Afaf did her PhD at Southampton University with Professor John Mellor then moved back to Egypt to become Professor of Bio-Organic Chemistry at Suez University. Afaf has been working with Prof Tom Brown in Southampton and Oxford since 2006, she pioneered synthetic methods including click chemistry to assemble novel, long and modified biocompatible DNA/RNA constructs for custom gene synthesis/editing, therapeutics oligonucleotides and their applications in biology and medicine. Her current work is focusing on the synthesis of modified monomers, chemically modified mRNA and therapeutic oligonucleotides for applications in biology and medicine. She has published more than 150 papers, many patents and book chapters. In 2023, Afaf became an Assistant Professor in Chemistry at Southampton University.