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SOES3013 Zooplankton Ecology and Processes

Module Overview

Aims and Objectives

Module Aims

In this course you will learn to recognise the diversity of marine zooplankton taxa; the factors that regulate their distribution and abundance, both now and in the future; and the fundamental role they play in marine ecosystem function. There are 5 broad themes: 1) Biodiversity and taxonomy; 2) Temporal and spatial distributions; 3) Sampling methods and monitoring programmes; 4) Trophic ecology and biogeochemical cycling; and 5) Climate change. The specific objectives of this course are to: 1. Establish the role of zooplankton in the pelagic marine community and introduce holo- and mero-plankton diversity through taxonomic features as well as functional biology. 2. Review zooplankton reproduction and life cycle strategies. 3. Understand how biotic and abiotic factors regulate zooplankton distribution and abundance at various temporal and spatial scales. 4. Become familiar with the technologies available to sample the community in the field and to introduce procedures for laboratory analysis of abundance and biomass. 5. Understand the mechanisms by which herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous zooplankton detect, select, and ingest their food. 6. Establish the role that zooplankton play in marine food webs and biogeochemical cycling, and their importance to fisheries. 7. Understand how zooplankton can be used as indicators of climate change, and how conditions associated with climate change affect zooplankton species and populations. 8. Evaluate the evidence suggesting that problematic jellyfish blooms are increasing in the world's oceans.

Learning Outcomes

Subject Specific Intellectual and Research Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Laboratory skills in zooplankton identification using dichotomous taxonomic keys
  • Methods for analysing zooplankton seasonal and annual time-series
  • How to access databases of relevance to international zooplankton research
  • Knowledge of contemporary topics in plankton research
Transferable and Generic Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Safe laboratory working practices
  • Data analysis and interpretation
  • Library information retrieval
  • Working in small groups
Learning Outcomes

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Recognise the diversity of mero- and holo-plankton; be able to identify common species of zooplankton using taxonomic features.
  • Have a good working knowledge of zooplankton sampling methods and open access databases and how to choose the most appropriate methods to answer specific research questions.
  • Become proficient in analysing and interpreting plankton datasets.
  • Understand how biotic (life history strategies, behaviour, trophic interactions) and abiotic (hydrodynamics, climate) factors regulate zooplankton distribution and abundance.
  • Know how feeding ecology (diet, rates, impact) is determined in zooplankton; understand the role that zooplankton play in marine pelagic food webs and biogeochemical cycling in a variety of marine ecosystems characterised by differing levels of productivity.
  • Be aware how plankton dynamics and pelagic ecosystem function will differ in response to hydroclimatic variability, through the use of zooplankton indicator species, long-term datasets and hypothesis-testing experiments.

Syllabus

Marine zooplankton communities consist of permanent and temporary members, including the larvae of many fish and benthic invertebrates, thus acting as vehicles for population exchange and diversification. Zooplankton play an important role in the functioning of marine ecosystems and in biogeochemical cycles, linking pelagic primary production to higher trophic levels, including commercially important fish, mammals and seabirds. In addition to their functional role, marine zooplankton are considered to be excellent indicators of climate change because a) most species are short lived, which leads to tight coupling between environmental change and plankton dynamics, and b) they are free floating, so respond easily to changes in temperature and oceanic current systems by expanding and contracting their ranges. In this course you will learn to recognise the diversity of marine zooplankton taxa; the factors that regulate their distribution and abundance, both now and in the future; and the fundamental role they play in marine ecosystem function. There are 5 broad themes: 1) Biodiversity and taxonomy; 2) Temporal and spatial distributions; 3) Sampling methods and monitoring programmes; 4) Trophic ecology and biogeochemical cycling; and 5) Climate change.

Learning and Teaching

Teaching and learning methods

Formal lectures: lectures will provide underlying structure. Practical sessions: practical classes will support aspects of the lecture programme This Blackboard site contains everything to support the course: course synopsis and timetable, lecture and practical handouts, PANOPTO recordings; additional reading material and relevant websites, practical groupings and assignment marks. All announcements relating to this course will be made via email sent via this Blackboard site.

TypeHours
Practical classes and workshops6
Independent Study120
Lecture24
Total study time150

Resources & Reading list

Miller CB (2012). Biological oceanography. 

Mauchline J (1998). The biology of calanoid copepods. 

Lenz PH et al. (1996). Zooplankton: sensory ecology and physiology. 

Arai M (1997). A functional biology of Scyphozoa. 

