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Politics and International RelationsPart of Economic, Social and Political Science
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Professor Christian Enemark BA, LLB (Sydney), PhD (ANU)

Professor of International Relations

Professor Christian Enemark's photo

Christian Enemark is Professor of International Relations at the University of Southampton.

He has published numerous academic articles and chapters, and he is the author of three books: Disease and Security: Natural Plagues and Biological Weapons in East Asia (2007), Armed Drones and the Ethics of War: Military Virtue in a Post-Heroic Age (2014), and Biosecurity Dilemmas: Dreaded Diseases, Ethical Responses, and the Health of Nations (2017).

Christian’s research and teaching interests include global health politics, international security, arms control, and the ethics of war.

Before coming to Southampton, he was Reader in Global Health and International Politics at Aberystwyth University in Wales. Christian serves on the editorial board for the journal Contemporary Security Policy, and he has held visiting fellowships in the John Curtin School of Medical Research and the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics at the Australian National University (ANU). In 2007-2008, he was a member of the Australian Government’s National Consultative Committee on International Security Issues (appointed by the Minister for Foreign Affairs). Prior to completing a PhD in International Relations at ANU, Christian worked as a parliamentary liaison officer in the Attorney General's Department of New South Wales.

During 2018 – 2022, Professor Christian Enemark is Principal Investigator on the DRONETHICS project (funded by the European Research Council).

Research interests

Christian Enemark’s research focuses on global health politics, international security, arms control, and the ethics of war. When inquiring into the security politics surrounding infectious disease challenges, he is interested in naturally-occurring disease outbreaks (e.g. COVID-19, Ebola, pandemic influenza, drug-resistant TB, HIV/AIDS and cholera), the use of biological weapons by state and non-state actors, and the risks and benefits of laboratory research on pathogenic microorganisms. The US-based Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Australian Research Council have previously sponsored his work investigating policy challenges arising where health, security and ethics concerns intersect. Christian’s normative approach to global health security complements his research on arms control and the ethics of war. On these themes, he is especially interested in military technologies (e.g. armed drones, military robots, artificial intelligence (AI), biological weapons, and ‘non-lethal’ weapons) and developments in Just War theory.

Christian is available to supervise high-quality research students pursuing PhD projects on topics including: the use of armed drones; military AI; the ethics of armed conflict; security theories and practices; the politics of global health security; and biological weapons and biosecurity.


Professor Christian Enemark is the Principal Investigator on a Consolidator project funded under the European Research Council Horizon 2020 Programme: “Emergent Ethics of Drone Violence: Toward a Comprehensive Governance Framework” (DRONETHICS), ERC-2017-COG grant no. 771082 (€1.36m).

He is working on the Project with two research fellows based in the Department of Politics and International Relations: Dr Thompson Chengeta and Dr Lindsay Clark.

DRONETHICS Project website.

Grant announcement (3 January 2018):

Research into the ethics of drone violence receives major EU funding boost

Principal Investigator, DRONETHICS (European Research Council project)
Co-Investigator, Trustworthy Autonomous Systems Hub (UK Research and Innovation project)

Editorial Board member, Contemporary Security Policy

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Book Chapters

Working Papers


  • Ethics of War (PAIR2034, PAIR3042)
  • Politics of Global Health (PAIR2033, PAIR3041)
  • Theorising International Politics (PAIR2001)
  • Introduction to International Relations (PAIR1001)


  • Security Theory (PAIR6046)
  • International Political Theory (PAIR6017)

Areas of PhD supervision:

  • Drone violence
  • Ethics of armed conflict
  • Security theories and practices
  • Security and global health
  • Biological weapons and biosecurity

Previous PhD project completions include:

  • ‘The Concept of Security’ (Jonathan Herington, Australian National University)
  • ‘War Rights and Military Virtues: a Philosophical Reappraisal of Just War Theory’ (Matthew Beard, University of Notre Dame Australia)
  • ‘Encountering Children in Conflict Zones’ (Michelle Jones, Aberystwyth University, Winner: Political Studies Association Shirin M Rai Dissertation Prize 2018)

Current PhD co-supervision:

  • ‘An investigation into the role of responsible algorithms and the web in radicalisation and counter-radicalisation activities in contemporary Western society’ (Peter Sturgess, University of Southampton).
  • 'Global Security and Governance Challenges of the Quantum Internet' (Juljan Krause, University of Southampton).


In 2017 Professor Christian Enemark won the Most Engaging Lecturer prize at the University of Southampton Students' Union Academic Awards.

In 2019 he was Highly Commended in the Best Pastoral Support award category.

Professor Christian Enemark
Politics & International Relations, Social Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ United Kingdom

Room Number : 58/3055

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