This module is a study of political culture in the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. The second part will start with the ‘great break’ of the late 1920s that saw the emergence of the Stalinist state. Areas for consideration will include Stalin’s Cult of Personality and the mass mobilization of the people during the 1930s. The Second World War is in many ways the key focus point of Russia’s twentieth century: an extended case study will examine the role propaganda played in the Soviet conflict from 1941-45. Following this, the module will consider the post-war period through the time of Soviet stagnation in the 1970s. The role of the media and surveillance during this period will also be considered. The final weeks will conclude with an assessment of the present-day Russian Federation and how different forms of media play a role in contemporary political processes. Like in part one, a key theme is the relationship between the Russian and Soviet states and their people, and how the latter responded to the symbols projected by the state. The ‘personality cults’ of various Soviet leaders will play a key role in seminars. The module will consider a wide variety of different source materials during seminars, and focus on the role of culture in the construction of the revolutionary project throughout Russia’s twentieth century and beyond. Furthermore, it will consider the ways in which propaganda has changed in response to different technologies and the changing demands of different historical periods.