The first part of this module introduces and explains important developments for the Jewish minority in Europe from the Enlightenment to the end of the inter-War period, from the late 18th century to 1933. While this history has often been regarded as a prelude to the Holocaust, our module will look at this period from a Jewish perspective. What were the opportunities, and what were the risks, that ‘modern times’ held in store for a group that moved from the margins of society to its centre? The second part of the module covers the persecution of the Jews during the Nazi era and then how that history has been remembered and represented. In particular, it will use the example of the family of Anne Frank from pre-Nazi life, through to their experiences as refugees in the Netherlands, then in hiding during the war and finally deported to Westerbork, Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen.