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The University of Southampton

ELEC6232 Analogue and Mixed Signal CMOS Design

Module Overview

The key aim of this module is to provide the background and the methods for the understanding of the operation of basic analogue CMOS cells, and how to design common functions. The emphasis is placed on design of analogue functions specifically as part of mixed signal systems. Only a few “Digital” CMOS ICs are actually completely digital; most have some analogue functions, often signal conditioning and data conversion interfaces, but maybe only a clock oscillator. The approach adopted is based on “bottom-up” approach, by encouraging a sound understanding of the analogue behaviour of devices and a range of fundamental circuit principles, with the emphasis on gaining skills at first order design by hand as a starting point for simulation and as guidance for optimisation. Device models suitable for hand calculation are considered as well as their limits of applicability. The methods for manufacturability and robustness in design are given high priority. Functions addressed include primitive cells, biasing and references, op-amp designs, sampled and continuous time filters, A/D and D/A converters. Pre-Requisite Knowledge: - Basic MOS transistor construction and physics - Basic MOS transistor large and small signal models - DC and AC network analysis skills - Behavioural level understanding of Op-Amp circuits - Elementary appreciation of sampled data systems - Basic circuit simulation CAD skills (SPICE)

Aims and Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Knowledge and Understanding

Having successfully completed this module, you will be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • Active and passive components available in CMOS and their parasitic elements of first order transistor modelling for initial manual design and the limits of applicability
  • Behaviour and design of basic analogue circuit primitives, including quantitative treatment of matching
  • CMOS Op-Amp design, from single ended to full differential structures
  • Signal and bias handling for noise immunity in mixed signal substrate
  • Switched capacitor techniques
Subject Specific Practical Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Practical issues in voltage and current scaling A/D and D/A converters
  • SD modulator operation and design
  • PLL circuits suitable for clock generation


- CMOS Technology and MOS Transistor Model Review - Amplifier Basics - Current Mirrors - Reference Circuits - Matching - Op-Amp Design - Comparators - Switched Capacitor Techniques for Data Conversion - Nyquist A/D and D/A Converters - Sigma-Delta A/D and D/A Converters - PLLs for IC Clock Generation - Crystal Oscillators

Learning and Teaching

Wider reading or practice61
Completion of assessment task19
Follow-up work15
Preparation for scheduled sessions15
Total study time150



MethodPercentage contribution
Continuous Assessment 25%
Final Assessment  75%


MethodPercentage contribution
Set Task 100%


MethodPercentage contribution
Set Task 100%

Repeat Information

Repeat type: Internal & External

Linked modules

Pre-requisites: ELEC2201 AND (ELEC2205 OR ELEC2217) OR ELEC6259

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