The transmission of sound within buildings plays a vital role in architectural design that should be taken account of at an early stage. The module covers two main areas: (i) building acoustics, that is the effects of the materials and overall design of buildings on the transmission of sound within the building and the acoustic suitability of the rooms for their purpose; (ii) auditorium design, that is the specific acoustic design of large rooms intended for concerts, theatre or as lecture rooms. These two areas have some commonality, particularly the reverberance, but also some aspects that are more important in one area than the other. The module has been designed in collaboration with industry leaders Arup and provides hands-on experience of advanced measurement and prediction methods.
Aims and Objectives
Disciplinary Specific Learning Outcomes
Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:
- Make basic room acoustic measurements and determine the various indicators used for auditorium acoustics
- Use room acoustics software to model simple auditoria
- Apply prediction methods to assess the transmission of noise in buildings and its mitigation.
- Select appropriate building constructions for the solution of practical noise problems and evaluate their performance
- Understand standard measurement methods that are used in building acoustics.
- Apply prediction methods to assess the reverberation of sound in rooms.
- Legal framework: building regulations (relating to noise); Approved Document E; particular requirements for schools (Building Bulletin 93) and hospitals (HTM08-01).
- Sound insulation (laboratory tests, according to ISO 10140, in-situ tests according to ISO 16283, single number ratings Rw and Dw according to ISO 717, typical building constructions).
- Absorption and reverberation time (Sabine and Eyring models, air absorption, typical absorption spectra, requirements for different purposes).
- Background noise criteria (NR, PNC, STI); sources of external noise (rain noise, traffic, etc); sources of noise within buildings (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning noise sources; fans;
boilers; chillers; packaged units). Guidance according to BS8233.
- Vibration isolation (of noisy equipment, of buildings); ground-borne noise from underground railways.
- Laboratory sessions: measurement of sound insulation according to ISO 16283; measurement of sound absorption according to ISO 354.
- Subjective and objective requirements for different rooms (concert halls, theatres, opera houses, multi-purpose halls).
- Reverberation (T20, T30, EDT); other indicators (clarity C80, D50, lateral energy fraction, sound strength) according to ISO 3382.
- Absorption of seats, audience, other materials, variable absorption.
- Scattering and diffusion.
- Measurement of impulse responses; determination of room acoustic parameters from the IR.
- Sound source characteristics (musical instruments, speech, singing; sound power, directivity).
- Prediction methods (image sources, ray tracing, beam/cone tracing, finite differences, modal methods, physical scale modelling).
- Public address system design for buildings and auditoria.
- Laboratory sessions: measurement of room impulse responses; use of CATT-Acoustic to predict room acoustics.
Optional introductory sessions will be provided for students with no background in acoustics.
Learning and Teaching
Teaching and learning methods
This is a one-semester course, normally three lectures per week. Detailed lecture notes are provided and one-to-one assistance and verbal feedback is facilitated through laboratory and tutorial classes.
Three laboratories are included: sound transmission, sound absorption and room impulse responses. In addition, training is given on the use of CATT-Acoustic software for room acoustic prediction. Blackboard is used to allow the lectures and additional material to be disseminated. Students are encouraged to read supporting texts and a booklist is provided.
Visiting lectures from Arup Acoustics staff are included covering practical aspects of building acoustics and auditorium design.
|Completion of assessment task||70|
|Practical classes and workshops||9|
|Wider reading or practice||26|
|Total study time||150|
Resources & Reading list
Software. CATT-Acoustic, INSUL, ZORBA andMatlab software is available on university workstations.
C. Hopkins, Sound Insulation (2008). Theory into Practice. Butterworth Heinemann.
T.J. Cox and P. D'Antonio (2009). Acoustic Absorbers and Diffusers. Taylor & Francis.
M. Barron (2009). Auditorium acoustics and architectural design. Taylor & Francis.
T.E. Vigran (2008). Building Acoustics. Taylor & Francis.
Summative assessment description
Referral assessment description
Repeat type: Internal