Engineering and the Environment

Charles Banks

BSc DPhil

Primary position:
Professor

Background

The University of Southampton

Research interests are in the area of innovative technology for environmental protection, including:

  • Controlled anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of municipal and industrial solid wastes
  • Treatment of liquid industrial effluents by biological systems
  • Energy production from digestion of crops and agricultural wastes
  • Concepts for an integrated farming system for non competitive food and fuel production
  • Provision of software tools for process energy balances, waste audit and waste management.

Current research projects reflect these interests and have led to the design of novel reactor systems and operating protocols to meet the challenges of new and adapted technologies for environmental protection, renewable energy production and sustainable nutrient management systems. Of special interest is the development of operating protocols for anaerobic digestion, to maximise rates of substrate conversion and biogas yield. As part of this, current research is promoting the use of mass and energy balances as a means of quantifying process performance and developing new analytical tools to broaden our understanding of the process, its kinetics and limitations. Earlier research on wastewater treatment systems based on algal photosynthesis is now linking together with some existing themes including growth of algal biomass for energy production and product generation in biorefineries: this encompasses work on reactor design and biochemical pathways.

Prof. Charles Banks's photo
Building raceways in Spain

Building raceways in Spain

Teaching Masters students in China

Teaching Masters students in China

Jyvaskla summer school

Jyvaskla summer school

On site at BV Dairy

On site at BV Dairy

James Jackson medal winning team

James Jackson medal winning team

Evaluating a Masters course

University of Kuwait

Evaluating a Masters course

Publications

The University of Southampton's electronic library (e-prints)

