This module provides the core methodological and analytic tools underlying the MSc Global Health. The primary objective is to provide an overview of the conceptual, methodological and empirical basis for quantifying levels of health in individuals and populations, including the construction of a range of different summary measures that combine information on mortality and non-fatal health outcomes. The course aims to give students an understanding of the technical basis for measurement in
international work on population health; and to give students an appreciation of the uses and limitations of these methods in policy-making and priority-setting, particularly in developing countries.
Aims and Objectives
Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:
- Be able to apply the key measurement tools for assessing levels of health and making meaningful comparisons of differentials in health between and within populations
- Appreciate the perspectives and emphases that different academic and professional disciplines place on global health in research, programmes and policies
- Appreciate how demographic processes and changes have an impact on population and reproductive health in different regions of the world
- Have learnt about some of the data available in population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that can be used to examine the demographic and social determinants and differentials in health across the life course
- Have gained knowledge about the international efforts to measure population health outcomes through analysis of routine and survey data and to be able to describe some of the main strengths and limitations associated with such assessments
- Understand the construction of aggregate indices of health from survey data in low and high income countries
- Be aware of the contribution of 'objective' measures of health, including anthropometry and biomarker measures, to understanding patterns of health
- Have gained knowledge relevant to disciplinary training about the biological, behavioural, genetic, and socio-economic influences on the burden of disease and ill-health in populations; and, on inequalities in health status across and between populations
PART 1: MEASURING HEALTH STATES
What is health? Definitions and domains.
Sources and measures of disease incidence and prevalence.
Asking questions about health and well-being.
Measurement scales for health.
Summary measures of population health: HALE and PYLL.
Health assessments using medical records and biomarkers.
SEMINAR 1: Calculating and interpreting the SF-36
Anthropometric measures in children and adults. (NM)
Field perspectives on health surveys: the Nairobi Slums studies. (NM)
PART 2: RISK FACTORS AND HEALTH
The attributable burden of disease: DALYs and other summary measures.
Risks, rates and ratios: comparative risk analysis - smoking.
COMPUTER LAB 1: Calculating Health-Adjusted Life expectancy.
National health surveys, biomarkers and burden of disease studies.
Quantification of health risks and multi-morbidity.
SEMINAR 2: Quantifying disability – vignettes and disability weights.
PART 3: MEASURING THE DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
Measuring the MDGs and SDGs with the GBD framework.
Obesity and its correlates in Accra women.
COMPUTER LAB 2: Calculating BMIs and links to other outcomes.
The socio-economic determinants of health: pathways and the Marmot report. (ZM).
Costs, benefits and priority-setting
COMPUTER LAB 3: Risk ratios and population-attributable fractions
Health-related behaviour changes, nudges and effects.
Unsafe sex: exposures, hazards and estimated impact. (NM).
Measuring impact: approaches to evaluation including inequality measures. (ZM).
Global health comparisons and the effects of ageing. (ZM).
Case Study: WHSA, Accra, the WHS and other household studies of health.
Learning and Teaching
Teaching and learning methods
If full face-to-face teaching has not been resumed, teaching will include a mixture of synchronous and asynchronous online methods which will include lectures, short exercises, discussion boards, workshop activities and videos. A range of resources will also be provided for further self-directed study. Face-to-face teaching opportunities will be explored depending on circumstances and feasibility. Assessment 100% coursework.
|Total study time||100|
Resources & Reading list
Murray CJL and others (2012). Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet, 380(9859), pp. 2197-223.
Koplan JP, Bond TC, Merson MH, Reddy KS, Rodriguez MH, Sewankambo NK, Wasserheit JN; Consortium of Universities for Global Health Executive Board (2009). Towards a common definition of global health.. Lancet, 373(9679), pp. 1993-1995.
Szreter S (2003). The Population Health Approach in Historical Perspective. American Journal of Public Health., 93(3), pp. 421-431.
McDonald JT & Kennedy S (2004). Insights into the 'healthy immigrant effect': health status and health service use of immigrants to Canada.. Social Science & Medicine, 59(8), pp. 1613-1627.
Crimmins E, Kim JK, Vasunilashorn S (2010). Biodemography: New approaches to understanding trendsand differences in population health and mortality. Demography, 47(1), pp. S41-S64.
Montgomery M. (2009). Urban poverty and health in developing countries. Population Bulletin, 64(2), pp. pp.20.
Kindig, DA, Stoddart G. (2003). What is population health?. American Journal of Public Health, 93, pp. 366-369.
Lim SS and others (2012). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributableto 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for theGlobal Burden of Disease Study 2010.. The Lancet, 380(9859), pp. 2224-60.
Rockett IRH. (1999). Population and health: An introduction to epidemiology. Population Bulletin, 54(4), pp. pp.48.
Kindig DA. (2007). Understanding Population Health Terminology. Milbank Quarterly, 85(1), pp. 139-161.
Evans R, Stoddart GC. (1990). Producing Health, Consuming Health Care. Social Science & Medicine, 33, pp. 347-1363.
Wilkinson RG & Pickett KE (2006). Income inequality and population health: A review and explanation of the evidence. Social Science & Medicine., 62(7), pp. 1768-1784.
Lopez, Alan D., et al. (2006). Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data.. The Lancet, 367(9524), pp. 1747-1757.
Ratzan SC, Filerman GL, LeSar JW. (2000). Attaining global health: Challenges and opportunities. Population Bulletin, 55(1), pp. pp.52.
Kathryn H. Jackobsen (2008). Introduction to Global Health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Marmot M & Wilkinson RG (Eds.) (2009). Social Determinants of Health. Oxford: OUP.
Skolnik R. (2008). Essentials of global health. Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Publishers Inc..
Murray CJL and others (2002). Summary Measures of Population Health: Concepts, Ethics, Measurement and Applications. Pub: Geneva: World Health Organisation.
Crisp N. (2010). Turning the world upside down: The search for global health in the 21st Century. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd.
Ewles, L. (2005). Key topics in public health: essential briefings on prevention and health promotions.. Elsevier,: Churchill Livingstone.
Lindstrand A et al. (2006). Global health: an introductory text book. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
Barry B Hughes, Randall Kuhn, Cecilia M. Peterson, Dale S. Rothman & Jose R. Solorzano (2011). Improving Global Health: Patterns of potential human progress Volume 3.. Oxford University Press.
There will be opportunities to evaluate your progress through formative assessments throughout followed by a final summative assessment based on three online assignments.
This is how we’ll formally assess what you have learned in this module.
This is how we’ll assess you if you don’t meet the criteria to pass this module.
Repeat type: Internal & External