The fact that children have human rights, i.e. children’s rights, and that these rights should underpin any decision, law and policy that is relevant to children, have been enshrined in international law instruments, like the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, and have committed national governments to protecting and upholding them. This module will examine the theoretical approaches to the study of children’s rights and child protection, the legal instruments regulating the international and national protection of child rights and the main national policies adopted to translate rights’ protection into concrete policy measures on the ground. The module will explore specific case studies where children’s rights were violated. We will examine the protection of child refugees and unaccompanied migrant children in Europe, the situation of unaccompanied minors in the US, the issue of child trafficking and its human rights implications for children, as well as the regulation of and controversies surrounding the international adoption of children.