Article

Tran, K.C., Mendoza Martin, J.L., Heaven, S., Banks, C.J., Acien Fernandez, F.G. and Molina Grima, E. (2014) Cultivation and anaerobic digestion of Scenedesmus spp. grown in a pilot-scale open raceway. Algal Research, 5, 95-102. (doi:10.1016/j.algal.2014.06.001).
Xafenias, Nikolaos, Zhang, Yue and Banks, Charles J. (2014) Evaluating hexavalent chromium reduction and electricity production in microbial fuel cells with alkaline cathodes. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology (doi:10.1007/s13762-014-0651-7). (In Press).
de Godos, I., Mendoza, J.L., Acién, F.G., Molina, E., Banks, C.J., Heaven, S. and Rogalla, F. (2013) Evaluation of carbon dioxide mass transfer in raceway reactors for microalgae culture using flue gases. Bioresource Technology, 1-27. (doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2013.11.087).
Serna-Maza, Alba, Heaven, Sonia and Banks, Charles J. (2013) Ammonia removal in food waste anaerobic digestion using a side-stream stripping process. Bioresource Technology (doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2013.10.093).
Whalley, Caroline P., Heaven, Sonia, Banks, Charles J. and Salter, Andrew M. (2013) Treatment of seasonal wastewater flows in a two-pond system. Biosystems Engineering, 115, (4), 408-414. (doi:10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2013.05.005).
Puri, Dhivya J., Heaven, Sonia and Banks, Charles J. (2013) Improving the performance of enzymes in hydrolysis of high solids paper pulp derived from MSW. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 6, (1), 107. (doi:10.1186/1754-6834-6-107).
Mendoza, J.L., Granados, M.R., de Godos, I., Acién, F.G., Molina, E., Banks, C. and Heaven, S. (2013) Fluid-dynamic characterization of real-scale raceway reactors for microalgae production. Biomass and Bioenergy, 54, 267-275. (doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.03.017).
Chinellato, G., Cavinato, C., Bolzonella, D, Heaven, S. and Banks, C.J. (2013) Biohydrogen production from food waste in batch and semi-continuous conditions: evaluation of a two-phase approach with digestate recirculation for pH control. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 38, (11), 4531-4360. (doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.01.078).
Xafenias, Nikolaos, Zhang, Yue and Banks, Charles J. (2013) Enhanced performance of hexavalent chromium reducing cathodes in the presence of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and lactate. Environmental Science and Technology, 47, (9), 4512-4520. (doi:10.1021/es304606u).
Gu, Xiaogang, Lu, Shuguang, Qiu, Zhaofu, Sui, Qian, Banks, Charles J., Imai, Tsuyoshi, Lin, Kuangfei and Luo, Qishi (2013) Photodegradation performance of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in aqueous solution: In the presence and absence of persulfate. Chemical Engineering Journal, 215-216, 29-35. (doi:10.1016/j.cej.2012.09.132).
Tampio, Elina, Ervasti, Satu, Paavola, Teija, Heaven, Sonia, Banks, Charles and Rintala, Jukka (2013) Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste. Waste Management, 1-8. (doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2013.10.024).
Mendoza, J.L., Granados, M.R., de Godos, I., Acién, F.G., Molina, E., Heaven, S. and Banks, C.J. (2013) Oxygen transfer and evolution in microalgal culture in open raceways. Bioresource Technology, 137, 188-195. (doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2013.03.127).
Zhang, S., Banks, C.J., Heaven, S. and Salter, A.M. (2013) Operation and recovery of a seasonally-loaded UK waste stabilisation pond system. Water Science & Technology, 67, (5), 1105-1112. (doi:10.2166/wst.2013.657).
Lo, H., Chiang, C., Tsao, H., Pai, T., Liu, M., Kurniawan, T., Chao, K., Liou, C., Lin, K., Chang, C., Wang, S., Banks, C.J., Lin, C., Liu, W., Chen, P., Chen, C., Chiu, H., Wu, H., Chao, T., Chen, Y., Liou, D. and Lo, F. (2012) Effects of spiked metals on the MSW anaerobic digestion. Waste Management & Research, 30, (1), 32-48. (doi:10.1177/0734242X10383079).
Zhang, Yue, Banks, Charles J. and Heaven, Sonia (2012) Anaerobic digestion of two biodegradable municipal waste streams. Journal of Environmental Management, 104, 166-174. (doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.03.043).
Zhang, Yue, Banks, Charles J. and Heaven, Sonia (2012) Co-digestion of source segregated domestic food waste to improve process stability. Bioresource Technology, 114, 168-178. (doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2012.03.040).
Rincon, Barbara, Heaven, Sonia, Banks, Charles J. and Zhang, Yue (2012) Anaerobic digestion of whole-crop winter wheat silage for renewable energy production. Energy & Fuels, 26, (4), 2357-2364. (doi:10.1021/ef201985x).
Jiang, Y., Heaven, S. and Banks, C.J. (2012) Strategies for stable anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste. Renewable Energy, 44, 206-214. (doi:10.1016/j.renene.2012.01.012).
Banks, Charles J., Zhang, Yue, Jiang, Ying and Heaven, Sonia (2012) Trace element requirements for stable food waste digestion at elevated ammonia concentrations. Bioresource Technology, 104, 127-135. (doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2011.10.068).
Cysneiros, Denise, Banks, Charles J., Heaven, Sonia and Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G. (2012) The role of phase separation and feed cycle length in leach beds coupled to methanogenic reactors for digestion of a solid substrate (Part 1): Optimisation of reactors’ performance. Bioresource Technology, 103, (1), 56-63.
Idrus, S., Banks, C. J. and Heaven, S. (2012) Assessment of the potential for biogas production from wheat straw leachate in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digesters. Water Science & Technology, 66, (12), 2737-2744. (doi:10.2166/wst.2012.511).
Clements, L.J., Salter, A.M., Banks, C.J. and Poppy, G.M. (2012) The usability of digestate in organic farming. Water Science & Technology, 66, (9), 1864-1870. (doi:10.2166/wst.2012.389). (PMID:22925857).
Mushtaq, Maryam, Banks, Charles J. and Heaven, Sonia (2012) Effectiveness of pressurised carbon dioxide for inactivation of Escherichia coli isolated from sewage sludge. Water Science & Technology, 65, (10), 1759-1764. (doi:10.2166/wst.2012.064). (PMID:22546789).
Cornell, M., Banks, C. J. and Heaven, S. (2012) Effect of increasing the organic loading rate on the co-digestion and mono-digestion of cattle slurry and maize. Water Science & Technology, 66, (11), 2336-2342. (doi:10.2166/wst.2012.459).
Jiang, Ying , Zhang, Yue and Banks, C.J. (2012) Determination of long chain fatty acids in anaerobic digesters using a rapid non-derivatisation GC-FID method. Water Science and Technology, 66, (4), 741-747. (doi:10.2166/wst.2012.063).
Whalley, C.P., Heaven, S., Banks, C.J. and Salter, A.M. (2012) Seasonally loaded waste stabilisation ponds: a novel application for intermittent discharge. Water Science & Technology, 66, (9), 1893-1899. (doi:10.2166/wst.2012.397).
Gredmaier, L., Banks, C.J. and Pearce, R.B. (2011) Calcium and sulphur distribution in fired clay brick in the presence of a black reduction core using micro X-ray fluorescence mapping. Construction and Building Materials, 25, (12), 4477-4486. (doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.03.054).
Banks, Charles J., Salter, Andrew M., Heaven, Sonia and Riley, Keith (2011) Energetic and environmental benefits of co-digestion of food waste and cattle slurry: a preliminary assessment. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 56, (1), 71-79. (doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.09.006).
Eades, Paul, Banks, Charles, Heaven, Sonia and Walker, Mark (2011) Mass and energy balance for a rotating drum composting plant. Proceedings of the ICE - Waste and Resource Management, 164, (3), 151-159. (doi:10.1680/warm.2011.164.3.151).
Banks, Charles, Chesshire, Michael, Heaven, Sonia, Arnold, Rebecca and Lewis, Lucy (2011) Biocycle anaerobic digester: performance and benefits. Proceedings of the ICE - Waste and Resource Management, 164, (3), 141-150. (doi:10.1680/warm.2011.164.3.141).
Tranter, R.B., Swinbank, A., Jones, P.J., Banks, C.J. and Salter, A.M. (2011) Assessing the potential for the uptake of on-farm anaerobic digestion for energy production in England. Energy Policy, 39, (5), 2424-2430. (doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2011.01.065).
Banks, Charles J., Chesshire, Michael, Heaven, Sonia and Arnold, Rebecca (2011) Anaerobic digestion of source segregated domestic food waste: performance assessment by mass and energy balance. Bioresource Technology, 102, (2), 612-620. (doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.08.005).
Banks, Charles J., Zotova, Elina A and Heaven, Sonia (2010) Biphasic production of hydrogen and methane from waste lactose in cyclic-batch reactors. [in special issue: Sustainable Hydrogen from Biomass] Journal of Cleaner Production, 18, supplement 1, S95-S104. (doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.04.018).
de la Rubia, M. Ángeles, Walker, Mark, Heaven, Sonia, Banks, Charls J. and Borja, Rafael (2010) Preliminary trials of in situ ammonia stripping from source segregated domestic food waste digestate using biogas: effect of temperature and flow rate. Bioresource Technology, 101, (24), 9486-9492. (doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.096). (PMID:20709537).
Rincon, Bárbara, Banks, Charles J. and Heaven, Sonia (2010) Biochemical methane potential of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Influence of growth stage and storage practice. Bioresource Technology, 101, (21), 8179-8184. (doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.06.039). (PMID:20598879).
