This module explores some of the distinguishing features of metal ion complexes bearing macrocyclic ligands and some of the key structural and functional roles of metal ions in biology and medicine. The module serves as an introduction to these important topics at a research level, highlighting the importance of the ligand environment in determining the reaction chemistry and applications of the metal complexes, through a combination of descriptive and problem based approaches.
Pre-requisite: CHEM2026 and CHEM2032
Aims and Objectives
Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:
- Describe how metals can be utilised in medical applications from both a therapeutic and diagnostic perspective.
- Demonstrate an appreciation of how and why macrocyclic ligands can support coordination of metal ions in unusual oxidation states, how to optimise these characteristics for particular metals and their development towards electrocatalysis.
- Demonstrate detailed appreciation of the challenges and solutions associated with the successful preparation of macrocycles with a range of donor atom types (O, N, S, Se, P) and their complexes, as well as developing the necessary skills in analysing and interpreting spectroscopic and analytical data on these systems, so that previously unseen examples and/or reaction schemes may be correctly identified and rationalised.
- Be able to provide a sound basis for the macrocyclic effect in terms of both kinetic and thermodynamic considerations, and link this closely to the potential and actual applications of macrocyclic systems in a range of domains, including a detailed understanding of the key factors influencing the design of macrocyclic frameworks suitable for the selective extraction of particular metal ions (s-block, p-block and 1st row d-block).
- Describe in detail how metal ions are important in biological processes and why the coordination environment around the metal centre plays a crucial role in its function.
The special properties of macrocyclic ligands are described together with the challengers surrounding their syntheses and strategies for how these may be overcome. The applications of macrocycles and their complexes in selective metal ion extraction, catalysis, medical imaging and in biological systems are highlighted, together with their particular ability to stabilise uncommon transition metal oxidation states.
The role that metal ions play in biological systems will be discussed. With an emphasis on ion transport and storage, biological metal redox processes, the role metals play in enzymes and how metal compounds are utilised in medicine for both imaging and therapeutic applications will be explored.
Learning and Teaching
Teaching and learning methods
Flipped lectures via on-line delivery, supported by consolidation through weekly support sessions to tackle problems and develop further understanding and knowledge through discussions of relevant topics; including developing effective approaches to tackle unseen problems.
|Preparation for scheduled sessions||36|
|Total study time||150|
Resources & Reading list
J. A. McCleverty and T. J. Meyer (2004). Thioether, Selenoether and Telluroether Macrocycles. Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry II, 1, pp. 399.
J. A. McCleverty and T. J. Meyer (2004). Phosphine and Arsine Macrocycles. Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry II, 1, pp. 475.
S. Faulkner and N. Long (2011). Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging and Therapy. Dalton Trans., 40, pp. 6067.
T. Johnstone, K. Suntharalingam, and S. J. Lippard (2016). The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs. Chem. Rev., 116 (5), pp. 3436.
L.F. Lindoy, G.V. Meehan, I.M. Vasilescu, H.J. Kim, J.-E. Lee, S.S. Lee (2010). Transition and post-transition metal ion chemistry of dibenzo-substituted, mixed-donor macrocycles incorporating five donor atoms. Coord Chem. Rev., 254, pp. 1713.
R. K. Zalups, D. J. Koropatnick (2010). Cellular and Molecular Biology of Metals. CRC Press.
P.C. Wilkins and R.G. Wilkins (1997). Inorganic Chemistry in Biology. Oxford Chemistry Primer 46, OUP.
D. E. Fenton (1995). Biocoordination Chemistry. Oxford University Press.
E.C. Constable (1999). The Coordination Chemistry of Macrocyclic Compounds. Oxford Chemistry Primer No 72, OUP.
J. C. Dabrowiak (2009). Metals in Medicine. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..
L.F. Lindoy (1989). The Chemistry of Macrocyclic Ligand Complexes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Assessment is through a combination of coursework (through two tests, each 10% of module assessment) and an end of module examination that allows students to demonstrate the knowledge, understanding and problem solving skills developed through the module.
This is how we’ll formally assess what you have learned in this module.
This is how we’ll assess you if you don’t meet the criteria to pass this module.
|Coursework marks carried forward||20%|
Repeat type: Internal & External