The University of Southampton
Courses

SESM6035 Bio, Nano and Modelling Aspects of Tribology

Module Overview

The aims of this module is to provide students with fundamental and practical understanding/knowledge/skills to tackle and solve industrial problems underpinned by nanotribology and biotribology sciences.

Aims and Objectives

Module Aims

• Provide theoretical and applied knowledge of the main experimental techniques to characterise the tribophysics of materials and structures with special emphasis on nano-scale characterisation • Provide a fundamental and practical insight into the fundamental sciences and technologies underpinning biotribology • Provide theoretical and applied knowledge of the physics of tribological phenomena from the nano- to the macroscopic scale • Provide the ability to model key tribological processes occurring within complex tribosystems via advanced mathematical and computational techniques • Provide the ability to model and to solve complex problems arising in a wide range of industrial tribological applications • Illustrate the principles, techniques and knowledge acquired through practical case studies

Learning Outcomes

Knowledge and Understanding

Having successfully completed this module, you will be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  • The different experimental techniques to characterise the properties of nanotribological systems
  • The physics of tribology
  • The principles of modelling in tribology: analytical and computational aspects
  • A variety of numerical and computational methods relevant to tribology: finite difference, finite element, finite volume, atomistic and molecular dynamics
Transferable and Generic Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Learn and research independently
  • Collate and synthesise/prioritise information according to task objectives
  • Manipulate and analyse data, selecting and applying appropriate statistical processes
  • Communicate your work in written reports/drawings and verbally
  • Demonstrate study/time management skills, both individually and through team-working.
Subject Specific Practical Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Conduct practical experiments to characterise the tribology of bio- an nanosystems
  • Formulate mathematically a tribological problem using knowledge of the tribophysical phenomena involved
  • Select a sound modelling approach and suitable computational technique(s) to solve a particular tribological problem
  • Design and analyse physical/computational experiments to characterise tribosystems
  • Analyse complex tribosystems using general computational solving techniques and commercial software applications
Subject Specific Intellectual and Research Skills

Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:

  • Design experimental protocols to characterise the tribology of bio- an nanosystems.
  • Design and analyse physical and computational experiments to characterise tribological systems
  • Develop analytical and numerical models of tribological systems
  • Analyse and solve complex engineering tribological problems
  • Identify information requirements and sources for design and evaluation
  • Synthesise information and ideas for use in the evaluation process

Syllabus

The course is split into 6 basic sub-topics (36 lectures): - Introduction to the module - Physics of tribology (from the nanoscale to the macroscopic scale) - Principles of modelling and computational techniques - Fundamentals of biotribology - Experimental characterisation techniques at the nanoscopic scale - Case studies Introduction to the module 1 lecture 1. Introduction to Bio, Nano and Modelling Aspects of Tribology: General structure of the module, examples of scientific and engineering applications of modern tribology with special emphasis on biotribological applications. Physics of tribology (from the nanoscale to the macroscopic scale) 6 lectures 2. Mechanical properties of solids and thermodynamics: atomic origins of deformation, elastic deformations, plastic deformations, real area of contact /First and Second Principles of Thermodynamics, entropy, statistical mechanics, balance equations 3. Physics of surface I - Surface energy and capillary pressure: liquid surface tension, capillary pressure, Kelvin equation and capillary condensation, interfacial energy and work of adhesion, surface energy of solids, Zisman method, contact angles, adhesion hysteresis 4. Physics of surface II - Surface forces derived from surface energies / Physical origins of surface forces: Derjaguin approximation, dry environment, force between a sphere and a flat, Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory, Derjaguin-Muller-Topov theory, nanoscale contacts, wet environment, meniscus, tode dipping regime, Pillbox and flooded regimes, immersed regime / normal force sign convention, repulsive atomic potentials, Van der Waals forces, Hamaker constant, surface energies arising from van der Waals interactions, liquid-mediated forces between solids, solvation forces, contact electrification 5. Atomistic origins and models of friction: static friction, dynamic friction, atomistic friction, adhesive friction, static friction, Admonton’s law, Coulomb’s law, adhesion and ploughing in friction, 6. Physics and mechanisms of wear: wear from plastic deformations, adhesive wear, oxydative wear, abrasive wear 7. Thin films and coatings tribology: principles, manufacturing, applications Principles of modelling and computational techniques 10 lectures + 2 seminars/lectures 8. General modelling principles: modelling strategies and link with physical observations/experiments, practical examples in tribology. 9. Analytical modelling of contact: Hertz theory, Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory, Derjaguin-Muller-Topov theory 10. The Finite Element Method I: general introduction, direct stiffness approach, weak form formulation 11. The Finite Element Method II: discretisation, matrix equations, structure of a finite element code 12. Finite element modelling of contact I: general computational techniques 13. Finite element modelling of contact II: friction models 14. Modelling of wear: wear mechanisms, Archard’s law, finite element implementation of Archard’s law, applications to wear of coatings 15. Modelling of lubrication: lubrication regimes, classification of fluid properties, viscosity, fluid film flow in confined geometries, slippage at liquid-solid interfaces, hydrodynamic lubrication, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, Navier-Stokes equations, Reynolds equations. 16. Atomistic and first-principles techniques: Introduction, density functional theory, Hartree-Fock method, applications 17. Molecular dynamics techniques: introduction, potential energy functions, force-field theory, energy minimisation, geometry optimization, classical mechanics theory, case studies (friction, lubrication, nanoindentation) 18. Research seminar I: a list of research papers addressing various modelling aspects of tribology will be proposed to students. Each student will select a paper, analyse it prior to the lecture, present and discuss it. This is intended to be an interactive session where students and lecturers will provide input/feedback. 19. Research seminar II: a list of research papers addressing various modelling aspects of tribology will be proposed to students. Each student will select a paper, analyse it prior to the lecture, present and discuss it. This is intended to be an interactive session where students and lecturers will provide input/feedback. Fundamentals of Biotribology 4 lectures 20. Self-assembly processes in biological tissues: bone, cartilage, tendon, cells, biofilms 21. Friction and mechanics of diarthrodial joints: 22. The state-of-the-art of prosthetic knee and hip implants: wear, friction, failure 23. Skin tribology: industrial applications (guest lecture by industrial researcher, Procter & Gamble) Experimental characterisation techniques at the nanoscopic scale 8 lectures 24. Nanoindentation: nano-hardness, Young’s modulus - 25. Nanoscratching: adhesion and failure mechanism (Nano-scratching test) 26. Tribometry: friction and wear 27. Imaging: AFM, TEM/FIB, SEM, n/p/µ-CT 28. Atomic force microscopy: surface forces and adhesion (AFM, FFM) 29. Surface chemical analysis: XPS, Raman, SIMS, EDS 30. Residual stress measurements: XRD 31. Characterisation of surface roughness / Profilometry: type of surface roughness, roughness parameters, surface height distributions, measuring surface roughness (AFM, profilometry). Use and interpretation of results from profilometers Case studies 3lectures 32. Surface modification: texturing, functionalisation, coatings 33. Clinical materials design: tribological and material aspects to consider in the design of clinical devices 34. Biomimetic approaches to design smart materials and structures: non-adhesive surfaces - superhydrophobic Lotus structure, self cleaning and water repellence / controlled adhesion -gecko structure and effect Revision 2 lectures 35. non-adhesive surfaces - superhydrophobic Lotus structure, self cleaning and water repellence / controlled adhesion -gecko structure and effect