Lo, H.M., Kurniawan, TA, Sillanpaa, M.E.T., Pai, T.Y., Chiang, C.F., Chao, K.P., Liu, M.H., Chuang, S.H., Banks, C.J., Wang, S.C., Lin, K.C., Lin, C.Y., Liu, W.F., Cheng, P.H., Chen, C.K., Chu, H.Y. and Wu, H.Y. (2010) Modeling biogas production from organic fraction of MSW co-digested with MSWI ashes in anaerobic bioreactors. Bioresource Technology, 101, (16), 6329-6335. (doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.03.048).
Siegert, I. and Banks, C.J. (2010) Anaerobic digestion of paper cellulose: influence of pH and substrate concentrations. Bioresource Technology (Submitted).
Heaven, S., Banks, C. J., Pak, L.N. and Rspaev, M.K. (2010) Seasonal responses of continental climate waste stabilisation ponds: potential implications for design and operation. Preprint (Submitted).
Walker, Mark, Zhang, Yue, Heaven, Sonia and Banks, Charles (2009) Potential errors in the quantitative evaluation of biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes. Bioresource Technology, 100, (24), 6339-6346. (doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2009.07.018).
Walker, Mark, Banks, Charles J. and Heaven, Sonia (2009) Use of a hydraulic flush reactor in a single and two-stage anaerobic digestion process for biodegradable municipal waste. Environmental Engineering Science, 26, (11), 1599-1606. (doi:10.1089/ees.2009.0021).
Salter, A. and Banks, C.J. (2009) Establishing an energy balance for crop-based digestion. Water Science and Technology, 59, (6), 1053-1060. (doi:10.2166/wst.2009.048).
Walker, M., Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2009) Development of a coarse membrane bioreactor for two-stage anaerobic digestion of biodegradable municipal solid waste. Water Science and Technology, 59, (4), 729-735. (doi:10.2166/wst.2009.012).
Lo, H.M., Liu, M.H., Pai, T.Y., Lin, C.Y., Wang, S.C., Banks, C.J., Hung, C.H., Chiang, C.F., Lin, K.C., Chen, P.H., Chen, J.K., Chiu, H.Y., Su, M.H., Kurniawan, T.A., Wu, K.C., Hsieh, C.Y. and Hsu, H.S. (2009) Biostabilization assessment of MSW co-disposed with MSWI fly ash in anaerobic bioreactors. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162, (2-3), 1233-1242. (doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.028).
Lo, H.M., Liu, M.H., Pai, T.Y., Liu, W.F., Lin, C.Y., Wang, S.C., Banks, C.J., Hung, C.H., Chiang, C.F., Lin, K.C., Chen, P.H., Chen, J.K., Chiu, H.Y., Su, M.H., Kurniawan, T.A., Wu, K.C., Hsieh, C.Y. and Hsu, H.S. (2009) Biostabilization assessment of MSW co-disposed with MSWI fly ash in anaerobic bioreactors. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162, (2-3), 1233-1242. (doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.028).
Banks, Charles J., Chesshire, Michael and Stringfellow, Anne (2008) A pilot-scale comparison of mesophilic and thermophilic digestion of source segregated domestic food waste. Water Science and Technology, 58, (7), 1475-1481. (doi:10.2166/wst.2008.513). (PMID:18957762).
Krivtsov, V., Dacombe, P., Kozenko, E.P., Zotova, E.A, Pak, L.N., Heaven, S. and Banks, C.J. (2008) Contemporary applications of the interdisciplinary waste management research: Case studies of algal biodiversity in the WSP and energy footprint of municipal wastes. International Journal of Energy, Environment, and Economics, 15, (3-4), 183-204.
Cysneiros, D., Banks, C. J. and Heaven, S. (2008) Anaerobic digestion of maize in coupled leach-bed and anaerobic filter reactors. Water Science and Technology, 58, (7), 1505-1511. (doi:10.2166/wst.2008.518).
Heaven, S., Banks, C.J. and Cornell, M. (2008) Effect of solid and liquid retention times on hydrolysis of maize. Water Science and Technology, 58, (7), 1371-1378. (doi:10.2166/wst.2008.490).
Climenhaga, M.A. and Banks, C.J. (2008) Uncoupling of liquid and solid retention times in anaerobic digestion of catering wastes. Water Science & Technology, 58, (8), 1581-1587. (doi:10.2166/wst.2008.497). (PMID:19001711).
Climenhaga, M.A. and Banks, C.J. (2008) Anaerobic digestion of catering wastes: effect of micronutrients and solids retention time. Water Science & Technology, 57, (5), 687-692. (doi:10.2166/wst.2008.092). (PMID:18401139).
Banks, C.J. and Stentiford, E.I. (2007) Biodegradable municipal solid waste: biotreatment options. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Waste and Resource Management, 160, (1), 11-18. (doi:10.1680/warm.2007.160.1.11).
Heaven, S., Banks, C.J., Pak, L.N. and Rspaev, M.K. (2007) Wastewater reuse in central Asia: implications for the design of pond systems. Water Science & Technology, 55, (1-2), 85-93. (doi:10.2166/wst.2007.061).
Wang, Zhengjian and Banks, Charles J. (2006) Report: anaerobic digestion of a sulphate rich high strength landfill leachate: the effect of differential dosing with FeCl3. Waste Management and Research, 24, (3), 289-293. (doi:10.1177/0734242X06065232 ). (PMID:16784173).
Raposo, F., Banks, C.J., Siegert, I., Heaven, S. and Borja, R. (2006) Influence of inoculum to substrate ratio on the biochemical methane potential of maize in batch tests. Process Biochemistry, 41, (6), 1444-1450. (doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2006.01.012).
Bloor, M.C., Banks, C.J. and Krivtsov, V. (2006) Population dynamics in Asellus aquaticus as modified by chronic leachate stress. Engineering Geology, 85, (1-2), 9-13. (doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2005.09.021).
Boor, M., Banks, C. J. and Krivtsov, V. (2006) How leachate stress modified the population dynamics of two macro-invertebrates: water quality improvements by constructed wetlands? Proceedings - International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology, 29, (3), 1507-1510.
Wang, Zhengjian and Banks, Charles J. (2006) Anaerobic digestion of a sulphate rich high strength landfill leachate: the effect of differential dosing with FeCl3. Waste Management and Research, 24, (3), 289-293. (doi:10.1177/0734242X06065232).
Zhang, Yue and Banks, Charles (2005) The interaction between Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in their biosorption onto polyurethane immobilised Sphagnum moss. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 80, (11), 1297-1305. (doi:10.1002/jctb.1329).
Banks, C.J. and Bloor, M.C. (2005) Acute and sub-lethal toxicity of landfill leachate towards two macro-invertebrates: assessing the remediation potential of constructed wetlands. Journal Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 83, (2), 184-190. (doi:10.1205/psep.03303).
Bloor, M.C, Banks, C.J. and Krivtsov, V. (2005) Acute and sub-lethal toxicity tests to monitor the impact of leachate on an aquatic environment. Environment International, 31, (2), 269-273. (doi:10.1016/j.envint.2004.10.010).
Zhang, Y. and Banks, C.J. (2005) Factors affecting the removal of selected heavy metals using a polymer immobilised sphagnum moss as a biosorbent. Environmental Technology, 26, (7), 733-744.
Dacombe, P., Krivtsov, V, Banks, C. J. and Heaven, S. (2005) Energy and material flow of waste-processing operations. Engineering Sustainability, 158, (1), 17-23. (doi:10.1680/ensu.158.1.17.62483).
Banks, C.J., Heaven, S. and Zotova, E.A. (2005) Some observations on the effects of accumulated benthic sludge on the behaviour of waste stabilisation ponds. Water Science and Technology, 51, (12), 217-226.
Heaven, S., Banks, C.J. and Zotova, E.A. (2005) Light attenuation parameters for waste stabilisation ponds. Water Science and Technology, 51, (12), 143-152.
Redzwan, Ghufran and Banks, Charles (2004) The use of a specific function to estimate maximum methane production in a batch fed anaerobic reactor. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 79, (10), 1174-1178. (doi:10.1002/jctb.1107).
Alhakawati, M.S. and Banks, C. J. (2004) Removal of copper from aqueous solution by ascophyllum nodosum immobilised in hydrophilic polyurethane foam. Journal of Environmental Management, 72, (4), 195-205. (doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.04.010).
Banks, C.J. (2004) Application of anaerobic process for the treatment of organic fraction in municipal solid waste. Malaysian Journal of Science, 23, 103-113.
Krivtsov, V., Wager, P.A., Dacombe, P., Gilgen, P.W., Heaven, S., Hilty, L.M. and Banks, C.J. (2004) Analysis of energy footprints associated with recycling of glass and plastic - case studies for industrial ecology. Ecological Modelling, 174, (1-2), 175-189. (doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2004.01.007).
Lisney, R., Riley, K. and Banks, C.J. (2004) From waste to resource management: part 2. Management Services, 48, (1), 6-12.
Banks, C. J., Pak, L.N., Abdrashitova, S.A., Aitkeldieva, S.A. and Kurmanbaev, A.A. (2003) Dynamics of bacterial numbers in waste stabilisation ponds in sharply continental climate conditions of the city of Almaty. Isvestiya of the Academy of Sciences Republic of Kazakhstan - Biological and Medical Series, 2003, (2), 64-71.
Wang, Z.J. and Banks, C.J. (2003) Evaluation of a two stage anaerobic digester for the treatment of mixed abattoir wastes. Process Biochemistry, 38, (9), 1267-1273. (doi:10.1016/S0032-9592(02)00324-2).
Banks, C.J., Koloskov, G.B., Lock, A.C. and Heaven, S. (2003) A computer simulation of the oxygen balance in a cold climate winter storage WSP during the critical spring warm-up period. Water Science and Technology, 48, (2), 189-196.
Banks, C.J., Lisney, R. and Riley, K. (2003) From waste to resource management: part 1. Management Services, 47, (12), 8-14.
Alhakawati, M.S., Banks, C.J. and Smallman, D.J. (2003) Evaluation of two types of polyurethane for the immobilisation of Rhizopus oryzae for copper uptake. Water Science and Technology, 47, (9), 143-150.
Banks, C.J., Abdrashitova, S.A, Pak, L.N and Koloskov, G.B (2002) An assessment of using waste stabilisation ponds for cleaning of communal sewage in extreme continental climate: laboratory and pilot testing. (In Russian) Biotechnology Theory and Practice,1, 99-107.
