here we present this method on sharp edge notched samples (<1 mm×1 mm×Length) prepared from four human femora tested in three-point bending. Each sample was loaded in a mechanical tester with the crack propagation recorded using videography and analysed using an algorithm to track the whitening (damage) zone. Using the “whitening front tracking” method, full R-curves and J-R curves could be generated for these samples. The curves for this antiplane longitudinal orientation were similar to those found in the literature, being between the published longitudinal and transverse orientations. The proposed technique shows the ability to generate full “crack” extension resistance curves by tracking the whitening front propagation to overcome the small size limitations and the single value approach. BibTeX: @article{KatsamenisJenkinsQuinciEtAl2013, author = {Katsamenis, Orestis L and Jenkins, Thomas and Quinci, Federico and Michopoulou, Sofia and Sinclair, Ian and Thurner, Philipp J}, editor = {Ryan K. Roeder}, title = {A novel videography method for generating crack-extension resistance curves in small bone samples}, journal = {PloS one}, publisher = {Public Library of Science}, year = {2013}, volume = {8}, number = {2}, pages = {e55641}, url = {http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055641}, doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0055641} }  Keyes SD, Boardman RP, Marchant A, Roose T and Sinclair I (2013), "A robust approach for determination of the macro-porous volume fraction of soils with X-ray computed tomography and an image processing protocol", European Journal of Soil Science. Vol. 64(3), pp. 298â€“307. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Soil structure is known to govern aspects of hydration, aeration, faunal activity and root growth, which influence plant development. Industrial X-ray computed tomography (Î¼CT) has been used for over 15 years for the elucidation of soil structure, leading to a number of valuable insights. However, there is evidence of a need for more robust, repeatable methods for segmentation of significant structural features, which are essentially free from operator interference. We develop in this paper an automatable approach using a seeded region growth (SRG) algorithm for segmentation of the connected, macroporous domain of homogenized, real soils. Furthermore, we demonstrate methods for user-independent selection of seed point and tolerance values, leading to a fully automated segmentation regime. The stability of this approach to different seed locations has been assessed, as well as the impact of X-ray target and filter choice upon mitigation of artifacts, which are particularly detrimental to accuracy of SRG methods. Estimated porosity derived using this method has been compared with values from a gravimetric protocol and histogram thresholding approaches. It is seen that substantial differences exist in porosity quantified by such methods, with these differences probably the result of varying categorization of different porosity domains. BibTeX: @article{KeyesBoardmanMarchantEtAl2013, author = {Keyes, S. D. and Boardman, R. P. and Marchant, A. and Roose, T. and Sinclair, I.}, title = {A robust approach for determination of the macro-porous volume fraction of soils with X-ray computed tomography and an image processing protocol}, journal = {European Journal of Soil Science}, publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Ltd}, year = {2013}, volume = {64}, number = {3}, pages = {298â€“307}, url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ejss.12019/abstract}, doi = {10.1111/ejss.12019} }  Keyes SD, Daly KR, Gostling NJ, Jones DL, Talboys P, Pinzer BR, Boardman R, Sinclair I, Marchant A and Roose T (2013), "High resolution synchrotron imaging of wheat root hairs growing in soil and image based modelling of phosphate uptake", New Phytologist. Vol. 198(4), pp. 1023â€“1029. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: * Root hairs are known to be highly important for uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients, particularly in nutrient deficient soils. Development of increasingly sophisticated mathematical models has allowed uptake characteristics to be quantified. However, modelling has been constrained by a lack of methods for imaging live root hairs growing in real soils. * We developed a plant growth protocol and used Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM) to uncover the three-dimensional (3D) interactions of root hairs in real soil. We developed a model of phosphate uptake by root hairs based directly on the geometry of hairs and associated soil pores as revealed by imaging. * Previous modelling studies found that root hairs dominate phosphate uptake. By contrast, our study suggests that hairs and roots contribute equally. We show that uptake by hairs is more localized than by roots and strongly dependent on root hair and aggregate orientation. * The ability to image hairâ€“soil interactions enables a step change in modelling approaches, allowing a more realistic treatment of processes at the scale of individual root hairs in soil pores. BibTeX: @article{KeyesDalyGostlingEtAl2013, author = {Keyes, Samuel D. and Daly, Keith R. and Gostling, Neil J. and Jones, Davey L. and Talboys, Peter and Pinzer, Bernd R. and Boardman, Richard and Sinclair, Ian and Marchant, Alan and Roose, Tiina}, title = {High resolution synchrotron imaging of wheat root hairs growing in soil and image based modelling of phosphate uptake}, journal = {New Phytologist}, year = {2013}, volume = {198}, number = {4}, pages = {1023â€“1029}, url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.12294/abstract}, doi = {10.1111/nph.12294} }  Mader KS, Schneider P, Müller R and Stampanoni M (2013), "A quantitative framework for the 3D characterization of the osteocyte lacunar system", Bone., November, 2013. Vol. 57(1), pp. 142-154. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Assessing the role of osteocyte lacunae and the ways in which they communicate with one another is important for determining the function and viability of bone tissue. Osteocytes are able to play a significant role in bone development and remodeling because they can receive nourishment from, interact with, and communicate with other cells. In this sense the immediate environment of an osteocyte is crucial for understanding its function. Modern imaging techniques, ranging from synchrotron radiation-based computed tomography (SR CT) to confocal laser scanning microscopy, produce large volumes of high-quality imaging data of bone tissue on the micrometer scale in rapidly shortening times. These images often contain tens of thousands of osteocytes and their lacunae, void spaces which enclose the osteocytes. While theoretically possible, quantitative analysis of the osteocyte lacunar system is too time consuming to be practical without highly automated tools. Moreover, quantitative morphometry of the osteocyte lacunar system necessitates clearly defined, robust, and three-dimensional (3D) measures. Here, we introduce a framework for the quantitative characterization of millions of osteocyte lacunae and their spatial relationships in 3D. The metrics complement and expand previous works looking at shape and number density while providing novel measures for quantifying spatial distribution and alignment. We developed model, in silico systems to visualize and validate the metrics and provide a concrete example of the attribute being classified with each metric. We then illustrate the applicability to biological samples in a first study comparing two strains of mice and the effect of growth hormone. We found significant differences in shape and distribution between strains for alignment. The proposed quantitative framework can be used in future studies examining differences and treatment effects in bone microstructure at the cell scale. Furthermore, the proposed strategy for quantitative bone cell morphometry will allow investigating structure?function relationships in bone tissue, for example by linking cellular morphometry to bone remodeling BibTeX: @article{MaderSchneiderMuellerEtAl2013, author = {Kevin Scott Mader and Philipp Schneider and Ralph Müller and Marco Stampanoni}, title = {A quantitative framework for the 3D characterization of the osteocyte lacunar system}, journal = {Bone}, year = {2013}, volume = {57}, number = {1}, pages = {142--154}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/356761/} }  Malmstein M, Chambers AR and Blake JIR (2013), "Hygrothermal ageing of plant oil based marine composites", Composite Structures., July, 2013. Vol. 101, pp. 138-143. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: In this paper, the effect of hygrothermal ageing on the flexural properties of glass/epoxy, glass/linseed oil and glass/castor oil composites is reported. Plant oil based resins offer renewable and potentially less toxic alternatives to conventional largely petroleum based marine composites. The long-term performance of these novel composites needs to be investigated and understood before using them in structural applications. In this research it was found that in the unaged condition, the flexural properties of glass/epoxy were significantly higher than both glass/castor oil and glass/linseed oil composites. After ageing in water at 40 Â°C for 46 weeks, the properties of glass/castor oil were comparable to glass/epoxy while the properties of glass/linseed oil were remarkably lower. The decrease in glass/linseed oil performance was explained in terms of the changes in the failure modes caused by moisture uptake. BibTeX: @article{MalmsteinChambersBlake2013, author = {Malmstein, M. and Chambers, A. R. and Blake, J. I. R.}, title = {Hygrothermal ageing of plant oil based marine composites}, journal = {Composite Structures}, year = {2013}, volume = {101}, pages = {138--143}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263822313000822}, doi = {10.1016/j.compstruct.2013.02.003} }  Mostafavi M, McDonald SA, Mummery PM and Marrow TJ (2013), "Observation and quantification of three-dimensional crack propagation in poly-granular graphite", Engineering Fracture Mechanics., September, 2013. Vol. 110, pp. 410-420. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Observations of fracture are generally restricted to the surface of test specimens; yet the fracture process occurs within the material. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) provides valuable insights into the structures within materials: when XCT is combined with digital volume correlation (DVC) the response to applied loads can be measured with high precision in the form of the three-dimensional displacement field within the material. This paper reports a study of the fracture behaviour of a short-bar chevron notch crack propagation specimen fabricated from polygranular nuclear graphite â€“ a quasi-brittle material. A three-dimensional linear elastic finite element simulation of the specimen obtained the relations between crack length, opening displacement and stress intensity factor along the crack front. Tomographic absorption contrast images were obtained from the specimen before and after crack propagation, whilst loaded. The DVC-measured displacement field was used to measure and map the crack opening displacements in 3D; the experimentally calculated crack opening displacements were consistent with the FE-predicted values. The measurements demonstrate the existence of a cohesive fracture process zone ahead of the crack tip, which is a characteristic of quasi-brittle materials. This suggests that simulation of the fracture of non-irradiated polygranular nuclear graphite requires a material model capable of showing softening behaviour. BibTeX: @article{MostafaviMcDonaldMummeryEtAl2013, author = {Mostafavi, M. and McDonald, S. A. and Mummery, P. M. and Marrow, T. J.}, title = {Observation and quantification of three-dimensional crack propagation in poly-granular graphite}, journal = {Engineering Fracture Mechanics}, year = {2013}, volume = {110}, pages = {410--420}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013794413000052}, doi = {10.1016/j.engfracmech.2012.11.023} }  Schneider P, Voide R, Stampanoni M, Donahue LR and Müller R (2013), "The importance of the intracortical canal network for murine bone mechanics", Bone., March, 2013. Vol. 53(1), pp. 120-128. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: As shown by recent data bone strength estimation can greatly be improved by including microarchitectural parameters in the analysis. Our previous results showed that intracortical canals (the living space of the vasculature and/or remodeling units) are a major contributor to cortical tissue porosity, and therefore, can be linked to mechanical bone properties. Consequently, the goal of this study was to investigate the importance of the intracortical canal network for murine bone mechanics. To study intracortical canals within murine femoral bone, we used a mouse model, including two mouse strains, C57BL/6J-Ghrhr(lit)/J (B6-lit/+) and C3.B6-Ghrhr(lit)/J (C3.B6-lit/+) representing low and high bone mass, respectively. The intracortical canal network was assessed by synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography and the mechanical bone properties were derived from three-point bending experiments. Multiple linear regression models were built to explain the variation in ultimate force, work to fracture, and stiffness in terms of the morphometric parameters. The power to explain the variation in bone mechanics was increased significantly for most mechanical measures when including morphometric parameters of intracortical canals in addition to macroscopic morphometric measures. Specifically, we could derive generalized (mouse strain-independent) models for ultimate force, where the incorporation of intracortical canals in addition to macroscopic bone measures improved the explained variation in ultimate force considerably, which was confirmed by an increase in adjusted R2 of 73% and 8% for B6-lit/+ and C3.B6-lit/+, respectively. Further, we observed that the heterogeneity of the morphometric measures for the individual canal branches play an important role for explaining the variation in ultimate force. Finally, the current study provides strong evidence that work to fracture of murine bone, which is triggered critically by microcracks, is affected by intracortical canals. In summary, the study suggests that the intracortical canal network is important for bone mechanics. BibTeX: @article{SchneiderVoideStampanoniEtAl2013, author = {Philipp Schneider and Romain Voide and Marco Stampanoni and Leah Rae Donahue and Ralph Müller}, title = {The importance of the intracortical canal network for murine bone mechanics}, journal = {Bone}, year = {2013}, volume = {53}, number = {1}, pages = {120--128}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/361074/} }  Shi J, Browne M, Strickland MA, Flivik G and Taylor M (2013), "Sensitivity analysis of a cemented hip stem to implant position and cement mantle thickness", Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering., February, 2013. Vol. 17(15), pp. 1671-1684. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Patient-specific finite element models of the implanted proximal femur can be built from pre-operative computed tomography scans and post-operative X-rays. However, estimating three-dimensional positioning from two-dimensional radiographs introduces uncertainty in the implant position. Further, accurately measuring the thin cement mantle and the degree of cement?bone interdigitation from imaging data is challenging. To quantify the effect of these uncertainties in stem position and cement thickness, a sensitivity study was performed. A design-of-experiment study was implemented, simulating both gait and stair ascent. Cement mantle stresses and bone?implant interface strains were monitored. The results show that small variations in alignment affect the implant biomechanics, especially around the most proximal and most distal ends of the stem. The results suggest that implant position is more influential than cement thickness. Rotation around the medial?lateral axis is the dominant factor in the proximal zones and stem translations are the dominant factors around the distal tip BibTeX: @article{ShiBrowneStricklandEtAl2013, author = {Junfen Shi and Martin Browne and Michael A. Strickland and Gunnar Flivik and Mark Taylor}, title = {Sensitivity analysis of a cemented hip stem to implant position and cement mantle thickness}, journal = {Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering}, year = {2013}, volume = {17}, number = {15}, pages = {1671--1684}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/374113/} }  Tayton E, Purcell M, Aarvold A, Smith JO, Briscoe A, Kanczler JM, Shakesheff KM, Howdle SM, Dunlop DG and Oreffo ROC (2013), "A comparison of polymer and polymerâ€“hydroxyapatite composite tissue engineered scaffolds for use in bone regeneration. An in vitro and in vivo study", Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A., September, 2013. , pp. n/a-n/a. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Previous in vitro work demonstrated porous PLA and PLGA both had the mechanical strength and sustained the excellent skeletal stem cell (SSC) growth required of an osteogenic bonegraft substitute, for use in impaction bone grafting. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) to the scaffolds before clinical translation. PLA, PLA+10% HA, PLGA, and PLGA+10% HA were milled and impacted into discs before undergoing a standardized shear test. Cellular compatibility analysis followed 14 days incubation with human skeletal stems cells (SSC). The best two performing polymers were taken forward for in vivo analysis. SSC seeded polymer discs were implanted subcutaneously in mice. All polymers had superior mechanical shear strength compared with allograft (p textless 0.01). Excellent SSC survival was demonstrated on all polymers, but the PLA polymers showed enhanced osteoblastic activity (ALP assay p textless 0.01) and collagen-1 formation. In vivo analysis was performed on PLA and PLA+10% HA. MicroCT analysis revealed increased bone formation on the PLA HA (p textless 0.01), and excellent neo-vessel formation in both samples. Histology confirmed evidence of de novo bone formation. PLA HA showed both enhanced osteoinductive and osteogenic capacity. This polymer composite has been selected for scaled-up experimentation before clinical translation. Â© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013. BibTeX: @article{TaytonPurcellAarvoldEtAl2013, author = {Tayton, E. and Purcell, M. and Aarvold, A. and Smith, J. O. and Briscoe, A. and Kanczler, J. M. and Shakesheff, K. M. and Howdle, S. M. and Dunlop, D. G. and Oreffo, R. O. C.}, title = {A comparison of polymer and polymerâ€“hydroxyapatite composite tissue engineered scaffolds for use in bone regeneration. An in vitro and in vivo study}, journal = {Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A}, year = {2013}, pages = {n/a--n/a}, url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbm.a.34926/abstract}, doi = {10.1002/jbm.a.34926} }  Bull D, Helfen L, Sinclair I and Spearing S (2012), "Multi-scale 3D imaging of carbon fibre laminate impact and compression after impact damage using computed tomography and laminography", 15th European Conference on Composite Materials. European Society for Composite Materials. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @article{BullHelfenSinclairEtAl2012, author = {Bull, DJ and Helfen, L and Sinclair, I and Spearing, SM}, title = {Multi-scale 3D imaging of carbon fibre laminate impact and compression after impact damage using computed tomography and laminography}, journal = {15th European Conference on Composite Materials}, publisher = {European Society for Composite Materials}, year = {2012}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/355786/} }  Christen D, Levchuk A, Schori S, Schneider P, Boyd SK and Müller R (2012), "Deformable image registration and 3D strain mapping for the quantitative assessment of cortical bone microdamage", Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials., January, 2012. Vol. 8, pp. 184-193. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: The resistance to forming microcracks is a key factor for bone to withstand critical loads without fracturing. In this study, we investigated the initiation and propagation of microcracks in murine cortical bone by combining three-dimensional images from synchrotron radiation-based computed tomography and time-lapsed biomechanical testing to observe microdamage accumulation over time. Furthermore, a novel deformable image registration procedure utilizing digital volume correlation and demons image registration was introduced to compute 3D strain maps allowing characterization of the mechanical environment of the microcracks. The displacement and strain maps were validated in a priori tests. At an image resolution of 740?nm the spatial resolution of the strain maps was 10?\mum (MTF), while the errors of the displacements and strains were 130 nm and 0.013, respectively. The strain maps revealed a complex interaction of the propagating microcracks with the bone microstructure. In particular, we could show that osteocyte lacunae play a dual role as stress concentrating features reducing bone strength, while at the same time contributing to the bone toughness by blunting the crack tip. We conclude that time-lapsed biomechanical imaging in combination with three-dimensional strain mapping is suitable for the investigation of crack initiation and propagation in many porous materials under various loading scenarios. BibTeX: @article{ChristenLevchukSchoriEtAl2012, author = {David Christen and Alina Levchuk and Stefan Schori and Philipp Schneider and Steven K. Boyd and Ralph Müller}, title = {Deformable image registration and 3D strain mapping for the quantitative assessment of cortical bone microdamage}, journal = {Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials}, year = {2012}, volume = {8}, pages = {184--193}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/361073/} }  Dyke G, Vremir M, Kaiser G and Naish D (2012), "A drowned Mesozoic bird breeding colony from the Late Cretaceous of Transylvania", Naturwissenschaften., June, 2012. Vol. 99(6), pp. 435-442. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Despite a rapidly improving fossil record, the reproductive biology of Mesozoic birds remains poorly known: only a handful of undisputed, isolated Cretaceous eggs (some containing embryonic remains) are known. We report here the first fossil evidence for a breeding colony of Mesozoic birds, preserved at the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Oarda de Jos (Od) site in the SebeÅŸ area of Transylvania, Romania. A lens of calcareous mudstone with minimum dimensions of 80 cm length, 50 cm width and 20 cm depth contains thousands of tightly packed, morphologically homogenous eggshell fragments, seven near-complete eggs and neonatal and adult avialan skeletal elements. Eggshell forms 70â€“80 % of the matrix, and other fossils are entirely absent. The bones exhibit clear characters of the Cretaceous avialan clade Enantiornithes, and the eggshell morphology is also consistent with this identification. Both taphonomy and lithology show that the components of this lens were deposited in a single flood event, and we conclude that it represents the drowned remains of a larger enantiornithine breeding colony, swamped by rising water, washed a short distance and deposited in a shallow, low-energy pond. The same fate often befalls modern bird colonies. Such a large concentration of breeding birds suggests aquatic feeding in this species, augments our understanding of enantiornithine biology and shows that colonial nesting was not unique to crown birds. BibTeX: @article{DykeVremirKaiserEtAl2012, author = {Dyke, Gareth and Vremir, MÃ¡tyÃ¡s and Kaiser, Gary and Naish, Darren}, title = {A drowned Mesozoic bird breeding colony from the Late Cretaceous of Transylvania}, journal = {Naturwissenschaften}, year = {2012}, volume = {99}, number = {6}, pages = {435--442}, url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00114-012-0917-1}, doi = {10.1007/s00114-012-0917-1} }  Helfen L, Morgeneyer TF, Xu F, Mavrogordato MN, Sinclair I, Schillinger B and Baumbach T (2012), "Synchrotron and neutron laminography for three-dimensional imaging of devices and flat material specimens", International Journal of Materials Research., February, 2012. Vol. 2012(2), pp. 170-173. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Computed laminography has been introduced to synchrotron and neutron imaging set-ups to complement computed tomography for three-dimensional imaging of laterally extended (i. e. plate-like) specimens. The wide application field of computed laminography due to different contrast modes (X-ray or neutron absorption and X-ray phase contrast) and spatial resolutions ranging from some 100 down to approximately 0.5 mu m is demonstrated. Selected examples from device inspection and from materials science are reported. They outline the interest of the method for non-destructive and in-situ measurements of regions of interest in large planar specimens where engineering-relevant boundary conditions have to be met. With a materials science background, the in-situ investigation of crack propagation in aluminium sheets and carbon-fibre composite panels under mechanical loading is reported. BibTeX: @article{HelfenMorgeneyerXuEtAl2012, author = {Lukas Helfen and Thilo F. Morgeneyer and Feng Xu and Mark N. Mavrogordato and Ian Sinclair and Burkhard Schillinger and Tilo Baumbach}, title = {Synchrotron and neutron laminography for three-dimensional imaging of devices and flat material specimens}, journal = {International Journal of Materials Research}, year = {2012}, volume = {2012}, number = {2}, pages = {170--173}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/337997/} }  Lambert J, Chambers AR, Sinclair I and Spearing SM (2012), "3D damage characterisation and the role of voids in the fatigue of wind turbine blade materials", Composites Science and Technology., January, 2012. Vol. 72(2), pp. 337-343. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The fatigue mechanisms of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) used in wind turbine blades were examined using computed tomography (CT). Prior to mechanical testing, as-manufactured [+45/âˆ’45/0]3,s glass/epoxy specimens were CT scanned to provide 3-dimensional images of their internal microstructure, including voids. Voids were segmented and extracted, and individual characteristics and volumetric distributions were quantified. The coupons were then fatigue tested in uniaxial loading at R = âˆ’1% to 40% of the nominal tensile failure stress. Some tests were conducted to failure for correlation with the initial void analysis and to establish failure modes. Other tests were stopped at various life fractions and examined using CT to identify key damage mechanisms. These scans revealed transverse matrix cracking in the surface layer, occurring predominantly at free edges. These free-edge cracks then appeared to facilitate edge delamination at the 45/âˆ’45Â° interface. Propagation from sub-critical, surface ply damage to critical, inner ply damage was identified with either a âˆ’45/0Â° delamination, or a 0Â° fibre tow failure allowing a crack to propagate into the specimen bulk. Final failure occurred in compression and was characterised by total delamination between all the 45/âˆ’45Â° plies. A quantitative void analysis, taken from the pre-test CT scans, was also performed and compared against the specimensâ€™ fatigue lives. This analysis, to the authorsâ€™ knowledge the first of its kind, measured and plotted approximately 10,000 voids within the gauge length of each specimen. The global void measurement parameters and distributions showed no correlation with fatigue life. A local ply-level investigation revealed a significant correlation between the largest void and fatigue life in the region of the laminate associated with the crack propagation from sub-critical to critical damage. BibTeX: @article{LambertChambersSinclairEtAl2012, author = {Lambert, J. and Chambers, A. R. and Sinclair, I. and Spearing, S. M.}, title = {3D damage characterisation and the role of voids in the fatigue of wind turbine blade materials}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, year = {2012}, volume = {72}, number = {2}, pages = {337--343}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353811004155}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2011.11.023} }  Mbuya T, Sinclair I, Moffat A and Reed P (2012), "Micromechanisms of fatigue crack growth in cast aluminium piston alloys", International Journal of Fatigue. Vol. 42, pp. 227 - 237. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{MbuyaSinclairMoffatEtAl2012, author = {T.O. Mbuya and I. Sinclair and A.J. Moffat and P.A.S. Reed}, title = {Micromechanisms of fatigue crack growth in cast aluminium piston alloys}, journal = {International Journal of Fatigue}, year = {2012}, volume = {42}, pages = {227 - 237}, note = {Fatigue Damage of Structural Materials VIII\}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142112311002921}, doi = {10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2011.10.015} }  Proudhon H, Moffat A, Sinclair I and Buffiere J-Y (2012), "Three-dimensional characterisation and modelling of small fatigue corner cracks in high strength Al-alloys", Comptes Rendus Physique. Vol. 13(3), pp. 316 - 327. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{ProudhonMoffatSinclairEtAl2012, author = {Henry Proudhon and A. Moffat and Ian Sinclair and Jean-Yves Buffiere}, title = {Three-dimensional characterisation and modelling of small fatigue corner cracks in high strength Al-alloys}, journal = {Comptes Rendus Physique}, year = {2012}, volume = {13}, number = {3}, pages = {316 - 327}, note = {Use of large scale facilities for research in metallurgy / Utilisation des grands instruments pour la recherche en métallurgie}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070511002672}, doi = {10.1016/j.crhy.2011.12.005} }  Schoettle C, Sinclair I, Starink M and Reed P (2012), "Deflected ‘teardrop cracking’ in nickel based superalloys: Sustained macroscopic deflected fatigue crack growth", International Journal of Fatigue. Vol. 44, pp. 188 - 201. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{SchoettleSinclairStarinkEtAl2012, author = {C. Schoettle and I. Sinclair and M.J. Starink and P.A.S. Reed}, title = {Deflected ‘teardrop cracking’ in nickel based superalloys: Sustained macroscopic deflected fatigue crack growth}, journal = {International Journal of Fatigue}, year = {2012}, volume = {44}, pages = {188 - 201}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142112312001569}, doi = {10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2012.04.017} }  Scott A, Sinclair I, Spearing S, Thionnet A and Bunsell A (2012), "Damage accumulation in a carbon/epoxy composite: Comparison between a multiscale model and computed tomography experimental results", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. Vol. 43(9), pp. 1514 - 1522. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @article{ScottSinclairSpearingEtAl2012, author = {A.E. Scott and I. Sinclair and S.M. Spearing and A. Thionnet and A.R. Bunsell}, title = {Damage accumulation in a carbon/epoxy composite: Comparison between a multiscale model and computed tomography experimental results}, journal = {Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing}, year = {2012}, volume = {43}, number = {9}, pages = {1514 - 1522}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359835X12001042}, doi = {10.1016/j.compositesa.2012.03.011} }  Sutcliffe M, Lemanski S and Scott A (2012), "Measurement of fibre waviness in industrial composite components", Composites Science and Technology. Vol. 72(16), pp. 2016-2023. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Fibre orientation is measured from polished sections of the unidirectional plies of two industrial CFRP components made by resin transfer moulding (RTM) or prepreg/vacuum consolidation. The image analysis technique described by Creighton et al. [Composites: Part A 2001; 32: 221–229] is used to determine the fibre orientation over typically 5 × 5 mm sections. The standard deviation in fibre orientation angle is in the range 0.6–1.8°, being smallest for in-plane waviness of the prepreg component. The length and width of the waviness region along and transverse to the fibres is characterised using autocorrelation. The length is in the range 1.1–4.4 mm, being significantly greater in the prepreg than in the RTM component. The width is in the range 0.37–1.30 mm and is broadly similar across the sample types. It is demonstrated that the image analysis method can also be applied to X-ray images, giving good agreement with results from the polished prepreg samples. BibTeX: @article{SutcliffeLemanskiScott2012, author = {Sutcliffe, MPF and Lemanski, SL and Scott, AE}, title = {Measurement of fibre waviness in industrial composite components}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2012}, volume = {72}, number = {16}, pages = {2016--2023}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353812003235} }  Bah MT, Browne M, Young PG, Bryan R and Xuan VB (2011), "Effects of implant positioning in cementless total hip replacements", Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering., August, 2011. Vol. 14, pp. 275-276. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Cementless Total Hip Replacements (THRs) are required to approximate as closely as possible the natural joint function for the full postoperative life span. Unfortunately, implant positioning is not always perfect due to the curved shape of the thigh bone and the stem is often straight [1]. Surgeons need to decide on three orientation angles that directly influence the success of a cementless THR: the antero/retro version of the femur neck orientation, implant varus/valgus placement and anterior/posterior orientation. Ideally, to account for positioning variability, all possible implant orientations should be analysed and simulated. Unfortunately, this would be an intractable task if it was attempted experimentally, and computational simulations are often applied to reduce this burden. However, even in computational pre-clinical assessments of implant primary stability, this is a huge task, as it involves generating a new mesh for each new position and solving the corresponding Finite Element (FE) problem [2]. In the current work, this problem is addressed using a mesh morphing-based framework that can efficiently assess the effects of implant positioning. BibTeX: @article{BahBrowneYoungEtAl2011, author = {Bah, M. T. and Browne, Martin and Young, P. G. and Bryan, R. and Xuan, V. B.}, title = {Effects of implant positioning in cementless total hip replacements}, journal = {Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering}, year = {2011}, volume = {14}, pages = {275--276}, url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10255842.2011.595241}, doi = {10.1080/10255842.2011.595241} }  Dhillon A, Schneider P, Kuhn G, Reinwald Y, White LJ, Levchuk A, Rose FRAJ, Müller R, Shakesheff KM and Rahman CV (2011), "Analysis of sintered polymer scaffolds using concomitant synchrotron computed tomography and in situ mechanical testing", Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine., December, 2011. Vol. 22(12), pp. 2599-2605. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: The mechanical behaviour of polymer scaffolds plays a vital role in their successful use in bone tissue engineering. The present study utilised novel sintered polymer scaffolds prepared using temperature-sensitive poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)/poly(ethylene glycol) particles. The microstructure of these scaffolds was monitored under compressive strain by image-guided failure assessment (IGFA), which combined synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) and in situ micro-compression. Three-dimensional CT data sets of scaffolds subjected to a strain rate of 0.01%/s illustrated particle movement within the scaffolds with no deformation or cracking. When compressed using a higher strain rate of 0.02%/s particle movement was more pronounced and cracks between sintered particles were observed. The results from this study demonstrate that IGFA based on simultaneous SR CT imaging and micro-compression testing is a useful tool for assessing structural and mechanical scaffold properties, leading to further insight into structure?function relationships in scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. BibTeX: @article{DhillonSchneiderKuhnEtAl2011, author = {Dhillon, Amritpaul and Schneider, Philipp and Kuhn, Gisela and Reinwald, Yvonne and White, Lincoln J. and Levchuk, Alina and Rose, Felicity R. A. J. and Müller, Ralph and Shakesheff, Kevin M. and Rahman, Cheryl V.}, title = {Analysis of sintered polymer scaffolds using concomitant synchrotron computed tomography and in situ mechanical testing}, journal = {Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine}, year = {2011}, volume = {22}, number = {12}, pages = {2599--2605}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/361071/} }  Mavrogordato M, Taylor M, Taylor A and Browne M (2011), "Real time monitoring of progressive damage during loading of a simplified total hip stem construct using embedded acoustic emission sensors", Medical Engineering & Physics. Vol. 33(4), pp. 395-406. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Acoustic emission (AE) is a non-destructive technique that is capable of passively monitoring failure of a construct with excellent temporal resolution. Previous investigations using AE to monitor the integrity of a total hip replacement (THR) have used surface mounted sensors; however, the AE signal attenuates as it travels through materials and across interfaces. This study proposes that directly embedded sensors within the femoral stem of the implant will reduce signal attenuation effects and eliminate potential complications and variability associated with fixing the sensor to the sample. Data was collected during in vitro testing of implanted constructs, and information from both embedded and externally mounted AE sensors was compared and corroborated by micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) images taken before and after testing. The results of this study indicate that the embedded sensors gave a closer corroboration to observed damage using micro-CT and were less affected by unwanted noise sources. This has significant implications for the use of AE in assessing the state of THR constructs in vitro and it is hypothesised that directly embedded AE sensors may provide the first steps towards an in vivo, cost effective, user friendly, non-destructive system capable of continuously monitoring the condition of the implanted construct. BibTeX: @article{MavrogordatoTaylorTaylorEtAl2011, author = {Mark Mavrogordato and Mark Taylor and Andrew Taylor and Martin Browne}, title = {Real time monitoring of progressive damage during loading of a simplified total hip stem construct using embedded acoustic emission sensors}, journal = {Medical Engineering & Physics}, year = {2011}, volume = {33}, number = {4}, pages = {395--406}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/185499/} }  Rees EV, Priest JA and Clayton CR (2011), "The structure of methane gas hydrate bearing sediments from the Krishna--Godavari Basin as seen from Micro-CT scanning", Marine and Petroleum Geology. Vol. 28(7), pp. 1283-1293. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 1, of 2006, cored through several methane gas hydrate deposits on the continental shelf around the coast of India. The pressure coring techniques utilized during the expedition (HYACINTH and PCS) enabled recovery of gas hydrate bearing, fine-grained, sediment cores to the surface. After initial characterization core sections were rapidly depressurized and submerged in liquid nitrogen, preserving the structure and form of the hydrate within the host sediment. Once on shore, high resolution X-ray CT scanning was employed to obtain detailed three-dimensional images of the internal structure of the gas hydrate. Using a resolution of 80 μm the detailed structure of the hydrate veins present in each core could be observed, and allowed for an in depth analysis of orientation, width and persistence of each vein. Hydrate saturation estimates could also be made and saturations of 20–30% were found to be the average across the core section with some portions showing highs of almost 60% saturation. The majority of hydrate veins in each core section were found to be orientated between 50 and 80° to the horizontal. Analysis of the strikes of the veins suggested a slight preferential orientation in individual sample sections, although correlation between individual sections was not possible due to the initial orientation of the sections being lost during the sampling stage. The preferred vein orientation within sample sections coupled with several geometric features identified in individual veins, suggest that hydraulic fracturing by upward advecting pore fluids is the main formation mechanism for the veined hydrate deposits in the K–G Basin. BibTeX: @article{ReesPriestClayton2011, author = {Rees, Emily VL and Priest, Jeffery A and Clayton, Chris RI}, title = {The structure of methane gas hydrate bearing sediments from the Krishna--Godavari Basin as seen from Micro-CT scanning}, journal = {Marine and Petroleum Geology}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2011}, volume = {28}, number = {7}, pages = {1283--1293}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264817211001127}, doi = {10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2011.03.015} }  Scott A, Mavrogordato M, Wright P, Sinclair I and Spearing S (2011), "In situ fibre fracture measurement in carbon--epoxy laminates using high resolution computed tomography", Composites Science and Technology. Vol. 71(12), pp. 1471-1477. Elsevier. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: High resolution Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT) has been used to capture fibre damage progression in a carbon–epoxy notched [90/0]s laminate loaded to failure. To the authors knowledge this provides the first direct in situ measurement of the accumulation of fibre fractures for a high performance material under structurally relevant load conditions (i.e. fractures within the bulk of an essentially conventional engineering laminate). A high level of confidence is placed in the measurements, as the failure processes are viewed internally at the relevant micromechanical length-scales, as opposed to previous indirect and/or surface-based methods. Whilst fibre breaks are the dominant composite damage mechanism considered in the present work, matrix damage, such as transverse ply cracks, 0° splits and delaminations, were also seen to occur in advance of extensive fibre breaks. At loads where fibre break density levels were significant, splitting and delamination were seen to separate the central 0° ply in the near notch region from the 90° plies. Fibre breaks were initially observed in isolated locations, consistent with the stochastic nature of fibre strengths. The formation of clusters of broken fibres was observed at higher loads. The largest clusters observed consisted of a group of eleven breaks and a group of fourteen breaks. The large clusters were observed at the highest load, at sites with no prior breaks, indicating they occurred within a relatively narrow load range. No strong correlation was found between the location of matrix damage and fibre breaks. The data achieved has been made available online at www.materialsdatacentre.com for ongoing model development and validation. BibTeX: @article{ScottMavrogordatoWrightEtAl2011, author = {Scott, AE and Mavrogordato, M and Wright, P and Sinclair, I and Spearing, SM}, title = {In situ fibre fracture measurement in carbon--epoxy laminates using high resolution computed tomography}, journal = {Composites Science and Technology}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2011}, volume = {71}, number = {12}, pages = {1471--1477}, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353811002090}, doi = {10.1016/j.compscitech.2011.06.004} }  Voide R, Schneider P, Stauber M, van Lenthe GH, Stampanoni M and Muller R (2011), "The importance of murine cortical bone microstructure for microcrack initiation and propagation", Bone., August, 2011. Vol. 49(6), pp. 1186-1193. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: In order to better understand bone postyield behavior and consequently bone failure behavior, this study aimed first to investigate cortical bone microstructure and second, to relate cortical bone microstructure to microdamage initiation and propagation in C57BL6 (B6) and C3HHe (C3H) mice; two murine inbred strains known for their differences in bone phenotype. Murine femora of B6 and C3H were loaded axially under compression in a stepwise manner. For each loading step, 3D data sets at a nominal resolution of 700 nm were acquired by means of synchrotron radiation-based computed tomography. Cortical bone microstructure was divided into three phases the canal network, the osteocyte lacunar system, and microdamage. Canal volume density and canal unit volume both correlated highly to crack number density (canal volume density R2=0.64, pensuremath0.005 and canal unit volume R2=0.75, pensuremath0.001). Moreover, the large canal units in C3H bone were responsible for more microdamage accumulation compared to B6 bones. This more pronounced microdamage accumulation due to large intracortical bone voids, which eventually leads to a fatal macrocrack (fracture), represents a potential contributing factor to the higher incidence of bone fractures in the elderly. BibTeX: @article{VoideSchneiderStauberEtAl2011, author = {Romain Voide and Philipp Schneider and Martin Stauber and Gerrit H. van Lenthe and Marco Stampanoni and Ralph Muller}, title = {The importance of murine cortical bone microstructure for microcrack initiation and propagation}, journal = {Bone}, year = {2011}, volume = {49}, number = {6}, pages = {1186--1193}, url = {httpeprints.soton.ac.uk361072} }  Bergomi M, Cugnoni J, Anselm Wiskott HW, Schneider P, Stampanoni M, Botsis J and Belser UC (2010), "Three-dimensional morphometry of strained bovine periodontal ligament using synchrotron radiation-based tomography", Journal of Anatomy., June, 2010. Vol. 217(2), pp. 126-134. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a highly vascularized soft connective tissue. Previous studies suggest that the viscous component of the mechanical response may be explained by the deformation-induced collapse and expansion of internal voids (i.e. chiefly blood vessels) interacting with liquids (i.e. blood and interstitial fluids) flowing through the pores. In the present work we propose a methodology by means of which the morphology of the PDL vascular plexus can be monitored at different levels of compressive and tensile strains. To this end, 4-mm-diameter cylindrical specimens, comprising layers of bone, PDL and dentin covered by cementum, were strained at stretch ratios ranging from lambda = 0.6 to lambda = 1.4 and scanned using synchrotron radiation-based computer tomography. It was concluded that: (1) the PDL vascular network is layered in two distinct planes of blood vessels (BVs): an inner layer (close to the tooth), in which the BVs run in apico-coronal direction, and an outer layer (close to the alveolar bone), in which the BVs distribution is more diffuse; (2) during tension and compression, the porosity tissue is kept fairly constant; (3) mechanical straining induces important changes in BV diameters, possibly modifying the permeability of the PDL and thus contributing to the viscous component of the viscoelastic response observed under compressive forces BibTeX: @article{BergomiCugnoniWiskottEtAl2010, author = {Bergomi, Marzio and Cugnoni, Joel and Anselm Wiskott, H. W. and Schneider, Philipp and Stampanoni, Marco and Botsis, John and Belser, Urs C.}, title = {Three-dimensional morphometry of strained bovine periodontal ligament using synchrotron radiation-based tomography}, journal = {Journal of Anatomy}, year = {2010}, volume = {217}, number = {2}, pages = {126--134}, url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01250.x/full}, doi = {10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01250.x} }  Dierolf M, Menzel A, Thibault P, Schneider P, Kewish CM, Wepf R, Bunk O and Pfeiffer F (2010), "Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale", Nature., September, 2010. Vol. 467(7314), pp. 436-439. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: X-ray tomography is an invaluable tool in biomedical imaging. It can deliver the three-dimensional internal structure of entire organisms as well as that of single cells, and even gives access to quantitative information, crucially important both for medical applications and for basic research1, 2, 3, 4. Most frequently such information is based on X-ray attenuation. Phase contrast is sometimes used for improved visibility but remains significantly harder to quantify5, 6. Here we describe an X-ray computed tomography technique that generates quantitative high-contrast three-dimensional electron density maps from phase contrast information without reverting to assumptions of a weak phase object or negligible absorption. This method uses a ptychographic coherent imaging approach to record tomographic data sets, exploiting both the high penetration power of hard X-rays and the high sensitivity of lensless imaging7, 8, 9. As an example, we present images of a bone sample in which structures on the 100?nm length scale such as the osteocyte lacunae and the interconnective canalicular network are clearly resolved. The recovered electron density map provides a contrast high enough to estimate nanoscale bone density variations of less than one per cent. We expect this high-resolution tomography technique to provide invaluable information for both the life and materials sciences BibTeX: @article{DierolfMenzelThibaultEtAl2010, author = {Martin Dierolf and Andreas Menzel and Pierre Thibault and Philipp Schneider and Cameron M. Kewish and Roger Wepf and Oliver Bunk and Franz Pfeiffer}, title = {Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale}, journal = {Nature}, year = {2010}, volume = {467}, number = {7314}, pages = {436--439}, url = {http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v467/n7314/abs/nature09419.html} }  Thompson T and Errickson D (2017), "Chapter 8: The use of laser scanning for visualization and quantification of abrasion on water-submerged bone", Human Remains: Another Dimension The Application of Imaging to the Study of Human Remains. Academic Press. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @book{Thompson2017, author = {Thompson, Tim and Errickson, David}, title = {Chapter 8: The use of laser scanning for visualization and quantification of abrasion on water-submerged bone}, journal = {Human Remains: Another Dimension The Application of Imaging to the Study of Human Remains}, publisher = {Academic Press}, year = {2017}, url = {https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=lAVQCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA121&lpg=PA121&dq=%22%CE%BC-vis+x-ray+imaging+centre%22&source=bl&ots=ZtHuEElWi8&sig=ACfU3U1MSTvRcM4mT3vjWtuW6LOyi7PKVA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjgwsW1krvhAhUMqxoKHV_KDJk4FBDoATACegQICRAB#v=onepage&q=%22%CE%BC-vis%20x-ray%20imaging%20centre%22&f=false} }  Liu K, Loveridge FA, Boardman R and Powrie W (2018), "Evaluation of Reconstruction and Segmentation Techniques on High Temporal Resolution μCT Scans for Geotechnical Applications", In Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering., aug, 2018. , pp. 284-290. Springer International Publishing. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @incollection{Liu_2018, author = {K. Liu and F. A. Loveridge and R. Boardman and W. Powrie}, title = {Evaluation of Reconstruction and Segmentation Techniques on High Temporal Resolution μCT Scans for Geotechnical Applications}, booktitle = {Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering}, publisher = {Springer International Publishing}, year = {2018}, pages = {284-290}, url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-99670-7_36}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-99670-7_36} }  Basford PJ, Katsamenis OL, Boardman R, Robinson S, Konstantinopoulou E, Gkoumas S, Thuering T, Lackie P, Cox S and Schneider P (2021), "Integration of a hybrid photon counting detector into a lab-based μCT scanner for 3D X-ray histology", In 10th Annual Tomography for Scientific Advancement (ToScA) UK & Europe 2021 symposium, Online, (03/09/21)., September, 2021. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @inproceedings{basford2021integration, author = {Basford, Philip J and Katsamenis, Orestis L and Boardman, Richard and Robinson, Stephanie and Konstantinopoulou, Elena and Gkoumas, Spyridon and Thuering, Thomas and Lackie, Peter and Cox, Simon and Schneider, Philipp}, title = {Integration of a hybrid photon counting detector into a lab-based μCT scanner for 3D X-ray histology}, booktitle = {10th Annual Tomography for Scientific Advancement (ToScA) UK & Europe 2021 symposium, Online, (03/09/21)}, year = {2021}, url = {https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/451309/1/dectris_tosca_abstract_FINAL.pdf} }  Keeling G, Baark F, Katsamenis O, Reader A, Smith G, Terry S, Blower P and de Rosales RTM (2021), "[68Ga]Ga-THP-Pam: A PET radiotracer for imaging vascular calcification", Nuclear Medicine Communications., In Abstracts: British Nuclear Medicine Society Online Spring Meeting 18 -19 May 2021., October, 2021. Vol. 42(5), pp. 575-581. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @inproceedings{Keeling2021, author = {Keeling, George and Baark, Friedrich and Katsamenis, Orestis and Reader, Andrew and Smith, Gareth and Terry, Samantha and Blower, Philip and de Rosales, Rafael Torres Martin}, title = {[68Ga]Ga-THP-Pam: A PET radiotracer for imaging vascular calcification}, booktitle = {Abstracts: British Nuclear Medicine Society Online Spring Meeting 18 -19 May 2021}, journal = {Nuclear Medicine Communications}, publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)}, year = {2021}, volume = {42}, number = {5}, pages = {575--581}, url = {https://journals.lww.com/nuclearmedicinecomm/fulltext/2021/05000/abstracts__british_nuclear_medicine_society_online.15.aspx}, doi = {10.1097/mnm.0000000000001180} }  Keeling G, Baark F, Katsamenis O, Reader A, Smith G, Terry S, Blower P and de Rosales RlTM (2021), "[68Ga]Ga-THP-Pam: A PET radiotracer for imaging vascular calcification", In 34th Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, 06 -09 Oct 2021., October, 2021. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @inproceedings{Keeling2021a, author = {Keeling, George and Baark, Friedrich and Katsamenis, Orestis and Reader, Andrew and Smith, Gareth and Terry, Samantha and Blower, Philip and de Rosales, Rafae l Torres Martin}, title = {[68Ga]Ga-THP-Pam: A PET radiotracer for imaging vascular calcification}, booktitle = {34th Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, 06 -09 Oct 2021}, year = {2021}, note = {Oct 06 -09}, url = {https://www.wmis.org/wmic-2021-2/} }  Keeling G, Baark F, Katsamenis O, Reader A, Smith G, Terry S, Blower P and de Rosales RlTM (2021), "[68Ga]Ga-THP-Pam: A PET radiotracer for imaging vascular calcification", In World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIC2021), 20 -23 Oct 2021., October, 2021. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @inproceedings{Keeling2021b, author = {Keeling, George and Baark, Friedrich and Katsamenis, Orestis and Reader, Andrew and Smith, Gareth and Terry, Samantha and Blower, Philip and de Rosales, Rafae l Torres Martin}, title = {[68Ga]Ga-THP-Pam: A PET radiotracer for imaging vascular calcification}, booktitle = {World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIC2021), 20 -23 Oct 2021}, year = {2021}, note = {Oct 20 -23}, url = {https://eanm21.eanm.org} }  Walker N, Rankin K, Ruiz S, Fletcher DM, Williams K, Petroselli C, Saldarelli P, Saponari M, White S and Roose T (2021), "A Model and Image Based Investigation of X. fastidiosa Within Host Dynamics  mathsemicolon", apr, 2021. Copernicus GmbH. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] Abstract: Photosynthesis relies on the transport of water and sugars from roots to leaves facilitated by two key tissues: xylem and phloem. Blockages in the xylem/phloem, either by structures formed by the pathogen itself or those formed by the plant as a defence mechanism, disrupt the soil-plantatmosphere continuum and cause many vascular plant disease symptoms. Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa) is a bacterium that colonises internal plant vascular networks causing pathogenic effects on several commercially important crops, including those associated with the olive quick decline syndrome causing devastating olive decline in Apulia, Southern Italy. Despite a growing research effort since the recent detection of X. fastidiosa in Europe, the exact processes leading to X. fastidiosa disease symptoms are not fully understood due to difficulties in observing internal plant structures. Our goal is to utilise models to elucidate fundamental processes that lead to olive quick decline syndrome. We are developing a mathematical model describing within-host biofilm development that predicts water-stresses that ultimately inhibit plant functionality. Our approach is centred on the assumption that the biofilm structure is determined by the arrangement of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) molecules, and as such, our model contains a polymer-physical description of X. fastidiosa biofilm formation dynamics. We used our model, requiring minimal empirical assumptions, to replicate biofilm aggregation observed by microfluidics. We have also produced Xray Computed Tomography (XCT) images of vascular networks in both resistant and susceptible olive cultivars. We are using these images to test whether susceptibility is correlated with morphological differences that might influence fluid flow through the plant. This work improves the understanding of possible cultivar resistance mechanisms to aid informed breeding and orchard management, and model simulations will provide insights for understanding xylem blockages and their relation to observed symptom severity. BibTeX: @inproceedings{Walker2021, author = {Nancy Walker and Kathryn Rankin and Siul Ruiz and Daniel McKay Fletcher and Katherine Williams and Chiara Petroselli and Pasquale Saldarelli and Maria Saponari and Steven White and Tiina Roose}, title = {A Model and Image Based Investigation of X. fastidiosa Within Host Dynamics  mathsemicolon}, publisher = {Copernicus GmbH}, year = {2021}, doi = {10.5194/ismc2021-14} }  Lawson M, Katsamenis O, Olding M, Larkin O, Smit B, Haig I, Schneider P, Lackie P and Warner J (2020), "3D mapping of blood vessel networks and cells in COPD and non-COPD lung tissue samples using micro-computed tomography and immunofluorescence", In 14.01 - Imaging - European Respiratory Society (ERS) 19th Lung Science Conference (LSC)., mar, 2020. European Respiratory Society. [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] BibTeX: @inproceedings{Lawson2020, author = {Lawson, M. and Katsamenis, O. and Olding, M. and Larkin, O. and Smit, B. and Haig, I. and Schneider, P. and Lackie, P. and Warner, J.}, title = {3D mapping of blood vessel networks and cells in COPD and non-COPD lung tissue samples using micro-computed tomography and immunofluorescence}, booktitle = {14.01 - Imaging - European Respiratory Society (ERS) 19th Lung Science Conference (LSC)}, publisher = {European Respiratory Society}, year = {2020}, url = {https://openres.ersjournals.com/content/6/suppl_5/21?utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=ERJ_Open_Res_TrendMD_1}, doi = {10.1183/23120541.lsc-2020.21} }  Ho EML, Rossides C, Pender S, Katsamenis OL, Lackie P and Schneider P (2020), "Semi-automated Intensity-based Image quality assessment with Gaussian Mixture Models", In The 4th Network of European Bioimage Analysts (NEUBIAS) Conference & Symposium 2020 (29/02/20 - 06/03/20)., March, 2020. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Protocol development for X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) requires optimisation of several factors at once. Quantifying microCT image quality enables objective selection of the most suitable protocol for the user requirements. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) are image quality metrics describing the clarity of a feature in relation to the image noise. SNR and CNR are typically determined by comparing intensities of user-defined regions containing the feature of interest and the background. However, this method is tedious and impractical when comparing between many 3D image datasets. Reiter et al. proposed a region of interest (ROI)-independent method of determining CNR from image intensity distributions of microCT datasets (1). MicroCT intensities are proportional to material- dependent X-ray attenuation, so it is assumed that the overall image intensity for multi-material specimens is the sum of individual Gaussian distributions for each material. Reiter et al. calculate CNR from the means and variances of Gaussians fitted for each material, isolated from the overall image intensity distribution. However, their method is limited to well-separated Gaussians, which is often not applicable in microCT for biological specimens with overlapping image intensity distributions. Here we present a semi-automated tool for determining SNR and CNR from microCT data using Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). GMMs estimate the mean, variance and weight of a user-specified number of Gaussian components from the image intensity distribution. These properties are then used to calculate SNR and CNR between any combination of the Gaussian components. This tool was implemented using the Python scikit-learn library (2) and has a custom ImageJ user interface. Validation was performed in silico using a phantom image with pre-defined Gaussian distributions of image intensity for three materials. The phantom image used was a microCT scan of a paraffin-embedded murine colon from a custom-built microCT setup (Nikon Metrology, UK). Materials were segmented by thresholding and image intensities from known distributions of similar specimens were assigned to each pixel, according to the materials represented. The SNR and CNR calculated by GMMs was found to be within 2.5% of the phantom image values. In conclusion, fitting GMMs to the intensity distribution offers a repeatable and objective measurement of image quality for 3D microCT datasets, even from low contrast images with overlapping distributions. Furthermore, SNR and CNR between several material components can be calculated at once without additional user selection of ROIs for each material. BibTeX: @inproceedings{soton448072, author = {Elaine Ming Li Ho and Charalambos Rossides and Sylvia Pender and Orestis L. Katsamenis and Peter Lackie and Philipp Schneider}, title = {Semi-automated Intensity-based Image quality assessment with Gaussian Mixture Models}, booktitle = {The 4th Network of European Bioimage Analysts (NEUBIAS) Conference & Symposium 2020 (29/02/20 - 06/03/20)}, year = {2020}, url = {https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/448072/} }  Earl S, Rankin KE, Lewis R, Smith L and Rainforth WM (2019), "X-ray micro-computed tomography scanning in the investigation of the causes of stud defects and the effects of rail grinding", In European community on computational methods in applied sciences (ECCOMAS) Young Investigators Conference. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @inproceedings{Earl, author = {Earl, Shaun and Rankin, Kathryn E. and Lewis, Roger and Smith, Lindsey and Rainforth, W. Mark}, title = {X-ray micro-computed tomography scanning in the investigation of the causes of stud defects and the effects of rail grinding}, booktitle = {European community on computational methods in applied sciences (ECCOMAS) Young Investigators Conference}, year = {2019}, url = {https://m.kisim.eu.org/abstracts/NTSM/earl_rankin_lewis.pdf} }  Kopp R, Ni X, Kalfon-Cohen E, Furtado C, Arteiro A, Borstnar G, Mavrogordato M, Helfen L, Sinclair I, Spearing SM and others (2019), "Damage Micro-mechanisms in Notched Hierarchical Nanoengineered Thin-ply Composite Laminates Studied by In Situ Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography", In AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum. , pp. 1692. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @inproceedings{Kopp2019, author = {Kopp, Reed and Ni, Xinchen and Kalfon-Cohen, Estelle and Furtado, Carolina and Arteiro, Albertino and Borstnar, Gregor and Mavrogordato, Mark and Helfen, Lukas and Sinclair, Ian and Spearing, S Mark and others}, title = {Damage Micro-mechanisms in Notched Hierarchical Nanoengineered Thin-ply Composite Laminates Studied by In Situ Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography}, booktitle = {AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum}, year = {2019}, pages = {1692}, url = {https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2019-1692} }  Widjaja MP, Alves M, Mavrogordato M, Joannès S, Bunsell A, Mair G and Thionnet A (2019), "Effect of the Time Dependent Loading of Type IV Cylinders using a Multiscale Model" [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: The current requirements for composite cylinders are still based on an arbitrary approach derived from the behaviour of metal structures, that the designed burst pressure should be at least 2.5 times the maximum in-service pressure [1]. This could lead to an over-designed composite cylinder for which the weight saving would be less than optimum. Moreover, predicting the lifetime of composite cylinders is a challenging task due to their anisotropic characteristics. A federal research institute in Germany (BAM) has proposed a minimum load-cycle requirement that mitigates this issue by using a Monte-Carlo analysis of the burst test results [2-3]. To enrich this study, more experiments are required however they are normally limited by the necessity of long duration testing times (loading rate and number of cylinders) and the design (stacking sequence of the composite layer). A multi-scale model incorporating the micromechanical behaviour of composite structures has been developed at Mines ParisTech. The model has shown similar behaviour to that of composite cylinders under different loading rates [4]. This indicates that the model could assist the Monte-Carlo analysis study. An evaluation of the multi-scale model therefore has been carried out to determine its limitations in predicting lifetimes of composite cylinders. The evaluation starts with the comparison of burst pressures with type IV composite cylinders under different loading rates. A μCT-Scan of a type IV cylinder has been carried out at the University of Southampton. The produced images were analysed using the Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT) technique to determine the configuration of the composite layers, which is required by the model. Finally, the time dependent effect studied, by using the multi scale model, has been described. In the long-term, this study can be used to conduct a parametric study for creating more efficient design of type IV cylinders. BibTeX: @inproceedings{Widjaja2019, author = {Widjaja, Martinus Putra and Alves, Marco and Mavrogordato, Mark and Joannès, Sebastien and Bunsell, Anthony and Mair, Georg and Thionnet, Alain}, title = {Effect of the Time Dependent Loading of Type IV Cylinders using a Multiscale Model}, year = {2019}, url = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02315016} }  Liu K, Loveridge F, Boardman R and Powrie W (2018), "Evaluation of Reconstruction and Segmentation Techniques on High Temporal Resolution μCT Scans for Geotechnical Applications", In International Symposium on Energy Geotechnics. , pp. 284-290. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Coupled hydro-thermal phenomena are often relevant to applications in energy geotechnics, such as nuclear waste disposal and ground heat storage or transfer. It is then necessary to obtain data for use in and validation of models. Micro-focus X-ray computed tomography (μCT) has the potential to investigate hydro-thermal phenomena, both qualitatively and quantitatively. However it is difficult to obtain representative CT scan data for dynamic processes as a compromise must be made between image quality and scan time. For example, in thermally-driven water flow, moisture migration in the pore space could occur rapidly and over the course of a single scan. Reducing the scan time to obtain representative temporal data leads to a different set of challenges in terms of image quality and data processing. This paper investigates the potential of algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) to improve the quality of reconstructed images from fast undersampled scans or noisy projection data, with reference to a uniformly-graded dry sand specimen. Results using ART are compared with those obtained using data reconstructed by the conventional filtered back-projection technique (FBP). In both cases, phase proportions are determined by Gaussian decomposition (GD) rather than traditional thresholding methods. It is shown that there is no need to attempt to improve the image quality by altering the image reconstruction algorithm, because GD is tolerant of undersampling and noisy data. BibTeX: @inproceedings{Liu2018, author = {Liu, K and Loveridge, FA and Boardman, R and Powrie, W}, title = {Evaluation of Reconstruction and Segmentation Techniques on High Temporal Resolution μCT Scans for Geotechnical Applications}, booktitle = {International Symposium on Energy Geotechnics}, year = {2018}, pages = {284--290}, url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-99670-7_36}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-99670-7_36} }  Lomov SV, Breite C, Carrella-Payan D, Carvelli V, Ersoy N, Gigliotti M, Gonzalez RA, Ivanov S, Kersani M, Lafarie-Frenot M-C and others (2018), "Multi-instrument multi-scale experimental damage mechanics for fibre reinforced composites", In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Vol. 406(1), pp. 012057. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [DOI] [URL] Abstract: Reliable investigation of damage in fibre reinforced composites requires concurrent in- and ex-situ application of multiple instruments at different scale: digital image correlation, acoustic emission registration, optical/electron microscopy, C-scan, X-ray imaging and micro-computed tomography. The multi-instrument experimental mechanics allows detailed damage monitoring and inspection. BibTeX: @inproceedings{Lomov2018, author = {Lomov, Stepan V and Breite, Christian and Carrella-Payan, Delphine and Carvelli, Valter and Ersoy, Nuri and Gigliotti, Marco and Gonzalez, Raquel Antoranz and Ivanov, Sergey and Kersani, Malika and Lafarie-Frenot, Marie-Christine and others}, title = {Multi-instrument multi-scale experimental damage mechanics for fibre reinforced composites}, booktitle = {IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering}, year = {2018}, volume = {406}, number = {1}, pages = {012057}, url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/406/1/012057/meta}, doi = {10.1088/1757-899X/406/1/012057} }  Zhang N, Thompson C, Manning AJ, Paterson DM, Townend I and Rankin KE (2018), "Investigating the internal structure of biofilm-sediment aggregates using X-ray micro-tomography", In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. [Abstract] [BibTeX] Abstract: Cohesive sediment dynamics is significantly mediated by biological activities, including binding sediment particles as hydrogel-like microorganism-sediment conglomerates, defined here as "biofilm-sediment aggregates" (BSAs). BSA structure substantially determines biologically-mediated cohesive sediment transport by reducing the internal pore space, re-arranging particle distribution, strengthening particle binding. Due to the lack of proper techniques, the porosity, permeability, or density cannot be directly measured but instead estimated by erroneously assuming an impermeable or homogenous internal architecture. In order to characterize the 'true' internal structure of BSAs, a series of experiments were conducted using X-ray micro-tomography (µ-CT) to compare a full range of existing methods. BSAs comprise a highly hydrated biofilm matrix, desiccation alters biofilm morphology and the internal pore geometry. Our experiments aim to image BSAs in their naturally hydrated form. Fast-freezing by liquid nitrogen, which is generally-applied in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was considered first. The results showed a considerable amount of crystal formation and air bubbles, which means caution should be paid when using this method to interpret BSA structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and focused ion beam nano-tomography (FIB-nt) require stabilizing BSAs in resin. μ-CT scanning showed that, for some resin-embedded BSAs, resin failed to completely penetrate into the internal pores, but form droplets wrapping around the aggregate body and resulting in circle-like aggregate morphology. Even the well-impregnated aggregates were always accompanied by significant biofilm desiccation. Environmental SEM (ESEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) are available for observing the hydrated biofilm, however, ESEM is limited to the surface structure characterization, while CLSM fails to distinguish sediment particles and pore water. The method we proposed achieved, for the first time, imaging and quantifying the internal structure of hydrated BSAs by distinguishing hydrated biofilm morphology from comparable pore water. It enables characterization of the internal structure, the binding nature, and the BSA density. BibTeX: @inproceedings{Zhang2018a, author = {Zhang, N. and Thompson, C. and Manning, A. J. and Paterson, D. M. and Townend, I. and Rankin, K. E.}, title = {Investigating the internal structure of biofilm-sediment aggregates using X-ray micro-tomography}, booktitle = {AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts}, year = {2018} }  Voepel H, Ahmed S, Hodge R, Leyland J and Sear D (2017), "Variations in grain-scale sediment structure and entrainment force in a gravel-bed channel as a function of fine sediment content and morphological location", In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts. Vol. 19, pp. 17593. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: One of the major causes of uncertainty in estimates of bedload transport rates in gravel-bed rivers is a lack of understanding of grain-scale sediment structure, and the impact that this structure has on the force required to entrain sediment. There are at least two factors that standard entrainment models do not consider. The first is the way in which the spatial arrangement and orientation of grains and the resultant forces varies throughout a channel and over time, ways that have yet to be fully quantified. The second is that sediment entrainment is a 3D process, yet calculations of entrainment thresholds for sediment grains are typically based on 2D diagrams where we calculate static moments of force vectors about a pivot angle, represented as a single point rather than as a more realistic axis of rotation. Our research addresses these limitations by quantifying variations in 3D sediment structure and entrainment force requirements across two key parameters: morphological location within a riffle-pool sequence (reflecting variation in hydraulic conditions), and the fine sediment content of the gravel-bed (sand and clay). We report results from a series of flume experiments in which we water-worked a gravel-bed with a riffle-pool morphology containing varying amounts of fine sediment. After each experimental run intact samples of the bed at different locations were extracted and the internal structure of the bed was measured using non-destructive, micro-focus X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The CT images were processed to measure the properties of individual grains, including volume, center of mass, dimension, and contact points. From these data we were able to quantify the sediment structure and entrainment force requirements through measurement of 3D metrics including grain pivot angles, grain exposure and protrusion. Comparison of the metrics across different morphological locations and fine sediment content demonstrates how these factors affect the bed structure and entrainment force requirement. These results have implications for the development of sediment entrainment models for gravel-bed rivers. Keywords: fluvial sediment, geomorphology, entrainment models, X-ray computed tomography, 3D imaging, vector mechanics BibTeX: @inproceedings{Voepel2017, author = {Voepel, Hal and Ahmed, Sharif and Hodge, Rebecca and Leyland, Julian and Sear, David}, title = {Variations in grain-scale sediment structure and entrainment force in a gravel-bed channel as a function