As is well-known, archaeology has very strong connections with other disciplines. This module explores how the study of archaeology has developed over the centuries, both as a discipline in its own right and as a sister discipline within Anthropology. It also explores how archaeology has come to be the gateway between the humanities and the sciences. In particular, the module explores the relationship of archaeology to sister disciplines biological anthropology, social anthropology and linguistics, and how the four disciplines have co- evolved in the last 150 years. From the beginnings of archaeology in antiquarianism many centuries ago, through to its growth as a university discipline from the 19th century, to its current interdisciplinary approaches, we shall introduce some of the main themes that have informed archaeological and anthropological thought. We shall discus some of the philosophical and scientific influences on archaeology and anthropology (the Enlightenment, evolution, ethnology, science and cultural theory), relating these to broader historical trends in the development of archaeological thinking.