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The University of Southampton
Economic, Social and Political Sciences
(023) 8059 4442

Professor Christian Enemark BA, LLB (Sydney), PhD (ANU)

Professor of International Relations

Professor Christian Enemark's photo


Christian Enemark is Professor of International Relations at the University of Southampton.

I am the author of numerous articles and three books. Disease and Security: Natural Plagues and Biological Weapons in East Asia (2007), Armed Drones and the Ethics of War: Military Virtue in a Post-Heroic Age (2014), and Biosecurity Dilemmas: Dreaded Diseases, Ethical Responses, and the Health of Nations (2017).

My research and teaching interests include global health politics, international and global security, and the ethics of war.

Before coming to Southampton, I was Reader in Global Health and International Politics at Aberystwyth University. I have been a Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University’s John Curtin School of Medical Research and Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics, and in 2007-2008 I was a member of the Australian Government’s National Consultative Committee on International Security Issues (appointed by the Minister for Foreign Affairs). Prior to completing a PhD in International Relations, I was a parliamentary liaison officer in the Attorney General's Department of New South Wales.

Research interests

My research (and research-led teaching) focuses on global health politics, international and global security, and the ethics of war. When inquiring into the security politics surrounding infectious disease challenges, I am interested in naturally-occurring disease outbreaks (e.g. Ebola, pandemic influenza, drug-resistant TB, and cholera), the use of biological weapons by state and non-state actors, and the risks and benefits of laboratory research on pathogenic microorganisms. The US-based Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Australian Research Council have previously sponsored my work investigating policy challenges arising where health, security and ethics concerns intersect. My normative approach to health and international/global politics complements my research on the ethics of war. On this theme, I am particularly interested in military technologies (e.g. drones, robots, biological and chemical weapons, and ‘non-lethal’ weapons) and developments in Just War theory.


DRONETHICS (2018 – 2022) 

Professor Christian Enemark is the Principal Investigator on a Consolidator project funded under the European Research Council Horizon 2020 Programme: “Emergent Ethics of Drone Violence: Toward a Comprehensive Governance Framework” (DRONETHICS), ERC-2017-COG grant no. 771082 (€1.36m). 

He is working with two research fellows based in the Department of Politics and International Relations: Dr Thompson Chengeta and Dr Lindsay Clark.

This project opens up an ethical inquiry into drone violence conceptualised as either war, law enforcement, interpersonal violence, or violence devolved to artificial intelligence (AI). It aims to produce: the first integrated conceptual framework for explaining ethical concerns arising from current and potential forms of drone violence; concrete recommendations for policy-makers on how to manage this violence ethically; and a new normative vision for shaping the longer-term trajectory of drone violence. 

Research into the ethics of drone violence receives major EU funding boost (3 January 2018):

DRONETHICS Project website.

Principal Investigator, DRONETHICS (European Research Council project)

Editorial Board member, Contemporary Security Policy

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Book Chapters

  • Enemark, C. (2018). Biosecurity and the risk to global health. In C. McInnes, K. Lee, & J. Youde (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Global Health Politics (pp. 179-195). (Oxford Handbooks). Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190456818.013.12
  • Enemark, C. (2014). Life science research as a security risk. In S. Rushton, & J. Youde (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Global Health Security Abingdon, GB: Routledge.
  • Enemark, C. (2013). Ethics, airpower and coercive diplomacy. In K. Brent (Ed.), 2012 RAAF Air Power Conference: Air Power and Coercive Diplomacy (pp. 125-140). Canberra, AU: Royal Australian Air Force.
  • Enemark, C. (2013). Unmanned drones and the ethics of war. In F. Allhoff, N. G. Evans, & A. Henschke (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Ethics and War: Just War Theory in the 21st Century (pp. 327-337). (Routledge International Handbooks). Abingdon, GB: Routledge.
  • Enemark, C. (2012). Filth and failure: the security politics of cholera. In C. Enemark, & M. J. Selgelid (Eds.), Ethics and Security Aspects of Infectious Disease Control: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 59-77). Farnham, GB: Ashgate.
  • Enemark, C. (2010). Raising awareness among Australian life scientists. In B. Rappert (Ed.), Education and Ethics in the Life Sciences: Strengthening the Prohibition of Biological Weapons (pp. 131-148). (Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics). Canberra, AU: ANU Press.
  • Enemark, C. (2009). Pandemic Influenza and security. In A. Eckert, & L. Sjoberg (Eds.), Rethinking the 21st Century: ‘New’ Problems, ‘Old’ Solutions (pp. 193-210). London, GB: Zed Books.
  • Enemark, C. (2009). Regional health and global security: the Asian cradle of pandemic influenza. In W. T. Tow (Ed.), Security Politics in the Asia-Pacific: A Regional-Global Nexus? (pp. 284-298). Cambridge, GB: Cambridge University Press.
  • Enemark, C. (2008). US bioterrorism policy. In A. J. Bellamy, R. Bleiker, S. Davies, & R. Devetak (Eds.), Security and the War on Terror: Civil-Military Cooperation in a New Age (pp. 142-155). (Contemporary Security Studies). Abingdon, GB: Routledge.
  • Enemark, C. (2006). Ethics in the time of anthrax. In C. Enemark (Ed.), Ethics of War in a Time of Terror (pp. 55-69). (Canberra Papers on Strategy and Defence; No. 163). Canberra, AU: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University.
  • Enemark, C. (2006). Securitizing infectious diseases. In M. J. Selgelid, M. P. Battin, & C. B. Smith (Eds.), Ethics and Infectious Disease (pp. 327-343). Oxford, GB: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Enemark, C. (2006). Weapons of Mass Destruction? In R. Ayson, & D. Ball (Eds.), Strategy and Security in the Asia-Pacific Sydney, AU: Allen & Unwin.

Working Papers

Ethics of War (PAIR2034, PAIR3042)
Politics of Global Health (PAIR2033, PAIR3041)
Introduction to International Relations (PAIR1001)
Theorising International Politics (PAIR2001)

Security Theory (PAIR6046, PAIR6047) 

Areas of PhD supervision:
Drone violence
Ethics of armed conflict
Security theories and practices
Security and global health
Biological weapons and biosecurity 


In 2017 Professor Christian Enemark won the Most Engaging Lecturer prize at the Union Southampton Academic Awards.

In 2019 he was Highly Commended in the Best Pastoral Support award category.


Professor Christian Enemark
Reception Building 58 University of Southampton Southampton SO17 1BJ United Kingdom

Room Number: 58/3055

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