Banks, C.J. and Pak, L.N. (2001) An evaluation of waste stabilisation ponds for extreme continental climates: the design of laboratory and pilot scale trials. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan, Biological Series 6, 6, 20-30.
Al-Hakawati, M.S. and Banks, C.J. (2000) Copper removal by polymer immobilised Rhizopus oryzae. Water Science and Technology, 42, (7-8), 345-352.
Banks, C.J. and Wang, Z. (1999) Development of a two phase anaerobic digester for the treatment of mixed abattoir wastes. Water Science and Technology, 40, (1), 69-76.
Colmenarejo, M.F., Bustos, A., Garcia, J, Borja, R and Banks, C. J. (1998) An analysis of the factors that influence biological phosphorous removal (BPR) in a sequencing batch anaerobic/aerobic reactor. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering , 19, (3), 171-174. (doi:10.1007/s004490050501).
Borja, Rafael, Banks, Charles J., Wang, Zhengjian and Mancha, Angela (1998) Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater using a combination sludge blanket and filter arrangement in a single reactor. Bio-resource Technology, 65, (1-2), 125-133. (doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(98)00004-2).
Banks, C. J. and Humphreys, P.N. (1998) The anaerobic treatment of a ligno-cellulosic substrate offering little natural pH buffering capacity. Water Science and Technology, 38, (4-5), 29-35. (doi:10.1016/S0273-1223(98)00494-6).
Borja, Rafael, Alba, José and Banks, Charles J. (1997) Impact of the main phenolic compounds of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on the kinetics of acetoclastic methanogenesis. Process Biochemistry, 32, (2), 121-133. (doi:10.1016/S0032-9592(96)00055-6).
Colmenarejo, M.F., Garcia, J., Bustos, A., Borja, R. and Banks, C.J. (1997) The influence of wastewater type and organic loading on the protozoan and metazoan population of a peat bed filter. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 32, (1), 145-152. (doi:10.1080/10934529709376533).
Bustos, A., Garcia, J., Colmenarejo, M.F., Borja, R. and Banks, C.J. (1997) The population structure of a peat filter bed system for treating domestic wastewater, and comparisons with conventional activated sludge. Journal of Environmental Health part A - Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxic and Hazardous substance control, 32, (1), 133-143. (doi:10.1080/10934529709376532 ).
Borja, R., Banks, C.J., Khalfaoui, B. and Martin, A. (1996) Performance evaluation of an anaerobic hybrid digester treating palm oil mill effluent. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 31, (6), 1379-1393. (doi:10.1080/10934529609376430 ).
Borja, Rafael, Banks, Charles J. and Sanchez, Enrique (1996) Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in a two stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system. Journal of Biotechnology, 45, (2), 125-135. (doi:10.1016/0168-1656(95)00154-9).
Banks, C.J., Borja, R., Maestro, D.R. and Alba, J. (1996) The effects of the most important phenolic constituents of olive mill wastewater on batch anaerobic methanogenesis. Environmental Technology, 17, (2), 167-174. (doi:10.1080/09593331708616373).
Borja, Rafael, Banks, Charles J. and Martin, Antonio (1995) Influence of the organic volumetric loading rate on soluble chemical oxygen demand removal in a down-flow fixed bed reactor treating abattoir wastewater. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 361-366. (doi:10.1002/jctb.280640408).
Borja, Rafel, Alba, José and Banks, Charles J. (1995) Activated sludge treatment of wash waters derived from the purification of virgin olive oil in a new manufacturing process. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 64, (1), 25-30. (doi:10.1002/jctb.280640105).
Borja, R., Banks, C.J., Alba, J. and Escobar, J.P. (1995) The temperature dependence of the kinetic parameters derived for the aerobic treatment of wastewater from the washing of olives prior to the oil production process. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 30, (8), 1693-1705. (doi:10.1080/10934529509376296 ).
Borja, R., Banks, C. J. and Wang, Z. (1995) Performance of a hybrid anaerobic reactor, combining a sludge blanket and a filter, treating slaughterhouse wastewater. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 43, (2), 351-357. (doi:10.1007/BF00172838).
Borja, R., Martin, M., Alonso, V., Garcia, I. and Banks, C.J. (1995) Influence of different aerobic pretreatments on the kinetics of anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewater. Water Research, 29, (2), 489-495. (doi:10.1016/0043-1354(94)00180-F).
Borja, R., Martin, A., Banks, C.J., Alonso, V. and Chica, A. (1995) A kinetic study of anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewater at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Environmental Pollution, 88, (1), 13-18. (doi:10.1016/0269-7491(95)91043-K). (PMID:15091564).
Borja, R. and Banks, C.J. (1995) Anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater: A comparison of single and two phase reactor systems. Bulletin Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 54, (3), 466-471. (doi:10.1007/BF00195122).
Borja, Rafael, Banks, Charles J. and Wang, Zhengjian (1995) Effect of organic loading rate on anaerobic treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater in a fluidised bed reactor. Bioresource Technology, 52, (2), 157-162. (doi:10.1016/0960-8524(95)00017-9).
Borja, Rafael, Banks, Charles J. and Wang, Zhengjian (1995) Kinetic evaluation of an anaerobic fluidised bed reactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 52, (2), 163-167. (doi:10.1016/0960-8524(95)00019-B ).
Borja, R., Banks, C.J. and Wang, Z. (1994) Stability and performance of an anaerobic downflow filter treating slaughterhouse wastewater under transient changes in process parameters. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 20, (3), 371-383.
Borja, R., Banks, C.J. and Wang, Z. (1994) Performance and kinetics of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 29, (10), 2063-2085. (doi:10.1080/10934529409376165).
Banks, Charles J. and Borja, Rafael (1994) Treatment of palm oil mill effluent by upflow anaerobic filtration. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 61, (2), 103-109. (doi:10.1002/jctb.280610204).
Borja, R. and Banks, C.J. (1994) Kinetic study of anaerobic digestion of fruit processing wastewater in immobilized cell bioreactors. Biotechnology & Applied Biochemistry, 20, 79-92. (PMID:7917066).
Borja, R. and Banks, C.J. (1994) Kinetics of anaerobic digestion of soft drink wastewater in immobilized cell bioreactors. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 60, (3), 327-334. (doi:10.1002/jctb.280600314).
Martin, Antonio, Borja, Rafael and Banks, Charles J. (1994) Kinetic model for substrate utilization and methane production during the anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewater and condensation water waste. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 60, (1), 7-16. (doi:10.1002/jctb.280600103).
Borja, R. and Banks, C.J. (1994) Kinetics of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating ice cream wastewater. Environmental Technology, 15, (3), 219-232. (doi:10.1080/09593339409385423).
Borja, R., Banks, C.J. and Garrido, A. (1994) Kinetics of black-olive wastewater treatment by the activated-sludge system. Process Biochemistry, 29, 587-293. (doi:10.1016/0032-9592(94)80023-5).
Humphreys, P.N., Banks, C.J. and Borja, R (1993) Influence of plastics on the anaerobic digestion of high cellulosic content waste materials. Environmental Technology, 14, (7), 665-671. (doi:10.1080/09593339309385336).
Borja-Padilla, R. and Banks, C.J. (1993) Thermophilic semi-continuous anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent. Biotechnology Letters, 15, (7), 761-766. (doi:10.1007/BF01080152).
Borja, R and Banks, C.J. (1993) Semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of soft drink wastewater in immobilised cell bioreactors. Biotechnology Letters, 15, (7), 767-772. (doi:10.1007/BF01080153).
Zhou, J.L. and Banks, C.J. (1992) Humic acid removal from water by biosorptton. Environmental Technology, 13, (8), 727-737. (doi:10.1080/09593339209385204).
Banks, C.J. and Parkinson, M.E. (1992) The mechanism and application of fungal biosorption to colour removal from raw waters. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 54, (2), 192-196. (doi:10.1002/jctb.280540213).
Zhou, J.L. and Banks, C.J. (1991) Removal of humic acid fractions by Rhizopus arrhizus: uptake and kinetic studies. Environmental Technology, 12, (10), 859-869. (doi:10.1080/09593339109385080).
Zhou, J.L. and Banks, C.J. (1991) The adsorption of humic acid fractions by fungal biomass. Environmental Technology, 12, (6), 20,519-530. (doi:10.1080/09593339109385037).
Zhou, J.L. and Banks, C.J. (1990) Fractionation of humic acid components by ion exchange chromatography. Environmental Technology, 11, (12), 1147-1152. (doi:10.1080/09593339009384971).
Borja, R., Banks, C.J., Martin, A. and Khalfaoui, B. (1986) Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent and condensation water waste: an overall kinetic model for methane production and substrate utilization. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 13, (2), 87-95. (doi:10.1007/BF00420434 ).
Banks, C.J. and Walker, I. (1977) Sonication of activated sludge flocs and the recovery of their bacteria on solid media. Journal of General Microbiology, 98, 363-368. (doi:10.1099/00221287-98-2-363).
Banks, C.J., Davies, J.M., Walker, I. and Ward, R.D. (1976) Biological and physical characterisation of activated sludge: a comparative experimental study of ten different treatment plants. Journal of Water Pollution Control, 75, (4), 492-508.
Banks, C.J., Davies, M., Walker, I. and Ward, R.D. (1976) Biological and hysical characterization of activated sludge: A comparative experimental study at ten treatment plants. Water Pollution Control, 75, (4), 492-508.

