A typical antenna or light source sends out electromagnetic waves either in a fixed direction or in all directions in the hope that the signal gets picked up by a receiver anywhere. It would off course be enormously more efficient if the beam can be steered to exactly the direction of the receiver such that virtually no energy is lost in data transmission. This can off course be done my mechanically turning but a much simpler and faster system uses phased arrays in which an electronic signal to each part of the beam allows excellent directionality. Significant research is carried out in this area (including by us) in the microwave range for 5G mobile communication. Extending these properties to optical frequencies (light, infra-red, UV) as proposed in this collaboration would open this property to laser ranging and detection (LIDAR), an essential feature of any self-driving vehicle.