of fine sediment content and morphological location}, booktitle = {EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts}, year = {2017}, volume = {19}, pages = {17593}, url = {http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2017/EGU2017-17593.pdf} }  Marter A, Pierron F, Dickinson A and Browne M (2016), "Traditional methods of strain assessment may under predict cellular foam modulus values", Bone Joint J., In The International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty (ISTA), 28th Annual Congress, 2015. PART 3. Vol. 98(SUPP 9), pp. 21-21. British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Polymer foams have been extensively used in the testing and development of orthopaedic devices and computational models. Often these foams are used in preference to cadaver and animal models due to being relatively inexpensive and their consistent material properties. Successful validation of such models requires accurate material/mechanical data. The assumed range of compressive moduli, provided in the sawbones technical sheet, is 16 MPa to 1.15 GPa depending on the density of foam. In this investigation, we apply two non-contact measurement techniques (digital volume correlation (DVC) and optical surface extensometry/point-tracking) to assess the validity of these reported values. It is thought that such non-contact methods remove mechanical extensometer errors (slippage, misalignment) and are less sensitive to test-machine end-artifacts (friction, non-uniform loading, platen flexibility). This is because measurement is taken directly from the sample, and hence material property assessment should be more accurate. Use of DVC is advantageous as full field strain measurement is possible, however test time and cost is significantly higher than extensometry. Hence, the study also sought to assess the viability of optical extensometry for characterising porous materials. Testing was conducted on five 20 mm cubic samples of 0.32g/cc (20 pcf) solid rigid polyurethane foam (SAWBONESTM). The strain behaviour was characterised by incremental loading via an in situ loading rig. Loading was performed in 0.1 mm increments for 8 load steps with scans between loading steps. Full field strain measurement was performed on one sample by micro focus tomography (muvis centre, Southampton) and subsequent DVC (DaVis, Lavision). Average strains in each direction were then calculated to enable modulus and Poisson's ratio calculation. These results were subsequently corroborated by use of optical point-tracking (MatchID). To account for heterogeneities, axial strain measurements were averaged from six points on the front and rear surfaces (fig.2). In each test compressive displacement was applied to 900N (∼2MPa) to remain within the linear elastic region. Significant variability of individual strain measurements were observed from point couples on the same sample, indicating non-uniform loading did occur in all samples. However, by averaging across multiple points, linear loading profiles were ascertained (fig.2). For all non-contact methods the calculated elastic moduli were found to range between 331–428 MPa whilst the approximated modulus based on cross head displacement was ∼210 MPa, similar to the manufacturer's quoted value (220MPa). The point-tracking gave a significantly higher modulus (p = 0.047) than the DVC results as only surface measurements were made. It is thought that a correction factor may be ascertained from the finite element method to correct this. Both the DVC and point-tracking results (p = 0.001) indicated a substantially higher compressive modulus than the manufacturer provided properties. This study demonstrates that methods of measuring displacement data on cellular foams must be carefully considered, as artefacts can lead to errors of up to 70% compared to optical and x-ray based techniques. BibTeX: @inproceedings{Marter2016, author = {Marter, Alexander and Pierron, Fabrice and Dickinson, Alexander and Browne, Martin}, title = {Traditional methods of strain assessment may under predict cellular foam modulus values}, booktitle = {The International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty (ISTA), 28th Annual Congress, 2015. PART 3}, journal = {Bone Joint J}, publisher = {British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery}, year = {2016}, volume = {98}, number = {SUPP 9}, pages = {21--21}, url = {https://online.boneandjoint.org.uk/doi/abs/10.1302/1358-992x.98bsupp_9.ista2015-021?journalCode=procs} }  Marter A, Pierron F, Dickinson A and Browne M (2016), "Traditional methods of strain assessment may under predict cellular foam modulus values", Bone Joint J. Vol. 98(SUPP 9), pp. 21-21. British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @inproceedings{marter2016traditional, author = {Marter, A and Pierron, F and Dickinson, A and Browne, M}, title = {Traditional methods of strain assessment may under predict cellular foam modulus values}, journal = {Bone Joint J}, publisher = {British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery}, year = {2016}, volume = {98}, number = {SUPP 9}, pages = {21--21}, url = {http://www.bjjprocs.boneandjoint.org.uk/content/98-B/SUPP_9/21T} }  Beale G and Reilly P (2014), "Virtual archaeology in a material world: new technologies enabling novel perspectives", In CAA 2014 Paris: 21st Century Archaeology, France, 2014-04-25. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: In the 1980's archaeologists embraced the rapidly expanding field of computer modelling and visualisation as a vehicle for data exploration. Against this backdrop ‘virtual archaeology’ was conceived. The term was originally intended to describe a multi-dimensional approach to the modelling of the physical structures and processes of field archaeology. It described the way in which technology could be harnessed in order to achieve new ways of documenting, interpreting and annotating primary archaeological materials and processes. Despite their initial promise, these technologies have failed to have the impact upon archaeological fieldwork which might have been expected. Even with the prevalence of digital devices on all archaeological excavations the documentation, interpretation and subsequent narration of archaeological processes have retained their analogue character. While the archaeological record is now primarily digital, its sections, plans, drawings and photographs are facsimiles of the analogue technologies which preceded them. This retention of analogue conventions is increasingly out of step with the general prevalence of digital technologies and especially 21st century advances towards 'programmable matter' which could bring the world of virtual archaeology into closer alignment with the material one. This paper will argue that developments in the capabilities and ubiquity of digital devices coupled with rapid increases in digital literacy among archaeologists, has the capacity to revolutionise the investigation, documentation, interpretation, and narration of the archaeological process BibTeX: @inproceedings{Beale2014, author = {Beale, Gareth and Reilly, Paul}, title = {Virtual archaeology in a material world: new technologies enabling novel perspectives}, booktitle = {CAA 2014 Paris: 21st Century Archaeology, France, 2014-04-25}, year = {2014}, url = {https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/364454/} }  Reilly P and Beale G (2014), "Additive archaeology: towards a virtual archaeology reprinted?", In CAA-GR Conference 2014 (CAA-GR 2014). [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Archaeologists in the 1980s were embracing wholeheartedly the rapidly expanding field of computer modelling, hypertext and visualisation as vehicles for data exploration. Against this backdrop ‘virtual archaeology’ was conceived. The term was originally intended to describe a multi-dimensional approach to the modelling of the physical structures and processes of field archaeology. It described some ways in which technology could be harnessed in order to achieve new ways of experiencing, documenting, interpreting and annotating primary archaeological materials and processes. Despite its initial promise, virtual archaeology failed to have the impact upon archaeological fieldwork which might have been expected. While the archaeological record is now primarily digital, its sections, plans, drawings and photographs are facsimiles of the analogue technologies which preceded them. This retention of analogue conventions is increasingly out of step with the general prevalence of digital technologies and especially 21st century advances in 'additive manufacturing', popularised through 3D printers, which could bring the world of virtual archaeology into closer alignment with the material one. This paper will set out to demonstrate that in spite of technological developments much of the theoretical infrastructure which underpinned virtual archaeology remains as relevant today as it was when the term was first conceived. Through an analysis of rapidly developing additive manufacturing technology, this paper will demonstrate the need to move beyond passive technological appropriation and towards the development of authentically archaeological approaches to technology. BibTeX: @inproceedings{Reilly2014, author = {Reilly, Paul and Beale, Gareth}, title = {Additive archaeology: towards a virtual archaeology reprinted?}, booktitle = {CAA-GR Conference 2014 (CAA-GR 2014)}, year = {2014}, url = {https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/364455/} }  Bull DJ, Spearing SM and Sinclair I (2013), "Quasi-static indentation and compression after impact damage growth monitoring using microfocus X-ray computed tomography", In ICCM 19: The 19th International Conference on Composite Materials., July, 2013. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: In this study interrupted quasi-static indentation and post-impacted compression tests were performed at incremental load steps with X-ray computed tomography performed at each step. This enabled non-destructive, three-dimensional damage assessments to be carried out allowing initiation and propergation of different damage modes to be monitored. Preliminary results from these experiments are reported in this paper. BibTeX: @inproceedings{BullSpearingSinclair2013, author = {Bull, D. J. and Spearing, S. M. and Sinclair, I.}, title = {Quasi-static indentation and compression after impact damage growth monitoring using microfocus X-ray computed tomography}, booktitle = {ICCM 19: The 19th International Conference on Composite Materials}, year = {2013}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/355791/} }  Garcea S, Mavrogordato M, Scott A, Sinclair I and Spearing S (2013), "Synchrotron computed tomography of fatigue micromechanisms in CFRP", In The 19 th International Conference on Composite Materials. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @inproceedings{GarceaMavrogordatoScottEtAl2013, author = {Garcea, SC and Mavrogordato, MN and Scott, AE and Sinclair, I and Spearing, SM}, title = {Synchrotron computed tomography of fatigue micromechanisms in CFRP}, booktitle = {The 19 th International Conference on Composite Materials}, year = {2013}, url = {http://confsys.encs.concordia.ca/ICCM19/AllPapers/FinalVersion/GAR80571.pdf} }  Bull DJ, Sinclair I, Spearing SM and Helfen L (2011), "Composite laminate impact damage assessment by high resolution 3D X-ray tomography and laminography", In ICCM 18: 18th International Conference on Composite Materials., August, 2011. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Improvements to toughening mechanisms in composite materials have hitherto relied on visual inspection techniques that can be rather limited, especially since the inherent damage behaviour is three-dimensional (3D) requiring high resolution to capture micro-cracks and similar damage. To achieve a better understanding of impact damage behaviour, synchrotron radiation computed laminography (SRCL) and computed tomography (SRCT) techniques were used to capture 3D damage mechanisms with voxel sizes of 0.7Î¼m and 1.4Î¼m respectively. Comparisons between impacted toughened and non-toughened carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) systems were made in which toughening particles were introduced into the matrix of the toughened material. This study has found that at the macro scale, the overall 3D damage pattern in toughened and non-toughened specimens are very similar, however when studied at the micro level, it is clear that significant differences in damage between the two systems exist. BibTeX: @inproceedings{BullSinclairSpearingEtAl2011, author = {Bull, D. J. and Sinclair, I. and Spearing, S. M. and Helfen, L.