Book Section

Williams, I.D., Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2006) A study of the environmental impacts of home composting. In, Waste 2006 Proceedings. Waste 2006, Sustainable Waste and Resource Management , Waste Conference Ltd, 767-774.
Heaven, S. and Banks, C.J. (2005) Light attenuation parameters for waste stabilisation ponds. In, Brissaud, F., Picot, B. and Shilton, A. (eds.) Waste Stabilisation Ponds VI. 6th IWA International Conference on Waste Stabilisation Ponds , IWA, 337-345.
Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2005) Some observations on the effects of accumulated benthic sludge on the behaviour of waste stabilisation ponds. In, Brissaud, F., Picot, B. and Shilton, A. (eds.) Waste Stabilisation Ponds VI. 6th IWA International Conference on Waste Stabilisation Ponds , IWA, 157-165.
Heaven, S. and Banks, C.J. (2005) Cold and continental climate ponds. In, Shilton, A. (ed.) Pond Treatment Technology. London, UK, IWA Publishing, 381-407.
Banks, C. J. and Wang, Z. (2005) Treatment of meat wastes. In, Wang, L.K., Hung, Y-T., Lo, H.H. and Yapijakis, C. (eds.) Waste treatment in the food processing industry. USA, CRC Press, 67-100.
Dacombe, P., Krivtsov, V., Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2004) Use of energy footprint analysis to determine the best options for management of glass from household waste. In, Sustainable Waste Management and Recycling: Glass Waste. Sustainable Management and Recycling: Challenges and Opportunities Conference , Thomas Telford, 265-272.
Banks, C.J. and Wang, Z. (2004) Treatment of meat industry wastes. In, Wang, L.K., Hung, Y., Lo, H.H. and Yapijakis, C. (eds.) Handbook of Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment, Second Edition. London, UK, CRC Press, 685-718.
Banks, C.J. and Smallman, D.J. (2003) An evaluation of growth kinetics and oxygen production of two typical green algae (Chlorella and Scenedesmus ) grown under controlled laboratory conditions. In, Shilton, A.N., Craggs, R.J. and Walmsley, N. (eds.) Waste Stabilisation Ponds: Pond Technology for the New Millennium. 5th International IWA conference on Waste Stabilisation Ponds , IWA.
Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2001) Landfilling. In, Spinosa, L. and Vesilind, P.A. (eds.) Sludge into Biosolids: Processing, Disposal, Utilization. London, UK, IWA Publishing, 74-100.
Wang, Z. and Banks, C.J. (2000) Effect of the temperature on the degradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) using a conventional single stage anaerobic process and a two stage anaerobic aerobic system. In, Mata-Alvarez, J., Cecchi, F. and Tilche, A. (eds.) Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Waste II. Selected Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Waste, Barcelona, Spain, 15-18 June 1999. London, GB, International Water Association Publishing, 85-88.
Banks, C.J. (1997) Scavenging trace concentrations of metals. In, Wase, John D.A. and Forster, Christopher (eds.) Biosorbents for Metal Ions. London, GB, Taylor & Francis, 115-140.
Lin, M.C. and Banks, C.J. (1995) An experimental evaluation of some of the factors likely to affect the biological treatment of coke oven waste water. In, The Yearbook of the Coke Oven Managers Association. Scunthorpe, GB, Coke Oven Managers Association, 245-257.
Banks, C. J. (1994) Anaerobic digestion of solid and high nitrogen content fractions of slaughterhouse wastes. In, Okos, Martin R., Renkowitz, Marshall and Niranjan, K. (eds.) Environmentally Responsible Food Processing. , American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 103-109. (Aiche symposium series, 300, 90).
Banks, C.J. and Young, E. (1994) The potential application of biosorption to the treatment of water and waste water. In, 5th Annual Conference on Industrial Waste Water Treatment,16-17th Feb 1994, Manchester. London, GB, IBC Publications.
Banks, C.J. (1994) Abattoir by-product disposal options: emerging technological solutions. In, Proceedings of the Sino-British Seminar on Industrial Waste Water Management. Beijing, CN, China National Environmental Protection Agency and the British Council, 63-70.
Banks, C.J. (1993) Emerging technologies: options for treatment. In, Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on industrial waste water treatment. London, GB, IBC publications.
Banks, C.J. and Wong, P.P. (1991) Review of the disposal options for abattoir by-products. In, Options for by-products disposal. Milton Keynes, GB, Meat and Livestock Commission, 19-39. (Meat Strategies Series).