Ringelberg J (2010). Diel vertical migration of zooplankton in lakes and oceans: causal explanations and adaptive significances. 

McEdward L (1995). Ecology of marine invertebrate larvae. 

Sommer U (1989). Plankton ecology: succession in plankton communities. 

Beaugrand G (2005). Monitoring pelagic ecosystems using plankton indicators. ICES J Mar Sci. ,62 , pp. 333-338.

Valiela I (1995). Marine ecological processes. 

Everson I (2000). Krill. Biology, ecology and fisheries.. 

Purcell JE et al. (2001). Jellyfish blooms: ecological and societal importance. 

Hays GC et al. (2005). Climate change and marine plankton. Trends Ecol Evoln. ,20 , pp. 337-344.

Levin LA (2006). Recent progress in understanding larval dispersal: new directions and digressions. Integr Comp Biol. ,46 , pp. 282-297.

Davis CS (1987). Zooplankton life cycles. Georges Bank. , pp. 256-267.

Kaiser MJ et al. (2011). Marine ecology. Processes, systems, and impacts. 

Reid PC et al. (2003). The Continuous Plankton Recorder: concepts and history, from Plankton Indicator to undulating recorders. Prog Oceanogr. ,58 , pp. 117-173.

Folt CL (1999). Biological drivers of zooplankton patchiness. Trends Ecol Evoln. ,14 , pp. 300-305.

Harris RP et al. (2000). ICES zooplankton methodology manual. 

Beaugrand G. (2004). The North Sea regime shift: evidence, causes, mechanisms and consequences. Prog Oceanogr. ,60 , pp. 245-262.

Soetaert K & van Rijswijk P (1993). Spatial and temporal patterns of the zooplankton in the Westerschelde estuary. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. ,97 , pp. 49-57.

Suthers IA & Rissik D (2009). Plankton. A guide to their ecology and monitoring for water quality. 

Young CM et al. (2002). Atlas of marine invertebrate larvae. 

Gentsch E et al. (2009). Dietary shifts in the copepod Temora longicornis during spring: evidence from stable isotope signatures, fatty acid biomarkers and feeding experiments. J Plankton Res. ,31 , pp. 45-60.

Omori M & Ikeda T (1984). Methods in marine zooplankton ecology. 

Turner JT (2004). The importance of small planktonic copepods and their roles in pelagic marine food webs. Zool Stud. ,43 , pp. 255-266.

Pitt KA & Lucas CH (2014). Jellyfish blooms. 

Prairie JC et al. (2012). Biophysical interactions in the plankton: A cross-scale review. Limnol Oceanogr: Fluids & Environments. ,2 , pp. 121-145.

Assessment

Assessment Strategy

Mid-term Exam (25%): A 1 hour multiple-choice exam on 'Zooplankton biodiversity and taxonomy', to be held in December. Tests LO 1. Main Written Exam (75%): A 2.5 hour written examination paper. There will be 1 compulsory question that will test your understanding and interpretation of the plankton and environmental parameters dataset analysis carried out in Practical 1, and a choice of 2 out of 4 questions covering the themes of temporal & spatial distributions, sampling methods, trophic ecology & biogeochemistry, and climate change, to be answered in essay format. Tests LOs 2-6. In addition to the formal summative assessments outlined above, there are a number of opportunities for revision, formative assessment and feedback with the aim of helping you improve your understanding of the subject: i) Lectures will be recorded using PANOPTO and published on the module Blackboard site; ii) In-lecture Q+As for you to test your understanding of these areas; iii) In the two group sessions (practical P & Lecture L8), opportunities for discussion with, and verbal feedback from peers, demonstrators and staff; iv) Exam and course feedback session in week 11; v) Revision and exam preparation session in week 12.

Formative

In-class Test

Summative

MethodPercentage contribution
Mid-term test  (1500 words) 25%
Theory examination  (2.5 hours) 75%

Linked modules

Pre-requisites: SOES1007 OR SOES2006 OR BIOL1004

Costs

Costs associated with this module

Students are responsible for meeting the cost of essential textbooks, and of producing such essays, assignments, laboratory reports and dissertations as are required to fulfil the academic requirements for each programme of study.

In addition to this, students registered for this module typically also have to pay for:

Other

There are no additional costs associated with this module.

Please also ensure you read the section on additional costs in the University’s Fees, Charges and Expenses Regulations in the University Calendar available at www.calendar.soton.ac.uk.

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