The module considers solid wastes from industry, commerce and domestic sources. The concept of a waste management hierarchy is introduced and practical ways in which it might be implemented are discussed. These include waste minimisation, reuse, recycling and recovery as practical alternatives to disposal techniques. The technology and management strategies associated with such schemes are dealt with in detail and include: the design and operation of materials reclamation facilities; composting and anaerobic digestion; and thermal treatment processes. How the selection of these options is influenced by legislative issues is developed in a parallel manner. The module also considers planning and economic issues associated with the industry in the UK which leads on to a detailed examination of the most dominant current practice of landfill as a final disposal option. In this part of the course emphasis is placed on the design and engineering of landfill so as to maximise recovery options and negate environmental damage. The module includes a 1/2 day workshop on post closure landfill monitoring design and implementation used to familiarise students with details of the statutory monitoring required to protect ground water resources. This workshop attendance is compulsory as it is assessed to contribute 10% to the final mark. The module may include a field trip to a waste management facility if student numbers allow this; if not visual material will be used to familiarise students with details of typical plant and installations.