The module provides a broad outline of the applications of plant biotechnology in the modern world. Where possible, general principles are developed alongside specific examples rather than giving exhaustive lists of detailed information. Plants are increasingly being utilised in a wide range of biotechnological applications. The cornerstone of utilising plants in biotechnology has been the ongoing development and improvement in generating transgenics (GM plants) in a range of species. The methods and principles in making transgenic plants will be covered in the module as well as looking at more traditional breeding strategies. The use of transgenic plants in medical applications, phyto- and bioremediation and biofortification will be covered. The current pressure to increase the generation of energy from sources of renewable plant material has made this a highly topical area. The biotechnological approaches being utilised to improve crops providing the raw materials as well as the methods to produce the biofuels will be covered. Planned future space exploration and potential colonisation of space will require sustainable plant based artificial ecosystems to be developed and as a result this is becoming an area of increasing interest.