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Research project

Molecular Endofullerenes

Project overview

This project consists of the synthesis and multidisciplinary investigation of small molecules trapped inside fullerene cages. The host molecules in these unique molecular systems behave as quantum rotors and exhibit phenomena such as spin isomerism, spin isomer conversion, quantised molecular motion, and quantum-rotor induced hyperpolarization.


Lead researcher

Professor Malcolm Levitt

Professor of Chemistry

Research interests

  • Magnetic Resonance
  • Endofullerenes
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Other researchers

Professor Richard Whitby

Professor of Chemistry

Research interests

  • Synthesis, properties and application of atomic and molecular endofullerenes.
  • The use of flow chemistry for the rapid acquisition of mechanistic and process information.
  • The synthesis of polyaromatic molecules for optoelectronic applications.
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Collaborating research institutes, centres and groups

Research outputs

Gabriela Hoffman, Mark C. Walkey, John Gräsvik, George R. Bacanu, Shamim Alom, Sally Bloodworth, Mark E. Light, Malcolm H. Levitt & Richard John Whitby, 2021, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 60(16), 8960-8966
Type: article
Sergey S. Zhukov, Vasileios Balos, Gabriela Hoffman, Shamim Alom, Mikhail Belyanchikov, Mehmet Nebioglu, Seulki Roh, Artem Pronin, George Razvan Bacanu, Pavel Abramov, Martin Wolf, Martin Dressel, Malcolm H. Levitt, Richard J. Whitby, Boris Gorshunov & Mohsen Sajadi, 2020, Scientific Reports, 10(1)
Type: article
Johannes Biskupek, Stephen T. Skowron, Craig T. Stoppiello, Graham A. Rance, Shamim Alom, Kayleigh L. Y. Fung, Richard J. Whitby, Malcolm H. Levitt, Quentin M. Ramasse, Ute Kaiser, Elena Besley & Andrei N. Khlobystov, 2020, ACS Nano, 14(9), 11178-11189
Type: article
Sally Bloodworth, Gabriela Hoffman, Mark Walkey, George Razvan Bacanu, Julie Herniman, Malcolm H. Levitt & Richard J. Whitby, 2020, Chemical Communications, 56(72), 10521-10524
Type: article
Minzhong Xu, Peter M. Felker, Salvatore Mamone, Anthony J. Horsewill, Stéphane Rols, Richard J. Whitby & Zlatko Bačić, 2019, The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 10(18), 5365-5371
Type: article