}, title = {Composite laminate impact damage assessment by high resolution 3D X-ray tomography and laminography}, booktitle = {ICCM 18: 18th International Conference on Composite Materials}, year = {2011}, url = {http://www.iccm-central.org/Proceedings/ICCM18proceedings/iccm_5.htm} }  Paul R, Scott A and Potluri P (2011), "Analysis of braided tubes subjected to internal pressure", In ICCM18: The 18th International Conference on Composite Materials. Jeju, Korea, August, 2011. [BibTeX] BibTeX: @inproceedings{PaulScottPotluri2011, author = {Paul, R and Scott, A and Potluri, P}, title = {Analysis of braided tubes subjected to internal pressure}, booktitle = {ICCM18: The 18th International Conference on Composite Materials}, year = {2011} }  Chippendale RD, Golosnoy IO, Lewin PL, Murugan GS and Lambert J (2010), "Model of structural damage to carbon fibre composites due to thermo-electric effects of lightning strikes", In International Conference on Lightning Strike Protection, Cagliari, Italy, 13 - 17 Sep 2010., September, 2010. , pp. 1113/1-1113/5. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: The study concentrates on structural damage caused by the thermal effects of lightning strike to carbon fibre composites (CFC). The main objectives are to construct a model of the major physical effects involved, and to understand the correlation between the damage mechanisms and the damage witnessed in modern CFC. Model verification will be done by experimental decoupling of damage mechanisms, e.g. the real Joule heating from a lightning strike is replaced by a high power laser beam acting on composite surface. Outcomes from this study can then be used for further investigations and optimisation of lightning strike protection methods. BibTeX: @inproceedings{ChippendaleGolosnoyLewinEtAl2010, author = {Chippendale, Richard D. and Golosnoy, Igor O. and Lewin, Paul L. and Murugan, G. S. and Lambert, Jack}, title = {Model of structural damage to carbon fibre composites due to thermo-electric effects of lightning strikes}, booktitle = {International Conference on Lightning Strike Protection, Cagliari, Italy, 13 - 17 Sep 2010}, year = {2010}, pages = {1113/1--1113/5}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/271594/} }  Scott A, Sinclair I, Spearing S, Mavrogordato M, Bunsell AR and Thionnet A (2010), "Comparison of the accumulation of fibre breaks occurring in a unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite identified in a multi-scale micro-mechanical model with that of experimental observations using high resolution computed tomography", In Matériaux 2010. , pp. 9-p. [BibTeX] BibTeX: @inproceedings{Scott2010, author = {Scott, AE and Sinclair, I and Spearing, SM and Mavrogordato, M and Bunsell, Anthony R and Thionnet, Alain}, title = {Comparison of the accumulation of fibre breaks occurring in a unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite identified in a multi-scale micro-mechanical model with that of experimental observations using high resolution computed tomography}, booktitle = {Matériaux 2010}, year = {2010}, pages = {9--p} }  Rossides H, Pender S and Schneider P (2021), "Development of 3D X-ray phase-contrast Imaging and Analysis Tools for Tubular and Branching Structures with Applications in Colorectal Cancer Research". May, 2021. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: Data and analysis software scripts supporting the PhD University of Southampton Doctoral thesis titled 'Development of 3D X-ray phase-contrast Imaging and Analysis Tools for Tubular and Branching Structures with Applications in Colorectal Cancer Research' (DOI: 10.5258/SOTON/T0026). The dataset is organised following the chapter structure of the thesis: Chapter 2: Data collected during an animal study (Azoxymethane and Dextran Sodium Sulphate mouse model for colorectal cancer). Chapter 3:Plots of the refractive index of paraffin wax and soft tissue. X-ray phase-contrast micro-computed tomographic (μCT) experiment to measure to optimise spatial resolution. Chapter 4:The "3D cyclorama" software that unrolls/flattens deformed tubes of non-uniform thickness. Chapter 6:Data supporting the 3D morphological quantification of crypt budding in early-stage colorectal cancer in the mouse model of chapter 2. Appendix A1:Data produced for the validation of the "3D cyclorama" software. Appendix B:Data and scripts to compute the thickness of individual tissue layers in the murine colon, as well as the number of budding and non-budding crypts found in each μCT scan. BibTeX: @misc{soton449536, author = {Harry Rossides and Sylvia Pender and Philipp Schneider}, title = {Development of 3D X-ray phase-contrast Imaging and Analysis Tools for Tubular and Branching Structures with Applications in Colorectal Cancer Research}, publisher = {University of Southampton}, year = {2021}, url = {https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/449536/} }  Day T, Einwag J, Hermann J, He T, Anastasia M, Barker M and Zhang Y (2010), "A clinical assessment of the efficacy of a stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice on dentinal hypersensitivity". [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @misc{day2010clinical, author = {Day, T and Einwag, J and Hermann, JS and He, T and Anastasia, MK and Barker, M and Zhang, Y}, title = {A clinical assessment of the efficacy of a stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice on dentinal hypersensitivity}, journal = {J Contemp Dent Pract}, year = {2010}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {E001--E008}, url = {https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5ea1/a25fd2617bbac64c9e59db6523301c3c4c50.pdf} }  BREITE C (2021), "ALIGNING FIBRE BREAK MODELS FOR COMPOSITES WITH THE OBSERVABLE MICRO-SCALE MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR". Thesis at: KU Leuve. [BibTeX] BibTeX: @phdthesis{breite2021aligning, author = {BREITE, Christian}, title = {ALIGNING FIBRE BREAK MODELS FOR COMPOSITES WITH THE OBSERVABLE MICRO-SCALE MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR}, school = {KU Leuve}, year = {2021} }  Zhang N (2021), "Microbial influences on the resuspension and deposition processes of sediment transport". Thesis at: School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Southaton, UK., September, 2021. [BibTeX] BibTeX: @phdthesis{citekey, author = {Naiyu Zhang}, title = {Microbial influences on the resuspension and deposition processes of sediment transport}, school = {School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Southaton, UK}, year = {2021} }  Earl S (2021), "Micro-CT Scanning in the Investigation of Squat Defects in Rail Steel". Thesis at: University of Sheffield. [BibTeX] BibTeX: @phdthesis{earl2021micro, author = {Earl, Shaun}, title = {Micro-CT Scanning in the Investigation of Squat Defects in Rail Steel}, school = {University of Sheffield}, year = {2021} }  Borstnar G (2016), "Micro-mechanical contributions to interlaminar toughness in particle-toughened CFRPs". Thesis at: University of Southampton. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: The main objective of this thesis was to increase the understanding of interlaminar toughening mechanisms in particle-toughened interlayers within carbon/epoxy laminates. High-resolution Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT)and Synchrotron Radiation Computed Laminography (SRCL) allowed the crack tip micro-mechanisms to be observed in situ under Mode I and Mode II quasi-static loading conditions. Fracture toughness tests were undertaken to establish the ranking of the ten different material systems, which were compared in terms of the micro-mechanisms observed. Two different intermediate modulus fibres were investigated, with combinations of three different particle types dispersed within the interlayers. The work showed that interlaminar failure in the materials involves a complex process zone, rather than a singular crack tip. Three distinct crack wake bridging mechanisms were identified, namely; fibre-bridging, epoxy-bridging, and particle-bridging ligaments. It was determined that an interlaminar crack path provided a high Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness. The ligament-rich and tortuous crack path appeared to provide higher energy dissipation than the comparably smooth intralaminar failure at the ply interface and associated fibre-bridging mechanisms. Quantitatively, the work showed that a larger number of bridging ligaments in particle containing interlayers correlated to a higher Mode I fracture toughness. Provided that the particles in question could maintain an interlaminar crack path, the particle size and type had a less significant effect on the Mode II toughness. Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) was employed to quantify interlayer strains head of a Mode I crack, showing that the toughening particles can be used as effective markers to enable displacement tracking. A finite element (FE) model was used to explore key variables that were identified experimentally to have an effect on the crack path. The fibre interface strength, particle cohesive strength, density and distribution were shown to affect crack paths. The results implied that the role of the particles is to alleviate the stresses at the ply interface by de-bonding or fracturing internally, following which additional toughness may be generated via the formation of bridging ligaments as failure occurs within the interlayer. Overall, the work is intended to support material development and lead to better predictive capabilities for these materials that are increasingly used in primary aerospace structures. BibTeX: @phdthesis{borstnar2016micro, author = {Borstnar, Gregor}, title = {Micro-mechanical contributions to interlaminar toughness in particle-toughened CFRPs}, school = {University of Southampton}, year = {2016}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/393743/} }  Cooper L (2016), "Investigations of lymphatic fluid flow". Thesis at: University of Southampton. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @phdthesis{cooper2016investigations, author = {Cooper, Laura}, title = {Investigations of lymphatic fluid flow}, school = {University of Southampton}, year = {2016}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/393578/} }  Blair L (2015), "Mixing and characterisation of multi-component materials for pyrotechnic applications". Thesis at: University of Southampton. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @phdthesis{blair2015mixing, author = {Blair, Lisa}, title = {Mixing and characterisation of multi-component materials for pyrotechnic applications}, school = {University of Southampton}, year = {2015}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/384949/} }  Couves CR (2015), "Investigating the petrophysical properties of volcanic reservoir analogues through the use of micro-focus x-ray computed tomography". Thesis at: University of Southampton. [BibTeX] [URL] BibTeX: @phdthesis{couves2015investigating, author = {Couves, Colette Rose}, title = {Investigating the petrophysical properties of volcanic reservoir analogues through the use of micro-focus x-ray computed tomography}, school = {University of Southampton}, year = {2015}, url = {http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/396580/} }  Huang J (2012), "The characterisation and modelling of porosity formation in electron beam welded titanium alloys". Thesis at: University of Birmingham., July, 2012. [Abstract] [BibTeX] [URL] Abstract: This thesis is concerned with the porosity formation mechanism during electron beam welding of titanium-based alloys. During the welding of titanium alloys for aerospace engine applications, porosity is occasionally found in the solidified welds. Hence the key factors responsible for porosity formation need to be identified, and guidance to minimise porosity occurrence needs to be provided. The research conducted in this work is twofold. First, porosity formed in electron beam welded titanium samples is characterised to rationalise the porosity formation mechanism. Second, models based on sound physical principles are built to aid understanding of porosity formation, and to provide predictive capability. Porosity formed in electron beam welds is characterised using metallographic sectioning, high resolution X-ray tomography, residual gas analysis (RGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS/WDS) analysis. The results confirm porosity formed in electron beam welded titanium-based alloys is associated with gas dynamics; hydrogen is very likely to be responsible for porosity formation. A coupled thermodynamic/kinetic model is proposed to study the hydrogen migration behaviour during electron beam welding process, and then the effect of hydrogen on bubble formation is investigated via quantitative modelling, backed up by targetted experimentation BibTeX: @phdthesis{Huang2012, author = {Huang, Jianglin}, title = {The characterisation and modelling of porosity formation in electron beam welded titanium alloys}, school = {University of Birmingham}, year = {2012}, url = {http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/3276/} } `
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