Penology is the study of punishment in society. Students are encouraged to think critically about the multiple purposes and debatable effectiveness of our contemporary modes of punishment, and to understand why this 'end product' of justice systems has become, in recent decades, such a politically contested issue. Questions which CRIM3001 poses include: What does society hope to achieve when it punishes offenders? If the answer seems obvious, why do some theorists argue that punishment has 'hidden functions' and why do approaches to punishment vary between countries? Why does, for example, the United States continue to use the death penalty, while Canada, Australia, and New Zealand have pioneered an approach known as restorative justice? Is either method more successful in deterring crime than the reliance on prison and probation in several justice systems? Why do several justice systems use Artificial intelligence (AI) and other technologies for decision making and what are the prospects and challenges of such technologies?