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The University of Southampton

MANG6122 Simulation

Module Overview

This module provides a practical introduction to the theories and techniques of simulation. The approach taken is very broad and covers all forms of simulation, including Monte Carlo simulation, discrete event simulation, system dynamics, agent-based modelling, business games and role-playing simulations for training purposes. The module focuses on practical applications of simulations in a variety of contexts, and students will gain expertise in a range of widely used commercial software.

Aims and Objectives

Module Aims

to equip you with the necessary skills to be able to apply simulation usefully in their future employment.

Learning Outcomes

Knowledge and Understanding

Having successfully completed this module, you will be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • the principles underlying Monte Carlo simulation;
  • the basic statistical techniques (e.g. sampling from distributions, replications, and variance reduction) underlying the methodology of simulation;
  • the theory and methodology of role-playing simulations;
  • the principles and uses of system dynamics;
  • the principles and uses of discrete event simulation;
  • how to experiment with simulation models to meet management objectives.
Subject Specific Intellectual and Research Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • apply the methods and techniques of Monte Carlo simulation to a range of problems, including inventory systems and project management;
  • critically analyse the use of role-playing simulation in crisis management.
Transferable and Generic Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • demonstrate your numeracy to future employers;
  • practice your IT skills;
  • apply problem-solving;
  • apply quantitative and qualitative modelling approaches;
  • write a client report based on a simulation project: improve your written communication skills;
  • gain insight into self-management skills.
Subject Specific Practical Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • create and run Monte Carlo simulations using commercial spreadsheet add-ins;
  • create discrete-event models in commercial DES software;
  • create system dynamics models in commercial SD software.


• Monte Carlo simulation and use of software @Risk • Discrete event simulation and use of software Simul8 • System Dynamics and use of software Stella (known commercially as iThink) • Business games and training simulations • Agent-based simulation • Statistical aspects of simulation: • Random numbers, sampling from distributions, confidence intervals and number of repetitions • Validation, verification and experimentation • Choosing distributions • Queuing systems, events, activities and queues, activity diagrams • Simulation software and the needs of users: graphics and interactivity • The future of simulation: new research directions

Learning and Teaching

Teaching and learning methods

Teaching methods include: Lectures, seminars, practical exercise classes, computer workshops, private study Learning activities include: Practical class exercises and games, problem solving, hands-on computer modelling

Independent Study126
Total study time150

Resources & Reading list

Les Oakshott (1997). Business Modelling and Simulation. 

Eppen, Gould, Schmidt, Moore and Weatherford (1998). Introductory Management Science (chapter 11). 

Wayne L. Winston (1993). Operations Research, Applications and Algorithms (chapter 23). 

Michael Pidd (1998). Computer Simulation in Management Science. 

Kleijnen and Van Groenendaal (1992). Simulation: A Statistical Perspective. 

Simulation and Gaming Journal. Any issue, in Library.

Stewart Robinson (1994). Successful Simulation. 





MethodPercentage contribution
Coursework 40%
Coursework 20%
Coursework 40%


MethodPercentage contribution
Coursework 40%
Coursework 20%
Coursework 40%


MethodPercentage contribution
Coursework 100%

Repeat Information

Repeat type: Internal & External


Costs associated with this module

Students are responsible for meeting the cost of essential textbooks, and of producing such essays, assignments, laboratory reports and dissertations as are required to fulfil the academic requirements for each programme of study.

In addition to this, students registered for this module typically also have to pay for:


Recommended texts for this module may be available in limited supply in the University Library and students may wish to purchase the mandatory/additional reading text as appropriate.

Please also ensure you read the section on additional costs in the University’s Fees, Charges and Expenses Regulations in the University Calendar available at

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