This module will consider human-caused global challenges and their impact on marine and terrestrial ecosystems. We will discuss the main causes of global change, including greenhouse gases, changes in temperature and rainfall, and human land use, as well as how these changes can subsequently trigger other drivers of change (e.g. ocean acidification, soil characteristics, loss of biodiversity) or social challenges (e.g. food security). Biological responses to these global changes will be considered in terms of how organisms, species and communities may acclimatize, adapt or change. After consolidating understanding of the causes of, and biological responses to, global change, we will consider what these impacts mean for ecosystem structure, function, ecosystem services and natural resource management.