Conference or Workshop Item

Jain, Sarika, Salter, A.M. and Banks, C.J. (2011) Calculating the economic cost of mitigating GHG emissions from UK dairy farms by anaerobic digestion of slurry. In, International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops,
Jiang, Y., Heaven, S. and Banks, C. (2011) Strategies for performance and stability improvement in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste. International IWA-Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Waste and Energy Crops, Vienna, Austria, 28 Aug - 01 Sep 2011.
Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2008) Impact of the addition of maize on the anaerobic digestion of cattle slurry. In, 5th IWA International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops, Hammamet, Tunisia, 25 - 28 May 2008.
Rincon, B., Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2008) Study of the biochemical methane production of winter wheat: influence of growth stage and storage practice. In, 5th IWA International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops, Hammamet, Tunisia, 25 - 28 May 2008.
Heaven, S., Banks, C.J. and Martin Santos, M.A. (2008) Two-phase hydraulic flush reactors for maize digestion at high loading rates. In, 5th IWA International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops, Hammamet, Tunisia, 25 - 28 May 2008.
Banks, C.J. and Stringfellow, A. (2008) A pilot-scale trial comparing mesophilic and thermophilic digestion for the stabilisation of source segregated kitchen waste. In, 5th IWA International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops, Hammamet, DZ, 25 - 28 May 2008. 9pp.
Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2008) Development of a coarse membrane bioreactor for two-stage anaerobic digestion of biodegradable municipal waste. In, 5th IWA International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops, Hammamet, Tunisia, 25 - 28 May 2008.
Banks, C. J., Zhang, Y. and Zhang, N. (2008) High solids anaerobic digestion of biodegradable municipal waste: effect of organic loading rate on digester performance. In, 5th IWA International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops, Hammamet, Tunisia, 25 - 28 May 2008.
Salter, A.M. and Banks, C.J. (2008) Establishing an energy balance for crop based anaerobic digestion. In, 5th IWA International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops, Hammamet, Tunisia, 25 - 28 May 2008.
Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2008) Anaerobic digestion of maize in coupled leach-bed and anaerobic filter reactors. In, 5th IWA International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops, Hammamet, Tunisia, 25 - 28 May 2008.
Banks, C.J. and Neylan, D.J. (2008) Plug flow anaerobic digestion of ryegrass as an energy crop. In, 5th IWA International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops, Hammamet, Tunisia, 25 - 28 May 2008.
Zhang, Y. and Banks, C.J. (2008) Characterisation of municipal waste streams and a preliminary evaluation of the co-digestion efficiency with some industrial and agricultural wastes. In, 5th IWA International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops, Hammamet, Tunisia, 25 - 28 May 2008.
Banks, C. J. and Climenhaga, M.A. (2008) Uncoupling of liquid and solid retention times in anaerobic digestion of catering wastes. At 5th IWA International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops, Hammamet, Tunisia, 25 - 28 May 2008.
Heaven, S. and Banks, C.J. (2008) Effect of solid and liquid retention times on hydrolysis of maize. In, 5th IWA International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops, Hammamet, Tunisia, 25 - 28 May 2008.
Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2007) Effects of pH Control and Methanogenic Effluent Recycle on the Hydrolysis/Acidification Stage of the Anaerobic Digestion of OFMSW Using a Hydraulic Flush Reactor. In, 11th IWA Conference on Anaerobic Digestion, Brisbane, Australia, 23 - 27 Sep 2007.
Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2007) Anaerobic digestion of maize for energy production in leach-bed reactors. In, 11th IWA conference on Anaerobic Digestion, Brisbane, Australia, 23 - 27 Sep 2007.
Banks, C. J., Salter, A. M., Haq, N. and Heaven, S. (2007) Renewable energy from crops and agrowaste: crops for biogas production, yield, sustainability and energy balances. In, 5th International Symposium on New Crops and Uses: Their Role in a Rapidly Changing World, Southampton, UK, 03 - 04 Sep 2007.
Banks, C. J. and Salter, A. M. (2007) EU Cropgen: biogas from energy crops and agrowastes. In, Bioenergy 2007: 3rd International Bioenergy Conference and Exhibition, Jyväskylä, FI, 03 - 06 Sep 2007.
Dacombe, P., Banks, C.J., Khan, T. and Heaven, S. (2006) Integrated systems for practical recovery of non-MSW waste streams. In, Waste 2006: Sustainable Waste and Resource Management, Warwick, UK, 19 - 21 Sep 2006. , 319-324.
Dacombe, P. and Banks, C.J. (2006) Energy footprint analysis: does recycling reduce the environmental impact of domestic waste management? In, 5th annual symposium on waste treatment technologies 2006, Torbay, UK, Jun 2006.
Bartosh, Y. and Banks, C.J. (2006) Algal growth response in a range of light and temperature conditions: implications for non-steady-state conditions in waste stabilisation ponds. In, 7th IWA Specialist Group Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds: Advances in Pond Technology and Management, Bangkok, Thailand, 25 - 27 Sep 2006. IWA Publishing.
Banks, C.J. and Dacombe, P. (2006) Measuring the resource potential in commercial and industrial wastes from food related businesses. In, In: Waste 2006: Sustainable Waste and Resource Management, The Waste Conference Limited, Warwick, UK, 19 - 21 Sep 2006. , 389-398.
Pak, L.N., Heaven, S. and Banks, C.J. (2006) Effluent quality parameters for continental climate WSPS: implications for re-use. In, 5th IWA International Symposium on Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse for Sustainability (WRRS), Jeju, Korea, 08 - 11 Nov 2005.
Heaven, S., Banks, C. J., Pak, L.N. and Rspaev, M.K. (2006) Wastewater reuse in central Asia: implications for the design of pond systems. 5th International Conference on Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse for Sustainability, Cheju, KR, 08 - 11 Nov 2005.
Banks, C.J. (2005) Further characterisation of the die-off of microbial pollution indicators subjected to freezing stress: application to cold climate pond wastewater treatment systems. In, IWA 6th International Conference on Waste Stabilisation Ponds, Avignon, France, 28 Sep - 01 Oct 2004. IWA330pp, PW7REM4.
Pak, L.N., Heaven, S. and Banks, C.J. (2005) Changes in algal population from winter to late spring in experimental cold climate WSPs. In, 6th IWA International Conference on Waste Stabilisation Ponds, Avignon, France, 28 Sep - 01 Oct 2004. IWA330pp, PW6AME03.
Banks, C.J. (2005) A critical evaluation of the analytical techniques used in the microbiological quality control of waste-waters subjected to freeze-thaw stress as typically found in cold waste stabilisation pond systems. In, IWA 6th International Conference on Waste Stabilisation Ponds, Avignon, France, 28 Sep - 01 Oct 2004. IWA330pp, PW7REM3.
Dacombe, P., Banks, C.J. and Khan, T. (2005) Strategies and Technologies for Sustainable Urban Waste Management: Commercial and Industrial Waste Audit of SMEs. In, Sustainable Urban Environment: Vision into Action Conference, Birmingham, UK, 28 Feb - 02 Mar 2005.
Salter, A.M., Holiday, L., Banks, C.J., Chessire, M. and Mulliner, R. (2005) Plant biomass as an energy efficient feedstock in the production of renewable energy. In, 14th European Biomass Conferenceand Exhibition: Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, Paris, France, 17 - 21 Oct 2005.
Banks, C.J. (2004) The use of synthetic sewage for laboratory purposes. In, IWA Young Researchers' conference 2004, Southampton, UK, 23 - 24 Apr 2004. IWA368pp.
Banks, C.J. (2004) Water quality improvements by biological treatment: how leachate stress modifies the population dynamics of Asellus aquaticus and Gammarus pulex. In, Proceedings of the 2nd IWA International Young Researcher Conference, Wageningen, Holland, 23 - 24 Apr 2004. IWA368pp.
Heaven, S. and Banks, C.J. (2004) Anaerobic digestion of WSP sludges at low temperatures. In, IWA Young Researchers' Conference 2004, Southampton, UK, 23 - 24 Apr 2004. IWA368pp.
Bloor, M.C. and Banks, C.J. (2004) Mixed species toxicity tests to monitor the impact of leachate on an aquatic environment. In, Annual Main Meeting of the Society for Experimental Biology 2004, Edinburgh, UK, 29 Mar - 02 Apr 2004. Elsevier.
Bloor, M.C., Banks, C.J. and Krivtsov, V. (2004) Population dynamics in Asellus aquaticus as modified by chronic leachate stress. In, 4th British Geotechnical Association Conference: Geoenvironmental Engineering: Integrated Management of Groundwater and Contaminated Land, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK, Jun 2004.
Bloor, M.C and Banks, C.J. (2004) Water quality improvements by constructed wetlands: how leachate stress modified the population dynamics of two macro-invertebrates. In, 4th IWA UK Young Researchers Conference, Southampton, UK, 2004.
Dacombe, P., Banks, C. J. and Heaven, S. (2004) Energy footprint analysis: waste management options for the processing of the paper and card fraction of household waste. In, IWM & LCA Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, 13 - 16 Apr 2004.
Dacombe, P., Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2004) Energy footprint analysis: comparison of waste management options for the processing of the glass and paper/card components of domestic refuse. In, Eco-Efficiency for Sustainability Conference, Leiden, The Netherlands, 01 - 03 Apr 2004.
Dacombe, P., Banks, C.J. and Heaven, S. (2004) Energy and materials flow modelling of MSW: options for management of the plastics fraction in household waste. In, ISWA World Environment Congress and Exhibition, Rome, Italy, 17 - 21 Oct 2004.
Bloor, M.C. and Banks, C.J. (2003) The reduction of leachate toxicity to two aquatic invertebrates by air stripping trials. In, Proceedings of the 8th European Biosolids and Organic Residuals Conference, Wakefield, UK, 23 - 26 Nov 2003.
Bloor, M.C and Banks, C.J. (2003) Assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of leachate to two aquatic invertebrates, and possible toxicity reduction by reed bed treatment. In, 4th International Symposium on Waste Treatment Technologies (Thermal, Non-Thermal and Gas Clean-up) Conference, Sheffield, UK,
Banks, C.J. and Stringfellow, A. (2003) Survival of salmonella in the anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste. In, Proceedings of the ninth international waste management and landfill symposium, Sardinia, Italy, 06 - 10 Oct 2003.
Bloor, M.C and Banks, C.J. (2003) Assessing how landfilling could affect the ecology of the far-field aquatic environment. In, 3rd European Bioremediation Conference, Chania, Greece,
Bloor, M.C. and Banks, C.J. (2003) To assess how landfilling could affect the ecology of the far-field aquatic environment. In, 4th IWA UK Young Researchers Conference, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 2003.
Abdrashitova, S.A, Torrella, F. and Banks, C.J. (2003) Die-off of faecal organisms in an extreme climate waste stabilisation pond with over-winter water storage. In, International Ecological Forum 'Balkhash-2000', Almaty, Kazakhstan,
Banks, C.J. (2003) To assess how landfiling could affect the ecology of the far-field aquatic environment. In, 9th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Sardinia, Italy, 06 - 10 Oct 2003.
Banks, C.J. (2002) The application of Anaerobic Digestion (AD) technology to the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW. In, South West Energy and Environment Group Seminar: Technologies for Treating Residual Municipal Solid Waste, Exeter, GB,
Banks, C.J. and Stringfellow, A. (2002) Biodigestion of kitchen wastes. In, Proceedings of the Chartered Institute of Waste Management 2002 Conference, Torbay, UK, 18 - 21 Jun 2002.
Banks, C.J. and Gaber, N. (2002) Development of a mechanistic model to determine the partitioning of heavy metals in wastewater treatment. In, Proceedings of 5th International conference on Hydroinformatics,, Cardiff, UK, 01 - 05 Jul 2002.
Banks, C.J., Abdrashitova, S.A., Pak, L.N. and Koloskov, G.B. (2002) Potential for use of bioponds for treatment of wastewater in conditions of extreme continental climates. In, Proceedings of International Environmental Forum on problems of sustainable development of the Ili-Balkhash basin "Balkhash 2000", Almaty, Kazakhstan,
Banks, C.J., Abdrashitova, S.A. and Torrella, F. (2002) Die-off of faecal organisms in an extreme climate waste stabilisation pond with over winter storage. In, In Proceedings of 5th International IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds, Auckland, New Zealand, 02 - 05 Apr 2002.
Banks, C.J., Smallman, D.J. and Alhakawati, M.S. (2002) Evaluation of two types of polyurethane for the immobilisation of Rhizopus oryzae for copper uptake. In, Proceedings of the 3rd IWA World Water Congress, Melbourne, Australia, 07 - 12 Apr 2002.
Banks, C.J. and Wang, Z. (1999) An evaluation of the efficiency of anaerobic permeating bed column reactor for the treatment of MSW using an aerobically treated leachate recycle. In, 5th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Philadelphia, US, 12 - 15 Dec 1999.
Banks, C. J. and Al-Hakawati, M.S. (1999) Copper removal by polymer immobilised rhizopus oryzae. In, 3rd IWA Specialised Conference on Hazard Assessment and Control of the Environmental Contaminants, Otsu City, Japan, 05 - 08 Dec 1999.
Banks, C. J. and Wang, Z. (1998) Development of a two phase anaerobic digester for the treatment of mixed abattoir wastes. In, 4th International Symposium on Waste Management in the Agro-Industries, Istanbul, Turkey, 23 - 25 Sep 1998. , 129-136.
Banks, C.J., Sharratt, P.N. and Rashad, A. (1995) Recovery of carboxylic acids from waste blood fermentation. In, IChemE Annual Research Event, Edinburgh, GB, 3pp, 3.
Banks, C.J. and Zhou, J.L. (1993) Colour removal from natural waters by biosorption. In, 15th Federal Convention of Australian Water & Wastewater Association, Queensland, State of, AU, 18 - 23 Apr 1993.
Banks, C.J. and Young, E. (1993) The application of biosorption to the removal of chlorinated organics from waste water. In, IChemE Annual Research Event, Birmingham, GB,
Banks, C.J. (1979) Algunas factores biologicas y quimicos y sus usos en el diseno y control de procesos de tratmiento de aguas residuales. In, Association Colombiana de Ingenieros Sanitarios: Diseno de systemas para tratamiento de desechos liquidos, Colombia, Republic of, CO, 44pp, 1-44.

