This module studies the international regulatory framework for the marine environment, its achievements, shortcomings and future challenges. The law of the marine environment has taken shape over several decades, responding to challenges caused by shipping incidents as well as other sources of pollution, and has become a complex framework of international conventions, developed through international consensus, and reinforced through technical developments in the committees of the International Maritime Organisation and other regional organisations. As regulation through conventions is a long and slow process and consensus-dependant, the framework is often insufficient to tackle immediate challenges such as climate change and ocean plastic pollution. In addition, compliance and enforcement are hampered by a variety of factors. We look at the international regulatory framework for shipping and the environment as well as factors preventing enforcement.