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PHIL6064 Puzzles and Paradoxes

Module Overview

Socrates wants to cross a river and comes to a bridge guarded by Plato, who says: “Socrates, if you say something true, I will permit you to cross. But if you speak falsely, I shall throw you into the water.” Socrates answers: “You will throw me into the water”. It is clear that Socrates puts Plato in a difficult situation: He cannot throw Socrates into the water, because if he did he would violate his promise to let Socrates cross the bridge if he speaks the truth. On the other hand, if Plato allows Socrates to cross the bridge it would mean that Socrates spoke untruth. What should Plato do? This is a classic example of a philosophical paradox. Paradoxes, and related types of puzzles, have had a lot of attention in philosophy, particularly in philosophy of language, epistemology, and metaphysics. But what are puzzles and paradoxes? Why have they always been considered so important in philosophy? What are the most famous puzzles and paradoxes in philosophy? This module aims at answering these questions by presenting some the most famous, challenging and intriguing puzzles and paradoxes that philosophers have provided us with. Since puzzles and paradoxes are indeed puzzling and paradoxical, the aim will primarily be to work out together the various solutions or dissolutions one might try out to solve the problems.

Aims and Objectives

Module Aims

To explore and critically discuss some of the most important puzzles and paradoxes in philosophy, and some proposed solutions to them

Learning Outcomes

Knowledge and Understanding

Having successfully completed this module, you will be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • Some of the most famous and important puzzles and paradoxes
  • Advantages and disadvantages of some proposed solutions to these puzzles and paradoxes
  • why puzzles and paradoxes have a central role in Philosophy.
Transferable and Generic Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Undertake independent work, including identifying and using appropriate resources
  • Work effectively to deadlines
  • Take notes from talks and written materials
  • Contribute to discussion in a critical but dispassionate way.
  • Express views clearly and concisely.
Cognitive Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Interpret, synthesise and criticise complex texts and positions
  • Present ideas clearly and carefully in writing.
  • Debate and criticise ideas and arguments in an even-handed fashion
  • Articulate and defend your own views regarding the issues the module concerns

Syllabus

The syllabus may vary from year to year. Topics typically include: - What are philosophical puzzles and paradoxes and why are they interesting? - Puzzles and Paradoxes in epistemology (examples: Can you assert that it’s a nice day and that you do not believe it? Do you have rational beliefs about lotteries?) - Puzzles and Paradoxes in metaphysics (examples: How many hairs do you need in order not to be bald? Can there be two absolutely indistinguishable spheres?) - Puzzles in philosophy of language (examples: What is the best question ever to ask an angel? Is the word ‘obscene’ obscene? Can you be told somebody’s name?)

Learning and Teaching

Teaching and learning methods

Teaching methods include: Lectures In-class discussion One-on-one consultation with module co-ordinator Learning activities include: Attending classes Contribution to class discussion Doing independent research for and writing assessed work

TypeHours
Lecture33
Tutorial2
Preparation for scheduled sessions30
Completion of assessment task40
Follow-up work20
Wider reading or practice25
Total study time150

Resources & Reading list

Michael Clark (2002).  Paradoxes from A to Z. 

Mark Sainsbury (1995).  Paradoxes. 

Assessment

Assessment Strategy

For MA students taking this module, expectations will be significantly higher than those for year 3 undergraduate students attending the same lectures, and the assessment criteria will accordingly by stricter. In particular students will be required to demonstrate extremely high levels of detailed and accurate exposition, critical engagement, organisation and presentation, with scholarship that draws on appropriate primary literature.

Formative

Business case or Essay plan

Summative

MethodPercentage contribution
Essay  (4000 words) 100%

Referral

MethodPercentage contribution
Resubmit assessments 100%

Repeat Information

Repeat type: Internal & External

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