Special Features

None

Learning and Teaching

Teaching and learning methods

Teaching methods include: lectures, labs, workshops and course works, computer workshops. Learning activities include: lectures, labs, workshops and course works, computer workshops, individual and small group tackling of example problems, supplementary study of recent research publications.

TypeHours
Lecture36
Tutorial9
Independent Study105
Total study time150

Resources & Reading list

Bhushan, B. (2001). Modern Tribology Handbook. 

Bhushan, B (2004). Nanotribology and Nanomechanics. 

Takadoum J., (2008). Materials and Surface Engineering in Tribology. 

Leach, A.R. (2001). Molecular Modelling – Principles and Applications. 

Scherge, M., Gorb, S.S.N. (2001). Biological Micro- and Nanotribology Nature's Solutions. Series: NanoScience and Technology. 

Williams J.A., (2005). Engineering Tribology. 

Cramer, C.J., (2002). Essentials of Computational Chemistry – Theories and Models. 

Mate, C.M., (2008). Tribology on the Small Scale, A bottom-Up Approach to Friction, Lubrication and Wear. 

Rabinowicz E., (1995). Friction and Wear of Materials. 

Hutchings I.M (1992). Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials. 

Mow VC, Huiskes R (2005). Basic Orthopaedic Biomechanics and Mechano-Biology. 

ASTM Standards Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 05.01 to 05.03, Petroleum Products and Lubricants. 

Chung Y-W (ed) (2012). Micro- and Nano-scale Phenomena in Tribology. 

Ethier, C. Ross and Simmons, Craig A (2007). Introductory Biomechanics: From Cells to Organisms. 

Fratzl P., (2008). Collagen: Structure and Mechanics. 

Jensen, F (2006). Introduction to Computational Chemistry. 

Davim J.P., (2010). Biotribology (Tribology in Practice Series). 

Ratner, B.D.; Hoffman, A.S.; Schoen, F.J.; Lemons, J.E. (2012). Biomaterials science: an introduction to materials in medicine. 

Institute of Petroleum, Standard methods for Analysis and Testing of Petroleum and Related Products, volumes 1 and 2. 

Bhushan B. (ed.) (2007). Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology. 

Assessment

Summative

MethodPercentage contribution
Coursework 20%
Coursework 20%
Coursework 20%
Exam  (120 minutes) 40%

Referral

MethodPercentage contribution
Coursework 20%
Coursework 20%
Coursework 20%
Exam  (120 minutes) 40%

Repeat Information

Repeat type: Internal & External

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