Monograph

Riley, K., Lisney, R., Banks, C.J., Graveson, G., Avery, I., Archer, P., Read, S., Bartle, I., Read, R. and Freeman, R. (2005) From waste to resource management: an update for 2005. Winchester, GB, Hampshire Printing Services, 7pp.
Lisney, Bob, Riley, Keith and Banks, Charles (2003) From waste to resource management: a discussion paper. Winchester, GB, Hampshire County Council, 35pp.
Banks, C.J., Humphreys, P.N., Pugh, S.Y.R. and Ashley, R.M. (1992) Microbial treatment of low-level radioactive waste. London, GB, UK Department of the Environment, 240pp.
Banks, C.J., Cox, S.E. and Hamilton, R. (1987) Anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastes at the Bishops Castle Meat Co. -an evaluation of the farm gas process. Milton Keynes, GB, Meat and Livestock Commission, 80pp.
 

Research

Research Interests

Abatement and removal, Abattoir waste, Activated sludge, Anaerobic digestion, Renewable energy, Sustainable energy, Waste management, Waste stabilisation ponds, Wastewater treatment,

Primary research group:  Water and Environmental Engineering Group

Research projects

SUPERGEN

This collaborative project is aimed at developing a beneficial synergy between anaerobic digestion (AD) and pyrolysis for the processing of non-source segregated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW).

Spring ponds - algal biomass systems

The research considers a range of factors affecting algal revival and growth, focusing particularly on phenomena in the unsteady state period occurring between the end of winter and the onset of summer conditions.

VALORGAS - Valorisation of food waste to biogas

AD is not a new technology, but its application for energy recovery in the field of municipal waste treatment is only just becoming established in Europe, and only for mixed wastes. The use of source segregated food wastes as substrate is not yet widespread, possibly because of technical challenges linked with collection, handling, pre-treatment and digestion of this material. The research includes a number of closely related components with a common underlying goal: to evaluate and where possible improve the energy production process from the perspective of the overall net energy gain achieved within defined system boundaries that include collection, sorting, processing, and beneficial use of recovered material

Processes, mechanics and management of wastes

All-Gas: Industrial scale demonstration of sustainable algae cultures for biofuel production

This project, led by Aqualia SA, is a large scale demonstration of the sustainable production of bio-fuels based on low-cost microalgae cultures.

AmbiGas - Biogas production from high volume industrial effluents at ambient temperatures

This is a collaborative project funded by ERA-Net which aims to maximise the energy gain from anaerobic biological treatment of high-volume low strength industrial wastewaters at ambient temperatures.

TRIF MBR - Anaerobic membrane reactor technology for biodegradable waste stabilisation

This was a collaborative project funded under Defra's TRIF programme to look at the development of two-stage membrane bioreactors for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste

TRIF PS - Particle size requirements for effective bioprocessing of biodegradable municipal waste

This was a collaborative project funded under Defra's TRIF programme to look at the effects of particle size on the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of organic wastes

TRIF Auto - Evaluating the effect of autoclaving on the rate of bioprocessing of waste

The principal aims of this research were: to determine whether autoclaving changes the rate of biodegradation in composting and anaerobic digestion and to what extent; to determine whether the product from bioprocessing meets PAS 100 requirements for heavy metal concentration;  to examine potential effects of thermal pre-treatment on gaseous emissions during subsequent bioprocessing

Water Availability and the Production of Biofuels - An Integrated Assessment

The project involved joint workshops between the Universities of Southampton and Bath in the UK and the University of California at Irvine, to address these issues and to look at potential research approaches and areas for collaboration.

