Fundamentals of Bio-organic Chemistry
Nucleic Acids Chemistry
- Chemical structure and properties of nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleic acids.
- Structure and properties of DNA – A, B, and Z-DNA structures, Watson-Crick base pairing.
- The biological and biochemical mechanisms of DNA replication and transcription.
- Synthesis of nucleosides as drugs and for oligonucleotide synthesis, involving protecting group chemistry.
- Automated solid-phase DNA synthesis using phosphoramidite chemistry with emphasis on the reaction mechanisms of each step.
An Introduction to Carbohydrates, their classification, structure and representation,
Mutarotation, anomeric effect, conformational equilibria, death-taxes-protecting groups,
Glycosyl donors/acceptors, polysaccharides and nucleosides.
Enzymology and Protein Chemistry
- The structure of amino acids and the primary, secondary and tertiary structure of peptides and proteins.
- Mechanism of the serine proteases – the Asp-His-Ser catalytic triad and stabilisation of the tetrahedral oxyanion intermediate by hydrogen bonding.
- Molecular basis for the selectivity of the serine proteases – trypsin as compared to chymotrypsin.
- Mechanism of the methyltransferases
- Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics.
- The chemical reactions of glycolysis.
- .The chemistry of amino acid biosynthesis.
Natural Product Biosynthesis
- Thioesters of co-enzyme A as acyl group carriers in biosynthesis.
- Chemical structure of terpenes (including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and polymers) and their derivation from isoprene units.
- The biosynthetic pathway to isoprenoids - Claisen-like, Aldol and decarboxylation mechanisms and the subsequent formation of isoprene equivalents illustrated by dimethyl allyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP).
- Terpene biosynthesis: The reaction steps fall into three classes: i) initiation: formation of the carbocation ii) propagation: rearrangement/reaction of the carbocation iii) termination: quenching of the carbocation. Formation of a wide variety of monoterpenes by quenching of the α-terpinyl cation.
- Biosynthesis of sequiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes.
- Fatty acid biosynthesis. Six key steps: i) thioester formation ii) C-C bond formation iii) ketone reduction iv) dehydration v) enoyl reduction vi) thioesterase.
- Polyketide and aliphatic polyketide biosynthesis. Aromatic Polyketide biosynthesis.
- Biosynthesis of 6-methylsalicylic acid, tetracylins. Modular polyketide synthases, erythromycin biosynthesis, engineering novel polyketide antibiotics.
Pre-requisites: CHEM2028 and CHEM2031