This module explores the mass murder of the Jews of Europe between 1933 and 1945. At its core is an examination of the nature of National Socialism, its genocidal drive, and the stages by which its practice of antisemitic persecution evolved into a continent-wide genocide in the context of war. It examines the development of Nazi persecution and the explanations of this. It examines the radicalisation of Nazi violence under the impact of war. It treats individual national or regional case studies in depth. It explores the collaboration of non-German actors and it explores Jewish life in the camps, in ghettos and in hiding. Its focus is on understanding the capacity of the National Socialist regime to mobilise broad sections of German society behind its genocidal policies and the consequences of this for the Jewish population of Europe.