Environmental Optimisation of the Production of Bricks and Tiles at Honey Lane, Selborne

This project identified improvements in the thermal and emissions efficiency of brick production and developed plans to implement them.

SUE Waste Project 3 - Appropriate scales and technologies for bioprocessing of organic urban wastes including energy production from anaerobic digestion

This was one part of an EPSRC-funded project looking at waste management in the context of a sustainable urban environment. The research involved assessment of appropriate scales and technologies for urban bioprocessing plant, and experimental studies on anaerobic digestion as a technique for management of source-separated kitchen and catering wastes

Optimising processes for the stable operation of food waste digestion

This work identified a key cause of process instability in anaerobic digestion of food waste, and suggested technical solutions

Measuring stability of digestates from AD of source-segregated biodegradable waste and manures

Funded by the Waste Resources Action Programme (WRAP), the Bioenergy and Organic Resources Group led a consortium of 3 institutions, including The Open University and WRc, to develop the test which has now become part of PAS110 and confirms that a digestate is sufficient in terms of biological stability to ensure environmentally sound land application.

Lockerley Water Farm - intermittent loading algal pond system

The project concerns the provision of a sustainable and cost-effective wastewater treatment system at Lockerley Water Farm, situated north of Romsey in Hampshire, UK

Industrial Collaboration for Promoting Sustainability

This Knowledge Transfer (KT) project focused on the following key areas: Bioenergy (especially methane production through anaerobic digestion, but also with potential for involvement in other areas e.g. other biofuels, production of pellets for local heat and co-firing in power stations, and pyrolysis of residual municipal wastes for syngas production) Energy footprinting for process optimisation, both in industry and in the waste management sector Energy efficiency studies within companies Urban Sustainability studies (including participation in the Thameside Gateway Institute for Sustainability)

Optimising Inputs and Outputs from Anaerobic Digestion Processes

The aim of the work was to better understand the factors influencing the stabilisation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the anaerobic digestion process. In particular the research addressed whether stabilisation, as judged by volumetric gas production, solids destruction and bio-stability of the residues, could be improved by co-digestion with other organic wastes from industry, commerce and agriculture.

EU - China Cooperation for Liquid Fuels

ECOFUEL is building an international partnership for new second generation biofuel processes: the research will set the foundation stones for the technologies being developed, and make further contributions to overcoming barriers to commercialisation. The ECOFUEL project will effectively integrate respective regional programmes for better allocation and utilisation of resources, in particular to achieve the critical mass required to move the second generation of biofuels forward.

CROPGEN - Renewable Energy from Crops and Agro-wastes

CROPGEN was a research project funded by the EU's 6th Framework Programme, involving 11 partners in 6 European countries. The overall objective of the research was to produce from biomass a sustainable fuel source that can be integrated into the existing energy infrastructure in the medium term, and in the longer term provide a safe and economical means of supplying the needs of a developing renewable fuel economy.

BV Dairies KTP

The purpose of the Knowledge Transfer Partnership between BV Dairy and Southampton is to apply the University's research-based knowledge of process optimisation and integration techniques to the introduction of AD as a treatment process for high-volume, low-strength dairy wastes.

Anaerobic degradation of renewable plastics

This study for the National Non-Food Crops Centre (NNFCC) aimed to determine whether anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective treatment for a mixed food waste stream containing renewable plastics.

Bioganix Demonstrator Project - Research, Monitoring and Evaluation

The Bioganix Demonstration Project was funded under Defra's New Technologies programme.  The University of Southampton was responsible for research monitoring and evaluation, including energy footprinting of the process.

Biocycle - Research, Monitoring and Evaluation of the South Shropshire Digester

This project involved research, monitoring and evaluation of the Biocycle digester, a plant treating kitchen and green waste from 19,000 households in South Shropshire. The plant is funded by Defra's New Technologies demonstrator programme and Advantage West Midlands, and has been operating since January 2006.

Integrated Systems for Farm Diversification into Energy Production by Anaerobic Digestion: Implications for Rural Development, Land Use & Environment

The research examined the potential for development of anaerobic digestion (AD) on farms, and the contribution that this could make to rural development and diversification of agricultural practice by enhanced land use planning for bioenergy production. The research is set in the context of a rapidly developing European agenda aimed at both strengthening the rural economy and protecting the environment.

System requirements for low-cost energy-efficient algal biomass cultivation for biofuel production

This research was funded by the Carbon Trust's Algal Biofuels Challenge programme, and aimed to provide the basis for design and engineering of cost-effective mass culture systems for algal production

Comparative evaluation of mesophilic and thermophilic digestion of source segregated domestic food waste

The research looked at the suitability of using anaerobic digestion as a method of processing domestic kitchen waste and was carried out in conjunction with Greenfinch Ltd, specialists in Biogas Technology R & D.

Development of low-cost methods for treatment and reuse of drainage and urban wastewater by adaptation of waste stabilisation ponds for extreme continental climates

If properly operated, cold climate waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) offer an extremely efficient means of treating raw sewage to provide a high-quality effluent at low cost, which can be used for irrigation purposes or returned to the rivers. Because of the desperate shortage of water resources in many regions, the country's vast land area and difficulties with the provision of effective conventional wastewater treatment in many cities, waste stabilisation ponds are of particular relevance to Kazakhstan and Central Asia. This EU-funded project aimed at improving our knowledge of such systems in order to optimise their design and performance

Study of the parameters for optimisation of the design and performance of waste stabilisation ponds in extreme continental climates

Waste stabilisation ponds in continental climates operate in very different modes in different seasons. This research was carried out in conjunction with an EU FP4 project to establish the parameters affecting design and operation.

Treatment, Extraction and Reuse of Chemically Complex Alkaline Leachates from Landfills

The disposal of Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) to landfill produces leachates with extreme properties of high pH and ionic species concentrations. The research has investigated a number of issues including: the properties of CKD, methods for the extraction of CKD rich leachate from landfills, the interaction of CKD with municipal solid waste and the anaerobic treatment of leachates with a high sulphate concentration.

Assessment of how landfilling could affect the ecology of the far-field aquatic environment

Evaluation of a reticulated foam bioreactor

The MERDER treatment system was tested on a site owned and operated by Mayglothling Waste Disposal Ltd where the machines remained for a period of 9 months. A major part of the business of Mayglothling’s is the emptying and tankering of septic tank contents to their own privately-owned and Environment Agency licenced wastewater treatment plant.

ALL-GAS experimental site

ALL-GAS experimental site

Algae for biofuel

Algae for biofuel

Biocycle demonstration AD plant

Biocycle demonstration AD plant

Trouble shooting process operation

Trouble shooting process operation

Energy crop digester

evaluated in CROPGEN

Energy crop digester

HUb and PoD concept

sustainable digestion

HUb and PoD concept

Food waste!

Food waste!

Teaching Responsibilities

Code Title Role
CENV3059  WATER & WASTEWATER ENGINEERING 1 Lecturer
CENV6085  WASTE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Coordinator
CENV6141  BIOENERGY Coordinator
CENV6158  WATER & WASTEWATER ENGINEERING Coordinator

Contact

Prof. Charles Banks
Engineering and the Environment
University of Southampton
Highfield
Southampton
SO17 1BJ

Room Number: 7/5004

Telephone: (023) 8059 4650
Facsimile: (023) 8067 7519
Email: C.J.Banks@soton.ac.uk