The University of Southampton

ELEC2222 Circuits and Transmission

Module Overview

Aims and Objectives

Module Aims

The module aims to provide a detailed understanding of more advanced topics in circuit theory, in particular developing a good understanding of the fundamental theory of power, three phase circuits and transmission lines for both high and low frequency applications.

Learning Outcomes

Knowledge and Understanding

Having successfully completed this module, you will be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • Three phase systems for power systems
  • Transmission line theory for both high and low frequency applications
Transferable and Generic Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Gain experience of analytical and numerical modelling at appropriate detail for application
Subject Specific Practical Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Gain practical experience of three phase systems
  • Gain practical experience of transmission lines


Network Topology: Definitions: trees, links, loops, cuts etc., conversion of circuits to branches and loops, etc., and the possible variations for any given circuit; expansion of Kirchhoffs laws in cuts and loops; formation of current branch matrices and the relationships I = C.i and V = A.B; determination of admittance and impedance matrices; methods of solutions (including revision of matrix algebra). Three-phase: Unbalanced mesh and four-wire star circuits; unbalanced three-wire star circuits; solution by Millman's theorem, star-delta transform and graphical methods; symmetrical components and use in solving unbalanced systems; positive, negative and zero sequence networks; use of two wattmeter method on balanced and unbalanced systems for kW and kVAr measurement. Two Port Networks: ABCD parameters; Simple transmission networks: series impedance, shunt admittance, half T and half Pi network, T and Pi networks, ideal and actual transformer, pure mutual inductance; ABCD relation for a passive network; Output in terms of input; Evaluation of ABCD parameters from short circuit and open circuit tests; ABCD parameters for symmetrical lattice; Networks in parallel; The loaded two port network; image impedances and matching a resistive load to a generator; Image impedance in terms of Zsc and Zoc; Insertion loss ratio; Propagation coefficient; Per-unit system. Transmission line theory as applied to power transmission and communications: Definition of short, medium and long lines and their simulation with discrete elements; solution of T and Pi networks, with appropriate phasor diagrams, ABCD constants. Lossy and lossless line models. Telegraphist's equations, relation to the wave equation. Voltage standing waves on a lossless line; Standing waves of current on a lossless line. Impedance, Admittance and Smith Chart. Stub matching and stub filters; Voltage surges; Reflection coefficient; Pulses on transmission lines, signal transfer. Distortion free conditions. Special cases: quarter and half wave length lines, matched impedances, short and open terminations. Electromagentic background. Field analysis of transmission lines; Telegraphers Equation derived from Field Analysis for the coaxial line. Rigorous solution for uniformly distributed constants (in both the time and frequency domains); reflected and incident values, propagation constant, attenuation and phase constants, surge/characteristic impedance; algebraic and hyperbolic equations with ABCD comparison of the latter with Pi networks. Stepped transmission lines. Impact of transposition. Application of sequence networks. Examples: Coaxial cable, stripline, microstrip; balanced lines: twisted pairs, star quad and waveguides.

Learning and Teaching

Wider reading or practice41
Preparation for scheduled sessions18
Follow-up work18
Completion of assessment task15
Total study time150

Resources & Reading list

Dorf and Svoboda (2006). Electric Circuits. 

A.H. Morton (1996). Advanced Electrical Engineering. 

David. M. Pozar (2012). Microwave Engineering. 



MethodPercentage contribution
Exam 65%
Laboratory 15%
Numerical and analytical project 20%


MethodPercentage contribution
Exam  (2 hours) 100%

Repeat Information

Repeat type: Internal & External

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