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The University of Southampton
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GLHE6002 Methods and Analysis of Global Health Trends and Differentials

Module Overview

This module provides the core methodological and analytic tools underlying the MSc Global Health. The primary objective is to provide an overview of the conceptual, methodological and empirical basis for quantifying levels of health in individuals and populations, including the construction of a range of different summary measures that combine information on mortality and non-fatal health outcomes. The course aims to give students an understanding of the technical basis for measurement in international work on population health; and to give students an appreciation of the uses and limitations of these methods in policy-making and priority-setting, particularly in developing countries.

Aims and Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Outcomes

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Be able to apply the key measurement tools for assessing levels of health and making meaningful comparisons of differentials in health between and within populations
  • Understand the construction of aggregate indices of health from survey data in low and high income countries
  • Be aware of the contribution of 'objective' measures of health, including anthropometry and biomarker measures, to understanding patterns of health
  • Appreciate how demographic processes and changes have an impact on population and reproductive health in different regions of the world
  • Appreciate the perspectives and emphases that different academic and professional disciplines place on global health in research, programmes and policies
  • Have gained knowledge relevant to disciplinary training about the biological, behavioural, genetic, and socio-economic influences on the burden of disease and ill-health in populations; and, on inequalities in health status across and between populations
  • Have gained knowledge about the international efforts to measure population health outcomes through analysis of routine and survey data and to be able to describe some of the main strengths and limitations associated with such assessments
  • Have learnt about some of the data available in population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that can be used to examine the demographic and social determinants and differentials in health across the life course

Syllabus

Topic PART 1: MEASURING HEALTH STATES What is health? Definitions and domains. Sources and measures of disease incidence and prevalence. Asking questions about health and well-being. Measurement scales for health. Summary measures of population health: HALE and PYLL. Health assessments using medical records and biomarkers. SEMINAR 1: Calculating and interpreting the SF-36 Anthropometric measures in children and adults. (NM) Field perspectives on health surveys: the Nairobi Slums studies. (NM) PART 2: RISK FACTORS AND HEALTH The attributable burden of disease: DALYs and other summary measures. Risks, rates and ratios: comparative risk analysis - smoking. COMPUTER LAB 1: Calculating Health-Adjusted Life expectancy. National health surveys, biomarkers and burden of disease studies. Quantification of health risks and multi-morbidity. SEMINAR 2: Quantifying disability – vignettes and disability weights. PART 3: MEASURING THE DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH Measuring the MDGs and SDGs with the GBD framework. Obesity and its correlates in Accra women. COMPUTER LAB 2: Calculating BMIs and links to other outcomes. The socio-economic determinants of health: pathways and the Marmot report. (ZM). Costs, benefits and priority-setting COMPUTER LAB 3: Risk ratios and population-attributable fractions Health-related behaviour changes, nudges and effects. Unsafe sex: exposures, hazards and estimated impact. (NM). Measuring impact: approaches to evaluation including inequality measures. (ZM). Global health comparisons and the effects of ageing. (ZM). Case Study: WHSA, Accra, the WHS and other household studies of health. Revision

Learning and Teaching

Teaching and learning methods

Teaching will be via tutor-led lectures, student-led seminars/computer-based workshops and independent study.

TypeHours
Teaching26
Independent Study74
Total study time100

Resources & Reading list

Szreter S (2003). The Population Health Approach in Historical Perspective. American Journal of Public Health.. ,93 , pp. 421-431.

Wilkinson RG & Pickett KE (2006). Income inequality and population health: A review and explanation of the evidence. Social Science & Medicine.. ,62 , pp. 1768-1784.

Barry B Hughes, Randall Kuhn, Cecilia M. Peterson, Dale S. Rothman & Jose R. Solorzano (2011). Improving Global Health: Patterns of potential human progress Volume 3.. 

Crisp N. (2010). Turning the world upside down: The search for global health in the 21st Century. 

Kathryn H. Jackobsen (2008). Introduction to Global Health. 

Ratzan SC, Filerman GL, LeSar JW. (2000). Attaining global health: Challenges and opportunities. Population Bulletin. ,55 , pp. pp.52.

Montgomery M. (2009). Urban poverty and health in developing countries. Population Bulletin. ,64 , pp. pp.20.

McDonald JT & Kennedy S (2004). Insights into the 'healthy immigrant effect': health status and health service use of immigrants to Canada.. Social Science & Medicine. ,59 , pp. 1613-1627.

Further useful literature can be found by consulting.

Rockett IRH. (1999). Population and health: An introduction to epidemiology. Population Bulletin. ,54 , pp. pp.48.

Lim SS and others (2012). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributableto 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for theGlobal Burden of Disease Study 2010.. The Lancet. ,380 , pp. 2224-60.

Koplan JP, Bond TC, Merson MH, Reddy KS, Rodriguez MH, Sewankambo NK, Wasserheit JN; Consortium of Universities for Global Health Executive Board (2009). Towards a common definition of global health.. Lancet. ,373 , pp. 1993-1995.

Crimmins E, Kim JK, Vasunilashorn S (2010). Biodemography: New approaches to understanding trendsand differences in population health and mortality. Demography. ,47 , pp. S41-S64.

Lindstrand A et al. (2006). Global health: an introductory text book. 

Ewles, L. (2005). Key topics in public health: essential briefings on prevention and health promotions.. 

Kindig DA. (2007). Understanding Population Health Terminology. Milbank Quarterly. ,85 , pp. 139-161.

Marmot M & Wilkinson RG (Eds.) (2009). Social Determinants of Health. 

Murray CJL and others (2012). Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet. ,380 , pp. 2197-223.

Lopez, Alan D., et al. (2006). Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data.. The Lancet. ,367 , pp. 1747-1757.

Kindig, DA, Stoddart G. (2003). What is population health?. American Journal of Public Health. ,93 , pp. 366-369.

The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century.

Skolnik R. (2008). Essentials of global health. 

Evans R, Stoddart GC. (1990). Producing Health, Consuming Health Care. Social Science & Medicine. ,33 , pp. 347-1363.

Murray CJL and others (2002). Summary Measures of Population Health: Concepts, Ethics, Measurement and Applications. 

Assessment

Summative

MethodPercentage contribution
Coursework  (2500 words) 30%
Exam  (2 hours) 70%

Referral

MethodPercentage contribution
Exam  (2 hours) 100%

Repeat Information

Repeat type: Internal & External

Costs

Costs associated with this module

Students are responsible for meeting the cost of essential textbooks, and of producing such essays, assignments, laboratory reports and dissertations as are required to fulfil the academic requirements for each programme of study.

In addition to this, students registered for this module typically also have to pay for:

Books and Stationery equipment

Recommended texts for this module may be available in limited supply in the University Library and students may wish to purchase reading texts as appropriate.

Please also ensure you read the section on additional costs in the University’s Fees, Charges and Expenses Regulations in the University Calendar available at www.calendar.soton.ac.uk.

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